ࡱ>    [ Y {bjbjBrBr+  l\llqqq8#Y,,,4,,, R"BR NR|~~~~~~$7XqqUJH RUU,,U,q,|U|^ . s, (`rb/0h)0Y¡qVRSSlTVRVRVRjVRVRVRYUUUUVRVRVRVRVRVRVRVRVRl? : !%/ 02G0;L=89 ?>AV1=8: 0 7030;L=>N @540:FVTN ..C4>O@0 5:><5=4>20=> V=VAB5@AB2>< >A2VB8 V =0C:8 #:@0W=8 !C<8 !C<AL:89 45@602=89 C=V25@A8B5B 2011 # 159.9(075.8)  88.48  - 86 2B>@AL:89 :>;5:B82: .. C4>O@, :0=4840B ?A8E>;>3VG=8E =0C:; ".. 20=>20, :0=4840B ?A8E>;>3VG=8E =0C:; .. @82>?8H8=0, :0=4840B ?A8E>;>3VG=8E =0C:; .. !0E=>, AB0@H89 28:;040G; .. >;VA=8:, 0A8AB5=B. 5F5=75=B8: !.. 0:A8<5=:> - 4V9A=89 G;5=  #:@0W=8, 4>:B>@ ?A8E>;>3VG=8E =0C:, ?@>D5A>@ =AB8BCBC ?A8E>;>3VW V<. .!. >ABN:0  #:@0W=8; .. >;O:> - 4V9A=89 G;5=  #:@0W=8, 4>:B>@ ?A8E>;>3VG=8E =0C:, ?@>D5A>@ =AB8BCBC ?A8E>;>3VW V<. .!. >ABN:0  #:@0W=8; !.. 0=G5=:> - :0=4840B ?A8E>;>3VG=8E =0C:, 4>F5=B !C<AL:>3> >1;0A=>3> V=AB8BCBC ?VA;O48?;><=>W ?5403>3VG=>W >A2VB8 5:><5=4>20=> V=VAB5@AB2>< >A2VB8 V =0C:8 #:@0W=8 O: =02G0;L=89 ?>AV1=8: 4;O ABC45=BV2 28I8E =02G0;L=8E 70:;04V2 (;8AB !1/11-9773 2V4 22.10.2010 @.) A8E>;>3VO: =02G0;L=89 ?>AV1=8:/ "..20=>20, ..@82>?8H8=0, -86 !0E=> .. B0 V=.; 70 703. @54. .. C4>O@0. - !C<8: !C<AL:89 45@602=89 C=V25@A8B5B, 2011. - 331 A. ISBN 978- 966- 657-319-6 02G0;L=89 ?>AV1=8: A:;040TBLAO 7 42>E G0AB8=. # ?5@HV9 G0AB8=V @>73;O40NBLAO ?8B0==O 7030;L=>W ?A8E>;>3VW: ?@54<5B ?A8E>;>3VW, 1V>;>3VG=5 ?V4@C=BO ?A8EV:8, >A>18ABVABL, B5>@VW >A>18AB>ABV, V=B5;5:B B0 ?V7=020;L=0 AD5@0 ;N48=8, 74V1=>ABV 9 B2>@GVABL, B5<?5@0<5=B, E0@0:B5@, A?V;:C20==O, >A>18ABVABL C 3@C?V. @C3C G0AB8=C AB0=>2;OBL ?8B0==O, I> 2V4>1@060NBL 30;C7V ACG0A=>W ?A8E>;>3VW V C B><C G8 V=H><C >1AO7V 282G0NBLAO ABC45=B0<8 ?52=8E A?5FV0;L=>AB59. &5 B0:V 30;C7V: ?A8E>;>3VO @>728B:C, N@848G=0 ?A8E>;>3VO, ?5403>3VG=0 ?A8E>;>3VO, ?A8E>;>3VO 74>@>2 O, ?A8E>;>3VO <0A. # 159.9(075.8)  88.48 20=>20 ".., @82>?8H8=0 .., !0E=> .., >;VA=8: .., 2011 ISBN 978- 966- 657-319-6 !C<AL:89 45@602=89 C=V25@A8B5B, 2011 V4 @540:B>@0 >728B>: ACA?V;LAB20, @5D>@<C20==O A8AB5<8 A>FV0;L=8E 2V4=>A8=, @>728B>: 5:>=><V:8 B0 :C;LBC@8 ?5@5410G0T D>@<C20==O A0<>W ;N48=8 O: =091V;LH>W FV==>ABV ACA?V;LAB20. # 5@602=V9 =0FV>=0;L=V9 ?@>3@0<V A2VB0 #:@0W=0 %% AB>;VBBO 707=0G0TBLAO =5>1EV4=VABL D>@<C20==O 2A51VG=>W V 30@<>=V9=>W >A>18AB>ABV O: ?@>2V4=>3> 70240==O A8AB5<8 >A2VB8. "0:V 70240==O 28<030NBL =>2>3>, 1V;LH H8@>:>3> ?V4E>4C 4> =02G0==O C A8AB5<V 28I>W >A2VB8. 4=8< V7 B0:8E ?V4E>4V2 T 3C<0=V70FVO >A2VB8. A51VG=89 @>728B>: >A>18AB>ABV ?5@5410G0T =5 ?@>AB> ?V43>B>2:C WW O: 2C7L:>3> A?5FV0;VAB0 28A>:>W :20;VDV:0FVW, 0;5 9 O: 3@><04O=8=0 A2>TW 45@6028, 0:B82=>3> 4VOG0 7 2;0AB828<8 9><C V=B5@5A0<8, ?5@5:>=0==O<8, A2VB>3;O4><. #A5 F5 <>6;82> ;8H5 70 C<>28 2>;>4V==O A8AB5<>N 7=0=L >A=>2 =0C: 3C<0=VB0@=>3> A?@O<C20==O, C B><C G8A;V 9 ?A8E>;>3VW. 2>;>4V==O >A=>20<8 ?A8E>;>3VG=8E 7=0=L =5>1EV4=5 :>6=><C A?5FV0;VABC, 0465 2V= 6825 V 1C45 ?@0FN20B8 7 V=H8<8 ;N4L<8, I> 28<030T 2@0EC20==O WE V=482V4C0;L=>-?A8E>;>3VG=8E >A>1;82>AB59, <>6;82>AB59 ;N459, WE A?@O<C20==O V B. V=. 02G0;L=89 ?>AV1=8:  A8E>;>3VO =0?8A0=89 :>;5:B82>< 02B>@V2: @>74V;8 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 16, 17,18 (C4>O@ ..), @>74V;8 2, 10, 13, 15 (20=>20 "..), @>74V; 4 (>;VA=8: ..), @>74V; 6, 8 (!0E=> ..), @>74V; 9 (C4>O@ . ., >;VA=8: ..), @>74V;8 11, 12 (20=>20 ".., C4>O@ ..). 02G0;L=>-<5B>48G=V <0B5@V0;8 (70?8B0==O 4;O A0<>:>=B@>;N, ?@0:B8G=V 70=OBBO, 7@07>: B5ABC 4;O :>=B@>;N 7=0=L, A?8A>: ;VB5@0BC@8) ?V43>BC202 C4>O@ .. 1. A8E>;>3VO O: =0C:0 1.1. @54<5B ?A8E>;>3VW. 1.2. 0@8A VAB>@VW @>728B:C ?A8E>;>3VW C AB0@>402=V G0A8 B0 A5@54=L>2VGGV. 1.3. A8E>;>3VO =>2>3> G0AC. A=>2=V ?V4E>48 4> 282G5==O ?A8EV:8 ;N48=8. 1.4. 5B>48 ?A8E>;>3VG=8E 4>A;V465=L. 1.1. @54<5B ?A8E>;>3VW !;>2> ?A8E>;>3VO ?>E>48BL 2V4 3@5FL:8E A;V2 psyche - 4CH0 B0 logos - 2G5==O. "><C ?5@H5 287=0G5==O FO =0C:0 >45@60;0 O: 2G5==O ?@> 4CHC. >=OBBO 4CH0 <0;> @5;V3V9=89 B0 V450;VAB8G=89 E0@0:B5@ V =5 702648 2V4>1@060;> ACB=VABL B8E G8 V=H8E O28I. !L>3>4=V =0C:>20 ?A8E>;>3VO C ?>=OBBV 4CH0 >1 T4=CT 2AV ?A8EVG=V ?@>O28 ;N48=8, 01> ?A8EV:C. "5@<V= ?A8E>;>3VO 715@V30TBLAO O: 40=8=0 ?>2038 4> AB0@>402=VE <8A;8B5;V2. C4L - O:0 =0C:0 ?>G8=0TBLAO 7 D0:BV2. $0:B0<8 4;O ?A8E>;>3VW T ?A8EV:0 01> ?A8EVG=5 68BBO ;N48=8. A8EV:0  F5 2;0AB82VABL 28A>:>>@30=V7>20=>W <0B5@VW 2V4>1@060B8 >1 T:B8 4V9A=>ABV. A8EV:0 ;N48=8 A:;040TBLAO 7 3 3@C? D0:BV2: ?A8EVG=V ?@>F5A8; ?A8EVG=V AB0=8; ?A8EVG=V 2;0AB82>ABV. A8EVG=V ?@>F5A8 V=>4V =07820NBL ?A8EVG=8<8 DC=:FVO<8. >=8 T ?5@28==8<8 @53C;OB>@0<8 ?>254V=:8 ;N48=8. # =8E GVB:> <>6=0 28O28B8 ?>G0B>:, ?@>E>465==O V 7025@H5==O. ">1B> ?A8EVG=V ?@>F5A8 <0NBL 48=0<VG=V E0@0:B5@8AB8:8  B@820;VABL V ABV9:VABL. A8EVG=V ?@>F5A8 ?>4V;ONBL =0 42V 3@C?8: ?V7=020;L=V, 01> :>3=VB82=V, B0 5<>FV9=> - 2>;L>2V. > ?V7=020;L=8E ?@>F5AV2 =0;560BL: 2V4GCBBO, A?@89<0==O, ?0< OBL, <8A;5==O, CO20. > 5<>FV9=>-2>;L>28E  5<>FVW, ?>GCBBO, 2>;O. A8EVG=V AB0=8 - F5 2V4=>A=> AB0B8G=V B0 ABV9:V ?A8EVG=V CB2>@5==O. >=8, O: ?@028;>, =5 CA2V4><;NNBLAO ;N48=>N. @8:;04>< ?A8EVG=8E AB0=V2 <>6CBL 1CB8 =0AB@V9, 104L>@VABL, 2B><0, 0?0BVO, 45?@5AVO, 59D>@VO, AB@0E, 7>A5@5465=VABL, B@82>30, ?0=V:0. #AV 2>=8 E0@0:B5@87CNBLAO B@820;VABN, A?@O<>20=VABN, ABV9:VABN, V=B5=A82=VABN. A8EVG=V 2;0AB82>ABV  AC1 T:B82=V >A>1;82>ABV, I> 287=0G0NBL CA?VH=VABL 4VO;L=>ABV ;N48=8. >=8 E0@0:B5@87CNBLAO ?>ABV9=VABN V D>@<CNBLAO C ?@>F5AV =0?>;53;82>W 4VO;L=>ABV. "><C <>6=0 284V;8B8 B0:V ?A8EVG=V 2;0AB82>ABV: A?@89=OB;82VABL, GCBBT2VABL, 5<>FV9=VABL, E>;>4=VABL, @>7AC4;82VABL, =0?>;53;82VABL, 24C<;82VABL, V=VFV0B82=VABL, AB0@0==VABL, 2V4?>2V40;L=VABL, 1572V4?>2V40;L=VABL V B.V=. 8O2;5=89 D0:B =5 702648 <>65 AB0B8 ?@54<5B>< =0C:>2>3> 4>A;V465==O. ;O B>3> I>1 D0:B>< 70FV:028;0AO =0C:0, 2V= <0T ?>2B>@N20B8AO, V ?>2B>@N20B8AO 70:>=><V@=>. 0?@8:;04, ?VA;O =0?>;53;82>W V 206:>W ?@0FV 70:>=><V@=> =0AB0T 2B><0. >6=5 ?A8EVG=5 O28I5 <0T A2V9 GVB:> 287=0G5=89 <5E0=V7<. # ?A8EVFV ;N48=8 284V;ONBL B@8 <5E0=V7<8: 2V4>1@065==O, ?@>5:BC20==O B0 >?@54<5B=5==O. V4>1@065==O  F5 7030;L=0 2;0AB82VABL <0B5@VW 2V4B2>@N20B8 >1 T:B82=C 4V9A=VABL. A8EVG=5 2V4>1@065==O  =5 ?@>AB> 2V4B2>@5==O 4V9A=>ABV, 0 9 AB2>@5==O >1@07V2 GCBBT2>3>, ;>3VG=>3> B0 CO2=>3> E0@0:B5@C. &V >1@078 7=0E>4OBL 2BV;5==O C ?@>4C:B0E :C;LBC@8 ;N48=8. A8EVG=5 2V4>1@065==O <0T >1 T:B82=C 45B5@<V=0FVN, 702648 0:B82=5, <0T 28?5@546C20;L=89 E0@0:B5@ V ?>ABV9=> @>72820TBLAO. @>5:BC20==O  F5 AC:C?=VABL ?52=8E 4V9 7V AB2>@5==O >1@07V2 2V4?>2V4=> 4> <5B8 4VO;L=>ABV. !B2>@5=V >1@078 <>6CBL 1CB8 70DV:A>20=V =0 ?0?5@V C 283;O4V AE5<, :@5A;5=L, ?;0=V2 V B.V=., I> ?V7=VH5 1C45 <0B5@V0;V7>20=5, B>1B> 1C45 AB2>@5=89 ?52=89 >1 T:B (A?>@C40, B5E=VG=89 ?@8AB@V9), I> 70157?5G8BL 704>2>;5==O ?52=8E ?>B@51. ?@54<5B=5==O  F5 ?@>F5A 2BV;5==O ;N4AL:8E 4CH52=8E A8; 2 >1@07 70AB83;>W ?@54<5B=>ABV. 024O:8 FL><C >1@078 ?@>5:BC20==O 7=0E>4OBL 2BV;5==O C ?52=8E >1 T:B0E <0B5@V0;L=>W :C;LBC@8. ?@54<5B=5==O <0T B@8 D>@<8: <0B5@V0;L=C  @50;L=0 ?@0FO; ?A8EVG=C  2V4>1@065==O >1 T:B82=>3> A2VBC B0 ?5@56820==O FL>3> 2V4>1@065==O; >A>18ABVA=C  B2>@5==O A0<>3> A515, A0<>>A2VB0 B0 A0<>28E>20==O. >73;O=CBV B@8 1;>:8 7<VABC =0C:8 40NBL =0< <>6;82VABL 287=0G8B8 ?>=OBBO ?A8E>;>3VW. A8E>;>3VTN =07820TBLAO =0C:0, I> 282G0T D0:B8, 70:>=><V@=>ABV B0 <5E0=V7<8 ?A8EV:8 ;N48=8. C65 G0AB> 40NBL V=H5 287=0G5==O, ?>2 O70=5 7V 7<VAB>< ?A8EVG=8E O28I. A8E>;>3VTN =07820TBLAO =0C:0, I> 282G0T ?A8EVG=V ?@>F5A8, ?A8EVG=V AB0=8 B0 ?A8EVG=V 2;0AB82>ABV. 1.2. 0@8A VAB>@VW @>728B:C ?A8E>;>3VW C AB0@>402=V G0A8 B0 C A5@54=L>2VGGV A8E>;>3VO O: =0C:0 <0T VAB>@VN 1V;LH5 42>E B8AOG @>:V2. # VAB>@8G=><C @>728B:C ?A8E>;>3VW 284V;ONBL 4 >A=>2=V ?5@V>48: 5@H89. A8E>;>3VO O: =0C:0 ?@> 4CHC. 8=8:;0 C AB0@>402=L><C A2VBV. A=C20==O< 4CHV AB0@>402=V <8A;8B5;V =0<030;8AO ?>OA=8B8 BV G8 V=HV O28I0 C 68BBV ;N48=8 . @C389. A8E>;>3VO O: =0C:0 ?@> A2V4><VABL. 8=8:;0 C XVII AB. !?@><>6=VABL ;N48=8 4C<0B8, 2V4GC20B8, 1060B8 V B.V=. =0720;8 A2V4><VABN. >;>2=8< <5B>4>< 4>A;V465==O 22060;0AL V=B@>A?5:FVO (A0<>A?>AB5@565==O). "@5BV9. A8E>;>3VO O: =0C:0 ?@> ?>254V=:C. 8=8:;0 C XX AB. 0240==O ?A8E>;>3VW 72>48;>AO 4> 282G5==O B>3>, I> <>6=0 157?>A5@54=L> A?>AB5@V30B8, 0 A0<5 ?>254V=:C. >GCBBO, <>B828 V B. V=. =5 2@0E>2C20;8AO. '5B25@B89. A8E>;>3VO O: =0C:0 ?@> D0:B8, 70:>=><V@=>ABV B0 <5E0=V7<8 ?A8EV:8. 8=8:;0 C XX AB. 8=8:=5==O ?>=OBBO 4CH0 ?>2 O70=5 7 0=V<VAB8G=8<8 ?>3;O40<8 AB0@>402=VE =0@>4V2. =V<VAB8G=89 2V4 ;0B8=AL:>3> anima  4CH0. CH0 CO2;O;0AL O: A2>T@V4=0 =5<0B5@V0;L=0 AC1AB0=FVO, 42V9=8: BV;0. >=0 =570;56=0 2V4 BV;0. >65 ?5@51C20B8 C BV;V, 0 <>65 V ?>:840B8 9>3> ?V4 G0A A=C, 7=5?@8B><;5==O B0 A<5@BV. # >AB0==L><C 28?04:C 2>=0 G>3>AL =5 ?>25@B0TBLAO 4> BV;0. CHV <5@B28E ;N459 AB2>@NNBL >A>1;82V >1 T4=0==O. @C38< =0?@O<:>< @>7C<V==O 4CHV 1C2 3V;>7>W7<. &5 2G5==O 70?5@5GCT 2V4<V==>ABV 682>3> V =5682>3> V AB25@46CT 7030;L=C >4CE>B2>@5=VABL. V;>7>WAB8 22060;8, I> 2A5 C ?@8@>4V <0T 4CHC: ;N48, B20@8=8, @>A;8=8, 3>@8, :0<V==O, =094@V1=VHV G0AB8=:8 ?VA:C& =V<V7< V 3V;>7>W7< @>73;O40NBLAO O: ?5@H89 DV;>A>DAL:>-<VD>;>3VG=89 ?V4EV4 4> ?>OA=5==O >A>1;82>W :0B53>@VW ?A8EVG=>3>. ;5<5=B8 0=V<V7<C V 3V;>7>W7<C ?@8ACB=V C 2G5==OE AB0@>402=VE <8A;8B5;V2. @8AB>B5;L (384  322 @@. 4> =.5.)  AB0@>402=V9 DV;>A>D, 70A=>2=8: ?A8E>;>3VG=>W A8AB5<8, I> 287=0G8;0 ?>HC:8 ?>OA=5=L 4CH52=>W 4VO;L=>ABV =0 AB>;VBBO. CHC 2V= @>73;O402 O: A:;04=5 CB2>@5==O, T48=5 7 BV;><. CH0 V BV;> =5@>7@82=V, 4CHV =0;568BL 3>;>2=0 @>;L, 2>=0 T D>@<>N D>@<, 01> 5=B5;5EVTN. "V;C 6 2V= 2V42>482 ?V4?>@O4:>20=C, 01> 4@C3>@O4=C @>;L. CH0 O: D>@<0 >@30=V70FVW BV;0 T =5?>4V;L=>N, 0;5 28O2;OTBLAO C B@L>E DC=:FVOE: 2535B0B82=V9, @CE>2V9 V GCBBT2V9 B0 @>7C<=V9. 535B0B82=0 (@>A;8==0) DC=:FVO 2;0AB820 @>A;8=0<, B20@8=0<, ;N48=V. CE>20 V GCBBT20  B20@8=0< V ;N48=V. >7C<=0  ;8H5 ;N48=V. &V DC=:FVW 4CHV T @V2=O<8 WW 52>;NFVW. 65@5;>< ?V7=0==O @8AB>B5;L 220602 2V4GCBBO, I> T @57C;LB0B>< 7>2=VH=VE 2?;82V2 =0 >@30=8 GCBBO. 8A;5==O T 2;0AB82VABN BV;L:8 4CHV, I> 70;568BL 2V4 BV;0. CH0 =5?>2=VABN A<5@B=0. 07>< 7 BV;>< ?><8@0NBL 42V DC=:FVW 4CHV. >7C<=0 DC=:FVO 157A<5@B=0. @8AB>B5;L 2?5@H5 2 VAB>@VW ;N4AB20 =0?8A02 ?A8E>;>3VG=89 B@0:B0B @> 4CHC. # =L><C 2V= >1@C=B>2CT A2>W ?>3;O48 =0 4CHC. '0A =0?8A0==O B@0:B0BC @> 4CHC 22060NBL G0A>< 28=8:=5==O ?A8E>;>3VW O: =0C:8, @8AB>B5;O  02B>@0 B@0:B0BC  70A=>2=8:>< ?A8E>;>3VW. @8@>4=8G>-DV;>A>DAL:5 ?>OA=5==O 4CHV @8AB>B5;5< 7=0E>48BL ?@>4>265==O C 0B><VAB8G=><C 2G5==V 5<>:@VB0 (460-370 @@. 4> =.5.). 5<>:@VB @>7C<V2 4CHC O: ?@8G8=C @CEC BV;0. >=0 <0B5@V0;L=0 V A:;040TBLAO 7 0B><V2. B><8  :C;OABV, =5?>4V;L=V, 2>3=O=V, @CE><V G0AB8=:8 <0B5@VW, 0 72V4A8 4CH0  F5 >A>1;82>3> @>4C 2>3>=L V B5?;>. CH0 A<5@B=0, 2>=0 ?><8@0T @07>< V7 BV;><. 65@5;>< ?V7=0==O T GCBBT289 4>A2V4 O: =0A;V4>: 2?;82C 0B><V2 V7 =02:>;8H=L>3> A2VBC =0 0B><8 >@30=V2 GCBBO. >3;O48 @8AB>B5;O V 5<>:@VB0 <>6=0 >1 T4=0B8 C <0B5@V0;VAB8G=89 ?V4EV4 4> @>7C<V==O 4CHV. 0B5@V0;VAB8G=89 ?V4EV4 ?>OA=NT >A>1;82>ABV ?A8EV:8 4VTN <0B5@V0;L=8E, >1 T:B82=8E A8;. @>B8;56=C B>G:C 7>@C 2V4AB>N202 AB0@>402=V9 DV;>A>D ;0B>= (427-347 @@. 4> =.5.). 0 2V4<V=C 2V4 @8AB>B5;O V 5<>:@VB0 ;0B>= 220602, I> 4CH0 =5<0B5@V0;L=0, 2>=0 T V45TN, 157A<5@B=>N ACB=VABN. CHV 682CBL C 70=515A=><C, 2VG=><C A2VBV V459. !0<5 B0< 4CHV =01C20NBL 7=0==O ?@> A2VB, ?V7=0NBL 4>1@> V 7;>. V4 G0A =0@>465==O ;N48=8 4CH0 2BV;NTBLAO, B>1B> 7 T4=CTBLAO 7 BV;>< =0 25AL ?5@V>4 75<=>3> 68BBO. >B@0?82H8 C B0:5 <5@75==5 AB2>@V==O, O: BV;> ;N48=8, 4CH0 701C20T 2AV 7=0==O. "><C =02G0==O T =VG8< V=H8< O: ?@8304C20==O< 7=0=L. >@>A;V <0NBL 4>?><030B8 ?@8304C20==N. VA;O A<5@BV ;N48=8 4CH0 ?>25@B0TBLAO C A2VB V459. 0 4C<:C ;0B>=0, 4CH0 A:;04=0. >=0 A:;040TBLAO 7 @>7C<C, <C6=>ABV V EB82>ABV 01> ?>E>BV. >7C<, =0 4C<:C ;0B>=0, @>7<VICTBLAO C 3>;>2V, <C6=VABL C 3@C4OE, 0 EB82VABL C G5@52=V9 ?>@>6=8=V. &V G0AB8=8 4CHV C @V7=8E ;N459 @>728=5=V =5>4=0:>2>. /:I> :@0I5 @>728=5=89 @>7C<, B> B0:V ;N48 T DV;>A>D0<8 (2>=8 <0NBL ?@028B8 45@602>N), O:I> <C6=VABL  2>W=8 (<0NBL 70E8I0B8 45@602C), O:I> EB82VABL  @5<VA=8:8, E;V1>@>18, @018 (2>=8 <0NBL ?@0FN20B8 V AB2>@N20B8 <0B5@V0;L=V FV==>ABV). ;0B>=V2AL:89 ?V4EV4 4> @>7C<V==O D5=><5=C 4CHV C AB0@>402=L><C A2VBV =07820NBL V450;VAB8G=8<. !B0@>402=V9 ;V:0@ 0;5= (129 -199 @@.) C?5@H5 2 VAB>@VW ;N4AB20 ?V4V9H>2 4> @>7C<V==O A2V4><>ABV. V= @>74V;82 O28I0, I> 2V41C20NBLAO C <8A;5==V B0 C A=V. >:@5<0, 2V= @>7<56C202 A?@><>6=VABL ;N48=8 2>;>4VB8 7=0==O<8 ?@> 2;0A=V @>7C<>2V 9 2>;L>2V 4VW B0 V=HV ?@>O28 ?A8EVG=>3>. ?>E0 A5@54=L>2VGGO E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO ?0=C20==O< @5;V3V9=>W V45>;>3VW C ACA?V;LAB2V. 5;V3V9=0 01> B5>;>3VG=0 (2V4 3@5FL:>3> teos  1>3) V45>;>3VO 28<030;0 2V4 ;N48=8 70;8H0B8AO =0 A0<>BV 7 A0<>N A>1>N, ?@03=CG8 4> 2A528H=L>3>, 2V4<>28B8AO 2V4 <8@AL:>3> 68BBO V ?;>BAL:8E CBVE. # F59 G0A ?>3;O48 =0 4CHC 28A2VB;N20;8AL C :>=B5:ABV B5>;>3VG=8E B5>@V9. ;>BV= (205 - 270 @@.)  DV;>A>D. 0 4C<:C ;>BV=0 A2VB>289 ?@>F5A ?>G8=0TBLAO 7 1>65AB25==>3> =0G0;0, I> 28O2;OTBLAO A?>G0B:C O: A2VB>289 @>7C< ?>BV<, O: 4CH0 A2VBC. 5B0 ;N4AL:>3> 68BBO, =0 4C<:C ;>BV=0, AE>465==O 4> ?>G0B:>2>3> (1>65AB25==>3>). CH0 <0T 7=52060B8 75<=5 V ;N18B8 9>3> G8AB>N ;N1>2 N. &L>3> <>6=0 4>AO3B8 H;OE>< AB@8<C20==O BV;5A=8E A8; V @>728B:>< 4CE>2=8E A8;. =0==O 4CH0 >45@6CT 2V4 @>7C<C. 50;L=5 1CBBO 2V4:@8B5 4;O 4CHV. CH0 <0T ;8H5 2<VB8 ?>25@=CB8AO 4> A0<>W A515, ?V7=0B8 A2>N ACB=VABL. &5 <>6;82> H;OE>< >G8I5==O V C?>4V1=5==O 1>65AB2C. 23CABV= (354-430 @@.)  E@8AB8O=AL:89 B5>;>3. >3;O48 23CABV=0 >13@C=B>2CNBLAO 2G5==O< ?@> 1>30 O: ?@8=F8? 1CBBO. CBBO 1>30 <>6=0 2825AB8 7 ;N4AL:>3> <8A;5==O. 5B>N @>7C<C T A0<>?V7=0==O B0 1>3>?V7=0==O. 23CABV= 4> A:;04C ;N4AL:>W 4CHV 2=>A8BL A2V4><VABL. 0 9>3> 4C<:C, 4CH0 <0T 2AV 7=0==O V 6825 B0 @CE0TBLAO C 1>7V. >AB>2V@=VABL 7=0=L ?5@52V@OTBLAO 2=CB@VH=V< 4>A2V4><. CH0 <0T ?>25@=CB8AO 4> A515 V ?V7=0B8 2;0A=C 4VO;L=VABL. >2VB=V< C 2G5==V 23CABV=0 T ?@>1;5<0 48=0<V:8 ;N4AL:>W >A>18AB>ABV. # A2>W9 ?@0FV !?>2V4L 23CABV= ?>:07CT 2=CB@VH=V9 @>728B>: 2V4 =5<>2;OB8 4> 4>@>A;>3>, ?>:07CT AC?5@5G;8289 E0@0:B5@ AB0=>2;5==O >A>18AB>ABV. A:V;L:8 C 4CHV >A>18AB>ABV 1030B> BV;5A=8E ?@V@2, B> =5>1EV4=0 1>60 1;03>40BL, I> 2@OBCT WW. 4=VTN V7 ;N4AL:8E A?V;L=>AB59 T 3@04 1>689. &5 4CE>2=0 A?V;L=VABL, I> 3@C=BCTBLAO =0 ;N1>2V 4> 1>30, 4>2545=V9 4> 7=52060==O A515.  72V4A8 28A=>2>: ?@> ?@03=5==O 4> 2A528H=L>3>. $><0 :2V=AL:89 (1225 - 1274)  A5@54=L>2VG=89 DV;>A>D V B5>;>3. CBBO 1>30 2V= 282>48BL 7 1CBBO @5G59. N48=C 2V= @>73;O40T O: >A>18ABVA=5 ?>T4=0==O 4CHV V BV;0. CH0 =5<0B5@V0;L=0, A2>T 7025@H5==O >45@6CT ;8H5 G5@57 BV;>. CH0 ;N48=8 T D>@<>N BV;0. $. :2V=AL:89 725@B0TBLAO 4> >A>18AB>W 4CHV. A>18ABVABL 4;O =L>3> =09H;OE5B=VH5 C 2AV9 @>7C<=V9 ?@8@>4V. > A:;04C >A>18AB>ABV 2V= 2:;NG0T V=B5;5:B O: G0AB8=C FV;>3>. "V;L:8 C 1>7V V=B5;5:B T ACB=VABN. 572060NG8 =0 A?@><>6=VABL V=B5;5:BC 4> ?V7=0==O, C 68BBV ;N48=8 ;N1>2 4> 1>30 206;82VH0, =V6 ?V7=0==O 1>30. "5>;>3VG=V 2G5==O A5@54=VE 2V:V2 ?>T4=0;8 4CHC 7 BV;><, 4CHC 7 1>3><, 4CHC 7 V=B5;5:B>< B0 7=0==O< V A2V4><VABN. A5 F5 3>2>@8BL ?@> B5, I> C BV G0A8 4CH0, A2V4><VABL, V=B5;5:B =01C;8 O: @5;V3V9=>3>, B0: V <VAB8G=>3> E0@0:B5@C. 1.3. A8E>;>3VO =>2>3> G0AC. A=>2=V ?V4E>48 4> 282G5==O ?A8EV:8 ;N48=8 #AO 5?>E0 A5@54=VE 2V:V2 E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO ?>ABC?>28< 7@>AB0==O< 28@>1=8FB20, :V;L:>ABV =0A5;5==O, C@10=V70FVTN. <V=8 C A>FV0;L=><C A5@54>28IV 28:;8:0NBL WE =5>1EV4=VABL C V45>;>3VW B0 ?A8EVFV ;N48=8. "0:V 7<V=8 ?>G8=0NBLAO C XIV AB. V 7=0<5=CNBL 5?>EC V4@>465==O. &5 5?>E0 ?5@5E>4C A5@54=L>2VG=>3> D5>40;V7<C 4> =>2>W A8AB5<8 A>FV0;L=8E 2V4=>A8=  :0?VB0;VAB8G=8E. !0<5 C FV G0A8 28=8:0T 25;8:89 V=B5@5A 4> ;N48=8 V WW ?>GCBBV2. 0 A;>20<8 /. C@:E0@4B0 (1818-1897 @@.), 2V41C20TBLAO 2V4:@8BBO ;N48=8. . !0;NB0BV (1331-1406 @@.) V . @54=V (1369 -1444 @@.) 22>4OBL A;>2> humanitas O: 2;0AB82VABL ;N48=8, I> 287=0G0T WW ;N4AL:C 3V4=VABL V ?@03=5==O 4> 7=0=L. # FV G0A8 <8AB5FB2> 72V;L=OTBLAO 2V4 @5;V3V9=>3> 7<VABC V 2V4@>46CTBLAO ?@8@>4=8G>=0C:>289 =0?@O<>:. 8=8:0T =5>1EV4=VABL C =0C:>2><C ?>OA=5==V ?@8@>4=8E, ACA?V;L=8E B0 ?A8EVG=8E O28I. ;O FL>3> =5>1EV4=> 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 4>A;V48, >?B8:C, <5E0=V:C, <0B5<0B8:C, 0=0B><VN. A5 F5 ?>ABC?>2> ?5@5@>AB0T C =0?>;53;82C ?@0FN 2V4:@8BBO 70:>=V2 ?@8@>48. XVI AB.  G0A 25;8:8E 2V4:@8BBV2 C <5E0=VFV, 0AB@>=><VW, <0B5<0B8FV. . >?5@=V: (1473 - 1543 @@.), . @C=> (1548 - 1600 @@.), . 0;V;59 (1564 - 1642 @@.) - 70A=>2=8:8 :;0A8G=>W =0C:8 >2>3> G0AC. !0<5 2>=8 4>25;8 =5>1EV4=VABL 0=0;V7C O28I 4V9A=>ABV, 2V4:@8BBO 70:>=V2 ?@8@>48. "0: ?>G8=0TBLAO 4VO;L=VABL B5>@5B8G=>3> <8A;5==O. # ?@8@>4=8G>=0C:>2><C =0?@O<:C 7=0G=8E @57C;LB0BV2 4>AO3;8 <548F8=0, 0=0B><VO, DV7V>;>3VO. "0: ?>ABC?>2> D>@<CTBLAO ?V7=0==O H;OE>< 4>A;V4V2, I> ?@89H;8 =0 7<V=C 4>3<0< V AE>;0AB8FV. V<5FL:V AE>;0AB8 . >:;5=VCA B0 . 0AA<0= 22>4OBL C 26820==O B5@<V= ?A8E>;>3VO (1590 @.). &5 A2V4G8BL ?@> 7@>AB0==O V=B5@5AC 4> ?8B0=L ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> 7<VABC V 287=0G0T <091CB=V 7<V=8 C ?>3;O40E =0 4CHC. 0 =0HC 4C<:C, 70A;C3>2CNBL =0 C203C 2G5==O . >::0, .. 0<5B@V B0 . 5:0@B0. . >:: (1632 -1704 @@.)  0=3;V9AL:89 DV;>A>D. # ?A8E>;>3VW 2V4><89 O: 70A=>2=8: 5<?V@8G=>W (4>A2V4=>W) ?A8E>;>3VW 2V4 ;0B8=AL:>3> empiria  4>A2V4. 0 4C<:C . >::0, 2AV 7=0==O ?>E>4OBL 7 4>A2V4C. >A2V4 ?>4V;OTBLAO =0 7>2=VH=V9 B0 2=CB@VH=V9. >2=VH=V9 4>A2V4  4VO;L=VABL 7>2=VH=VE >@30=V2 GCBBO, 2=CB@VH=V9  A?@89<0==O 2;0A=>W 2=CB@VH=L>W 4VO;L=>ABV. N48=0 =0@>46CTBLAO =0 A2VB 157 1C4L-O:8E 7=0=L B0 V459. CH0 ;N48=8 2V4 =0@>465==O G8AB0 4>H:0 tabula rasa. !0<5 4>A2V4 =0 FV9 4>HFV =0?8H5 ;VB5@8. . 0<5B@V (1709 -1751 @@.) - D@0=FC7L:89 DV;>A>D, 70A=>2=8: A5=AC0;V7<C (2V4 ;0B8=AL:>3> sensus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test  ?@>10, 28?@>1C20==O) <5B>4 >45@60==O ?A8E>;>3VG=8E D0:BV2 70 4>?><>3>N AB0=40@B87>20=8E 70?8B0=L B0 70240=L. "5ABC20==O 4>72>;OT 287=0G8B8 ?52=V >A>18ABVA=V O:>ABV. >H8@5==O FL>3> <5B>4C ?>2 O7CNBL 7 ?@0FO<8 ;LD@540 V=5 (1857  1911 @@.). &59 <5B>4 4C65 ?@>AB89 C ?@>2545==V V >1@>1FV @57C;LB0BV2. 0 4>?><>3>N B5ABV2 C?5@H5 ?>G0;8 28<V@N20B8 @V25=L V=B5;5:BC0;L=>ABV. !L>3>4=V B5ABC20==O 28:>@8AB>2CNBL 4;O 287=0G5==O @V2=O @>728B:C ?52=8E >A>18ABVA=8E O:>AB59 C ;N459 @V7=8E 2V:>28E ?5@V>4V2. >=8 40NBL <>6;82VABL 287=0G5==O @V2=O @>728B:C @>7C<>2> 2V4AB0;8E B0 ?5403>3VG=> 70=5410=8E 4VB59. "5ABC20==N 4>ABC?=5 ?>@V2=O;L=5 287=0G5==O ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C ;N459 @V7=8E 2V:>28E ?5@V>4V2 B0 3@C? ;N459 C @V7=V 2V:>2V ?5@V>48 B0 C @V7=8E C<>20E. 0@5HBV, B5ABC20==O 4>72>;OT 70 :>@>B:89 ?@><V6>: G0AC 7V1@0B8 25;8:C :V;L:VABL <0B5@V0;C V 4>A8BL ;53:> 9>3> >1@>18B8. 5B>4 <0B5<0B8G=>W >1@>1:8 28:>@8AB>2CTBLAO 4;O :V;L:VA=>3> >?@0FN20==O >45@60=8E ?A8E>;>3VG=8E D0:BV2. 09G0ABVH5 28:>@8AB>2CNBLAO <5B>48 0;LB5@=0B82=>3>, :>@5;OFV9=>3> B0 20@V0B82=>3> 0=0;V7V2. ;LB5@=0B82=89 0=0;V7 ?5@5410G0T >45@60==O V 28:>@8AB0==O @V7=8E 2V4A>B:>28E ?>:07=8:V2: A?V22V4=>H5==O FV;>3> V G0AB8=, <V6 G0AB8=0<8 FV;>3>. >@5;OFV9=89 0=0;V7 ?5@5410G0T >45@60==O :>5DVFVT=B0, I> 2V4>1@060T ABC?V=L 270T<>72 O7:C >7=0: ?52=8E ?A8E>;>3VG=8E ?@>O2V2. >@5;OFV9=V :>5DVFVT=B8 <>6CBL <0B8 7=0G5==O 2V4 0 4> 1. /:I> :>5DVFVT=B 4>@V2=NT 0  0,4, B> 72 O7>: ?><V@=89, 0,5-0,7 - 72 O7>: A5@54=V9, 0,8 - 1,0 - 72 O7>: A8;L=89. 0@V0B82=89 0=0;V7 ?5@5410G0T ?>1C4>2C 20@V0FV9=>3> @O4C 4>A;V46C20=8E >7=0: C 4>A;V46C20;L=V9 3@C?V. "CB 65 <0T <VAF5 >1G8A;5==O A5@54=VE 7=0G5=L 4>A;V46C20=8E O:>AB59 4;O :>=:@5B=>W 3@C?8. 0?8B0==O 4;O A0<>:>=B@>;N /:V O28I0 A:;040NBL ?A8EV:C ;N48=8? 072VBL ?A8EVG=V ?@>F5A8. 072VBL <5E0=V7<8 ?A8EV:8 ;N48=8. )> 282G0T ?A8E>;>3VO? 09B5 :>@>B:C E0@0:B5@8AB8:C >A=>2=8E ?5@V>4V2 @>728B:C ?A8E>;>3VW. A=>2=V ?V4E>48 4> @>7C<V==O D5=><5=C 4CHV C AB0@>402=L><C A2VBV. @8AB>B5;L ?@> 4CHC. 450;VAB8G=5 @>7C<V==O 4CHV ;0B>=><. !:;04 4CHV. "5>;>3VG=89 E0@0:B5@ @>7C<V==O 4CHV C A5@54=V 2V:8. >A;V4=89 ?V4EV4 4> 282G5==O ?A8EV:8 C =>2V G0A8. 5E0=VAB8G=5 @>7C<V==O ?A8EV:8 C 2G5==V . 5:0@B0. G5==O ?@> @5D;5:A. C0;V7< C ?A8E>;>3VW. 0:>= 515@0 - $5E=5@0. 0A=C20==O ?5@H>W ?A8E>;>3VG=>W ;01>@0B>@VW. !B@C:BC@0;V7< C ?A8E>;>3VW. C;LBC@=> - VAB>@8G=89 ?V4EV4 4> @>7C<V==O ?A8EV:8. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C >A=>2=8E <5B>4V2 4>A;V465==O C ?A8E>;>3VW. @0:B8G=5 70=OBBO >728B>: B0 ACG0A=5 AB0=>28I5 ?A8E>;>3VW A8E>;>3VO 0=B8G=>ABV. A=>2=V B5=45=FVW C 282G5==V D5=><5=C 4CHV. @8@>4=8G> - =0C:>25 @>7C<V==O ?A8EVG=8E ?@>F5AV2 C XVII-XVIII AB. 82G5==O D5=><5=C A2V4><>ABV. @54<5B B0 AB@C:BC@0 ACG0A=>W ?A8E>;>3VW. A=>2=V ?A8E>;>3VG=V :0B53>@VW. 5B>48 ?A8E>;>3VW. @07>: B5ABC 4;O :>=B@>;N 7=0=L A8E>;>3VO O: =0C:0 282G0T: 0) D0:B8, 70:>=><V@=>ABV B0 <5E0=V7<8 ?A8EV:8; 1) ?A8EVG=V AB0=8, ?A8EVG=V ?@>F5A8, ?A8EVG=V 2;0AB82>ABV; 2) 4CHC; 3) <>6;82>ABV 4>AO3=5=L ;N48=8; 4) ?@8G8=8 ?5@56820=L ;N48=8. 2. #O2;5==O ?@> 7030;L=C >4CE>B2>@5=VABL  F5: 0) 4C0;V7<; 1) 3V;>7>W7<; 2) 0=V<V7<; 3) AB>WF87<; 4) 0B><V7<. 3. C<:C ?@> 157A<5@BO 4CHV 2?5@H5 28A;>282: @8AB>B5;L; 5<>:@VB; =0:AV<0=4@; V??>:@0B; ;0B>=. 4. 5@H89 2 VAB>@VW ?A8E>;>3VW 70:>= 515@0-$5E=5@0 2V4>1@060T: ?>@V3 4><030==O; ?>@V3 4>AO3=5=L; ?>@V3 @>7@V7=5==O 2V4GCBBV2; ?>@V3 @>728B:C 5<>FV9; ?>@V3 V=B5;5:BC. 5. @54<5B>< ?A8E>;>3VW, =0 4C<:C DC=:FV>=0;VABV2, T: DC=:FVW <8A;5==O C 68BBV ;N48=8; DC=:FVW A2V4><>ABV C ?@>F5AV ?@8AB>AC20==O; DC=:FVW 4CHV ;N48=8; DC=:FVW ?>GCBBV2 V 2V4GCBBV2; DC=:FVW =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8. !?8A>: ;VB5@0BC@8: 030;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO: ?V4@CG=8: /70 7030;L=>N @540:FVTN 0:045<V:0 !.. 0:A8<5=:0  V==8FO: >20 :=830, 2004.  704 A.  OA>W4 .. 030;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO.  .: 8I0 H:>;0, 2000.  480 A. A=>28 ?A8E>;>3VW / 70 @54. .. 8@8GC:0, .. ><5=FO.  .: 81V4L, 1996.  632 A. 4. 1I0O ?A8E>;>38O /?>4 @54. ..5B@>2A:>3>. .: @>A25I5=85, 1986. 464 A. 5. ><5=5FL .. AB>@VO ?A8E>;>3VW %%  ?>G0B:C %% AB.  .: 8I0 H:>;0, 1995.  614 A. 6. ><5=5FL .. AB>@VO ?A8E>;>3VW %% AB. /.. ><5=5FL, . 0=>E0.  .: 81V4L, 1998. - 992 A. 7. (03@0520 .. 5BA:0O ?A8E>;>38O.  .: !, 2001.- 368 A. 8. /@>H52AL:89 .. AB>@8O ?A8E>;>388. .: KA;L, 1985.-576 A. 2. V>;>3VG=5 ?V4@C=BO ?A8EV:8 2.1 >=OBBO ?@> =5@2>2C A8AB5<C. 2.2 A8<5B@VO ?V2:C;L 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C. 2.3 V>;>3VG=5 ?V4@C=BO A>FV0;L=>W ?>254V=:8. 2.1. >=OBBO ?@> =5@2>2C A8AB5<C VO;L=VABL =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8 T C<>2>N DC=:FV>=C20==O ?A8EV:8. 5@2>20 A8AB5<0 A:;040TBLAO 7 42>E G0AB8=  F5=B@0;L=>W =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8 B0 ?5@8D5@V9=>W =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8. &5=B@0;L=0 =5@2>20 A8AB5<0 A:;040TBLAO 7V A?8==>3> B0 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C. >=0 2V4?>2V40T 70 4VW B0 @50:FVW >@30=V7<C =0 V=D>@<0FVN, I> =04E>48BL 2V4 >@30=V2 GCBBO. @V< B>3>, F5=B@0;L=0 =5@2>20 A8AB5<0 :>>@48=CT V=HV 206;82V DC=:FVW >@30=V7<C  B@02;5==O, A>=, ?0< OBL, <8A;5==O, C203C B>I>. 5@8D5@V9=0 =5@2>20 A8AB5<0 A:;040TBLAO 7 42>E 2V44V;V2 - A><0B8G=>W =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8 B0 2535B0B82=>W. !><0B8G=0 =5@2>20 A8AB5<0  F5 A8AB5<0 =5@2V2, I> 7=0E>4OBLAO 2A5@548=V BV;0. >=8 ?5@540NBL V=D>@<0FVN 2V4 >@30=V2 GCBBO 4> F5=B@0;L=>W =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8, 0 B0:>6 V=D>@<0FVN 2V4 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C 4> < O7V2. !><0B8G=0 =5@2>20 A8AB5<0 A:;040TBLAO 7 A5=A>@=8E =59@>=V2 (2>=8 ?5@540NBL V=D>@<0FVN 4> >@30=V2 GCBBO) B0 @CE>28E =59@>=V2 (?5@540NBL V=D>@<0FVN 2V4 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C 4> < O7V2). 535B0B82=0 =5@2>20 A8AB5<0 A:;040TBLAO 7 A8AB5<8 =5@2V2, I> 94CBL 2V4 =86=L>W G0AB8=8 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C B0 25@E=L>W G0AB8=8 A?8==>3> <>7:C 4> 2=CB@VH=VE >@30=V2 BV;0. >=0 2V4V3@0T 206;82C @>;L C D>@<C20==V 5<>FV9=8E AB0=V2, B0:8E, =0?@8:;04, O: AB@0E B0 AB@5A. 535B0B82=0 =5@2>20 A8AB5<0, C A2>N G5@3C, ?>4V;OTBLAO =0 420 ?V4@>74V;8  A8<?0B8G=89 B0 ?0@0A8<?0B8G=89. !8<?0B8G=89 ?V4@>74V; =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8  ?>G8=0T ?@0FN20B8 C AB@5A>28E A8BC0FVOE B0 AB8<C;NT 284V;5==O 04@5=0;V=C. 0@0A8<?0B8G=89 2V44V; 0:B82CTBLAO ?V7=VH5, 2V= 2V41C4>2CT 10;0=A 2 >@30=V7<V B0 ?>25@B0T A?V22V4=>H5==O 1V>EV<VG=8E 5;5<5=BV2 4> =>@<8. V;LHVABL >@30=V2 V==5@2CTBLAO O: A8<?0B8G=>N, B0: V ?0@0A8<?0B8G=>N =5@2>28<8 A8AB5<0<8. ;5 4VNBL 2>=8 =0 >@30=8 ?@>B8;56=>. /:I> A8<?0B8G=0 =5@2>20 A8AB5<0 ?@8A:>@NT @8B< @>1>B8 A5@FO, @>7H8@NT 7V=8FV, 30;L<CT A5:@5FVN H;C=:>28E 70;>7, B> ?0@0A8<?0B8G=0  70B@8<CT @8B< @>1>B8 A5@FO, 72C6CT 7V=8FV, 71C46CT A5:@5FVN H;C=:>28E 70;>7. 5@2>20 A8AB5<0 A:;040TBLAO 7 4C65 25;8:>W :V;L:>ABV =5@2>28E :;VB8=, I> >@30=V7>20=V C A:;04=V AB@C:BC@8 (3>;>2=89 <>7>:, =5@28). >7@V7=ONBL B@8 @V7=>2848 =5@2>28E :;VB8= (=59@>=V2): 2AB02=V =59@>=8, A5=A>@=V =59@>=8 B0 @CE>2V =59@>=8. AB02=V =59@>=8 ?5@540NBL V=D>@<0FVN 2V4 >4=VTW =5@2>2>W :;VB8=8 4> V=H>W. !5=A>@=V =59@>=8 718@0NBL V=D>@<0FVN 2V4 >@30=V2 GCBBO B0 ?5@540NBL WW 4> F5=B@0;L=>W =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8 (4> 3>;>2=>3> B0 A?8==>3> <>7:C). CE>2V =59@>=8 ?5@540NBL V=D>@<0FVN 2V4 3>;>2=>3> 01> A?8==>3> <>7:C 4> < O7V2 BV;0. >A8BL A:;04=>N T AB@C:BC@0 A5=A>@=8E =59@>=V2, B><C @>73;O=5<> WE 4>:;04=VH5. /: <8 265 7=0T<>, @>1>B0 A5=A>@=8E =59@>=V2 70157?5GCT A?@89<0==O V=D>@<0FVW 7 =02:>;8H=L>3> A2VBC. @30=8 GCBBO 740B=V A?@89<0B8 7 =02:>;8H=L>3> A5@54>28I0 ? OBL @V7=><0=VB=8E B8?V2 V=D>@<0FVW  B0:B8;L=C, =NE>2C, A<0:>2C, A;CE>2C B0 7>@>2C. 'CBBT2V =5@2>2V 70:V=G5==O C :>6=><C >@30=V GCBBO ACBBT2> 2V4@V7=ONBLAO >48= 2V4 >4=>3>. 0?@8:;04, >@30=8 7>@C <>6CBL A?@89<0B8 A2VB;>, B><C 2 >G0E T @5F5?B>@8, I> @503CNBL =0 =L>3>. ;O >@30=0 A;CEC V=D>@<0FVO =04E>48BL C 283;O4V 72C:>28E :>;820=L, A<0:>2V 2V4GCBBO 28=8:0NBL ?@8 ?>4@07=5==V @5F5?B>@V2 ?52=8<8 EV<VG=8<8 A?>;C:0<8. "0:8< G8=><, :>65= >@30= GCBBO <0T A?5FV0;L=V <5E0=V7<8 A?@89<0==O V=D>@<0FVW. 07>< 7 F8< A5=A>@=V =59@>=8 <0NBL >4=C 7030;L=C DC=:FVN  ?5@5B2>@5==O. &5 >7=0G0T, I> GCBBT2V =59@>=8 ?5@5B2>@NNBL >45@60=C V=D>@<0FVN (7>@>2C, A;CE>2C, =NE>2C B>I>) C D>@<C, 7@>7C<V;C 4;O <>7:C. 5@5@>1:0 A?5F8DVG=>W A5=A>@=>W V=D>@<0FVW 74V9A=NTBLAO 70 4>?><>3>N 0=0;V70B>@V2. =0;V70B>@  F5 2V4=>A=> 02B>=><=0 >@30=VG=0 AB@C:BC@0, I> 70157?5GCT ?5@5@>1:C A?5F8DVG=>W A5=A>@=>W V=D>@<0FVW B0 ?@>E>465==O WW =0 2AVE @V2=OE, 2:;NG0NG8 F5=B@0;L=C =5@2>2C A8AB5<C. >65= 0=0;V70B>@ A:;040TBLAO 7 B@L>E AB@C:BC@=8E :><?>=5=BV2: @5F5?B>@V2, =5@2>28E 2>;>:>= B0 2V4?>2V4=8E 2V44V;V2 F5=B@0;L=>W =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8. >;>2=89 <>7>: ;N48=8 A:;040TBLAO 7 :>@8 B0 ?V4:V@:8. V4:V@:0 <VAB8BL <>7:>2V AB@C:BC@8, I> <0NBL 68BBT2> 206;825 7=0G5==O C DC=:FV>=C20==V ;N48=8 O: 682>W VAB>B8. >73;O=5<> 4>:;04=VH5 >:@5<V 5;5<5=B8 ?V4:V@:8. >230AB89 <>7>:  FO G0AB8=0 <>7:C 7=0E>48BLAO <V6 A?8==8< <>7:>< B0 ?V4:V@:>N. >230AB89 <>7>: >45@6CT =5@2>2V V<?C;LA8 2V4 ?5@8D5@V9=>W =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8 V @53C;NT B@02;5==O, A5@F518BBO, 48E0==O B0 V=HV ?>4V1=V DC=:FVW. >7>G>: 7=0E>48BLAO 70 AB>21C@>< <>7:C, 2V4?>2V40T 70 :>>@48=0FVN, @V2=>203C B0 4>2V;L=V @CE8 BV;0. 5B8:C;O@=0 D>@<0FVO 7=0E>48BLAO =04 AB>21C@>< <>7:C. >=0 2?;820T =0 A>=, A=>284V==O, C203C, @53C;NT ?5@5E>48 <V6 A=>< B0 =5A?0==O<. V?>B0;0<CA  F5 2V4=>A=> =525;8:0 AB@C:BC@0, I> <VAB8BLAO 157?>A5@54=L> =04 @5B8:C;O@=>N D>@<0FVTN. 0 @>7<V@>< 3V?>B0;0<CA T =525;8:8<, 0;5 2V= 28:>=CT 4C65 206;82V DC=:FVW. V?>B0;0<CA @53C;NT DC=:FVN 3><5>AB07C  ?V4B@8<:C @V2=>2038 2 >@30=V7<V, =572060NG8 =0 7<V=8 2 =02:>;8H=L><C A5@54>28IV. V?>B0;0<CA 718@0T V=D>@<0FVN 7 CAL>3> >@30=V7<C; C 28?04:C, :>;8 1C4L - O:0 7 E0@0:B5@8AB8: 7=86CTBLAO, B> 2V= 2:;NG0T <5E0=V7<8, I>1 ?@825AB8 AB0= >@30=V7<C 4> =>@<0;L=>3>. 0?@8:;04, :>;8 @V25=L FC:@C C :@>2V 7=86CTBLAO =86G5 ?52=>3> @V2=O, 3V?>B0;0<CA 2:;NG0T 2V4GCBBO 3>;>4C V ;N48=0 ?>G8=0T HC:0B8 W6C. "0;0<CA @>7<VICTBLAO =04 3V?>B0;0<CA><. V4 >45@6CT V=D>@<0FVN 2V4 2AVE >@30=V2 GCBBO, 0 B0:>6 15@5 CG0ABL C ?@>F5A0E A>@BC20==O B0 ?5@5@>1:8 V=D>@<0FVW ?5@54 B8<, O: FO V=D>@<0FVO ?5@5945 4> :>@8 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C, 45 2>=0 1C45 0=0;V7C20B8AO B0 V=B5@?@5BC20B8AO. # ?V4:V@FV B0:>6 <VABOBLAO 70;>78, I> T 5;5<5=B0<8 5=4>:@8==>W A8AB5<8 >@30=V7<C,  3V?>DV7 B0 H8H:>?>4V1=5 BV;>. V?>DV7 @53C;NT @>1>BC 2AVTW 5=4>:@8==>W A8AB5<8. (8H:>?>4V1=5 BV;> 15>5 CG0ABL C D>@<C20==V 2=CB@VH=VE @8B<V2 >@30=V7<C. A>1;825 7=0G5==O 4;O DC=:FV>=C20==O ?A8EVG=>3> 68BBO ;N48=8 <0T :>@0 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C. >@0 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C - F5 ?>25@E=5289 H0@ ?V2:C;L 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C. >@0 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C A:;040TBLAO 7 AV@>W @5G>28=8 (=5@2>2V :;VB8=8 7 2V4@>AB:0<8). >@0 ?>2 O70=0 7 V=H8<8 2V44V;0<8 =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8 70 4>?><>3>N 0D5@5=B=8E (2V4 ?5@8D5@VW 4> :>@8) B0 5D5@5=B=8E (2V4 :>@8 4> ?5@8D5@VW) =5@2>28E 2>;>:>=. > AB@C:BC@8 :>@8 B0:>6 2E>4OBL :;VB8=8 =59@>3;VW, I> 28:>=CNBL DC=:FVW 70E8ABC B0 682;5==O =5@2>28E :;VB8=. ">2I8=0 :>@8 AB0=>28BL 2V4 1,3 4> 5 <<. #AO :>@0 <>65 1CB8 ?>4V;5=0 =0 >:@5<V DC=:FV>=0;L=V 7>=8. 84V;ONBL B0:V 7>=8 :>@8: A5=A>@=V, <>B>@=V B0 0A>FV0B82=V. !5=A>@=V (?@>5:FV9=V) 7>=8 A:;040NBLAO 7 :V=F528E :>@:>28E AB@C:BC@ 0=0;V70B>@V2. >:@5<0, ?@>5:B82=0 7>=0 7>@>2>3> 0=0;V70B>@0 7=0E>48BLAO C ?>B8;8G=8E 2V44V;0E 25;8:8E ?V2:C;L, ?@>5:B82=0 7>=0 7>@>2>3> 0=0;V70B>@0  C 25@E=VE G0AB8=0E ;>1=8E G0AB>:. !5=A>@=V 7>=8 ?@89<0NBL B0 0=0;V7CNBL A83=0;8 2V4 >@30=V2 GCBBO. >;8 2V41C20TBLAO ?>H:>465==O <>7:C C <560E ?5@28==8E ?@>5:FV9=8E 7>=, B> C ;N48=8 <>65 7=8:=CB8 740B=VABL A?@89<0B8 V=D>@<0FVN ?52=>3> B8?C. 0?@8:;04, ?@8 ?>H:>465==V 7>@>2>W 7>=8 ;N48=0 <>65 >A;V?=CB8. "0:>6 VA=CNBL V=HV ?5@28==V 7>=8. 0?@8:;04, ?5@28==V @CE>2V 7>=8, ?>2 O70=V 7 < O70<8 BV;0, @53C;NNBL @CE>2C 0:B82=VABL ;N48=8. >B>@=0 (@CE>20) 7>=0 72 O7CT @V7=V A5=A>@=V 7>=8, 70157?5GCNG8 270T<>4VN <V6 =8<8. A>FV0B82=V (2B>@8==V) 7>=8 :>@8 >1 T4=CNBL V=D>@<0FVN, >45@60=C C ?5@28==8E 7>=0E, C FV;VA=C :0@B8=C. # B20@8= 0A>FV0B82=0 :>@0 4C65 A;01> 28@065=0 01> =02VBL 2V4ACB=O. # ;N48=8 0A>FV0B82=0 :>@0 709<0T 75% 2AVTW ?>25@E=V :>@8 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C. # 0A>FV0B82=V9 7>=V 7=0E>4OBLAO F5=B@8 A?@89<0==O <>28 =0 A;CE (F5=B@ 5@=V:5) B0 @CE>289 F5=B@ <>28 (F5=B@ @>:0). :A?5@8<5=B0;L=> - :;V=VG=V 4>A;V465==O ?>:070;8, I> ?@8 2@065==V 704=VE 2V44V;V2 0A>FV0B82=8E 7>= ?>@CHCNBLAO A:;04=V D>@<8 >@VT=B0FVW C ?@>AB>@V, :>=AB@C:B>@AL:0 4VO;L=VABL, CA:;04=NTBLAO 28:>=0==O V=B5;5:BC0;L=8E >?5@0FV9. @8 2@065==V <>2=8E 7>= CA:;04=NTBLAO A?@89<0==O <>28 B0 <>2;5==O. #H:>465==O ;>1=8E 2V44V;V2 :>@8 ?@82>48BL 4> =5<>6;82>ABV 74V9A=5==O A:;04=8E D>@< ?>254V=:8, I> ?>B@51CNBL 0=0;V7C <8=C;>3> B0 ?5@5410G5==O <091CB=L>3>. 2.2. A8<5B@VO ?V2:C;L 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C >7>: ;N48=8 A:;040TBLAO 7 42>E ?V2:C;L  ?@02>W B0 ;V2>W, >1 T4=0=8E ?5@5B8=:>N, I> <0T =072C <>7>;8AB5 BV;>. 5@5B8=:0 70157?5GCT ?5@540GC V=D>@<0FVW 2V4 >4=VTW ?V2:C;V 4> V=H>W. 0 ?5@H89 ?>3;O4 >1842V ?V2:C;V >4=0:>2V, 0;5 <V6 =8<8 T ACBBT20 @V7=8FO. ?5@H5 =0 FN @V7=8FN (0A8<5B@VN ?V2:C;L) 725@=C;8 C203C C %I% AB>;VBBV, :>;8 1C;> 28O2;5=>, I> CH:>465==O @V7=8E ?V2:C;L <0T =5>4=0:>2V =0A;V4:8. V;LH5 <>6;82>AB59 4;O 282G5==O DC=:FV>=0;L=>W 0A8<5B@VW 7 O28;>AL C %% AB>;VBBV, :>;8 1C;8 2V4:@8BV A?>A>18 B8<G0A>2>3> 2V4:;NG5==O >4=VTW 7 ?V2:C;L. V4><>, I> :>6=0 ?V2:C;O >45@6CT =5>1EV4=V @5G>28=8 V7 A>==>W 0@B5@VW 2V4?>2V4=>3> 1>:C. G5=V 22>48;8 A=>4V9=5, =0?@8:;04, 4> ?@02>W 0@B5@VW, 28:;NG0NG8 B0:8< G8=>< ?@02C ?V2:C;N. "0: CG5=V >45@6C20;8 ;N48=C 7 >4=VTN ?@0FNNG>N ?V2:C;5N. @V< B>3>, 7=0G=> 71030B8;8 7=0==O ?@> A?5FV0;V70FVN ?V2:C;L >?5@0FVW 7 V7>;OFVW ?V2:C;L. 5@HV >?5@0FVW B0:>3> ?;0=C ?@>2>48;8AO 7 <5B>N ?>;53H8B8 68BBO ;N459 7 BO6:8<8 D>@<0<8 5?V;5?AVW. V9A=>, C 45O:8E ;N459 ?VA;O >?5@0FVW 7<5=HC20;8AO AC4><8. 07>< 7 F8< C ?>2AO:45==><C 68BBV ?V2:C;V V=>4V ?>G8=0;8 ?@0FN20B8 7>2AV< =5C73>465=>, O: 420 >:@5<8E >@30=8. 0?@8:;04, G>;>2V: >4=VTN @C:>N 1@02 ?0;LB>, I>1 9>3> 24O3=CB8 (?>B@V1=> 1C;> 9B8 =0 7CAB@VG), 0 V=H>N @C:>N 2V= =0<0302AO >4O3 ?>25@=CB8 4> H0D8 (=0A?@024V, 2V= =5 E>BV2 1CB8 ?@8ACB=V< =0 7CAB@VGV). # 1981 @>FV >465@ !?5@V >45@602 >15;V2AL:C ?@5<VN 70 282G5==O 4VO;L=>ABV @>74V;5=>3> <>7:C. &8<8 4>A;V465==O<8 1C;> ?>:070=>, I> :>6=0 ?V2:C;O T ?@>2V4=>N C 70157?5G5==V @>1>B8 ?52=8E ?A8EVG=8E ?@>F5AV2. V20 ?V2:C;O 2V4?>2V40T 70 >@30=V70FVN CA=>W <>28, ?8AL<0, G8B0==O. >=0 :>=B@>;NT ;>3VG=V D>@<8 <8A;5==O, 740B=VABL ;N48=8 4> 0=0;V7C. 8A;8B5;L=89 ?@>F5A, I> 74V9A=NTBLAO 70 4>?><>3>N ;V2>W ?V2:C;V, T @>73>@=CB8<, ?>5B0?=8<, 2<VICT 5;5<5=B8 0=0;V7C. @V< B>3>, ;V20 ?V2:C;O :>=B@>;NT ?@02C G0AB8=C BV;0: ;N48, :>B@V 2V440NBL ?5@5203C ?@02V9 @CFV (?@02HV) <0NBL 4><V=0=B=>N ;V2C ?V2:C;N.  1>:C ?>254V=:>28E ?@>O2V2 ;N48 7 4><V=C20==O< ;V2>W ?V2:C;V <0NBL 4>1@5 @>728=5=C <>2C, E>@>H89 A;>2=8:>289 70?0A, AE8;L=VABL :;0A8DV:C20B8 O28I0, ?5@52060==O ?>78B82=8E 5<>FV9, A;01:89 @>728B>: V=BCWFVW. @020 ?V2:C;O, =02?0:8, 4>1@5 @>7C<VT <5B0D>@8G=89 7<VAB <>28, 5<>FV9=C 7010@2;5=VABL V=B>=0FVW. !?@89<0==O ?@>AB>@>28E ?>=OBL, B5<1@C B0 30@<>=VW C <C78FV B0:>6 2E>4OBL 4> AD5@8 :><?5B5=FVW ?@02>W ?V2:C;V. N48=0 7 4><V=C20==O< ?@02>W ?V2:C;V =5 <0T 4>1@8E =028G>: 3>2>@V==O, 0;5 G0AB> B0 5D5:B82=> 28:>@8AB>2CT <V<V:C B0 65AB8, 2V4@V7=OTBLAO >1@07=8<, =5AB0=40@B=8< <8A;5==O<, AE8;L=0 4> ?5@56820==O =530B82=8E 5<>FV9. 2.3. V>;>3VG=5 ?V4@C=BO A>FV0;L=>W ?>254V=:8 N48=0 T A>FV0;L=>N VAB>B>N, O:0 D>@<CTBLAO C ?@>F5AV 68BBO C ACA?V;LAB2V. # B>9 A0<89 G0A VA=CNBL 4>A;V465==O, I> ?>:07CNBL 2?;82 1V>;>3VG=8E >A>1;82>AB59 =0 ?>254V=:C ;N48=8. 5;8:0 G0AB:0 4>A;V465=L 2?;82C 1V>;>3VG=8E D0:B>@V2 =0 ?>254V=:C ;N48=8 ?@>2>48;0AL C <560E 5B>;>3VW B0 ?A8E>35=5B8:8. B>;>3VO  F5 =0C:0, I> 282G0T ?>254V=:C B20@8= C ?@8@>4=8E C<>20E. 091V;LH ?>?C;O@=V =0?@O<:8 4>A;V465=L A5@54 5B>;>3V2  ?>254V=:0 ?@8 70;8FO==V, B5@8B>@V0;L=V 2V4=>A8=8, BC@1>B0 ?@> =0I04:V2, AB@0B53VW 70157?5G5==O 157?5:8, A?V;:C20==O, >@30=V70FVO 270T<>4VW. # 1979 @>FV 2G5=89 91; - 915AD5;L4 70?@>?>=C202 =>289 =0?@O<>: 2 5B>;>3VW  5B>;>3VN ;N48=8, I> <0T 282G0B8 1V>;>3VG=V ?5@54C<>28 ;N4AL:>W ?>254V=:8. @>2V4=8< ?V4E>4>< C 282G5==V FL>3> D5=><5=C, =0 9>3> ?>3;O4, <0T 1CB8 ?>@V2=O;L=89 <5B>4  ?>@V2=O==O ?>254V=:8 ;N48=8 B0 B20@8= V ?>@V2=O==O ?>254V=:8 ;N459 @V7=8E :C;LBC@. /: ?@8:;04 2V= @>73;O40T B0:C D>@<C ?>254V=:8, O: ?>FV;C=>:, I> C ;N4AL:V9 :C;LBC@V T ?@>O2>< 4>2V@8 B0 ;N1>2V. =0;>38 ?>FV;C=:C <>6=0 ?>10G8B8 C B20@8=, :>;8 ?@8 :>=B0:BV @>B-C-@>B ?5@540TBLAO W60, I> A2V4G8BL ?@> 4V9A=> BVA=89 72 O7>: <V6 42><0 >A>10<8. @V< B>3>, ?>FV;C=>: 28:>@8AB>2CTBLAO C 1V;LH>ABV ;N4AL:8E ACA?V;LAB2, I> A2V4G8BL ?@> 9>3> 1V>;>3VG=C C=V25@A0;L=VABL. 91; - 915AD5;L4 7V A?V2@>1VB=8:0<8 H8@>:> 28:>@8AB>2C20;8 70?8A8 =0 :V=>?;V2:C @V7=8E D>@< ?>254V=:8 ?@54AB02=8:V2 @V7=8E :C;LBC@. C;> 2AB0=>2;5=>, =0?@8:;04, I> ?@>O28 A>@>< O7;82>ABV 4>1@5 @>7?V7=0NBLAO =570;56=> 2V4 :C;LBC@8, 2 O:V9 2>=8 1C;8 70DV:A>20=V. 91; - 915AD5;L4 B0:>6 725@B0T C203C =0 AE>6VABL C AB@C:BC@V @8BC0;V2, B>1B> C A:;04=8E :><?;5:A0E A>FV0;L=>W ?>254V=:8, I> <0NBL A8<2>;VG=89 E0@0:B5@. 0?@8:;04, A8BC0FVO 2VB0==O 702648 <VAB8BL 5;5<5=B8 7<030==O B0 4>1@>78G;82>ABV. # T2@>?59FV2 FV :><?>=5=B8 ?>;O30NBL C B><C, I> ;N48=0 ?@>ABO30T 4;O 2VB0==O @C:C (4>1@>78G;82VABL), 0;5 =0<030TBLAO ?>B8A=CB8 @C:C A?V215AV4=8:0 B25@4> (7<030==O). 8A>:8E 3>AB59 45@6028 7CAB@VG0T ?0@04 2V9AL:>28E (7<030==O), >4=>G0A=> 2>=8 >45@6CNBL :2VB8 (4>1@>78G;82VABL). =0;V7CNG8 @V7=><0=VB=V D>@<8 ?>254V=:8 91; - 915AD5;L4 7@>182 28A=>2>: ?@> VA=C20==O C=V25@A0;L=>W 3@0<0B8:8 ;N4AL:>W ?>254V=:8, I> 107CTBLAO =0 ?52=8E 35=5B8G=8E <5E0=V7<0E. # !?>;CG5=8E (B0B0E <5@8:8 @>1>B8 7 282G5==O ?@8@>465=8E ?0B5@=V2 A>FV0;L=>W ?>254V=:8 ?@>2>48;>AL C <560E A>FV>1V>;>3VW. !>FV>1V>;>3VO >45@60;0 =072C ?VA;O B>3>, O: . #W;A>= 28402 :=83C 7 0=0;>3VG=>N =072>N. V4?>2V4=> 4> FL>3> =0?@O<:C 3>;>2=8< C ;N4AL:V9 52>;NFVW T 715@565==O 35=V2 B0 ?>H8@5==O 1V;LH 5D5:B82=8E 35=V2. C;LBC@=0 ?>254V=:0 ;N48=8, I> A?@8OT 715@565==N 35=V2, 1C45 70:@V?;N20B8AO. 0?@8:;04, 7 F8E ?>78FV9 <>6=0 ?>OA=8B8 D5=><5= 0;LB@CW7<C, 01> 10BL:V2AL:>3> 70E8ABC 2;0A=8E 4VB59. 0<030==O >4=VTW ;N48=8 65@B2C20B8 70@048 V=H8E =5<>6;82> ?>OA=8B8 C <560E 52>;NFV9=>3> ?V4E>4C, I> AB25@46CT ?@> 286820==O A8;L=VH>3> V ?@> B5, I> ;N4AL:5 ACA?V;LAB2> 107CTBLAO =0 1>@>BL1V 70 286820==O. 0A?@024V ;N4AB2> ?>B@51CT BC@1>B8 ?@> V=H8E ;N459, B><C I> F5 T C<>2>N 286820==O 2AVE. "0:8< G8=><, A>FV>1V>;>38 22060NBL, I> FV;0 =87:0 ?>254V=:>28E D>@<, I> 22060NBLAO ACB> A>FV0;L=8<8, =0A?@024V <0NBL ?@8@>465=89 E0@0:B5@, B><C I> 70157?5GCNBL 286820==O 2AL>3> ;N4AB20. A8E>35=5B8:0  =0C:0, I> 282G0T 2?;82 35=5B8G=8E >A>1;82>AB59 ;N48=8 =0 9>3> ?A8EV:C. &O =0C:0 28:>@8AB>2CT B0:V <5B>48 0=0;V7C: 1;87=N:>2V 4>A;V465==O, 282G5==O 2A8=>2;5=8E 4VB59 B0 35=50;>3VG=89 0=0;V7. !CB=VABL 1;87=N:>2>3> <5B>4C ?>;O30T C B><C, I> 282G0NBLAO, =0?@8:;04 4VB8, O:V <0NBL >4=0:>289 35=5B8G=89 =01V@ (<>=>783>B=V 1;87=N:8), 0;5 2=0A;V4>: ?52=8E ?@8G8= 28E>2C20;8AL C @V7=8E C<>20E. 8:>@8AB0==O FL>3> <5B>4C 4>72>;8;> 28O28B8 VA=C20==O =0A;V4C20=>ABV 45O:8E 70E2>@N20=L (FC:@>289 4V015B, ?A>@V07). 82G5==O 2A8=>2;5=8E 4VB59 4>72>;OT ?>@V2=OB8 2?;82 35=5B8G=8E D0:B>@V2 B0 D0:B>@V2 A5@54>28I0. # 40=><C 28?04:C ?>@V2=NTBLAO AE>6VABL 2A8=>2;5=8E 4VB59 7 1V>;>3VG=8<8 10BL:0<8 B0 7 B8<8, O:V 27O;8 WE =0 28E>20==O. >:@5<0, <>6=0 =025AB8 ?@8:;04 7 =0A;V4C20==O< V=B5;5:BC. /:I> :>5DVFVT=B V=B5;5:BC 1V>;>3VG=>W <0B5@V 1C2 28I89 70 120 10;V2, B> C ?@89><=8E 4VB59 B56 <02 <VAF5 4>A8BL 28A>:89 V=B5;5:B, =02VBL O:I> V=B5;5:B ?@89><=8E 10BL:V2 1C2 7=865=8<.  V=H>3> 1>:C, O:I> :>5DVFVT=B V=B5;5:BC 1V>;>3VG=>W <0B5@8 1C2 =86G8< 70 95 10;V2, B> =02VBL 4C65 4>1@5 28E>20==O C =>2V9 @>48=V =5 7<>3;> ?@8=F8?>2> ?V428I8B8 V=B5;5:B 2A8=>2;5=8E 4VB59. 0?8B0==O 4;O A0<>:>=B@>;N '8< >1C<>2;NTBLAO DC=:FV>=C20==O ?A8EV:8?  O:8E G0AB8= A:;040TBLAO =5@2>20 A8AB5<0? 072VBL A:;04>2V F5=B@0;L=>W =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8. 072VBL A:;04>2V ?5@8D5@V9=>W =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8.  G>3> A:;040TBLAO 2535B0B82=0 =5@2>20 A8AB5<0? >OA=VBL 270T<>4VN A8<?0B8G=>W B0 ?0@0A8<?0B8G=>W =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8. /:V T >@30=8 GCBBO?  O:8E G0AB8= A:;040TBLAO 0=0;V70B>@? /:V G0AB8=8 A:;040NBL 3>;>2=89 <>7>:? 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C ?V4:V@:>28< <>7:>28< AB@C:BC@0<. /:V DC=:FV>=0;L=V 7>=8 284V;ONBL C :>@V 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C? 0 O:V ?@>F5A8 2V4?>2V40T ;V20 ?V2:C;O 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C? 0 O:V ?@>F5A8 2V4?>2V40T ?@020 ?V2:C;O 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C? )> 282G0NBL 5B>;>38? )> 45<>=AB@CNBL ;N48, 2VB0NG8AL 70 @C:C? @0:B8G=5 70=OBBO 5@2>20 A8AB5<0  1V>;>3VG=5 ?V43@C=BO ?A8EV:8 1. C4>20 B0 DC=:FVW F5=B@0;L=>W =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8. 2. $C=:FV>=0;L=V 1;>:8 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C B0 WE 270T<>4VO (70 . . C@VO). 3. C4>20 B0 DC=:FVW ?5@8D5@V9=>W =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8. 4. A8<5B@VO ?V2:C;L 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C. 5. V>;>3VG=5 ?V4@C=BO A>FV0;L=>W ?>254V=:8. @07>: B5ABC 4;O :>=B@>;N 7=0=L  G>3> A:;040TBLAO F5=B@0;L=0 =5@2>20 A8AB5<0: A8<?0B8G=>3> V A?8==>3> <>7:C; 3>;>2=>3> V A?8==>3> <>7:C; 2535B0B82=>3> V 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C; A8<?0B8G=>3> V ?0@0A8<?0B8G=>3> <>7:C; ?0@0A8<?0B8G=>3> V 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C? =0;V70B>@ A:;040TBLAO 7 3 G0AB8= : 4>F5=B@>289, 2V4F5=B@>289 V < O7>289 2V44V;8; @5F5?B>@, =5@28 V F5=B@0;L=89 2V44V;; @5F5?B>@, 0=0;V70B>@, =5@28; F5=B@0;L=89 2V44V;, 2V4F5=B@>289, < O7>289; =5@28, < O78, 0=0;V70B>@. # :>@V 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C 284V;ONBL 7>=8 : <>B>@=V, A8=B5B8G=V, 0=0;VB8G=V; A5=A>@=V, 0=0;VB8G=V, A8=B5B8G=V; 0=0;V7CNGV, AB8<C;N20;L=V, 0A>FV0B82=V; F5=B@0;L=V, ?5@8D5@V9=V, A8<?0B8G=V; A5=A>@=V, <>B>@=V, 0A>FV0B82=V. )> 45<>=AB@CNBL ;N48, 2VB0NG8AL 70 @C:C: 4>1@>78G;82VABL V 7<030==O; 7<030==O V ?@8E8;L=VABL; 4>1@V =0<V@8 V 4>1@>78G;82VABL; ?@8201;82VABL V 4><030==O; 7<030==O V 4><030==O. ?;82 35=5B8G=8E >A>1;82>AB59 ;N48=8 =0 ?A8EV:C 282G0T : 35=5B8:0; DV7V>;>3VO; ?A8E>DV7V>;>3VO; ?A8E>35=5B8:0; 5B>;>3VO. !?8A>: ;VB5@0BC@8: AB5AB25==>=0CG=K5 >A=>2K ?A8E>;>388 / ?>4. @54. .. !<8@=>20, . . C@8O, .. 51K;8FK=0.  . : 5403>38:0, 1978.  368A. 030;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO / 70 @54. !..0:A8<5=:0. V==8FO: >20 =830, 2004. -704A. 5<>2 .!. A8E>;>38O: 2 3 :=.  .: !, 2001.- =. 1.  688A. OA>W4 .. 030;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO.  .: 8I0 H:., 2000.  480 A. 5. A8E>;>3VO / 70 @54. ..."@>DV<>20.  . : 81V4L, 2001.  560A. 6. A8E>;>38O /?>4 @54. ..@C68=8=0. - !1.: 8B5@, 2000.  672A. 3. A>18ABVABL C ?A8E>;>3VW 3.1. !>FV0;L=> - VAB>@8G=0 ACB=VABL >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8. 3.2. !B@C:BC@0 >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8. 3.3. >728B>: >A>18AB>ABV. 5@V>4870FVO ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. 3.4. A=>2=V ?V4E>48 4> B8?>;>3VW >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8. 3.1. !>FV0;L=> - VAB>@8G=0 ACB=VABL >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 >=OBBO >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 T F5=B@0;L=8< 4;O 1030BL>E 30;C759 7=0=L. A>18ABVABL ;N48=8 282G0NBL DV;>A>DVO, A>FV>;>3VO, ?A8E>;>3VO, ?5403>3V:0, ?A8EV0B@VO B>I>. "0:89 H8@>:89 V=B5@5A 4> FL>3> CB2>@5==O 3>2>@8BL, 7 >4=>3> 1>:C, ?@> 9>3> A:;04=VABL, 0 7 V=H>3>  ?@> 206;82VABL C A8AB5<V 3C<0=VB0@=>3> 7=0==O. A>18ABVABL ;N48=8 FV:028BL ?A8E>;>30 7 B>G:8 7>@C =0O2=>ABV G8 2V4ACB=>ABV ?52=8E ?A8EVG=8E CB2>@5=L, WE 2V4?>2V4=>ABV 2V:>28< =>@<0<, B0 <>6;82>ABV WE :>@5:FVW C 28?04:C =52V4?>2V4=>ABV 2V:>28< AB0=40@B0<. A>18ABVABL ;N48=8 - F5 ?5@H 70 2A5 A>FV0;L=0 O:VABL ;N48=8. W D>@<C20==O <>6;825 ;8H5 C 270T<>4VW 7 A>1V ?>4V1=8<8, C A>FVC<V, C 4VO;L=>ABV. ;O @>7C<V==O ACB=>ABV >A>18AB>ABV =5>1EV4=> @>73;O=CB8 420 @O48 O28I. 5@H89 @O4: ;N48=0  V=482V4  >A>18ABVABL  V=482V4C0;L=VABL. @C389 @O4 >1C<>2;5=89 A:;04=VABN 68BBT2>3> A2VBC >A>18AB>ABV. !0<5 C FL><C A2VBV V 284V;ONBL @O4: 7>2=VH=V9 (?@54<5B=89) A2VB  A>FV0;L=89 A2VB  2=CB@VH=V9 A2VB. # ?>=OBBV ;N48=0 70DV:A>20=0 @>4>20 =0;56=VABL FVTW VAB>B8 4> @>4C ;N4AL:>3>, 01> 4> 284C ;N48=8 @>7C<=>W, Homo sapiens. # FL><C ?>=OBBV 2V4>1@060NBLAO >A>1;82>ABV 0=0B><VG=>W 1C4>28, DV7V>;>3VG=8E DC=:FV9 B0 A?>A>1C 68BBO. &5 ?>=OBBO ?>T4=CT =>2>=0@>465=>3>, 728G09=C 4>@>A;C ;N48=C, 2840B=>3> 35=VO V =02VBL V4V>B0. 8 ;53:> 2V4@V7=OT<> FN VAB>BC C 1C4L-O:><C 2VFV 2V4 V=H8E 6828E VAB>B. >6=0 ;N48=0 =0@>46CTBLAO =0 A2VB V=482V4><. =482V4  F5 I>AL >:@5<5, >A>1;825, V=482V4C0;L=5. # FL><C ?>=OBBV 2V4>1@060NBLAO V=482V4C0;L=V, A2>T@V4=V >A>1;82>ABV 0=0B><VG=>W 1C4>28, DV7V>;>3VG=8E DC=:FVW B0 A?>A>1C 68BBO. 8 2AV ;N48, 0;5 :>65= 7 =0A <0T A2>T@V4=V >A>1;82>ABV 7>2=VH=L>3> 283;O4C, :>;L>@C >G59, D>@<8 >1;8GGO, =>A0, @>B0 B0 V=. #A5 F5 7>2=V 2V4@V7=OT =0A >48= 2V4 >4=>3>. 0@>46CNG8AL =0 A2VB V=482V4><, ;N48=0 6825 V 4VT C ?52=><C A>FV0;L=><C B0 VAB>@8G=><C ?@>AB>@V. !0<5 A8AB5<0 A>FV0;L=>3> 68BBO 70157?5GCT =01CBBO V=482V4>< A>FV0;L=>W O:>ABV. ;O AB0=>2;5==O >A>18AB>ABV V=482V4 <0T ?@82;0A=8B8 A8AB5<C A>FV0;L=8E 2V4=>A8=, 0 A0<5 A8AB5<C 5:>=><VG=8E, ?>;VB8G=8E B0 V45>;>3VG=8E 2V4=>A8=. N48=0 T 0:B82=> 4VNG>N VAB>B>N. !8AB5<0 2V4=>A8=, C O:8E 6825 ;N48=0, =5N A0<>N 6 V AB2>@NTBLAO.  72V4A8 28A=>2>:, I> ;N48=0 A0<0 AB2>@NT A8AB5<C A>FV0;L=8E 2V4=>A8=, 0 ?>BV< WE ?@82;0A=NT. "0: 2>=0 AB0T >A>18ABVABN V A0<0 A515 D>@<CT. A>18ABVABN =07820TBLAO A>FV0;L=0 VAB>B0, O:0 6825 C ACA?V;LAB2V V T 0:B82=8< 4VOG5< FL>3> ACA?V;LAB20. @V< A>FV0;L=>W >1C<>2;5=>ABV, >A>18ABVABL <0T VAB>@8G=C >1C<>2;5=VABL. >6=0 >A>18ABVABL ?@82;0A=NT VAB>@8G=V >A>1;82>ABV, C O:8E 2>=0 6825. "0:, ;N48=0 %% AB>;VBBO =5 <0;0 ?>B@518 4828B8AO B5;52V7>@, 1> =5 1C;> B5;510G5==O. !L>3>4=V :>6=0 ;N48=0, :>6=0 >A>18ABVABL >1>2 O7:>2> ?5@53;O40T =>28=8, :>=F5@B8, H>C, I> ?@>?>=CNBL @V7=><0=VB=V :0=0;8 ACG0A=>3> B5;510G5==O. "0: >A>18ABVABL =01C20T A>FV0;L=>-VAB>@8G=>W ACB=>ABV. #AV ;N48 682CBL C FV;:>< 287=0G5=><C A>FV0;L=><C A5@54>28IV, 707=0NBL 2?;82C >4=8E V B8E A0<8E A>FV0;L=8E 2V4=>A8= B0 ?@82;0A=NNBL WE. 572060NG8 =0 F5, ;N48 2V4@V7=ONBLAO A2>W<8 ?A8E>;>3VG=8<8 >A>1;82>ABO<8 V =5 B>B>6=V >48= >4=><C. @82;0A=NNG8 A8AB5<C A>FV0;L=8E 2V4=>A8=, ;N48=0 2V418@0T 7 =8E ;8H5 BV, I> W9 FV:02V, 2V4?>2V40NBL WW 2=CB@VH=L><C A2VBC. 4=V ?@82;0A=NT, V=HV  =5 A?@89<0T. A5 F5 T ?V4@C=BO< V=482V4C0;L=>ABV. !2>T@V4=5 ?>T4=0==O >A>18ABVA=8E 2;0AB82>AB59 =07820TBLAO V=482V4C0;L=VABN. >6=0 ;N48=0, :>6=0 >A>18ABVABL A2>T@V4=0 C A2>W9 V=482V4C0;L=>ABV. @C389 @O4, I> 287=0G0T >A>18ABVABL ;N48=8  F5 68BBT289 A2VB, 0 B>G=VH5 WE A8AB5<0. # FV9 A8AB5<V 284V;ONBL 7>2=VH=V9 A2VB, A>FV0;L=89 A2VB B0 2=CB@VH=V9 A2VB. >6=0 ;N48=0, :>6=0 >A>18ABVABL >4=>G0A=> ?5@51C20T C F8E A2VB0E, >48= <>65 ?5@5B2>@N20B8, V=HV AB2>@N20B8. >2=VH=V9, 01> ?@54<5B=89 A2VB,  F5 A2VB ?@8@>48, =0C:8, B5E=V:8, ?@0:B8:8, 4>FV;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. &5 A2VB ?V7=0==O V ?@0:B8G=>W G8 B5>@5B8G=>W (=0C:>2>W) 4VO;L=>ABV ;N48=8. N48=0 ?V7=0T 70:>=8 ?@8@>48, AB2>@NT B5E=VG=V ?@>5:B8. "CB CA5 ?>B@51CT 4>2545=L 01> ?@0:B8G=>W ?5@52V@:8 7 B>G:8 7>@C :>@8A=>ABV 4;O ;N48=8. # FL><C A2VBV FV=OBLAO ;8H5 BV 7=0==O, I> <>6CBL 1CB8 ?>40=V C 4>ABC?=><C 4;O @>7C<V==O 283;O4V, 0 B0:>6 <>6CBL 1CB8 ?5@540=V V=H8< ;N4O<. # B0:><C 28?04:C 2>=8 AB0NBL G0AB8=>N 7030;L=>3> 4>A2V4C. &5 A2VB 70:>=V2 ?@8@>48, B5E=V:8, 4VO;L=>ABV. @8ACB=VABL ;N48=8 =5 7<V=NT 70:>=8 ?@8@>48. "0:, ?@>F5A D>B>A8=B57C C 75;5=><C ;8AB:C @>A;8= 2V41C20TBLAO 702648, :>;8 =0 =L>3> ?040T ?@><V=L A>=FO.  4;O FL>3> ?@>F5AC 1094C65 - ?@8ACB=O BCB ;N48=0 G8 =V. N48=0 <>65 ;8H5 ?V7=0B8 70:>=8 V :>@8ABC20B8AO =8<8. &5 A2VB >1 T:B=8E 2V4=>A8=. # =8E =5<0T =VG>3> >A>18AB>3>. !>FV0;L=89 A2VB  F5 A2VB, C O:89 ;N48=0 2E>48BL 70 4>?><>3>N ?@54<5B=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. 48=8F5N FVTW 4VO;L=>ABV T ?@54<5B=0 4>FV;L=0 4VO. N48=0 <0T 01> 2>;>4VB8 =5N, 01> >2>;>4VB8. "0:8< G8=><, 270T<>4VO ;N48=8 V7 7>2=VH=V< (?@54<5B=8<) A2VB><  F5 AB0=>2;5==O 4VO;L=>ABV V @>728B>: ;N48=8 O: AC1 T:B0 ?@54<5B=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. # ?@>F5AV FL>3> @>728B:C 2V41C20TBLAO D>@<C20==O >?5@0FV9=8E <5E0=V7<V2 ?A8EV:8. &5 >7=0G0T, I> ;N48=0 >2>;>4V20T A?>A>10<8 4V9, 70DV:A>20=8<8 C AC:C?=><C ;N4AL:><C 4>A2V4V.  FVTW B>G:8 7>@C @>728B>: ;N48=8 O: AC1 T:B0 ?@54<5B=>W 4VO;L=>ABV ?>2 O70=89 7 ?@82;0A=5==O< A>FV0;L=>-VAB>@8G=>3> 4>A2V4C, B>1B> V=B5@V>@870FVTN A?>A>1V2 4VW, I> @0=VH5 =0;560;8 V=H8< ;N4O<. VA;O 7025@H5==O =02G0==O V=B5@V>@87>20=V A?>A>18 4VW 2:;NG0NBLAO C ?@54<5B=C 4VO;L=VABL, B>1B> 5:AB5@V>@87CNBLAO. &5 40T <>6;82VABL =0:>?8GC20B8 4>A2V4, 28@>1;OB8 =>2V A?>A>18 4VW. "5?5@ ;N48=0 >4=>G0A=> AB0T AC1 T:B>< ?V7=0==O V A2V4><>ABV. 2>;>4V==O @V7=><0=VB=8<8 A?>A>10<8 4VW ?@82>48BL 4> C7030;L=5==O ?A8EVG=8E 4VO;L=>AB59. AB0==V @53C;NNBL ?@54<5B=V 4VW V 4VO;L=>ABV. 4V1=>ABV T C7030;L=5=8<8 ?A8EVG=8<8 4VO;L=>ABO<8. >=8 40NBL <>6;82VABL ;N48=V >2>;>4V20B8 V =>28<8 ?@54<5B=8<8 4VO;L=>ABO<8, V =>28<8 ?A8EVG=8<8 4VO;L=>ABO<8. 70T<>4VO ;N48=8 7 ?@54<5B=8< A2VB>< ?>2 O70=0 7 =5>1EV4=VABN 70;CG5==O V=H8E ;N459, =5>1EV4=VABN WE 270T<>4VW. 030B>3@0==VABL V A:;04=VABL 2V4=>A8= V7 ?@54<5B=8< A2VB>< 4>?>2=NNBLAO A8AB5<>N 2V4=>A8= 7 V=H8<8 ;N4L<8. !CB=VABL >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 <>6=0 7@>7C<VB8 G5@57 287=0G5==O WW <VAFO C A>FVC<V, A8AB5<V 2V4=>A8= C ACA?V;LAB2V 7 V=H8<8 ;N4L<8. >73;O40NG8 ;N48=C G5@57 ?@87<C ?@54<5B=>W 4VO;L=>ABV V A8AB5<8 2V4=>A8= 7 V=H8<8 ;N4L<8, <8 >45@6CT<> =5 >:@5<C ;N48=C, =5 >:@5<C >A>18ABVABL, 0 >@30=V7>20=C <=>68=C ;N459, A>FVC<, ACA?V;LAB2>. "0:8< G8=><, A0<5 ;N48=0 AB2>@NT A>FVC<, 01> A>FV0;L=89 A2VB. @54<5B=0 4VO;L=VABL C 7>2=VH=L><C A2VBV 70157?5GCT 7<V=8 C =L><C B0 C 2=CB@VH=L><C A2VBV A0<>W ;N48=8. "><C 28EV4=8< <><5=B>< ?@8 @>73;O4V >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 <0T 1CB8 WW A>FV0;L=89 AB0BCA, WW <VAF5 C A8AB5<V 270T<>2V4=>A8= 7 V=H8<8 ;N4L<8, C ACA?V;LAB2V. 3.2. !B@C:BC@0 >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 !B@C:BC@>N =07820NBL AC:C?=VABL 5;5<5=BV2, I> A:;040NBL FV;5. >2>@OG8 ?@> AB@C:BC@C >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8, <8 <0T<> =0 C207V 5;5<5=B8 AB@C:BC@8 >A>18AB>ABV. A:V;L:8 >A>18ABVABL ;N48=8 T =04728G09=> A:;04=8< CB2>@5==O<, B> B0:8< A0<8< A:;04=8< T 70240==O 287=0G5==O AB@C:BC@8. > AL>3>4=V VA=CT 25;8G57=0 :V;L:VABL ?V4E>4V2 V B5>@V9 AB@C:BC@8, 0;5 2V4ACB=O T48=0 7030;L=>287=0=0 :>=F5?FVO AB@C:BC@8 >A>18AB>ABV. 4=VTN 7 ?@>1;5< AB@C:BC@8 >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 T A?V22V4=>H5==O 1V>;>3VG=>3> 9 A>FV0;L=>3>. N48=0 - VAB>B0 1V>;>3VG=0, 284 Homo sapiens. &5 >7=0G0T, I> 2>=0 <0T ?52=C 1V>;>3VG=C >@30=V70FVN: 0=0B><VG=C 1C4>2C, DV7V>;>3VG=V DC=:FVW, 35==89 0?0@0B, 5=4>:@8==C A8AB5<C V B. V=. #AO AC:C?=VABL 1V>;>3VG=8E >A>1;82>AB59 A:;040T ?C43@C=BO D>@<C20==O V=482V4C0;L=> - ?A8E>;>3VG=8E >A>1;82>AB59. #A5 1V>;>3VG=5 C ;N48=V VA=CT O: A>FV0;L=> >1C<>2;5=5. =482V4C0;L=VABL >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 715@V30T C A>1V 2V418B>: 1V>;>3VG=8E, ?@8@>4=8E >A>1;82>AB59. # ?@>F5AV 270T<>4VW 7 A8AB5<>N A>FV0;L=8E 2V4=>A8= 2>=8 =01C20NBL A>FV0;L=>ABV B0 VA=CNBL C T4=>ABV V =5 <>6CBL @>73;O40B8AL O: A0<>ABV9=V A:;04>2V FV;VA=>W A8AB5<8. !:;04>2V 5;5<5=B8 AB@C:BC@8 >A>18AB>ABV =5ACBL =0 A>1V 2V418B>: O: ?@8@>4=>3>, B0: V A>FV0;L=>3>. "><C 4>FV;L=VH5 @>73;O40B8 A0<5 WE 2?;82 =0 AB@C:BC@=V CB2>@5==O >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8. !0<5 7 FVTW B>G:8 7>@C @>73;O40;8 AB@C:BC@C >A>18AB>ABV @04O=AL:V ?A8E>;>38 .. ;0B>=>2 B0 .. 5B@>2AL:89. .. ;0B>=>2 @>73;O40T >A>18ABVABL ;N48=8 O: AB@C:BC@=> - 48=0<VG=C A8AB5<C. # FL><C ?V4E>4V >A>18ABVABL T A:;04=>N A8AB5<>N, I> ?>ABV9=> @>72820TBLAO, 7<V=NT A:;04 :><?>=5=BV2 B0 72 O7:8 <V6 =8<8. V= 22>48BL B5@<V= ?V4AB@C:BC@0 >A>18AB>ABV. > ?V4AB@C:BC@ <>6CBL 2E>48B8 2:;NG5=V 2AV 2V4><V 2;0AB82>ABV >A>18AB>ABV. # AB@C:BC@V >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 .. ;0B>=>2 284V;OT G>B8@8 >A=>2=V B0 42V =0:;045=V ?V4AB@C:BC@8. > >A=>2=8E ?V4AB@C:BC@ 2V= 2V4=>A8BL: A?@O<>20=VABL, 4>A2V4, ?A8EVG=V ?@>F5A8, ?A8E>DV7V>;>3VG=V >A>1;82>ABV. > =0:;045=8E  74V1=>ABV V E0@0:B5@. 1. !?@O<>20=VABL  F5 AC:C?=VABL <>B82V2, I> 287=0G0NBL =0?@O<>: 4VO;L=>ABV ;N48=8. >B828 O: 2=CB@VH=V A?>=C:0;L=V A8;8 4> 4VO;L=>ABV ?>4V;ONBLAO =0 CA2V4><;5=V B0 =5CA2V4><;5=V. > CA2V4><;5=8E <>B82V2 2V4=>AOBL BV <>B828, I> 287=0G0NBL AB@86=525 ?V4@C=BO >A>18AB>ABV, 0 A0<5: V=B5@5A8, A2VB>3;O4, ?5@5:>=0==O, <@VW, V450;8. !5@54 =5CA2V4><;5=8E <>B82V2 =091V;LH 282G5=8< T CAB0=>2:0. G5==O ?@> CAB0=>2:C 70?>G0B:C202 2840B=89 3@C78=AL:89 ?A8E>;>3 .. #7=0475 (1886  1950 @@.). #AB0=>2:>N =07820NBL 2=CB@VH=N 3>B>2=VABL ;N48=8 ?52=8< G8=>< 28:>=0B8 4VO;L=VABL. "0:, ABC45=B0< ?@>?>=C20;8 287=0G8B8 B>=:V 70?0E8 C 70?@>?>=>20=V9 @V48=V. '8< BV;L:8 =5 ?0E;0 48AB8;L>20=0 2>40 C G8AB> 28<8B8E ?@>1V@:0E? !?>G0B:C 1C;0 7@>1;5=0 CAB0=>2:0: 7=09B8 70?0E. VT CAB0=>2:0 V C =02G0==V. /:I> ABC45=B =02G0TBLAO 4;O 70;V:C, B> ?VA;O =L>3> 2A5 H284:> 701C20TBLAO. /:I> T CAB0=>2:0, I> F5 ?>B@V1=> C <091CB=L><C, B> =02G0;L=89 7<VAB 70?0< OB>2CTBLAO <VF=> V =04>23>. !?@O<>20=VABL D>@<CTBLAO ?@0:B8G=> A8AB5<>N A>FV0;L=>W 270T<>4VW. >=0 =091V;LH A>FV0;L=> >1C<>2;5=0 V T @57C;LB0B>< =02G0==O V 28E>20==O, =091V;LH 48=0<VG=0, ;53:> <>65 7<V=N20B8AO 7 ?;8=>< G0AC. 2. >A2V4 ;N48=8. V= D>@<CTBLAO C ?@>F5AV 270T<>4VW 7 ?@54<5B=8< A2VB>< V ?>T4=CT 7=0==O, C<V==O B0 =028G:8. &O ?V4AB@C:BC@0 <0T A>FV0;L=> - 1V>;>3VG=C >1C<>2;5=VABL. !>FV0;L=>3> C =V9 1V;LH5, =V6 1V>;>3VG=>3>. V>;>3VG=8< BCB T 74>@>20 =5@2>20 A8AB5<0 (V, 70728G09, ?A8EV:0), I> 70157?5GCT =>@<0;L=C 270T<>4VN 7 ?@54<5B=8< A2VB>< V >2>;>4V==O ?@54<5B=>N 4VO;L=VABN. >A2V4 7<V=NTBLAO ?@>BO3>< 68BBO. 3. A8EVG=V ?@>F5A8. !N48 2E>4OBL >A>1;82>ABV ?V7=020;L=8E B0 5<>FV9=> - 2>;L>28E ?@>F5AV2. &O ?V4AB@C:BC@0 >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 <0T 1V>A>FV0;L=C >1C<>2;5=VABL. V>;>3VG=>3> C =V9 1V;LH5, =V6 A>FV0;L=>3>. 0;>48=0<VG=0. 4. A8E>DV7V>;>3VG=V >A>1;82>ABV. > =8E 2V4=>AOBL >A>1;82>ABV 0=0B><VG=>W 1C4>28, >A>1;82>ABV DV7V>;>3VG=8E DC=:FV9, B8? 28I>W =5@2>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV, B8? B5<?5@0<5=BC, 2V:>2V >A>1;82>ABV, AB0B52V >A>1;82>ABV, ?0B>;>3VG=V >A>1;82>ABV. >=8 <0NBL 1V>;>3VG=C >1C<>2;5=VABL. !>FV0;L=5 ?@0:B8G=> 2V4ACB=T. &O ?V4AB@C:BC@0 =091V;LH ABV9:0 V ?@0:B8G=> =5 7<V=NTBLAO ?@>BO3>< 68BBO. >73;O=CBV ?V4AB@C:BC@8 T >A=>2=8<8, 1> 2>=8 287=0G0NBL D>@<C20==O =0:;045=8E ?V4AB@C:BC@. 4V1=>ABV, O: <8 265 707=0G0;8, T C7030;L=5=8<8 ?A8EVG=8<8 4VO;L=>ABO<8, I> 287=0G0NBL >2>;>4V==O =>28<8 ?@0:B8G=8<8 4VO<8 G8 4VO;L=>ABO<8. !0<5 74V1=>ABV 287=0G0NBL 2:;NG5=VABL >A>18AB>ABV C A8AB5<C :C;LBC@=>-VAB>@8G=8E 2V4=>A8= ACA?V;LAB20. %0@0:B5@ T =5?>2B>@=8< ?>T4=0==O< 2;0AB82>AB59 >A>18AB>ABV, I> 28O2;ONBLAO C 4VO;L=>ABV V B8?>28E A?>A>10E ?>254V=:8. @> E0@0:B5@ ;N48=8 <>6=0 3>2>@8B8 =0 ?V4@C=BV A8AB5<8 2V4=>A8=, 0 A0<5: 4> 4VO;L=>ABV, 4> V=H8E ;N459, 4> A515, 4> @5G59. .. 5B@>2AL:89 7 B>G:8 7>@C A?V22V4=>H5==O 1V>;>3VG=>3> V A>FV0;L=>3> C AB@C:BC@V >A>18AB>ABV 284V;OT B@8 ?V4AB@C:BC@8: V=B@0V=482V4=C, V=B5@V=482V4=C, <5B0V=482V4=C. 1. =B@0V=482V4=0, 01> 2=CB@VH=L>V=482V4=0, ?V4AB@C:BC@0. &5 1V>;>3VG=0 >@30=V70FVO V=482V4C0;L=>ABV, I> 28O2;OTBLAO 2 >A>1;82>ABOE 1C4>28, DC=:FV9, B5<?5@0<5=BC V B. V=. 2. A>18ABVABL ;N48=8 T AC1 T:B>< A8AB5<8 270T<>2V4=>A8= V7 ACA?V;LAB2>< V 28O2;OTBLAO C ?@>AB>@V 9 G0AV O: @57C;LB0B <V6V=482V4=8E 2V4=>A8=. @>O2>< >A>18AB>ABV =5 <>65 1CB8 >48= V=482V4, 0 ;8H5 =0A;V4>: 270T<>4VW <V=V<C< 42>E >AV1. &O 270T<>4VO >?>A5@54:>2CTBLAO ?@54<5B=>N 4VO;L=VABN V 70157?5GCT D>@<C20==O A>FV0;L=8E O:>AB59 >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8. "><C 4@C30 ?V4AB@C:BC@0 2V4>1@060T A0<5 FN O:VABL. &5 V=B5@V=482V4=0 ?V4A8AB5<0. >=0 D>@<CTBLAO C 270T<>4VW <V6 ;N4L<8. 3. 5B0V=482V4=0, 01> =04V=482V4=0, ?V4AB@C:BC@0 28E>48BL 70 <56V V=B@0V=482V4=>W B0 V=B5@V=482V4=>W ?V4AB@C:BC@. @V< B>3>, 2>=0 28E>48BL 70 <56V 72 O7:V2, I> VA=CNBL AL>3>4=V. # ?@>F5AV ?@0:B8G=>W 4VO;L=>ABV V 270T<>4VW 7 V=H8<8 ;N4L<8 :>6=0 >A>18ABVABL A2V4><> G8 =5A2V4><> 2?;820T =0 V=H8E ;N459 V B8< A0<8< I>AL 7<V=NT 01> 74V9A=NT 2=5A:8 2 V=H8E ;N459, 70;8H0T C =8E G0AB8=:C A2>TW >A>18AB>ABV. &5 ?@>F5A A2>T@V4=>3> ?@>4>265==O A515 2 V=H8E ;N4OE =5 BV;L:8 C <><5=B 270T<>4VW, 0;5 9 70 9>3> <560<8. @>F5A ?@>4>265==O AC1 T:B0 2 V=H8E ;N4OE =07820TBLAO ?5@A>=0;V70FVTN. 5@A>=0;V70FVO 70157?5GCT 28@VH5==O 2VG=>W ?@>1;5<8 A<5@BV V 157A<5@BO. /:I> AC1 T:B ?@>4>265=89 2 V=H8E ;N4OE, B> 7 9>3> A<5@BN >A>18ABVABL ?>2=VABN =5 2<8@0T, 1> <5B0V=482V4=0 ?V4AB@C:BC@0 ?@>4>26CT 68B8. @> FN ?V4AB@C:BC@C :@0I5 A:070B8, =V6 .!. CH:V=, =5 <>6=0: 5B, 25AL O =5 C<@C& 4>:>;L 2 ?>4;C==>< <8@5 682 1C45B E>BL >48= ?88B. 3.3. >728B>: >A>18AB>ABV. 5@V>4870FVO ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C 8 265 707=0G0;8, I> >A>18ABVABL ;N48=8 T 48=0<VG=8< CB2>@5==O<, 2>=0 7<V=NTBLAO ?@>BO3>< 68BBO, @>72820TBLAO. >728B:>< =07820NBL =5>1EV4=V, A?@O<>20=V B0 70:>=><V@=V 7<V=8 <0B5@V0;L=8E B0 V450;L=8E >1 T:BV2. >728B>: 2V41C20TBLAO C @50;L=><C G0AV V B8< A0<8< 28O2;OT A?@O<>20=VABL. @>F5A ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C 74V9A=NTBLAO O: =0:>?8G5==O =>2>CB2>@5=L (O:VA=V 7<V=8) ?V4 2?;82>< :V;L:VA=8E 7<V=. V;L:VA=V 7<V=8 - F5 A8AB5<0 ?@0:B8G=8E 4V9, I> V=B5@V>@87CNBLAO C ?@>F5AV ?@0:B8G=>W 4VO;L=>ABV C 7>2=VH=L><C A2VBV. @>F5A V=B5@V>@870FVW T ?@82;0A=5==O< ;N48=>N ACA?V;L=> - VAB>@8G=>3> 4>A2V4C ;N4AB20, 70DV:A>20=>3> C ?@0:B8G=V9 B0 ?A8EVG=V9 4VO;L=>ABOE. >=OBBO ?@82;0A=5==O <0T 26820B8AO ?>@O4 V7 ?>=OBBO<8 =02G0==O V 28E>20==O, 0;5 O: 7030;L=5 V 1V;LH H8@>:5. # ?A8EVG=><C @>728B:C 284V;ONBL B@8 >A>1;82>ABV. 5@H0. 02G0==O V 28E>20==O ;N48=8 T ?@82;0A=5==O< =5N ACA?V;L=> - VAB>@8G=8E 74V1=>AB59. @C30. 02G0==O V 28E>20==O (?@82;0A=5==O) T 7030;L=8<8 D>@<0<8 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C ;N48=8. "@5BO. @82;0A=5==O V @>728B>: =5 <>6CBL @>73;O40B8AL O: 420 A0<>ABV9=8E ?@>F5A8. >=8 A?V22V4=>AOBLAO <V6 A>1>N O: D>@<0 V 7<VAB T48=>3> ?@>F5AC ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C ;N48=8. V;L:VA=V V O:VA=V 7<V=8 270T<>70;56=V V 270T<>>1C<>2;5=V, V ?>2 O70=V 7 >A>1;82>ABO<8 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. "0:, @>728B>: <8A;5==O ;N48=8 157?>A5@54=L> ?>2 O70=89 V7 70A2>T==O< <>28. 2>;>4V2H8 20-30 A;>20<8, 48B8=0 @>7C<VT 725@B0==O 4> =5W, 0 60-70 A;V2  70157?5GCNBL 26820==O WE C ?@028;L=V9 3@0<0B8G=V9 D>@<V.  F5 7<V=NT ?@>F5A <8A;5==O V 2V4:@820T <>6;82>ABV 4;O 70A2>T==O V=H8E ACA?V;L=>-VAB>@8G=8E 74V1=>AB59, 7>:@5<0 C?@02;V==O ?>254V=:>N 48B8=8 70 4>?><>3>N A;>20. @>F5A ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C A:;04=89, 0;5 T48=89 V FV;VA=89. # =L><C BVA=> ?5@5?;VB0NBLAO 2AV AB04VW, C<>28, 270T<>2V4=>A8=8. @8 FL><C ?@>F5A @>728B:C 74V9A=NTBLAO =5@V2=><V@=>, AB@81:>?>4V1=>. # =L><C 284V;ONBL O: A?>:V9=V, 01> ;VB8G=V ?5@V>48, B0: V 1C@E;82V, 01> :@8B8G=V ?5@V>48. VB8G=V ?5@V>48 E0@0:B5@87CNBLAO ?>ABC?>28<, ?>2V;L=8<, ?@8E>20=8< @>728B:><, 157 AB@81:V2. "0:V ?5@V>48 709<0NBL 1V;LHV ?@><V6:8 G0AC C ?A8EVG=><C @>728B:C ;N48=8. <V=8 C ?A8EVFV ;N48=8 <>6=0 28O28B8 ;8H5 H;OE>< ?>@V2=O==O ?>G0B:C V :V=FO 2V:>2>3> ?5@V>4C. @8B8G=V ?5@V>48 F5 ?5@V>48 1C@E;82>3>, H284:>3> @>728B:C, @V7:8E 7<V= ?A8EV:8. @878 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C T ?>2>@>B=8<8 ?C=:B0<8 C =>@<0;L=><C ?5@51V3C FL>3> @>728B:C. # B0:V ?5@V>48 2V41C20TBLAO 7<V=0 ?>B@51 B0 4VO;L=>AB59. V4><>, I> 4VB8 C 3, 7, 11-12 @>:V2 AB0NBL >A>1;828<8, 2V4<V==8<8 2V4 ?>?5@54=VE 2V:>28E ?5@V>4V2. .!. 83>BAL:89 284V;82 B@8 >A>1;82>ABV B0:8E ?5@V>4V2. 5@H0. 56V ?>G0B:C V :V=FO :@878 GVB:> =5 284V;ONBLAO, B><C 4C65 206:> WE 287=0G8B8. ;5 A5@548=0 :@878 E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO 703>AB@5==O<. &5 A2>T@V4=0 :C;L<V=0FVO :@878. @C30. V;LHVABL 4VB59, O:V ?5@56820NBL :@87>2V ?5@V>48 @>728B:C, E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO B@C4=>I0<8 C 28E>20==V, =5 ?V440NBLAO ?5403>3VG=8< 2?;820<. V4 G0A :@87 @>728B>: 4VB59 G0AB> AC?@>2>46CTBLAO :>=D;V:B0<8 7 >B>GCNG8<8 B0 E2>@>1;828<8 2=CB@VH=L>>A>18ABVA=8<8 :>=D;V:B0<8. "@5BO. >728B>: C B0:V ?5@V>48 <0T H284H5 @C9=V2=89 E0@0:B5@. @>3@5A82=89 @>728B>: =V18 73>@B0TBLAO, AB0T ?>2V;L=VH8<. 0 ?5@H89 ?;0= 28E>4OBL ?@>F5A8 73>@B0==O, C7030;L=5==O B>3>, I> CB2>@8;>AO =0 ?>?5@54=V9 AB04VW @>728B:C. ;O @>7C<V==O ?@>F5AC ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C 206;828< T 284V;5==O 2V:>28E ?5@V>4V2. # ?A8E>;>3VW VA=CT 25;8:0 :V;L:VABL ?V4E>4V2 4> ?5@V>4870FVW ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. 091V;LH8< 2V4><V 42V :>=F5?FVW. &5 4VO;L=VA=0 :>=F5?FVO @04O=AL:>3> ?A8E>;>30 .. ;L:>=V=0, B0 5?V35=5B8G=0 :>=F5?FVO 0<5@8:0=AL:>3> ?A8E>;>30 . @V:A>=0. .. ;L:>=V= 22060T, I> ?A8EVG=89 @>728B>: 2V41C20TBLAO ?V4 2?;82>< 0:B82=>W 4VO;L=>ABV 48B8=8. @>2V4=0 @>;L C 4VO;L=>ABV =0;568BL 7<V=0< ?@>2V4=8E B8?V2 4VO;L=>ABV. @>2V4=8< B8?>< 4VO;L=>ABV =07820NBL B0:89 B8? 4VO;L=>ABV, I> 287=0G0T 3>;>2=V =>2>CB2>@5==O 2V:C. >65= ?@>2V4=89 B8? 4VO;L=>ABV <0T B@8 >7=0:8: - C =L><C 28=8:0NBL =>2>CB2>@5==O; - C =L><C 7<V=NNBLAO ?A8EVG=V ?@>F5A8; - C =L><C D>@<CTBLAO =>289 ?@>2V4=89 B8? 4VO;L=>ABV. A:V;L:8 ;N48=0 6825 C A8AB5<V A2VBV2, B> <>6=0 284V;8B8 V A8AB5<C 4VO;L=>AB59. "0:, .. ;L:>=V= 284V;OT 42V 3@C?8 ?@>2V4=8E B8?V2 4VO;L=>ABV: ?@54<5B=V B0 A>FV0;L=V. # ?@54<5B=8E B8?0E 4VO;L=>ABV ;N48=0 >2>;>4V20T A?>A>10<8 4VW 7 ?@54<5B0<8 <0B5@V0;L=>W B0 4CE>2=>W :C;LBC@8. > ?@54<5BV2 <0B5@V0;L=>W :C;LBC@8 =0;560BL 1C4L-O:V ?@54<5B8: 7>H8B, @CG:0, A:;O=:0, ;>6:0, 02B><>1V;L V B. V=. > ?@54<5BV2 4CE>2=>W :C;LBC@8 =0;560BL =0C:>2V ?>=OBBO, V45W, B5>@VW. @54<5B=0 4VO;L=VABL 2?;820T =0 D>@<C20==O V=B5;5:BC0;L=>W 0:B82=>ABV. # A>FV0;L=8E B8?0E 4VO;L=>ABV ;N48=0 >2>;>4V20T A?>A>10<8 4VW C A>FV0;L=><C A5@54>28IV 7 V=H8<8 ;N4L<8. # F8E 4VO;L=>ABOE D>@<CTBLAO A>FV0;L=0 0:B82=VABL. !CBBT2>N >A>1;82VABN ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C T ?>G5@3>20 7<V=0 ?@54<5B=8E B0 A>FV0;L=8E B8?V2 4VO;L=>ABV. >G5@3>2> =0 ?5@H5 <VAF5 28E>48BL B> >48= B8?, B> V=H89. >65= V7 =8E <0T A2V9 >?B8<0;L=89 ?5@V>4 @>728B:C. .. ;L:>=V= 284V;OT HVABL ?@>2V4=8E B8?V2 4VO;L-=>ABV, I> 7<V=NNBL >48= >4=>3> C B0:V9 ?>A;V4>2=>ABV: - 157?>A5@54=L> 5<>FV9=5 A?V;:C20==O; - ?@54<5B=>-<0=V?C;OB82=0 4VO;L=VABL; - V3@>20 4VO;L=VABL, 01> @>;L>20 3@0; - =02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL; - >A>18ABVA=5 A?V;:C20==O; - =02G0;L=>-?@>D5AV9=0 4VO;L=VABL. 57?>A5@54=L> 5<>FV9=5 A?V;:C20==O, V3@>20 4VO;L=VABL, >A>18ABVA=5 A?V;:C20==O  F5 A>FV0;L=V B8?8 4VO;L=>ABV, C ?@>F5AV 28:>=0==O O:8E ;N48=0 70A2>NT =>@<8 270T<>2V4=>A8= C ACA?V;LAB2V B0 2:;NG0TBLAO C A8AB5<C A>FV0;L=8E 2V4=>A8=, HC:0T A2>T <VAF5 C A>FVC<V. @54<5B=>-<0=V?C;OB82=0 4VO;L=VABL, =02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL, =02G0;L=>-?@>D5AV9=0 4VO;L=VABL  F5 ?@54<5B=V B8?8 4VO;L=>ABV, C ?@>F5AV 28:>=0==O O:8E ;N48=0 >2>;>4V20T A?>A>10<8 4VW 7 ?@54<5B0<8 <0B5@V0;L=>W B0 4CE>2=>W :C;LBC@8. "CB 48B8=0 >2>;>4V20T 7=0==O<8, C<V==O<8, =028G:0<8. >6=><C ?@>2V4=><C B8?C 4VO;L=>ABV 2V4?>2V40T 2V:>289 ?5@V>4 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. "CB <8 1C45<> 707=0G0B8 ;8H5 ;VB8G=V ?5@V>48 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C V ;8H5 >4=C :@87C  =>2>=0@>465=>ABV. @8 FL><C =5>1EV4=> ?0< OB0B8, I> <V6 ;VB8G=8<8 ?5@V>40<8 7=0E>4OBLAO :@87>2V ?5@V>48. .. ;L:>=V= 284V;OT B0:V ?5@V>48 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C: - :@870 =>2>=0@>465=>ABV 0  2 <VA.; - ?5@V>4 =5<>2;OB8 2 <VA.  1 @V:; - ?5@V>4 @0==L>3> 48B8=AB20 1  3 @>:8; - ?5@V>4 4>H:V;L=>3> 48B8=AB20 3  7 @>:V2; - <>;>4H89 H:V;L=89 2V: 7  10-11 @>:V2; - ?V4;VB:>289 2V: 10-11  15-16 @>:V2; - ?5@V>4 @0==L>W N=>ABV 15-16  17-18-19 @>:V2. #:@0W=AL:89 ?A8E>;>3 .$. >@3C= 70AB>AC202 4VO;L=VA=89 ?V4EV4 4;O @>7@>1;5==O ?5@V>4870FVW 2AL>3> 68BBO ;N48=8. V= 284V;82 5 2V:>28E ?5@V>4V2 4>@>A;>ABV 7 2V4?>2V4=8<8 ?@>2V4=8<8 B8?0<8 4VO;L=>ABV. 5@V>4 N=>ABV (19  23 @>:8). @>2V4=8< C FL><C 2VFV T ?@>D5AV9=5 B0 7030;L=>;N4AL:5 A0<>287=0G5==O. 5@V>4 <>;>4>ABV (24  30 @>:V2). @>2V4=89 B8? 4VO;L=>ABV  B@C4>20 4VO;L=VABL 2 >1@0=V9 30;C7V. 5@V>4 @>7:2VBC >A>18AB>ABV (31  40 @>:V2). @>2V4=8< T 24>A:>=0;5==O B2>@G>ABV C 4VO;L=>ABV. @V;89 2V: (41  55, 60 @>:V2). @>2V4=0 4VO;L=VABL  4VT =0AB02=8FB2>. !B0@H89 2V: (55, 60 V 1V;LH5). @>2V4=0 4VO;L=VABL  A?V;:C20==O B0 A?>3048. &5=B@0;L=>N ;0=:>N B5>@VW . @V:A>=0 T ?>;>65==O ?@> B5, I> ;N48=0 C A2>T<C @>728B:C ?@>E>48BL G5@57 45:V;L:0 C=V25@A0;L=8E 4;O 2AL>3> ;N4AB20 AB04V9. &V AB04VW T @57C;LB0B>< @>73>@B0==O ?;0=C >A>18AB>ABV. !B04VW CA?04:>2CNBLAO 35=5B8G=> V =0AB0NBL C 287=0G5=89 4;O :>6=>3> G0A. >6=0 AB04VO AC?@>2>46CTBLAO :@87>N  ?>2>@>B=8< <><5=B>< C 68BBV ;N48=8. . @V:A>= 284V;OT 2 G0AB8=8 ?5@V>4870FVW @>728B:C >A>18AB>ABV: - 4> 17  20 @>:V2; - 4>@>A;>3> 68BBO. # :>6=V9 G0AB8=V @>728B:C >A>18AB>ABV 2V41C20TBLAO D>@<C20==O 3>;>2=>3> =>2>CB2>@5==O  V45=B8G=>ABV >A>18AB>ABV. !B04VW ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C ;N48=8 284V;5=V . @V:A>=><, =02545=V C B01;8FV. !B04VO >728B:C0;C7L A>FV0;L=8E 2V4=>A8=>;O@=V O:>ABV >A>18AB>ABV 57C;LB0B ?@>3@5A82=>3> @>728B:C12341.5<>2;OB8 (0 - 1)0B8, 01> V=H0 >A>10>2V@0 4> A2VBC =54>2V@0 4> A2VBC=5@3VO V =04VO2. 0==T 48B8=AB2> (1 - 3)0BL:8!0<>ABV9=VABL  A>@><, AC<=V28570;56=VABL3.8B8=AB2> (3 - 6)0BL:8, 1@0B8, A5AB@8=VFV0B820  ?0A82=VABL, ?@>28=0&V;5A?@O<>20-=VABL4.(:V;L=89 2V: (6 - 12)(:>;0, ACAV48><?5B5=B=VABL  =5?>2=>FV==VABL2>;>4V==O 7=0==O<8 B0 C<V==O<85.V4;VB:>289 2V: B0 N=VABL (12 - 20)@C?8 >4=>;VB:V245=B8G=VABL >A>18AB>ABV - =5287=0==O!0<>287=0G5==O, 2V440=VABL V 2V@=VABL6. 0==O 7@V;VABL (20 - 25)@C7V, 70:>E0=V;87L:VABL - V7>;OFVO!?V2?@0FO, :>E0==O7.!5@54=V9 2V: (25 - 65)@>D5AVO, @V4=89 4V<@>4C:B82=VABL - 70ABV9"2>@GVABL V BC@1>B88.V7=O 7@V;VABL (?VA;O 65)N4AB2>, 1;87L:V&V;VA=VABL >A>18AB>ABV - 2V4G09C4@VABL # :>6=V9 O:>ABV >A>18AB>ABV <VAB8BLAO AB02;5==O 48B8=8 4> A2VBC V 4> A0<>W A515. &5 AB02;5==O <>65 1CB8 ?>78B82=8< (?@8 ?@>3@5A82=><C @>728B:C >A>18AB>ABV) V =530B82=8< (?@8 - @53@5A82=><C). 8B8=V 4>2>48BLAO 2818@0B8 >4=C 7 42>E ?>;O@=8E O:>AB59: 4>2V@C G8 =54>2V@C, V=VFV0B82C G8 ?0A82=VABL, V45=B8G=VABL G8 =5287=0==O. >;8 281V@ 74V9A=5=>, B> 70:@V?;NTBLAO 2V4?>2V4=0 O:VABL. 530B82=V O:>ABV (?@8 ?@>3@5A82=><C @>728B:C) VA=CNBL C ?@8E>20=><C AB0=V V <>6CBL 28O28B8AO ?V7=VH5, :>;8 4>@>A;0 ;N48=0 7CAB@VG0TBLAO 7 68BBT28<8 ?@>1;5<0<8. 3.4. A=>2=V ?V4E>48 4> B8?>;>3VW >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 AB>@VO ?A8E>;>3VW <0T 25;8:C :V;L:VABL ?V4E>4V2 4> B8?>;>3VW >A>18AB>AB59. "0:, 2V4><V A?@>18 ?>1C4C20B8 B8?>;>3VN >A>18AB>AB59 70 D>@<>N G5@5?0, >1;8GGO, :>=AB8BCFVW, A?@O<>20=>ABV ?A8EVG=>W 4VO;L=>ABV, <VAFO C A>FVC<V, 0:F5=BC0FVO<8 E0@0:B5@C, ;>:0;V70FVTN A>FV0;L=>3> :>=B@>;N, ?>G5@:><. #A5 F5 28:;8:0;> 4> 68BBO D@5=>;>3VN, DV7V>3=><V:C, 3@0D>;>3VN. 091V;LH ?>H8@5=V B0:V ?V4E>48 4> B8?>;>3VW >A>18AB>AB59 ;N48=8: :>=AB8BCFV9=89, 0:F5=BC0;L=89, A>FV0;L=89, ?A8E>;>3VG=89. >=AB8BCFV9=89 ?V4EV4 ?>2 O7CT B8?8 >A>18AB>ABV V7 7>2=VH=V< 283;O4><, :>=AB8BCFVTN BV;0. . @5G<5@ (1888  1964 @@.)  =V<5FL:89 ?A8EV0B@ V ?A8E>;>3 284V;82 V >?8A02 B@8 3>;>2=V B8?8 1C4>28 BV;0 ;N48=8 (:>=AB8BCFVW): 0AB5=VG=89, 0B;5B8G=89, ?V:=VG=89. >6=><C 7 =8E 2V= ?@8?8A02 ?52=V >A>18ABVA=V @8A8. AB5=VG=><C B8?C 2;0AB820 =525;8:0 B>2I8=0 BV;0 C ?@>DV;L. AB5=V:  F5, O: ?@028;>, EC40 V B>=:0 ;N48=0. # =5W B>=:0 H:V@0 >1;8GGO, 2C7L:V ?;5GV, B>=:V @C:8, 4>230 V ?;>A:0 3@C4=0 :;VB8=0 7 =54>@>728=5=>N <CA:C;0BC@>N V =54>AB0B=V<8 68@>28<8 =0:>?8G5==O<8. &5 2;0AB82> G>;>2V:0<. V=:8 FL>3> B8?C I5 9 =87L:>@>A;V. B;5B8G=><C B8?C 2;0AB82V A8;L=> @>728=5=89 A:5;5B V < O78. N48=0 A5@54=L>3> G8 28A>:>3> 7@>ABC 7 H8@>:8<8 ?;5G8<0, 4>1@5 @>728=5=>N 3@C4=>N :;VB:>N. # 0B;5B8:0 <VF=0 B0 28A>:0 3>;>20. 0 4C<:C . @5G<5@0, ;N4O< 0AB5=VG=>3> V 0B;5B8G=>3> B8?V2 2;0AB820 AE8;L=VABL 4> H87>D@5=VG=8E 70E2>@N20=L. >@<0;L=8E ;N459, O:V =0304CNBL H87>D@5=8:V2, . @5G<5@ =07202 H87>B8<=8< B8?><. (87>B8<V:0< 2;0AB82V B0:V @8A8, O: 0@8AB>:@0B8G=VABL V B>=:VABL ?>GCBBV2, AE8;L=VABL 4> 2V42>;V:0NG8E @>74C<V2, 2V4GC65=VABL, E>;>4=VABL, 53>WAB8G=VABL V 2;04=VABL, ACEVABL V 2V4ACB=VABL 5<>FV9. V:=VG=89 B8? 2V4@V7=OTBLAO A8;L=> @>728=5=8<8 2=CB@VH=V<8 >@30=0<8 (3@C48, 682VB). V:=V:8 AE8;L=V 4> >68@V==O ?@8 =54>AB0B=L><C @>728B:C < O7V2 B0 >?>@=> - @CE>2>3> 0?0@0B0. &5 ;N48 A5@54=L>3> 7@>ABC 7 :>@>B:>N H8TN. ;O ?V:=V:V2 2;0AB820 AE8;L=VABL 4> <0=V0:0;L=>-45?@5A82=>3> ?A8E>7C. "0:8E ;N459 . @5G<5@ =07202 F8:;>B8<=8< B8?><. &8:;>B8<V:8 - ;N48 25A5;V, 5=5@3V9=V, 3>2V@:V, 157BC@1>B=V, 704CH52=V, AE8;L=V 4> 3C<>@C V ;53:>3> A?@89<0==O 68BBO. A8E>;>3VO . @5G<5@0 ?>1C4>20=0 C<>3;O4=>. ;5 2>=0 @C=BC20;0AO =0 25;8:><C <0B5@V0;V 68BBT28E A?>AB5@565=L ?@0:B8G=>3> ?A8EV0B@0. &O B8?>;>3VO =5 7=09H;0 ?V4B25@465==O, 0;5 ?>@CH8;0 ?@>1;5<C 70;56=>ABV ?A8EV:8 ;N48=8 2V4 1C4>28 BV;0. &5 28:;8:0;> =>2V 4>A;V465==O. :F5=BC0;L=89 ?V4EV4 ?>2 O7CT B8?8 >A>18AB>ABV 7 0:F5=BC0FVO<8. V4 0:F5=BC0FVO<8 @>7C<VNBL :@09=V <56V @>728B:C @8A >A>18AB>ABV. &V <56V 7=0E>4OBLAO ?>@O4 7 ?A8E>?0BVO<8. :F5=BC0FVW @>73;O40NBL O: =04<V@=5 28O2;5==O >:@5<8E @8A >A>18AB>ABV. =0G=89 2=5A>: C 282G5==O 0:F5=BC0FV9 @8A E0@0:B5@C 7@>18;8 =V<5FL:89 ?A8EV0B@ . 5>=30@4 B0 @04O=AL:89 ?A8E>;>3 V ?A8EV0B@ .. VG:>. . 5>=30@4 284V;82 12 B8?V2 0:F5=BC0FV9 V B8?V2 >A>18AB>ABV, .. VG:>  11 B8?V2. >73;O=5<> B8?>;>3VN .. VG:0. V?5@B8<=89 B8?. @>2V4=>N >A>1;82VABN FL>3> B8?C T ?>ABV9=> ?V4=5A5=89 =0AB@V9, 28A>:89 68BBT289 B>=CA, 0:B82=VABL V ?V4?@8T<=8FB2>. "0:V ;N48 206:> ?V4:>@ONBLAO GC6V9 2>;V, 206:> ?5@5=>AOBL 48AF8?;V=0@=V 28<>38 B0 @53;0<5=B>20=89 A?>AV1 68BBO. > ?@028; V 70:>=V2 AB02;OBLAO ;53:>206=>. 53:> <>6CBL ?5@5ABC?8B8 <56C <V6 4>72>;5=8< V 701>@>=5=8<. A>1;82> 3>AB@> FV =54>;V:8 28O2;ONBLAO C ?V4;VB:>2><C 2VFV. &8:;>W4=89 B8?. >G0B>: AB0B52>3> 4>7@V20==O 28:;8:0T C ;N459 F8:;>W4=>3> B8?C ?5@HC AC145?@5A82=C D07C. 030;L=89 =0AB@V9 ?>=865=89, 2V4<VG0TBLAO 2 O;VABL, ?>=865=89 B>=CA, ?V428I5=0 @>74@0B>20=VABL B0 V=B@>25@B>20=VABL. !C145?@5A82=V D078 7<V=NNBLAO 3V?><0=V0:0;L=8<8. # =8E 28O2;ONBLAO ?V428I5=0 0:B82=VABL, 28A>:89 68BBT289 B>=CA, ;53:>206=VABL, BO30 4> 704>2>;5=L. !?>G0B:C 7<V=0 D07 ?V4=5A5==O V 7=865==O =0AB@>N 2V41C20TBLAO 4>A8BL G0AB>, 0;5 ?>ABC?>2> 71V;LHCTBLAO B@820;VABL ?5@V>4V2. 01V;L=89 B8?. !CBBT2>N >A>1;82VABN ;N459 ;01V;L=>3> B8?C T =04728G09=0 7<V=N20=VABL =0AB@>N. 02VBL ?>4VW =02:>;8H=L>3> 68BBO 2?;820NBL =0 ;N459 ;01V;L=>3> B8?C ACBBT2>. 09<5=H0 =5?@8T<=VABL <>65 28:;8:0B8 E2>@>1;82V ?5@56820==O, ?@8T<=V ?>4VW, 01> =02?0:8, WE ?5@A?5:B828 <>6CBL ?V4=OB8 =0AB@V9. V4 =0O2=>3> =0AB@>N 70;568BL 2A5: A0<>?>GCBBO, ?@0FL>28BVABL, ?;0=8 =0 <091CB=T, AB>AC=:8 7 >B>GCNG8<8 ;N4L<8. AB5=>-=52@>B8G=89 B8?. &59 B8? E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO @0==V< 28O2;5==O< @V7=><0=VB=8E >7=0: ?A8E>?0BVW: :0?@87=VABL, E2>@>1;82VABL, AB@0E8, 70W:0==O, 5=C@57 V B. V=. @>2V4=8<8 >7=0:0<8, >A>1;82> C ?V4;VB:>2><C 2VFV, T 0AB5=VO, ?V428I5=0 2B><;N20=VABL. N48 FL>3> B8?C 206:> ?5@5=>AOBL =020=B065==O V =0?@C65==O. C65 G0AB> 2>=8 :>=F5=B@CNBL A2>N C203C =0 AB0=V 74>@>2 O. !5=78B82=89 B8?. @>2V4=V @8A8 4;O ;N459 A5=78B82=>3> B8?C - F5 ?V428I5=0 2@07;82VABL V ?>GCBBO =5?>2=>FV==>ABV. # 48B8=AB2V F5 28O2;OTBLAO C @V7=><0=VB=8E AB@0E0E. VB8 1>OBLAO B5<@O28, B20@8=, A0<>B=>ABV V B. V=. # 48B8=AB2V A5=78B82=V ;N48 C=8:0NBL :><?0=V9 0:B82=8E V =0?>;53;828E. # =8E 28O2;ONBLAO B0:V @8A8, O: A:>20=VABL, 1>O7;82VABL, AB@0E ?5@54 @V7=><0=VB=8<8 28?@>1C20==O<8 B0 ?5@52V@:0<8. A8E0AB5=VG=89 B8?. ;O ;N459 ?A8E0AB5=V:V2 2;0AB82V: ?V428I5=0 B@82>6=VABL, ?V4>7@V;VABL, AE8;L=VABL 4> AC<=V2V2. A8E0AB5=V:0< 206:> ?@89=OB8 @VH5==O, B><C 2>=8 4C65 @5B5;L=> ?;0=CNBL A2>N ?>254V=:C, ?5@52V@ONBL :>65= :@>:, 1030B>:@0B=> V ?@8A:V?;82> ?5@52V@ONBL 7025@H5=C @>1>BC. (87>W4=89 B8?. # ?V4;VB:>2><C 2VFV >A>1;82> 703>AB@NNBLAO 2AV H87>W4=V @8A8 >A>18AB>ABV. A>1;82> ?><VB=8<8 AB0NBL 70<:=5=VABL, 2V4AB>@>=5=VABL, 4CE>2=5 CA0<VB=5==O, A2>T@V4=89 V =5728G=89 281V@ 70=OBL V @>7203. ?V;5?B>W4=89 B8?. @>2V4=>N >A>1;82VABN ;N459 5?V;5?B>W4=>3> B8?C T AE8;L=VABL 4> 28=8:=5==O ?5@V>4V2 7;VA=>-BC6;82>3> =0AB@>N. &59 =0AB@V9 G0AB> 28:;8:0T =0?@C65=VABL 0D5:BC, =5AB@8<=C 03@5A82=VABL, 70?0;L=VABL. =0G=8< =0?@C65==O< E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO AD5@0 70E>?;5=L. #AV 70E>?;5==O 28O2;ONBLAO 7 =04<V@=>N V=B5=A82=VABN V A8;>N. 04>2>;5==O 70E>?;5=L 74V9A=NNBLAO 206:> V AC?@>2>46CNBLAO @V7=><0=VB=8<8 7VB:=5==O<8. AB5@>W4=89 B8?. N48 VAB5@>W4=>3> B8?C 28O2;ONBLAO O: 157<56=V 53>WAB8 V 604V1=> ?@03=CBL 4> 287=0==O. A>18 FL>3> B8?C =04728G09=> GCB;82V 4> @50:FV9 V=H8E ;N459, ;53:> ?5@52BV;NNBLAO, 2E>4OBL C 1C4L - O:C @>;L, =0<030NBLAO 70 1C4L - O:C FV=C 4>18B8AO C2038, 70E>?;5==O, 7482C20==O, A?V2GCBBO V =02VBL =5=028ABV. >=8 =5 ?5@5=>AOBL >4=>3>  1094C6>ABV 4> A2>TW ?5@A>=8. 5ABV9:89 B8?. N48 =5ABV9:>3> B8?C 1572V;L=V, 01> A;01>2V;L=V, ?V440NBLAO =02VN20==N, 2?;82C V=H8E ;N459, >A>1;82> =530B82=><C. 0;56=V 9 1572V;L=V, =5 <0NBL 2;0A=8E ?>78B82=8E FV;59. G8=:8 B0:8E ;N459 287=0G0NBLAO 28?04:>28<8 7>2=VH=V<8 >1AB028=0<8. >=8 G0AB> ?>B@0?;ONBL 4> AC<=V2=8E :><?0=V9, ?>:840NBL =02G0==O V @>1>BC. C65 G0AB> >1 T4=CNBLAO 7 ?@02>?>@CH=8:0<8, G0AB> 26820NBL 0;:>3>;L, =0@:>B8:8, AB0NBL 452V0=B0<8 V =02VBL 45;V=:25=B0<8. >=D>@<=89 B8?. @>2V4=>N @8A>N ;N459 FL>3> B8?C T ?>ABV9=0 V ABV9:0 >@VT=B0FVO =0 =>@<8 V FV==>ABV =091;86G>3> >B>G5==O. A>18 :>=D>@<=>3> B8?C ?>2=VABN ?V4:>@ONBLAO B8A:C A5@54>28I0, =5 <0NBL 2;0A=8E 4C<>:, V=B5@5AV2, ?>3;O4V2. >=8 206:> A?@89<0NBL =>25 V =5728G09=5, =530B82=> AB02;OBLAO 4> 1C4L - O:8E 7<V= C 68BBV. !>FV0;L=89 ?V4EV4 4> B8?>;>3VW >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 2V4>1@060T AB02;5==O 4> 68BBO, ACA?V;LAB20, <>@0;L=8E FV==>AB59. >7@>182 F59 ?V4EV4 . $@><< (1900  1980 @@.)  0<5@8:0=AL:89 ?A8E>;>3. V= 284V;82 B0:V B8?8 >A>18AB>ABV: A048AB, <07>EVAB, @C9=V2=8:, :>=D>@<VAB - 02B><0B. !048AB AE8;L=89 10G8B8 ?@8G8=8 A2>WE CA?VEV2 V =5240G, A>FV0;L=8E ?>4V9 C ;N4OE. V= =0<030TBLAO CAC=CB8 ?@8G8=8 =5240G V A?@O<>2CT A2>N 03@5AVN =0 ;N48=C, O:0 740TBLAO 9><C ?@8G8=>N =5240G. !048AB 1030B> 709<0TBLAO A0<>>A2VB>N V A0<>24>A:>=0;5==O<. @V< B>3>, =0<030TBLAO ?5@5@>18B8 V=H8E ;N459 =0 :@0I8E. !2>W<8 =0?>;53;828<8 4VO<8, =04<V@=8<8 28<>30<8 4> A515 V 4> V=H8E, =04<V@=8<8 4><030==O<8 A048AB 4>2>48BL >B>GCNG8E V A515 (0 F5 <07>EV7<) 4> 7=5A8;5==O. A>1;82> =5157?5G=0 B0:0 ;N48=0 B>4V, :>;8 >45@6CT 2;04C. >G8=0TBLAO B5@>@ V7 4>1@8E =0<V@V2. !048ABAL:V B5=45=FVW 28O2;ONBLAO C ?@03=5==V AB028B8 ;N459 C 70;56=VABL 2V4 A515, 4> =5>1<565=>W V ?>2=>W 2;048 =04 =8<8, 70240B8 W< 1>;V V AB@0640==O, =0A>;>46C20B8AO AB@0640==O<8 V=H8E. "0:89 B8? ;N459 =07820NBL 02B>@8B0@=>N >A>18ABVABN. . $@><< ?>:0702, I> B0:8< ;N4O< 2;0AB8289 45A?>B87<. 07>EVAB 28O2;OTBLAO C B5=45=FVW ?@8=865==O V >A;01;5==O A515, =0A>;>465==O A0<>:@8B8:>N. 07>EVAB8 ?@8?8ACNBL A>1V =5>1@C=B>20=V 728=C20G5==O, 2 CAL><C =0<030NBLAO 27OB8 ?@>28=C =0 A515. # <07>EVABV2 702648 T A048ABAL:V B5=45=FVW. >=8 28O2;ONBLAO C ?@03=5==V AB028B8 ;N459 C 70;56=VABL 2V4 A515, =01C20B8 ?>2=>W V 157<56=>W 2;048 =04 =8<8, 5:A?;C0BC20B8 WE. A:V;L:8 A048ABAL:V B5=45=FVW ?>2 O70=V 7 28<>30<8 =5 BV;L:8 4> V=H8E ;N459, 0;5 V 4> A515, B> V A048AB V <07>EVAB =5 VA=CNBL A0<>ABV9=>, 0 C T4=>ABV. "><C C . $@><<0 2>=8 >1 T4=CNBLAO C A048ABAL:> - <07>EVABAL:89 B8?. C9=V2=8:. ;O =L>3> 2;0AB82V 03@5A82=VABL V 0:B82=5 ?@03=5==O 4> 7=8I5==O >1 T:B0, I> 28:;8:0T D@CAB@0FVN. /:I> F5 ;N48=0, B> @C9=V2=8: =0<030TBLAO 7@C9=C20B8 =04VW FVTW ;N48=8. > @C9=C20==O O: 70A>1C 28@VH5==O A2>WE 68BBT28E ?@>1;5< 725@B0NBLAO BV ;N48, O:V 2V4GC20NBL B@82>3C V 157A8;;O, >1<565=V C @50;V70FVW V=B5;5:BC0;L=8E V 5<>FV9=8E <>6;82>AB59. # ?5@V>48 A>FV0;L=8E ?>B@OAV=L @C9=V2=8:8 T BVTN A8;>N, I> @C9=CT AB0@5, C B><C G8A;V 9 :C;LBC@C. >=D>@<VAB - 02B><0B. "0:V ;N48 ?@8 7CAB@VGV 7 206:8<8 A>FV0;L=8<8 V 2;0A=8<8 68BBT28<8 ?@>1;5<0<8 ?5@5AB0NBL 1CB8 A0<8<8 A>1>N. >=8, 157C<>2=>, ?V4:>@ONBLAO >1AB028=0<, ACA?V;LAB2C 1C4L - O:>3> B8?C, 28<>30< A>FV0;L=>W 3@C?8. # B0:8E ;N459 =5<0T 2;0A=>W 4C<:8, GVB:>W A>FV0;L=>W ?>78FVW, V459, FV;59, ?5@5:>=0=L. &5 B8? ;N459 A2V4><>3> G8 =5A2V4><>3> ?@8AB>AC20==O. A8E>;>3VG=89 ?V4EV4 B8?>;>3VW >A>18AB>ABV ?5@5410G0T 2@0EC20==O A?@O<>20=>ABV ?A8EVG=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. 0A=>2=8: FL>3> ?V4E>4C H259F0@AL:89 ?A8EV0B@ V ?A8E>;>3 .. .=3 (1875  1961 @@.). V= 284V;82 420 =0?@O<:8 A?@O<>20=>ABV ?A8EVG=>W 4VO;L=>ABV V 2V4?>2V4=> 420 B8?8 ;N459: 5:AB@025@AVN B0 V=B@>25@AVN. :AB@025@AVO (2V4 ;0B. 5xtra  7>2=V, versio  ?>25@B0N)  F5 725@=5=VABL ?A8EVG=>W 4VO;L=>ABV =0 7>2=VH=V9 A2VB. :AB@025@B0 70E>?;NNBL ?>4VW 7>2=VH=L>3> A2VBC, ?@8BO3CNBL 9>3> V=B5@5A8. ><C 2;0AB82V V<?C;LA82=VABL, V=VFV0B82=VABL, 3=CG:VABL ?>254V=:8, B>20@8AL:VABL, A>FV0;L=0 040?B>20=VABL. =B@>25@AVO (2V4 ;0B. Vntro  4> A5@548=8) - F5 >@VT=B0FVO ?A8EVG=>W 4VO;L=>ABV =0 O28I0 2;0A=>3> 2=CB@VH=L>3> A2VBC. &5 28:;8:0T B0:V O:>ABV V=B@>25@BV2, O: A>FV0;L=0 ?0A82=VABL, =57=0G=0 B>20@8AL:VABL, 70<:=5=VABL, AE8;L=VABL 4> A0<>0=0;V7C, B@C4=>IV C A>FV0;L=V9 040?B0FVW. # :>6=V9 ;N48=V >4=>G0A=> ?>T4=CNBLAO V V=B@>25@B V 5:AB@025@B. V25=L WE 28@065=>ABV @V7=89. @V< B>3>, .. .=3 284V;82 G>B8@8 20@V0=B8 ?5@5@>1:8 V=D>@<0FVW: <8A;8B5;L=89, ?>GCBBT289, 2V4GCBBT289, V=BCWB82=89. 5@52060==O >4=>3> 7 =8E =040T =5?>2B>@=>W A2>T@V4=>ABV 5:AB@025@B0< B0 V=B@>25@B0<. "0:8< G8=><, . . .=3 284V;82 8 B8?V2 >A>18AB>ABV. :AB@025@B <8A;8B5;L=89. !C:C?=VABL 68BBT28E ?@>O2V2 70;568BL 2V4 V=B5;5:BC0;L=8E 28A=>2:V2, 0 AC465==O 282>4OBLAO V7 7>2=VH=VE C<>2 (B@048FVW, >A2VB0). A8EV:0 A?@O<>20=0 C 7>2=VH=T A5@54>28I5. :AB@025@B8 - <8A;8B5;V AB0NBL 45@602=8<8 4VOG0<8, 2G5=8<8, N@8AB0<8. :AB@025@B ?>GCBBT289. >GCBBO B0:8E ;N459 C73>46CNBLAO V7 7030;L=>287=0=8<8 >FV=:0<8 V =>@<0<8. 5@56820==O >1C<>2;NNBLAO A8;L=8< 2?;82>< B@048FV9=8E FV==>AB59. :AB@025@B 2V4GCBBT289. N459 FL>3> B8?C 70E>?;NNBL >1 T:B8 7>2=VH=L>3> A2VBC. &5 ;N48 G8 A8BC0FVW, I> 28:;8:0NBL A8;L=V 2V4GCBBO. /: =0A;V4>:, 28=8:0T A8;L=89 A5=A>@=89 72'O7>: V7 7>2=VH=V< A2VB><. N48 >@VT=BCNBLAO =0 :>=:@5B=5 =0A>;>465==O @50;L=8< 68BBO< V 68BBO< =0 ?>2=C :>BCH:C. AV1 FL>3> B8?C <>6=0 7CAB@VB8 A5@54 @540:B>@V2, 0B;5BV2, 1V7=5A<5=V2. :AB@025@B V=BCWB82=89. V= A?@><>6=89 A?@89<0B8 C 7>2=VH=L><C A2VBV B5, I> 2V41C20TBLAO 70 AF5=>N ?>4V9. V= <>65 ?V7=020B8 B5, I> ?@8E>20=> 70 <0A:>N ;N48=8, 10G8B8 ?@8E>20=V =>2V <>6;82>ABV. "0:0 ;N48=0 <0T =54>AB0B=V <>6;82>ABV 4;O AC465=L V @V4:> @50;V7CT WE A0<0. :AB@025@B V=BCWB82=89 4C65 G0AB> ?>G8=0T 1C4L - O:C A?@02C 7 =C;O V 70;8H0T WW =0 ?>@>7V CA?VEC, 0 B><C 2@>609 718@0NBL V=HV. =B@>25@B <8A;8B5;L=89. N48 FL>3> B8?C 70FV:02;5=V C @>7C<V==V 2;0A=8E V459. >=8 @>7AC4;82V, @>7<V@:>2CNBL =04 DV;>A>DAL:8<8 ?@>1;5<0<8 1CBBO, HC:0NBL A5=A 2;0A=>3> 68BBO. E ?A8EVG=0 0:B82=VABL A?@O<>20=0 C A2V9 2=CB@VH=V9 A2VB, 0 B><C 2>=8 B@8<0NBLAO =0 2V440;V 2V4 V=H8E ;N459, <0;>B>20@8AL:V. =B@>25@B ?>GCBBT289. &59 B8? ;N459 ?>2=VABN ?5@51C20T ?V4 2;04>N AC1 T:B82=> >@VT=B>20=>3> ?>GCBBO. >=8 =5 4>A;CE>2CNBLAO 4> D0:BV2, ;>3V:8 ?>4V9. 5 =0<030NBLAO 28O28B8 A515. E ?>GCBBO 3;81>:V, G0AB> V@@0FV>=0;L=V. >=8 C=8:0NBL 25GV@>: V 71>@V2, <>2G07=V, 206:>4>ABC?=V. =B@>25@B 2V4GCBBT289. >=8 :5@CNBLAO C A2>T<C 68BBV B8<, I> T, I> GCTBLAO, 10G8BLAO, 2V41C20TBLAO. >3VG=V ?>1C4>28 4;O =8E 7=0G5==O =5 <0NBL. =CB@VH=V @50:FVW =0 7>2=VH=V 2?;828 4C65 3;81>:V, 0;5 7>2=VH=O @50:FVO 28=8:0T V7 70B@8<:>N. @> B0:8E ;N459 :06CBL, I>, O:I> 2>=8 ?>GCNBL 60@B 2@0=FV, B> A<VOB8AO 1C4CBL 225G5@V. =B@>25@B V=BCWB82=89. N48 FL>3> B8?C E0@0:B5@87CNBLAO V=BCWB82=8< ?@>=8:=5==O< C <091CB=T. =BCWFVO A?@O<>20=0 =5 =0 >1 T:B82=C @50;L=VABL, 0 =0 A2V9 2;0A=89 ?A8EVG=89, AC1 T:B82=89 A2VB. "0:V ;N48 T H0<0=0<8, ?@>@>:0<8, ?>5B0<8, EC4>6=8:0<8. C;> 1 ?><8;:>N 22060B8 VA=C20==O B8?V2 C G8AB><C 283;O4V. # :>6=V9 ;N48=V <>6CBL 1CB8 ?@54AB02;5=V :V;L:0 B8?V2 C @V7=8E A?V22V4=>H5==OE. >;>2=5 7=0B8 A2>W >A>1;82>ABV V, A?8@0NG8AL =0 :@0IV O:>ABV, ?>A;01;N20B8 =530B82=V, =51060=V. 0?8B0==O 4;O A0<>:>=B@>;N !CB=VABL ?>=OBBO >A>18ABVABL. N48=0 B0 V=482V4  28EV4=V ?>=OBBO 4;O @>7C<V==O >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8. /:V 2V4=>A8=8 <0T ?@82;0A=8B8 V=482V4, I>1 AB0B8 >A>18ABVABN? '><C <>6=0 AB25@46C20B8, I> ;N48=0 A0<0 A515 D>@<CT O: >A>18ABVABL? # G><C ?>;O30T VAB>@8G=89 E0@0:B5@ >A>18AB>ABV? A>18ABVABL V V=482V4C0;L=VABL. E ACB=VABL. @54<5B=89 V A>FV0;L=89 A2VB 68BBO ;N48=8. V>;>3VG=5 V A>FV0;L=5 C AB@C:BC@V >A>18AB>ABV. 072VBL ?V4AB@C:BC@8 >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 70 .. ;0B>=>28<. /: 28=8:0T CAB0=>2:0 =0 CA?VH=VABL 4VO;L=>ABV. !B@C:BC@0 >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 70 ..5B@>2AL:8<. @82;0A=5==O ACA?V;L=> - VAB>@8G=>3> 4>A2V4C V @>728B>: >A>18AB>ABV. !CB=VABL ;VB8G=8E B0 :@8B8G=8E ?5@V>4V2 @>728B:C. A>1;82>ABV :@8B8G=8E ?5@V>4V2 @>728B:C 70 .!. 83>BAL:8<. !CB=VABL 4VO;L=VA=>3> ?V4E>4C 4> ?5@V>4870FVW ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C (70 .. ;L:>=V=8<). 2V 3@C?8 ?@>2V4=8E B8?V2 4VO;L=>ABV (70 .. ;L:>=V=8<). V:>2V ?5@V>48 B0 2V4?>2V4=V W< ?@>2V4=V B8?8 4VO;L=>ABV. 5@V>4870FVO 4>@>A;>3> 68BBO (70 .$. >@3C=><). A>1;82>ABV ?5@V>4870FVW ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C . @V:A>=0. >=AB8BCFV9=89 ?V4EV4 4> B8?>;>3VW >A>18AB>AB59 ;N48=8. :F5=BC0;L=89 ?V4EV4 4> B8?>;>3VW >A>18AB>AB59 ;N48=8. !>FV0;L=89 ?V4EV4 4> B8?>;>3VW >A>18AB>AB59 ;N48=8. A8E>;>3VG=89 ?V4EV4 4> B8?>;>3VW >A>18AB>AB59 ;N48=8. @0:B8G=5 70=OBBO A>18ABVABL C ?A8E>;>3VW >=OBBO ?@> >A>18ABVABL C ?A8E>;>3VW. ?;82 :C;LBC@=> - VAB>@8G=8E D0:B>@V2 =0 D>@<C20==O >A>18AB>ABV. !B@C:BC@0 >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8. >728B>: >A>18AB>ABV 2 >=B>35=57V. V4E>48 4> B8?>;>3VW >A>18AB>ABV. V>;>3VG=5 B0 A>FV0;L=5 C ;N48=V. @07>: B5ABC 4;O :>=B@>;N 7=0=L A>18ABVABL ;N48=8 282G0NBL =0C:8: DV;>A>DVO; A>FV>;>3VO; ?A8E>;>3VO; ?5403>3V:0; ?A8EV0B@VO. 2. ;O AB0=>2;5==O >A>18AB>ABV V=482V4 <0T 70A2>WB8 B0:V 2V4=>A8=8 ACA?V;LAB20: 5:>=><VG=V, ?>;VB8G=V, 4V;>2V; 5:>=><VG=V, ?>;VB8G=V, V45>;>3VG=V; 5:>=><VG=V, :C;LBC@=V, ?>;VB8G=V; 5:>=><VG=V, 4V;>2V, @5;V3V9=V; @5;V3V9=V, :C;LBC@=V, 4CE>2=V. 3. V;L:VA=V B0 O:VA=V 7<V=8 C ;N48=8  F5: 0) @VAB; 1) 4>7@V20==O; 2) =02G0==O; 3) @>728B>:; 4) 28E>20==O. 4. !>FV0;L=V B8?8 4VO;L=>ABV 70157?5GCNBL 70A2>T==O A?>A>1V2 4V9: 7 2;0A=8<8 >@30=0<8 BV;0; C A>FV0;L=><C A5@54>28IV; 7 ?@54<5B0<8 <0B5@V0;L=>W B0 4CE>2=>W :C;LBC@8; 7 =0C:>28<8 ?>=OBBO<8; 7 2;0A=8< V=B5;5:B><. 5. V4>1@065==O ;N48=>N A0<>W A515, A2>3> AB02;5==O 4> >1 T:B82=>W 4V9A=>ABV V A0<>W A515, ?>2 O70=>W 7 <>2>N, =07820TBLAO: A2V4><VABN; A0<>A2V4><VABN; =04A2V4><VABN; ?V4A2V4><VABN; ?5@54A2V4><VABN. !?8A>: ;VB5@0BC@8: 030;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO: ?V4@CG=8: /70 7030;L=>N @540:FVTN 0:045<V:0 !.. 0:A8<5=:0.  V==8FO: >20 :=830, 2004.  704 A. 0:;0:>2 .. 1I0O ?A8E>;>38O.  !1.: 8B5@, 2002.  592 A. 0:A8<5=:> !.. 5=3570 74V9A=5==O >A>18AB>ABV.-.: 84-2> "   , 2006.- 240A. 0:A8<5=:> !.. A8E>;>3VO >A>18AB>ABV / !. 0:A8<5=:>, .!. 0:A8<5=:>, . 0?CG0. -.: 84-2> "   , 2007.  296A.  OA>W4 .. 030;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO. .: 8I0 H:>;0, 2000.- 480 A. A8E>;>3VO / 70 @54. ... "@>DV<>20.  .: 81V4L, 2001.  560 A. !B>;O@5=:> .. A=>2K ?A8E>;>388.  >AB>2 =/.: $5=8:A, 2003.  672 A. (03@0520 .. 5BA:0O ?A8E>;>38O.  .: !, 2001. - 368 A. ><0=>2AL:0 .. 8D5@5=FV9=0 ?A8E>;>3VO/ .. ><0=>2AL:0, .. >4:>@8B>20  L2V2: >289 A2VB  2000, 2008.  236 A. 10. -;L:>=8= .. 71@0==K5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 B@C4K.  .: 5403>38:0, 1989. -560A. 4. "5>@VW >A>18AB>ABV C ?A8E>;>3VW 4.1. A>18ABVABL O: 1030B>28<V@=0 A8AB5<0. 4.2. VE52V>@0;L=89 ?V4EV4 4> 282G5==O >A>18AB>ABV. VE52V>@87< B0 =5>1VE52V>@87<. ?5@0=B=89 1VE52V>@87< . !:V=5@0. 4.3. A8E>48=0<VG=0 B5>@VO >A>18AB>ABV . $@5940 (D@59487<). 4.4. =0;VB8G=0 ?A8E>;>3VO .. .=30. 4.5. =482V4C0;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO . 4;5@0. 4.6. C<0=VAB8G=0 ?A8E>;>3VO. 4.7. "@0=A?5@A>=0;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO !B0=VA;020 @>D0. 4.1 A>18ABVABL O: 1030B>28<V@=0 A8AB5<0 A>18ABVABL  1030B>28<V@=0, 1030B>@V2=520 A8AB5<0 ?A8E>;>3VG=8E E0@0:B5@8AB8:, I> 70157?5GCNBL V=482V4C0;L=C A2>T@V4=VABL, A8BC0B82=C ABV9:VABL >A>18AB>ABV. #AV ?A8EVG=V ?@>F5A8, AB0=8 B0 2;0AB82>ABV <0NBL @>73;O40B8AO O: ?@>O2 FV;VA=>W, A0<>1CB=L>W, =5?>2B>@=>W >A>18AB>ABV. # %% AB>;VBBV C <560E 2;0A=5 ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> ?V4E>4C 4> 282G5==O >A>18AB>ABV 28=8:0T 1;87L:> ? OB845AOB8 @V7=8E B5>@V9, I> >?8ACNBL >A>18ABVABL. "5>@VO >A>18AB>ABV  F5 AC:C?=VABL 3V?>B57 01> ?@8?CI5=L ?@> ?@8@>4C B0 <5E0=V7<8 @>728B:C >A>18AB>ABV. A=CT 1030B> WE :;0A8DV:0FV9, 7>:@5<0: 1) 70 A?>A>1>< ?>OA=5==O ?>254V=:8 284V;ONBL: - ?A8E>48=0<VG=V B5>@VW: >?8ACNBL >A>18ABVABL B0 ?>OA=NNBL WW ?>254V=:C, 28E>4OG8 7 ?A8E>;>3VG=8E B0 2=CB@VH=VE E0@0:B5@8AB8:; - A>FV>48=0<VG=V B5>@VW: 3>;>2=C @>;L C 45B5@<V=0FVW ?>254V=:8 ;N48=8 2V42>4OBL 7>2=VH=V< D0:B>@0<, :C;LBC@V, A>FVC<C, B@048FVO< V B.V=.; - V=B5@0:FV>=VABAL:V B5>@VW: I> 3@C=BCNBLAO =0 ?@8=F8?V 270T<>4VW 7>2=VH=VE B0 2=CB@VH=VE D0:B>@V2 2 C?@02;V==V ?>254V=:>N ;N48=8. 2) 70 A?>A>1>< >45@60==O 40=8E ?@> >A>18ABVABL 284V;ONBL: - 5:A?5@8<5=B0;L=V B5>@VW: ?>1C4>20=V =0 0=0;V7V B0 C7030;L=5==V 40=8E, I> 7V1@0=V ?@8 ?@>2545==V 4>A;V4V2; - =55:A?5@8<5=B0;L=V B5>@VW: C7030;L=5==O @C=BCNBLAO =0 7>2=VH=VE 2@065==OE, A?>AB5@565==V B0 4>A2V4V. 3) 2V4?>2V4=> 4> ?>3;O4C =0 >A>18ABVABL O: =0 AB@C:BC@=5 G8 48=0<VG=5 CB2>@5==O @>7@V7=ONBL: - AB@C:BC@=V B5>@VW: 3>;>2=8< T 7 OAC20==O AB@C:BC@8 >A>18AB>ABV B0 A8AB5<8 ?>=OBL, 70 4>?><>3>N O:8E 2>=0 <0T >?8AC20B8AO; - 48=0<VG=V B5>@VW: F5=B@>< WE C2038 T @>728B>: >A>18AB>ABV, 4V03=>AB8:0 WW 2;0AB82>AB59 B0 D>@<C20==O. # ACG0A=V9 ?A8E>;>3VW VA=CT AV< >A=>2=8E ?V4E>4V2 4> 282G5==O >A>18AB>ABV. &5: ?A8E>48=0<VG=89 (. $@594); 0=0;VB8G=89 (.. .=3); 3C<0=VAB8G=89 (. >465@A, . 0A;>C); :>3=VB82=89 (6. 5;;V); ?>254V=:>289 (6.#>BA>=); 4VO;L=VA=89 (.. 5>=BLT2); 48A?>78FV9=89 (. ;;?>@B). >65= ?V4EV4 <0T A2>N B5>@VN, A2>W CO2;5==O ?@> 2;0AB82>ABV B0 AB@C:BC@C >A>18AB>ABV, A2>W <5B>48 WE 4V03=>AB8:8. >6=0 B5>@VO >A>18AB>ABV ?>OA=NT B0 =0<030TBLAO ?5@5410G8B8 ?>254V=:C ;N48=8. >73;O4 B0 0=0;V7 @V7=8E :>=F5?FV9 B0 ?>3;O4V2 =0 >A>18ABVABL ?@54AB02=8:V2 @V7=8E H:V; B0 =0?@O<:V2 ?A8E>;>3VW 4>72>;8BL 1V;LH 3;81>:> @>7:@8B8 ACB=VABL B0 7<VAB >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8. 4.2 VE52V>@0;L=89 ?V4EV4 4> 282G5==O >A>18AB>ABV. VE52V>@87< B0 =5>1VE52V>@87<. ?5@0=B=89 1VE52V>@87< . !:V=5@0 VE52V>@87< (2V4 0=3;. behavior - ?>254V=:0) 28=8: C @0<:0E ?>254V=:>2>3> =0?@O<C C ?A8E>;>3VW. )5 >4=0 =0720 FVTW B5>@VW  B5>@VO =0CGV==O. A=>2>?>;>6=8:>< 1VE52V>@87<C T 0<5@8:0=AL:89 2G5=89 6>= . #>BA>= (1878 -1990@@.). V= :@8B8:C202 ?A8E>;>3VN 70 AC1 T:B82V7< V ?@0:B8G=C 157:>@8A=VABL, 70?5@5GC202 A2V4><VABL O: ?@54<5B =0C:>2>3> 4>A;V465==O. @54<5B>< 1VE52V>@87<C 2V= >3>;>A82 ?>254V=:C. 5B0 WW 282G5==O  ?@0:B8G=5 28:>@8AB0==O. . #>BA>= ?>1C4C202 A2>N ?A8E>;>3VG=C B5>@VN =0 ?V4@C=BV 2G5==O .. 02;>20 ?@> C<>2=V @5D;5:A8. 07CNG8AL =0 =L><C, 2G5=89 AB25@46C202, I> >A>18ABVABL T AC:C?=VABN ?>254V=:>28E @50:FV9 V, B0:8< G8=><, T ?@54<5B>< =0CGV==O. "0 G8 V=H0 ?>254V=:>20 @50:FVO 28=8:0T =0 ?52=89 AB8<C; G8 A8BC0FVN. &59 ?@>F5A 1VE52V>@8AB8 >?8AC20;8 B0:>N D>@<C;>N: S R, 45 S  AB8<C;; R - @50:FVO. "0:8< G8=><, 2AV 2848 ?>254V=:8 - F5 =028G:8, =01CBV C ?@>F5AV 5D5:B82=>3> ?>2B>@5==O 45O:8E 4V9 C 2V4?>2V4L =0 7>2=VH=V G8 2=CB@VH=V ?>4@07=8:8. 02545=0 D>@<C;0 ?>OA=NT ?@8AB>AC20==O >@30=V7<C 4> C<>2 7>2=VH=L>3> A5@54>28I0. @8AB>AC20==O  F5 @>1>B0 < O7V2, 70;>7 V B. V=. C 2V4?>2V4L =0 AB8<C;. >254V=:0, B0:8< G8=><, B@0:BCTBLAO 4C65 H8@>:> (AC48==V @50:FVW, A:>@>G5==O < O7V2, 284V;5==O A5:@5BC 70;>70<8) V @07>< 7 B8< 4>A8BL 2C7L:>, 1> =5 2@0E>2CT =87:C @50:FV9 DV7V>;>3VG=>3> B0 ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> E0@0:B5@C, I> =5 A?>AB5@V30NBLAO. "><C B5>@VN . #>BA>=0 22060NBL <5E0=VAB8G=>N. B65, 1VE52V>@8AB8 70?5@5GC20;8 35=5B8G=C G8 ?A8E>;>3VG=C A?04:>2VABL. >;>2=5 465@5;> @>728B:C >A>18AB>ABV 210G0;8 2 =02:>;8H=V9 4V9A=>ABV (A5@54>28IV). 2060;8, I> >A>18ABVABL D>@<CTBLAO V @>72820TBLAO ?@>BO3>< CAL>3> 68BBO C ?@>F5AV A>FV0;V70FVW, 28E>20==O V =02G0==O, 0;5 @0==V @>:8  =091V;LH 206;82V. V4@C=BO< CAVE 7=0=L T 74V1=>ABV, I> 70:;040NBLAO C 48B8=AB2V. 0FV>=0;L=V B0 V@@0FV>=0;L=V ?@>F5A8 ?>40=V >4=0:>2>N <V@>N, 2A5 70;568BL 2V4 B8?C V A:;04=>ABV ?>254V=:8. # ;N48=8 <0965 ?>2=VABN 2V4ACB=O A2>1>40 2>;V, WW ?>254V=:0 45B5@<V=>20=0 7>2=VH=V<8 >1AB028=0<8, ?>40=0 - 02B><0B87>20=8<8 A>FV0;L=8<8 =028G:0<8 V @5D;5:A0<8. 0 4C<:C 1VE52V>@8ABV2, =0 70<>2;5==O <>6=0 AD>@<C20B8 1C4L - O:89 B8? >A>18AB>ABV (2G5=>3>, ?>5B0, 10=48B0, ) 1> =02VBL 2AV 5<>FV9=V 2;0AB82>ABV >A>18AB>ABV  @57C;LB0B 28@>1;5==O :;0A8G=8E C<>2=8E @5D;5:AV2. 2V4A8 =028G:8 V =0CGV==O A:;040NBL ?@>2V4=C ?@>1;5<C 1VE52V>@87<C. 028G:0  F5 V=482V4C0;L=> =01CB0 4VO. . #>BA>= >?8AC202 ?@>F5A D>@<C20==O =028G>:, ?>1C4C202 :@82C, I> 2V4>1@060T 70;56=VABL D>@<C20==O =028G>: 2V4 :V;L:>ABV 2?@02. !?>G0B:C D>@<C20==O =028G>: 2V41C20TBLAO H284:8<8 B5<?0<8, 40;V C?>2V;L=NTBLAO, V, =0@5HBV, :V;L:VABL 2?@02 =5 2?;820T =0 24>A:>=0;5==O =028G>:. &O 4V;O=:0 =07820TBLAO ?;0B>. @>F5A D>@<C20==O =028G>: 2V41C20TBLAO H;OE>< A;V?8E A?@>1 V ?><8;>:, B0 =5 <>65 1CB8 :5@>20=8<. !0<5 BCB 28O2;OTBLAO <5E0=VAB8G=89 E0@0:B5@ CG5==O . #>BA>=0. 82G5==O ?>254V=:8 V ?@>F5AC D>@<C20==O =028G>: 74V9A=N20;>AO =0 B20@8=0E. 45@60=V @57C;LB0B8 1C;8 ?5@5=5A5=V =0 ;N48=C. "0:89 ?V4EV4 C ?A8E>;>3VW =07820TBLAO 1V>;>3V70B>@AL:8<. V>;>3V70B>@AL:89 ?V4EV4 =5 70?5@5GC202 V A0< . #>BA>=. N48=C 2V= @>73;O402 O: @503CNGC VAB>BC, >B>B>6=N202 WW 7 B20@8=0<8. V= ?8A02, I> ;N48=0 & O2;OT A>1>N B20@8=C, O:0 2V4@V7=OTBLAO A;>25A=>N ?>254V=:>N. V>;>3V70B>@AL:89 V <5E0=VAB8G=89 E0@0:B5@ CG5==O . #>BA>=0 A:;02 ?V4@C=BO 453C<0=VAB8G=>3> AB02;5==O 4> ;N48=8: C?@02;V==O ?>254V=:>N >B>B>6=NTBLAO 7 <0=V?C;N20==O<. &59 A0<89 ?@8=F8? 28:>@8AB>2CTBLAO C ?>1C4>2V @5:;0<8. AB>@8G=>N 70A;C3>N . #>BA>=0 T 4>A;V465==O ?>254V=:8 >1 T:B82=8<8 <5B>40<8, @>7@>1;5==O <5B>48:8 D>@<C20==O =028G>:, 28:>@8AB0==O @57C;LB0BV2 4>A;V465==O C ?@0:B8FV C?@02;V==O ?>254V=:>N. 3>4>< AE5<0 S R 1C;0 ?>AB02;5=0 ?V4 AC<=V2. 8=8: =>289 =0?@O<>: 2 0<5@8:0=AL:V9 ?A8E>;>3VW, ?@54AB02=8:8 O:>3> @>1;OBL A?@>1C ?>4>;0B8 ?@O<>;V=V9=VABL V A?@>I5=C AE5<C :;0A8G=>3> 1VE52V>@87<C. &5  =5>1VE52V>@87<. >3> 70A=>2=8:>< T .">;<5= (1886 -1959 @@.). V= ?>:0702, I> 5:A?5@8<5=B0;L=V 4>A;V465==O ?>254V=:8 B20@8= =5 2V4?>2V40NBL C>BA>=V2AL:><C <>;5:C;O@=><C @>7C<V==N ?>254V=:8 70 AE5<>N S R. >254V=:0, =0 4C<:C .">;<5=0, 7=0G=> A:;04=VH0, 2>=0 T <>;O@=8< D5=><5=><, B>1B> F5 - FV;VA=89 0:B, I> <0T A?@O<>20=VABL =0 <5BC, ?;0AB8G=VABL, A5;5:B82=VABL. !:;04=VABL ?>254V=:8 >1C<>2;NTBLAO A:;04=VABN WW 45B5@<V=0FVW. . ">;<5= 284V;OT B@8 3@C?8 45B5@<V=0=B: 570;56=V 7<V==V V 28EV4=V DV7V>;>3VG=V AB0=8. 84>2V 2;0AB82>ABV >@30=V7<C, 01> 74V1=>ABV. =CB@VH=V 7<V==V, I> 2B@CG0NBLAO (FV;V, ?V7=020;L=V ?@>F5A8 V B. V=.). !0<5 >AB0==V, =0 4C<:C .">;<5=0, T ?@54<5B>< 5:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>3> 4>A;V465==O. > :;0A8G=>W AE5<8 S R 1C;0 22545=0 4>40B:>20 7<V==0, I> >?>A5@54:>2CT @50:FVN >@30=V7<C =0 A5@54>28I5. &N ?@><V6=C 7<V==C A:;040NBL ?A8EVG=V ?@>F5A8 ;N48=8, I> 70;560BL 2V4 WW A?04:>2>ABV, DV7V>;>3VG=>3> AB0=C, <8=C;>3> 4>A2V4C B0 ?@8@>48 AB8<C;C. "0:8< G8=><, D>@<C;0 B@0=AD>@<C20;0AO 2 SHR, 45   ?@><V6=0 7<V==0. 57C;LB0B8 4>A;V465==O 1C;8 >45@60=V =0 B20@8=0E V 28:>@8AB0=V . ">;<5=>< 4;O ?>OA=5==O ?>254V=:8 ;N48=8. "0:, . ">;<5= ?>?>2=82 703V= 1V>;>3V70B>@AL:>3> ?>OA=5==O >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8. 45W 1VE52V>@87<C @>728202 5@5A $@V45@V: !:V==5@ (1904-1990@@.), AB2>@82H8 :>=F5?FVN >?5@0=B=>3> >1C<>2;5==O. . !:V==5@ @>7@V7=O2 B@8 2848 ?>254V=:8: 0) C<>2=>-@5D;5:B>@=C; 1) 157C<>2=>-@5D;5:B>@=C; 2) >?5@0=B=C. 5@HV 42V 28:;8:0NBLAO AB8<C;0<8 V7 7>2=VH=L>3> A5@54>28I0 V A:;040NBL @50:FVW B8?C S. ?5@0=B=0, =0 9>3> 4C<:C, <5=H>N <V@>N 70;560BL 2V4 7>2=VH=L>W A8BC0FVW, 0 ?>E>48BL V7 A5@548=8, 284V;OTBLAO A0<8< >@30=V7<><. "0:V @50:FVW 28:;8:0NBLAO 2>;5N. !0<5 B0:V V=AB@C<5=B0;L=V @50:FVW . !:V==5@ V =07202 >?5@0=B=8<8. &5 @50:FVW B8?C R. >=8 ?5@52060NBL 2 040?B82=V9 ?>254V=FV B20@8=. 40?B0FVO >@30=V7<C 2V41C20TBLAO O: =0A;V4>: 0:B82=8E A?@>1  2?;82V2 B20@8= =0 A2VB. 5O:V 7 =8E, O: 240;V 9 :>@8A=V, 70:@V?;NNBLAO. ?5@0=B=V @50:FVW T 0:B82=>N ?>254V=:>N. !0<0 0:B82=VABL 72>48BLAO 4> E0>B8G=8E A?@>1 V ;8H5 45O:V 7 =8E T ?@028;L=8<8 V 70:@V?;NNBLAO. "0:8< G8=><, >@30=V7< ?5@51C20T C A2VBV 70:@V?;5=8E AB8<C;V2. @8 FL><C 28:;NG0NBLAO >A>1;82>ABV 7>2=VH=L>3> A5@54>28I0. . !:V==5@ 22>48BL ?>=OBBO ?V4:@V?;5==O O: 70AV1 D>@<C20==O ?>254V=:8. V4:@V?;5==O - F5 ?>4VO, I> 945 70 @50:FVTN V 71V;LHCT 2V@>3V4=VABL WW ?>O28. V4:@V?;5==O 702648 ?V4A8;NT ?>254V=:C, 70 O:>N 945. A=CNBL @V7=V B8?8 ?V4:@V?;5=L. 0?@8:;04, E0@G>25, 0:B82=VA=5 (?>4828B8AO "V), <0=V?C;OB82=5 (<0;N20==O), ?>75AV0;L=5 (2V4 0=3;. possess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libido  ?>BO3, 1060==O). =5@3VO ;V1V4> <0T 420 A?@O<C20==O: =0 ?@>4>265==O @>4C (2V4 ;0B.eros - A5:AC0;L=89 ?>BO3) B0 =0 @C9=C20==O (2V4 3@5FL:. tanatos  A<5@BL, 03@5A82=89 ?>BO3). @V< B>3>, T B0:>6 V=AB8=:B A0<>715@565==O. &V V=AB8=:B8 ;N48=0 =5 CA2V4><;NT, 0;5 WW ?>254V=:0 ?>2=VABN 45B5@<V=>20=0 =8<8. >A2V4 @>1>B8 . $@5940 ?>:0702 =54>AB0B=VABL 28:>@8AB0==O ;8H5 3V?=>7C. "><C 2V= @>7@>1;OT V 28:>@8AB>2CT B0: 720=89 <5B>4 2V;L=8E 0A>FV0FV9. !CB=VABL 9>3> ?>;O30T C B><C, I> ?0FVT=B C AB0=V @5;0:A0FVW (@>7A;01;5==O) 2V;L=> 28A;>2;NT 2AV 4C<:8, I> ?@8E>4OBL 9><C C 3>;>2C. "0: 2V= 4>E>48BL 28A=>2:C, I> @50;L=89 <>B82 702648 ?@8E>20=89 70 D0A04>< ?>254V=:8, V ;8H5 >?8A:8, >1<>2:8, 715=B565==O, 7=VO:>2V==O B0 A=>284V==O <>6CBL 40B8 B>G=C V=D>@<0FVN ?@> >A>18ABVABL. . $@594 0=0;V7C202 FV ?@>O28 ?A8EV:8, HC:02, B0:8< G8=><, ?A8E>B@02<CNGV ?>4VW, I> 1C;8 28BVA=5=V C =5A2V4><5. 5@52545==O 6 WE =0 @V25=L A2V4><>ABV ?>;53HCT ?A8EVG=89 AB0= E2>@>3>. !0<5 B><C . $@594 V =078202 A2>T 2G5==O ?A8E>0=0;V7><. !B@C:BC@0 >A>18AB>ABV 70 . $@594>< <0T B@8 1;>:8 01> V=AB0=FVW: Id - 2>=> - 3>;>2=0 AB@C:BC@0 >A>18AB>ABV, I> A:;040TBLAO V7 AC:C?=>ABV =5A2V4><8E (A5:AC0;L=8E V 03@5A82=8E) <>B82V2, B0 DC=:FV>=CT, :5@CNG8AL ?@8=F8?>< 704>2>;5==O. !CB=VABL 9>3> A:;040NBL V=AB8=:B8: A5:AC0;L=89, 03@5A82=89 B0 A0<>715@565==O. &O AB@C:BC@0 =VG>3> =5 7=0T ?@> @50;L=VABL. >=0 53>WAB8G=0 B0 0<>@0;L=0. Ego - / - AC:C?=VABL ?5@5206=> CA2V4><;5=8E ;N48=>N ?V7=020;L=8E B0 28:>=02G8E DC=:FV9 ?A8EV:8, I> ?@54AB02;ONBL 2AV =0HV 7=0==O ?@> @50;L=89 A2VB. Ego  AB@C:BC@0, I> >1A;C3>2CT Id, DC=:FV>=CT 73V4=> 7 ?@8=F8?>< @50;L=>ABV V @53C;NT ?@>F5A 270T<8= <V6 Id V Super-ego. Ego, ?@83=VGCNG8 A5:AC0;L=V ?>BO38 Id, T 0@5=>N 157:V=5G=>W 1>@>BL18 <V6 Id V Super-ego. Super-ego - 04-/  ?V4AB@C:BC@0, I> 28=8:0T C ?@>F5AV A>FV0;V70FVW B0 <VAB8BL A>FV0;L=V =>@<8, CAB0=>2:8, <>@0;L=V FV==>ABV B>3> ACA?V;LAB20, C O:><C 6825 ;N48=0. . $@594 284V;O2 C 04-/ 42V ?V4A8AB5<8: A>2VABL B0 Ego-V450;. !>2VABL 2:;NG0T 740B=VABL 4> :@8B8G=>W A0<>>FV=:8, =0O2=VABL <>@0;L=8E 701>@>= B0 28=8:=5==O ?>GCBBO ?@>28=8 C ;N48=8, :>;8 2>=0 =5 28:>=CT 2;0A=V >1VFO=:8. V4@C=BO< Ego-V450;C T AC:C?=VABL FV==>AB59 10BL:V2, B>3>, I> 2>=8 AE20;NNBL, B0 FV==>AB59 A0<>W ;N48=8. "0:8< G8=><, Ego-V450; A:;040T ?52=V AB0=40@B8, 4> O:8E ?@03=5 V=482V4. 04-/ 22060TBLAO ?>2=VABN AD>@<>20=8<, :>;8 7>2=VH=V9 :>=B@>;L 70<V=NTBLAO =0 A0<>:>=B@>;L. Id V go ?5@51C20NBL C ?>ABV9=V9 1>@>BL1V 70 >1<565=C 5=5@3VN ;V1V4>. !8;L=V :>=D;V:B8 A?@8G8=ONBL =0?@C65==O, B@82>3C B0 <>6CBL ?@8725AB8 4> ?A8EVG=8E ?@>1;5<, V =02VBL 4> 70E2>@N20=L. ;O 7=OBBO =0?@C65==O, 715@565==O 5<>FV9=>3> 1;03>?>;CGGO B0 >A>18ABVA=>W FV;VA=>ABV ;N48=0 28@>1;OT 70E8A=V <5E0=V7<8. 0E8A=89 <5E0=V7<  F5 AC:C?=VABL =5A2V4><> 4VNG8E <5E0=V7<V2, I> 1;>:CNBL 28@065==O A>FV0;L=> =5?@89=OB=8E 4C<>:, 1060=L B0 ?>GCBBV2 C A2V4><>ABV ;N48=8. . $@594 >?8A02 B0:V 70E8A=V <5E0=V7<8. 8BVA=5==O  283=0==O 7V A2V4><>ABV B@02<CNG8E <><5=BV2, =5?@8T<=8E 4;O ;N48=8 2V4GCBBV2, 4C<>: B0 =0<V@V2. 0?5@5G5==O  =5?@89<0==O 70 @50;L=VABL =5?@8T<=8E 4;O ;N48=8 ?>4V9. 0FV>=0;V70FVO  A?>AV1 @>7C<=>3> 28?@0240==O B0:8E 2G8=:V2 B0 4V9, I> AC?5@5G0BL <>@0;L=8< =>@<0<. @>5:FVO  =5A2V4><5 ?@8?8AC20==O 2;0A=8E =5CA2V4><;5=8E O:>AB59 V=HV9 ;N48=V, =01030B> ?5@51V;LHCNG8 WE. 7>;OFVO  2V44V;5==O ?A8E>B@02<CNG>W A8BC0FVW 2V4 ?>2 O70=8E 7 =5N 2;0A=8E ?5@56820=L. 50:B82=V CB2>@5==O  ?>254V=:0, ?@>B8;56=0 1060==N. 53@5AVO  ?5@5EV4 4> 1V;LH ?@8<VB82=>3> @V2=O ?>254V=:8 B0 <8A;5==O ?V4 B8A:>< A:;04=8E 68BBT28E A8BC0FV9, A8;L=8E 5<>FV9=8E ?5@56820=L. !C1;V<0FVO  ;V1V4> G8 03@5A82=0 5=5@3VO B@0=AD>@<CNBLAO C @V7=V 2848 A>FV0;L=> ?@89=OB=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. 0?@8:;04, B2>@GVABL, <8AB5FB2>, ACA?V;L=0 0:B82=VABL. N48=0 <>65 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 2AV >?8A0=V D>@<8 ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> 70E8ABC, 0;5 70728G09 =5 >4=>G0A=>. V;LH B>3>, O: ?@028;>, ;N48=0 =040T ?5@5203C 45:V;L:>< D>@<0<.  >4=>3> 1>:C, 70E8A=V <5E0=V7<8 2V4V3@0NBL ?>78B82=C @>;L: 4>72>;ONBL 715@53B8 4>AB0B=V9 @V25=L A0<>?>2038 B0 70E8AB8B8AO 2V4 B@82>38.  V=H>3> 1>:C, =04<V@=5 28:>@8AB0==O 40=8E <5E0=V7<V2 ?@872>48BL 4> 28:@82;5==O @50;L=>ABV B0 =5<>6;82>ABV >A>18ABVA=>3> @>728B:C. "0:8< G8=><, 2V4?>2V4=> 4> 2G5==O . $@5940 >A>18ABVABL  F5 A8AB5<0 A5:AC0;L=8E V 03@5A82=8E <>B82V2, 7 >4=>3> 1>:C, V 70E8A=8E <5E0=V7<V2  7 V=H>3>. . $@594 <02 1030B> CG=V2  9>3> ?>A;V4>2=8:V2, O:V ?@>4>26C20;8 9>3> 2G5==O. &5 ?@54AB02=8:8 =5>D@59487<C: . %>@=V, . $@><<, .!. !0;;V20=, .. .=3, . 4;5@. @>B5 7 G0A>< 45O:V 7 =8E 2V4V9H;8 2V4 :;0A8G=8E ?>78FV9 D@59487<C B0 AD>@<C;N20;8 2;0A=V ?A8E>;>3VG=V B5>@VW. 0?@8:;04, 0=0;VB8G=0 ?A8E>;>3VO .. .=30, V=482V4C0;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO . 4;5@0. V4@C=BO 28=8:=5==O =5>D@59487<C 7 9>3> @V7=><0=VB=8<8 =0?@O<:0<8 A:;0;> A0<> 2G5==O . $@5940. >=> E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO <5B>4>;>3VG=>N =54>A:>=0;VABN (>@VT=B0FVO =0 V=AB8=:B8) B0 GVB:> 28@065=8< 2V4?>2V4=> 4> =5W 1V>;>3V70B>@AL:8< ?V4E>4><. @V< B>3>, 7<V=8 A>FV0;L=8E C<>2, I> 2V41C;8AO C A2VBV C A5@548=V %% AB>;VBBO, 2?;8=C;8 V =0 >A>1;82>ABV ?A8EVG=8E @>7;04V2 ;N459. >=8 =5 2?8AC20;8AO C A8AB5<C ?0=A5:AC0;V7<C. A5 F5 ?>B@51C20;> 24>A:>=0;5==O D@59487<C. 4=8< V7 24>A:>=0;N20GV2 D@59487<C T CG5=8FO V ?>A;V4>2=8FO . $@5940 0@5= %>@=V (1885 -1952@@.). >=0 :@8B8:C20;0 . $@5940 70 1V>;>3V70B>@AL:C >@VT=B0FVN, 70?5@5GC20;0 ?0=A5:AC0;V7<, ;V1V4>=>A=C B0 03@5A82=C B5=45=FVW 2 >@30=V70FVW ?>254V=:8 ;N48=8. >=0 =0?>;O30;0 =0 =5>1EV4=>ABV 282G5==O A>FV0;L=>3> >B>G5==O, I> T, =0 4C<:C . %>@=V, ?@8G8=>N ?>GCBBO B@82>38 B0 =52@>7V2. 65@5;0<8 ;N4AL:>W ?>254V=:8 T ?>B@510 C 157?5FV B0 A2>1>40 2V4 AB@0EC (?@03=5==O 704>2>;L=8B8 A2>W ?>B@518). /:I> 2>=8 2ABC?0NBL C AC?5@5G=VABL, B> 28:;8:0NBL =52@>B8G=V ?>B@518 V 2V4?>2V4=V W< AB@0B53VW A>FV0;L=>W ?>254V=:8. E B@8: @CE 4> ;N459, @CE 2V4 ;N459 B0 @CE ?@>B8 ;N459. ><V=C20==O >4=VTW 7 F8E AB@0B53V9 D>@<CT =52@>B8G=C >A>18ABVABL: 01> BC, O:0 HC:0T ;N1>2 V 287=0==O ;N459 70 1C4L - O:C FV=C, 01> B0:C, O:0 =0<030TBLAO 70E>20B8AO 2V4 ACA?V;LAB20, 01> 03@5A82=C, O:0 ?@03=5 ?@5AB86C V 2;048. $>@<8 @50:FV9 =52@>B8G=>W >A>18AB>ABV =5045:20B=V V =5 CAC20NBL B@82>6=VABL, 0 ?V4A8;NNBL WW, 28:;8:0NBL 2A5 =>2V V =>2V :>=D;V:B8. "0:, C 2G5==V . %>@=V ;N48=0 T @01>< >1AB028=. /:I> C . $@5940 >A>18ABVABL ;N48=8 ?>2=VABN 70;568BL 2V4 ?@8@>465=8E V=AB8=:BV2, B> C . %>@=V  2V4 A>FV0;L=8E C<>2. 5B>4>;>3VG=0 6 ACB=VABL 2G5==O =5 7<V=NTBLAO. <V=NTBLAO 1V>;>3V70B>@AL:89 ?V4EV4 =0 A>FV>;>3V70B>@AL:89. 4.4. =0;VB8G=0 ?A8E>;>3VO .. .=30 0@; CAB02 .=3 (1875 - 1961@@.) 282G02 2?;82 48=0<VG=8E =5CA2V4><;5=8E ?>BO3V2 =0 ?>254V=:C ;N48=8. ;5 =0 2V4<V=C 2V4 . $@5940 =5 72>482 =5A2V4><5 ;8H5 4> AC<8 A5:AC0;L=8E B0 03@5A82=8E ?>BO3V2. V= 220602 9>3> B2>@G8< @>7C<=8< ?@8=F8?><, I> ?>2 O7CT ;N48=C 7 CAV< ;N4AB2><, 7 ?@8@>4>N V :>A<>A><. # B>9 A0<89 G0A O: 465@5;> 0:B82=>ABV >A>18AB>ABV 70 . $@594><  A5:AC0;L=0 5=5@3VO, 70 .. .=3><  F5 B2>@G0 5=5@3VO ;N48=8, I> <>65 28O2;OB8AO C @V7=8E AD5@0E. !B@C:BC@0 >A>18AB>ABV 70 . .=3>< A:;040TBLAO 7 B@L>E >:@5<8E, 0;5 0:B82=> 270T<>4VNG8E <V6 A>1>N AB@C:BC@: V=482V4C0;L=5 A2V4><5 (Ego), V=482V4C0;L=5 =5A2V4><5, :>;5:B82=5 =5A2V4><5. Ego, 01> V=482V4C0;L=5 A2V4><5, T F5=B@>< AD5@8 A2V4><>ABV. >=> ?>T4=CT 4C<:8, ?>GCBBO, A?>3048 B0 2V4GCBBO, 7024O:8 O:8< <8 2V4GC20T<> A2>N FV;VA=VABL B0 ?>ABV9=VABL. go B0:>6 A:;040T ?V4@C=BO A0<>A2V4><>ABV. A>18AB5 =5A2V4><5 A:;040TBLAO 7 ?5@56820=L, I> :>;8AL 1C;8 A2V4><8<8, 0;5 ?>BV< AB0;8 701CB8<8 G8 28BVA=5=8<8 7V A2V4><>ABV. ;5 70 ?52=8E C<>2 2>=8 <>6CBL ?>25@=CB8AO 4> A2V4><>ABV. . .=3 284V;82 AB@C:BC@=V >48=8FV >A>18ABVA=>3> =5A2V4><>3>  :><?;5:A8. &5 AC:C?=VABL 5<>FV9=> 70@O465=8E 4C<>:, ?>GCBBV2 B0 A?>304V2. 0 4C<:C . .=30, :><?;5:A8 CB2>@NNBLAO =02:>;> A0<8E 728G09=8E B5< B0 G8=OBL 25;8:89 2?;82 =0 ?>254V=:C ;N48=8. >;5:B82=5 =5A2V4><5  F5 3;818==89 @V25=L ?A8EV:8, I> <VAB8BL A?>3048 B0 >1@078, A?V;L=V 4;O 2AL>3> ;N4AB20. V4@C=BO< :>;5:B82=>3> =5A2V4><>3> T 0@E5B8?8. @E5B8?8  F5 ?@8@>465=V V45W 01> A?><8=8, I> A?>=C:0NBL ;N459 A?@89<0B8, ?5@56820B8 G8 @503C20B8 =0 ?>4VW ?52=8< G8=><. @E5B8?8 28:>=CNBL ?>42V9=C DC=:FVN: A?>=C:0NBL 4> ?>254V=:8 ?52=>3> B8?C B0 ?@>4C:CNBL :>;5:B82=V V45W, >1@078, B5>@VW ;N4AB20, I> 28O2;ONBLAO C <VD0E, :07:0E, <8AB5FB2V. AV ?>BC6=V V45W B0 CO2;5==O ;N4AB20 <>6CBL 1CB8 72545=V 4> 0@E5B8?V2. V;L:VABL 0@E5B8?V2 C :>;5:B82=><C =5A2V4><><C <>65 1CB8 =5>1<565=0. A>1;82C C203C C A2>W9 B5>@5B8G=V9 A8AB5<V . .=3 ?@84V;O2 B0:8< 0@E5B8?0<: ?5@A>=0, 0=V<0, 0=V<CA, BV=L B0 A0<VABL. 5@A>=0 (<0A:0)  F5 ?C1;VG=5 >1;8GGO ;N48=8, B>1B> B5, O: 2>=0 28O2;OT A515 C <V6>A>18ABVA=8E 2V4=>A8=0E. 5@A>=0 A:;040TBLAO 7 25;8:>W :V;L:>ABV A>FV0;L=8E @>;59, I> ;N48=0 28:>=CT C ACA?V;LAB2V. 0=0 AB@C:BC@0 D>@<CTBLAO 4;O B>3>, I>1 G8=8B8 2?;82 =0 >B>GCNG8E B0 4>?><030B8 ;N48=V ?@8E>2C20B8 A2>W 4V9A=V =0<V@8. "V=L  F5 ?@8E>20=0, B5<=0 G0AB8=0 >A>18AB>ABV. >=0 <VAB8BL A>FV0;L=> =5?@89=OB=V A5:AC0;L=V B0 03@5A82=V V<?C;LA8. "V=L B0:>6 <0T 9 ?>78B82=V 2;0AB82>ABV. . .=3 @>73;O402 BV=L O: 465@5;> 68BBT2>W A8;8, A?>=B0==>ABV B0 B2>@G>3> =0G0;0 C ;N48=V. =V<0  F5 6V=>G0 G0AB8=0 ?A8EV:8 G>;>2V:0. =V<CA, =02?0:8 - G>;>2VGV >A>1;82>ABV, I> VA=CNBL C 6V=FV. 0 4C<:C . .=30, 0=V<0 B0 0=V<CA <0NBL 1CB8 @>728=5=V 30@<>=VG=>. !?@8OB;828< 4;O @>728B:C >A>18AB>ABV T <>6;82VABL 4;O G>;>2V:0 28@060B8 D5<V==V @8A8, B>1B> 1CB8 =52?52=5=8<, < O:8< B0 A;01:8<. ">G=> B0: V 30@<>=VO 6V=:8 ?5@5410G0T ?@>O2 <0A:C;V==8E @8A  =0?>;53;82>ABV, 4><V=0=B=>ABV, @VHCG>ABV. !0<VABL  =091V;LH 206;8289 0@E5B8? C B5>@VW . .=30. &5 A5@F528=0 >A>18AB>ABV, =02:>;> O:>W >1 T4=0=V 2AV V=HV 5;5<5=B8. >;>2=0 <5B0 68BBO ;N48=8  @>728B>: A0<>ABV. !D>@<>20=0 A0<VABL =5 28O2;OTBLAO C ?52=><C 2VFV, 4>AO3=5==O 7@V;>3> / ?>B@51CT @>1>B8 =04 A>1>N, =0?>;53;82>ABV, V=B5;5:BC B0 25;8:>3> 68BBT2>3> 4>A2V4C. "0:8< G8=><, >A>18ABVABL, 70 .. .=3><,  F5 AC:C?=VABL ?@8@>465=8E V @50;V7>20=8E 0@E5B8?V2. !5=A 68BBO ;N48=8 ?>;O30T C =0?>2=5==V ?@8@>465=8E 0@E5B8?V2 ?@8@>4=8< 7<VAB><. 4.5 =482V4C0;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO . 4;5@0 ;LD@54 4;5@ (1870 - 1937@@.) 22060T, I> ;N48=0 70 A2>TN ?@8@>4>N T ACA?V;L=>N VAB>B>N, V B><C ?@>2V4=8< <>B820FV9=8< 70A>1>< WW 4VO;L=>ABV T ACA?V;L=V ?>B@518, =09206;82VH0 7 O:8E  ?>B@510 C 72 O7:0E 7V ACA?V;LAB2><. 5@H 70 2A5 ;N48=0 - F5 A2V4><0 VAB>B0, 0 =5A2V4><5 <0T 2 WW 68BBV 4@C3>@O4=5 7=0G5==O. B65, ;N48=0 FV;:>< CA2V4><;NT A2>W FV;V, ?@03=5==O, <>6;82>ABV B0 A;01:>ABV. 060==O ;N48=8 A?@O<>20=V =0 =01CBBO ?@8=0;56=>ABV, 7=0E>465==O A2>3> <VAFO C ACA?V;LAB2V. "0:8< G8=><, 4VW ;N48=8 >1C<>2;5=V <091CB=V<, 0 =5 <8=C;8<, O: AB25@46CT B@048FV9=89 ?A8E>0=0;V7. 0 4C<:C . 4;5@0, AB@C:BC@0 >A>18AB>ABV T48=0, 0 45B5@<V=0=B>N C @>728B:C >A>18AB>ABV T =5 A5:AC0;L=V V=AB8=:B8, 0 ?@03=5==O ;N48=8 4> <>3CB=>ABV. ;5 F5 ?@03=5==O =5 702648 <>65 1CB8 704>2>;5=8<. C65 G0AB> ;N48=0 <0T DV78G=V G8 ?A8EVG=V =52048, I> ?@872>4OBL 4> D>@<C20==O C =5W :><?;5:AC =5?>2=>FV==>ABV. N48=0 ?@03=5 2V4=09B8 A?>A>18 4;O ?>4>;0==O FL>3> 2V4GCBBO H;OE>< :><?5=A0FVW. A=CT B@8 D>@<8 ?@>O2C :><?5=A0FVW: - CA?VH=0 :><?5=A0FVO ?>GCBBO =5?>2=>FV==>ABV, I> T =0A;V4:>< 71V3C ?>BO3C 4> 28I>ABV 7 A>FV0;L=8< V=B5@5A><; - =04:><?5=A0FVO, I> >7=0G0T >4=>1VG=5 ?@8AB>AC20==O 4> C<>2 68BBO 2=0A;V4>: =04<V@=>3> @>728B:C O:>WAL >4=VTW @8A8 01> 74V1=>ABV; - 28EV4 C E2>@>1C, ?@8 O:V9 ;N48=0 =5 <>65 72V;L=8B8AO 2V4 ?>GCBBO =5?>2=>FV==>ABV, =5 <>65 ?@89B8 4> :><?5=A0FVW =>@<0;L=8<8 70A>10<8 V B><C 28@>1;OT A8<?B><8 E2>@>18, I>1 28?@0240B8 A2>N =5240GC. "0: 28=8:0T =52@>7. V4GCBBO :><?;5:AC =5?>2=>FV==>ABV <>65 <0B8 O: ?>78B82=89, B0: V =530B82=89 2?;82 =0 >A>18ABVABL. @8 ?>78B82=><C 2?;82V 4>AO30TBLAO <5B0. >6=0 ;N48=0 >18@0T A2>N 2;0A=C 68BBT2C <5BC 2V4?>2V4=> 4> A2>WE V=482V4C0;L=8E >A>1;82>AB59. >=0 D>@<CTBLAO C 48BOG><C 2VFV O: :><?5=A0FVO ?>GCBBO =5?>2=>FV==>ABV, =52?52=5=>ABV C A>1V B0 157?>@04=>ABV C A2VBV 4>@>A;8E. . 4;5@ 284V;82 B@8 68BBT2V <5B8: 1. N1>2  BVA=89 A>N7 @>7C<C B0 BV;0, 28I0 D>@<0 :>>?5@0FVW <V6 42><0 V=482V40<8 ?@>B8;56=>W AB0BV. 2. @C610  28@065==O ?@8G5B=>ABV 4> ;N459, =5>1EV4=VABL A?V;:C20==O. 3. >1>B0  ?@8=>A8BL 704>2>;5==O V 2V4GCBBO 2;0A=>W 7=0GCI>ABV C B><C @V2=V, C O:><C 2>=0 =5>1EV4=0 ACA?V;LAB2C. >AO3=5==O 68BBT2>W <5B8 2V41C20TBLAO 70 4>?><>3>N 68BBT2>3> AB8;N. 8BBT289 AB8;L  :><?;5:A 70A>1V2, 70 4>?><>3>N O:8E 4>AO30TBLAO 68BBT20 <5B0. A=CNBL D0:B>@8, I> 2?;820NBL =0 45D>@<0FVN 68BBT2>3> AB8;N, 7>:@5<0: >@30=VG=0 =5?>2=>FV==VABL; @>715I5=VABL; 7=5EBC20=VABL. '0AB8=>N 68BBT2>3> AB8;N T AE5<0 0?5@F5?FVW. ?5@F5?FVO  F5 2;0AB82VABL ?A8EV:8 ;N48=8, I> ?>;O30T C 70;56=>ABV A?@89<0==O ?@54<5BV2 V O28I 2V4 ?>?5@54=L>3> 4>A2V4C V >A>18ABVA=8E >A>1;82>AB59 AC1 T:B0. 0?@8:;04, :>@V=L C <0B5<0B8FV, AB><0B>;>3VW, 1V>;>3VW, DV;>;>3VW. "0:8< G8=><, . 4;5@ 45I> A>FV0;V7C202 B5>@5B8G=V ?>3;O48 . $@5940, 0;5 40;5:> =5 ?>2=>N <V@>N, >A:V;L:8 :><?;5:A =5?>2=>FV==>ABV T ?@8@>465=8<. 4.6. C<0=VAB8G=0 ?A8E>;>3VO C<0=VAB8G=0, 01> 5:78AB5=FV0;L=0, ?A8E>;>3VO 7 O28;0AO C 30-BV @>:8 %% AB. O: ?@>B82030 =5>D@5948ABAL:8< :>=F5?FVO<. V4@C=BO 3C<0=VAB8G=>3> =0?@O<:C  ?>3;O4 =0 >A>18ABVABL O: =0 FV;VA=C, 2V4:@8BC A8AB5<C, I> 740B=0 4> A0<>>@30=V70FVW V A0<>@>728B:C. :F5=B>< C 3C<0=VAB8G=V9 ?A8E>;>3VW T ?>3;O4 =0 V=482V40 O: =0 F5=B@0;L=C FV==VABL. >254V=:0 ;N48=8  7>2=VH=V9 ?@>O2 WW 2=CB@VH=L>3> A2VBC. @54AB02=8:0<8 3C<0=VAB8G=>3> =0?@O<:C C ?A8E>;>3VW T 0@; . >465@A (1902  1987 @@.), 1@0E0< . 0A;>C (1908 -1970 @@.), >@4>= .;?>@B (1897  1970 @@.), (. N;;5@ (1893  1974 @@.). >=8 1C;8 =5 73>4=V 7 4C<:>N ?@> B5, I> ;N4AL:0 ?>254V=:0 >1C<>2;5=0 01> ?@03=5==O< 4> 704>2>;5==O, 01> B5=45=FVTN 4> 03@5AVW, 01> 4> 70E8ABC 2V4 ACA?V;LAB20. 0 WE 4C<:C, 465@5;> @>728B:C >A>18AB>ABV  ?@8@>465=V B5=45=FVW 4> A0<>@50;V70FVW. >728B>: >A>18AB>ABV  F5 @>73>@B0==O F8E ?@8@>465=8E B5=45=FV9. @54<5B>< WW 282G5==O AB0;0 74>@>20 >A>18ABVABL (=0 2V4<V=C 2V4 ?>?5@54=VE B5>@V9, I> @C=BC20;8AO =0 282G5==V B20@8= G8 ?A8EVG=> E2>@8E ;N459). 5B0 68BBO, 70 . >465@A><,  @50;V7C20B8 25AL A2V9 ?@8@>465=89 ?>B5=FV0;, 1CB8 ?>2=VABN DC=:FV>=CNG>N >A>18ABVABN. A=>2=89 :><?>=5=B AB@C:BC@8 >A>18AB>ABV, 70 . >465@A><,  /-:>=F5?FVO, I> D>@<CTBLAO C ?@>F5AV 270T<>4VW ;N48=8 7 =02:>;8H=V< A5@54>28I5<, ?5@H 70 2A5  A>FV0;L=8<. / - :>=F5?FVO  F5 48=0<VG=0 A8AB5<0 CO2;5=L V=482V40 ?@> A515, I> ?>2 O70=0 7 WE >FV=:>N. / - :>=F5?FVO <0T B@8 A:;04>2V: 1. ?8A>20  >1@07 /. # 3C<0=VAB8G=V9 ?A8E>;>3VW ?@89=OB> 284V;OB8 >A=>2=V CAB0=>2:8 =0 A?@89<0==O ;N48=>N A0<>W A515: / - @50;L=5: AC:C?=VABL 4C<>:, ?>GCBBV2, ?5@56820=L BCB V B5?5@. / - V450;L=5: AC:C?=VABL 4C<>:, ?>GCBBV2, ?5@56820=L, I> ;N48=0 E>BV;0 1 <0B8 4;O @50;V70FVW A2>3> ?>B5=FV0;C. / - 475@:0;L=5 (A>FV0;L=5)  CAB0=>2:8, ?>2 O70=V 7 CO2;5==O<8 V=482V40 ?@> B5, O:8< 9>3> 10G0BL >B>GCNGV. @8 =0@>465==V / - @50;L=5 4>@V2=NT / -V450;L=><C. /:I> 2?@>4>26 68BBO / - @50;L=5 4>@V2=NT / - V450;L=><C, B> >A>18ABVABL <0T 28A>:C A0<>>FV=:C. /:I> 6 / - @50;L=5 =5 4>@V2=NT / - V450;L=><C, B> 28=8:0T B@82>6=VABL, 7 O2;ONBLAO >7=0:8 45?@5AVW. 2. !0<>>FV=:0 - A:;04>20, ?>2 O70=0 7 5<>FV9=8< AB02;5==O< 4> A515 01> 4> >:@5<8E A2>WE O:>AB59. 3. >254V=:>20 A:;04>20  7>2=VH=V9 ?@>O2 28I573040=8E A:;04>28E. &5=B@0;L=8< <><5=B>< C 3C<0=VAB8G=V9 ?A8E>;>3VW T ?@0:B8G=5 28:>@8AB0==O WW C ?A8E>B5@0?VW B0 >A2VBV. 5;8:0 70A;C30 C FL><C =0;568BL . >465@AC. V= @>7@>182 B5>@VN ?>2=>FV==>3> DC=:FV>=C20==O B2>@G>W >A>18AB>ABV V 2V4?>2V4=C W9 >A>18ABVA=>->@VT=B>20=C ?A8E>B5@0?VN. >=0 2V4><0 ?V4 =072>N :;VT=B-F5=B@>20=>W B5@0?VW. # 2G5==V . 0A;>C ?@>2V4=0 ?>B@510 ;N48=8 - A0<>0:BC0;V70FVO. &5 ?@>F5A ?>ABV9=>3> @>728B:C V ?@0:B8G=>W @50;V70FVW A2>WE <>6;82>AB59. !0<>0:BC0;V70FVO  F5 O28I5 ?@8@>465=5. @V< FVTW ?>B@518, . 0A;>C 284V;OT B0:>6 @O4 V=H8E, I> 2AV @07>< D>@<CNBL VT@0@EVN.  OBL @V2=V2 <>B820FVW 70 . 0A;>C: 1) DV7V>;>3VG=89 (W60, A>=, A5:A); 2) ?>B@510 C 157?5FV (:20@B8@0, @>1>B0); 3) ?>B@510 C =0;56=>ABV (?>B@510 >4=VTW ;N48=8 2 V=HV9  AV< O); 4) @V25=L A0<>>FV=:8 (?>B@510 C A0<>?>207V, :><?5B5=FVW, 3V4=>ABV); 5) ?>B@510 C A0<>0:BC0;V70FVW (?>B@510 C B2>@G>ABV, :@0AV, FV;VA=>ABV). >B@518 ?5@H>3> B0 4@C3>3> @V2=V2  45DVF8B0@=V (?@8?8=ONBLAO ?VA;O WE 704>2>;5==O); G5B25@B>3> B0 ? OB>3>  @>AB>2V (?V4A8;NNBLAO ?VA;O @50;V70FVW). N48=0, O:0 4>AO30T ? OB>3> @V2=O,  ?A8EVG=> 74>@>20 >A>18ABVABL, 70 . 0A;>C. %0@0:B5@8AB8:0<8 FV;VA=>W >A>18AB>ABV T: 5D5:B82=5 A?@89<0==O @50;L=>ABV; A?>=B0==VABL, ?@>AB>B0 V ?@8@>4=VABL ?>254V=:8; >@VT=B0FVO =0 28@VH5==O ?@>1;5<8; ?>ABV9=0 48BOGVABL A?@89<0==O; G0ABV ?5@56820==O ?V:>28E ?>GCBBV2, 5:AB07C; I8@5 1060==O 4>?><>3B8 2AL><C ;N4AB2C; 3;81>:V <V6>A>18ABVA=V 2V4=>A8=8; 28A>:V <>@0;L=V AB0=40@B8. &V;VA=0 >A>18ABVABL ?@03=5 4> 2AB0=>2;5==O 30@=>3> ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> :>=B0:BC 7 V=H8<8, 2V4:@8B> 5<>FV9=0, 7=0T, EB> 2>=0 V :8< E>BV;0 1 1CB8, <0:A8<0;L=> 2V4:@8B0 =>2><C 4>A2V4C, 6825 BCB V 70@07, <0965 157C<>2=> ?>78B82=> AB028BLAO 4> 2AVE, 5<?0B8G=0. )5 >4=8<, =5 <5=H 2V4><8< ?@54AB02=8:>< 3C<0=VAB8G=>W ?A8E>;>3VW T . ;;?>@B, O:89 @>7@>182 ?A8E>;>3VG=C B5>@VN >A>18AB>ABV, I> >45@60;0 =072C B5>@VO @8A. V4?>2V4=> 4> FVTW B5>@VW ;N48 2V4@V7=ONBLAO >48= 2V4 >4=>3> =01>@>< B0 ABC?5=5< @>728B:C 2 =8E >:@5<8E, =570;56=8E @8A. C<0=VAB8G=0 ?A8E>;>3VO <0T =87:C ?@8201;828E >A>1;82>AB59, 1> 725@B0TBLAO 4> 74>@>2>W, B2>@G>W >A>18AB>ABV. 091V;LH FV==8<8 T B0:V >A>1;82>ABV: 0) A?@O<>20=VABL =0 :>=:@5B=C FV;VA=C >A>18ABVABL 7 WW @50;L=8<8 ?>B@510<8, 2V@>N C 4>1@>BC V 2;0A=V A8;8 >A>18AB>ABV; 1) C@0EC20==O 2;0A=8E ?>GCBBV2, FV==>AB59, ?V4:@5A;5==O C=V:0;L=>ABV >A>18AB>ABV; 2) 4>A2V4 T4=>ABV B5>@VW B0 ?@0:B8:8; 3) =040==O @50;L=>W 4>?><>38 ;N48=V, O:0 AB@0640T 2V4 2V4GC465==O, 2;0AB82>3> ACA?V;LAB2C. "0:8< G8=><, >A>18ABVABL 2V4?>2V4=> 4> ?>3;O4V2 3C<0=VABV2  F5 FV;VA=0 2V4:@8B0 A8AB5<0, I> A?@><>6=0 4> A0<>>@30=V70FVW V A0<>@>728B:C. 4.7. "@0=A?5@A>=0;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO !B0=VA;020 @>D0 '5AL:89 ?A8E>;>3, DV;>A>D B0 ?A8EV0B@ !B0=VA;02 @>D T >4=8< V7 70A=>2=8:V2 =>2>3> =0?@O<C C ?A8E>;>3VW, I> 28=8: C 70EV4=><C A2VBV =0?@8:V=FV %% AB>;VBBO. V= @C=BCTBLAO =0 =>28E 2V4:@8BBOE =5 ;8H5 2;0A=5 ?A8E>;>3VW, 0 9 DV78:8, :V15@=5B8:8, B5>@VW E0>AC B0 V=. =0C:. !. @>D ?>:07CT 1030B>28<V@=VABL ?A8EV:8 ;N48=8. V= =03>;>HCT =0 206;82>ABV 4>1V>3@0DVG=>3> (?@5=0B0;L=>3> V ?5@8=0B0;L=>3>) B0 B@0=A?5@A>=0;L=>3> @V2=V2 ?A8EV:8, I> =5 1@0;8AO 4> C2038 @0=VH5. @5=0B0;L=89 (2V4 ;0B. pre-4>, natalis - B5, I> AB>ACTBLAO =0@>465==O) @>728B>: - F5 4>@>4>289, CB@>1=89 @>728B>: V=482V40, ?V4 G0A O:>3> 2V41C20TBLAO @>73>@B0==O CA?04:>20=>3> ?>B5=FV0;C. 5@8=0B0;L=89 (2V4. ;0B. peri - 1V;O) @>728B>: C ?5@V>4 2V4 28 B86=O 203VB=>ABV, ?5@V>4 ?>;>3V2 B0 ?5@HV 7 4=V2 68BBO =>2>=0@>465=>3>."0:8< G8=><, 73V4=> 7 ?>3;O40<8 !. @>D0, ?A8EV:0 A:;040TBLAO 7 B0:8E @V2=V2: 1. A>18AB5 1V>3@0DVG=5 =5A2V4><5, 7 O:8< ?@0FN202 . $@594. 2. "@0=A?5@A>=0;L=5 (=04>A>18AB5) =5A2V4><5, O:5 B0:>6 <VAB8BL CO2;5==O . . .=30 ?@> 0@E5B8?VG=5 (:>;5:B82=5) =5A2V4><5. 3. 5@8=0B0;L=5 =5A2V4><5, I> T <>AB>< <V6 >A>18ABVA=8< B0 =04>A>18ABVA=8< =5A2V4><8<, =0?>2=5=5 A8<2>;V7<>< B0 :>=:@5B=8<8 ?5@56820==O<8 A<5@BV B0 2V4@>465==O. !0<5 @53@5AVO 4> ?@5=0B0;L=>3> @V2=O T C<>2>N 4>ABC?C 4> B@0=A?5@A>=0;L=>3>. !. @>D =03>;>HC202 =0 206;82>ABV ?@5=0B0;L=>3> ?5@V>4C @>728B:C ;N48=8, 0 B0:>6 157?>A5@54=L> ?@>F5AC =0@>465==O 4;O ?>40;LH>3> @>728B:C >A>18AB>ABV. !. @>D @>74V;82 ?>O2C ;N48=8 =0 A2VB =0 G>B8@8 5B0?8, O:V 2V= =07202 107>28<8 ?5@8=0B0;L=8<8 <0B@8FO<8 (). 0 :>6=><C 7 F8E 5B0?V2 <>6CBL 28=8:=CB8 >A>1;82V ?@>1;5<8. E =5240;5 28@VH5==O 28:;8:0T BO6:V B@02<8 ?A8EV:8, I> <VF=> 70:@V?;NNBLAO C ?V4A2V4><>ABV ;N48=8 C 283;O4V <0B@8FL B0 2?;820NBL =0 ?>40;LH5 68BBO. &V <0B@8FV 287=0G0NBL ?52=89 AB5@5>B8? ?>254V=:8 ;N48=8. V43@C=BO ?A8E>;>3VW !. @>D0 A:;040NBL B@0=A?5@A>=0;L=V ?5@56820==O, I> 28=8:0NBL C 7<V=5=><C AB0=V A2V4><>ABV (!!). !! 28:;8:0NBLAO 70AB>AC20==O< A?5FV0;L=> @>7@>1;5=>W B5E=V:8 E>;>B@>?=>3> 48E0==O (2V4 3@5FL:. holos  FV;89, trepein- @CE0B8AO 4>). AB0==T - F5 V=B5=A82=5 48E0==O 70 ?52=8<8 ?@028;0<8, I> AC?@>2>46CTBLAO A?5F8DVG=>N <C78:>N B0 AD>:CA>20=>N @>1>B>N 7 BV;><. # !! 0:B82V7CNBLAO  B0 C A8<2>;VG=V9 D>@<V 2V41C20TBLAO 282V;L=5==O ?@84CH5=>W E2>@>1;82>W 5=5@3VW. 0=0 ?@0:B8:0 <0T =5 ;8H5 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G=5 7=0G5==O, 0 9 A?@O<>20=0 =0 A0<>?V7=0==O, 71030G5==O 2=CB@VH=L>3> 4>A2V4C, 4CE>2=89 @VAB B0 >A>18ABVA=89 @>728B>: ;N48=8. 0?8B0==O 4> A0<>:>=B@>;N /:V T ?V4E>48, I> ?>OA=NNBL ACB=VABL >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8? !CB=VABL 1VE52V>@87<C. 82G5==O D>@<C20==O =028G>: C 1VE52V>@87<V . #>BA>=0. @8G8=8 28=8:=5==O =5>1VE52V>@87<C B0 9>3> ACB=VABL. ?5@0=B=89 1VE52V>@87< . !:V==5@0. @>3@0<>20=5 =02G0==O C 2G5==V . !:V==5@0. !CB=VABL D@59487<C. !B@C:BC@0 >A>18AB>ABV 70 . $@594><. 5E0=V7<8 ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> 70E8ABC. V4@C=BO 28=8:=5==O B0 ACB=VABL =5>D@59487<C. >@V2=O9B5 D@59487< B0 =5>D@59487<. =094VBL A?V;L=V B0 2V4<V==V @8A8. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C 0@E5B8?V2 :>;5:B82=>3> =5A2V4><>3> . . .=30. ><?;5:A =5?>2=>FV==>ABV B0 9>3> ?>4>;0==O C 2G5==V . 4;5@0. C<0=VAB8G=0 ?A8E>;>3VO: >@VT=B0FVO =0 74>@>2C >A>18ABVABL. T@0@EVO <>B82V2 70 . 0A;>C. >3;O4 =0 ?A8EV:C !. @>D0. @0:B8G=5 70=OBBO (:>;8 B0 =0?@O<:8 C ?A8E>;>3VW VE52V>@87<. 5@54C<>28 28=8:=5==O B0 ?>40;LH5 52>;NFV>=C20==O. 5>1VE52V>@87<. ?5@0=B=89 1VE52V>@87<. A8E>0=0;V7 V 9>3> 2?;82 =0 @>728B>: ?A8E>;>3VW B0 V=H8E =0C:. 5>D@59487<. >=OBBO ?@> =5A2V4><5 B0 9>3> 2?;82 =0 ?>254V=:C ;N48=8. C<0=VAB8G=0 ?A8E>;>3VO. @07>: B5ABC 1. >;5:B82=5 =5A2V4><5, 70 .. .=3><, ?>T4=CT: 0) :><?;5:A8; 1) 0@E5B8?8; 2) 5<>FVW; 3) B@048FVW; 4) AB5@5>B8?8. 2. A8E>0=0;V7 70A=C202: 0) . #>BA>=; 1) . $@594; 2) . %>@=8; 3) . !:V==5@; 4) . $@><<. 3. . $@594 7@>182 C ?A8E>;>3VW 2V4:@82: 0) A2V4><VABL; 1) A0<>A2V4><VABL; 2) ?5@54A2V4><VABL; 3) ?V4A2V4><VABL; 4) =04A2V4><VABL. 4. $>@<C20==O =028G>: C B5>@VW . #>BA>=0 70;568BL 2V4: 0) 7=0=L; 1) C<V=L; 2) :V;L:>ABV; 3) =02G0==O; 4) 28E>20==O. 5. &5=B@0;L=>N FV==VABN C 3C<0=VAB8G=V9 ?A8E>;>3VW T: 0) V=482V4; 1) ;N48=0; 2) A2V4><VABL; 3) V=B5;5:B; 4) <8A;5==O. !?8A>: ;VB5@0BC@8 0@V9 .. A8E>;>3VO >A>18AB>ABV: =02G. ?>A.  .: &5=B@ =02G0;L=>W ;VB5@0BC@8, 2008.  592 A. @>D !B0=8A;02. A8E>;>38O 1C4CI53>: #@>:8 A>2@5<5==KE 8AA;54>20=89 A>7=0=8O /?5@. A 0=3;. !. D5@B0A0 8 . &25B:>2>9.  .:  740B5;LAB2> !" 8 4@., 2003.  458 A. 40= .. AB>@8O ?A8E>;>388.  .: #,1990.  368 A. A8E>;>38O: CG51=8: 4;O 3C<0=8B0@=VE 2C7>2 /?>4 >1I. @54. .. @C68=8=0.  !1.: 8B5@, 2001.  656 A. 5. ><5=5FL .. AB>@VO ?A8E>;>3VW %% AB>;VBBO / .. ><5=5FL, .. 0=>E0 - .: 81V4L, 1998.  990 A. 6. "5>@88 ;8G=>AB8 2 70?04=>52@>?59A:>9 8 0<5@8:0=A:>9 ?A8E>;>38. %@5AB><0B8O ?> ?A8E>;>38 ;8G=>AB8 / ./. 093>@>4A:89 (@540:B>@, A>AB028B5;L).  !0<0@0: 740B5;LA:89 4>< % %, 1996.  480 A. 7. $@594 . A8E>;>38O 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3>: ?5@. A =5<.  .: @>A25I5=85, 1989. - 448 A. 8. %L5;; ., 83;5@ . "5>@88 ;8G=>AB8. (A=>2=K5 ?>;>65=8O, 8AA;54>20=85 8 ?@8<5=5=85) / . %L5;;, . 83;5@  !1.: 8B5@ ><, 1998.  608 A. '5;>25: 8 53> A8<2>;K / 0@; CAB02 .=3,  . D>= $@0=F, 6. . %5=45@A>=, . /:>18, . /DD5 /?>4 >1I. @540:F859 !..!8@5=:>. : !5@51@5==K5 =8B8, 1997.  368 A. 5. =B5;5:B 5.1 !CB=VABL B0 B5>@VW V=B5;5:BC. 5.2 8=0<V:0 B0 D0:B>@8, I> >1C<>2;NNBL V=B5;5:B. 5.3 8<V@N20==O V=B5;5:BC. 5.1. !CB=VABL B0 B5>@VW V=B5;5:BC !;>2> V=B5;5:B ?>E>48BL 2V4 ;0B8=AL:>3> intellectus  @>7C<=89. V4 V=B5;5:B>< @>7C<VNBL 3;>10;L=C 2;0AB82VABL ;N48=8, I> 70157?5GCT ?@028;L=VABL A?@89<0==O V @>7C<V==O V=D>@<0FVW, ?@028;L=VABL <8A;5==O, 30@<>=V9=VABL 270T<>4VW 7 =02:>;8H=V< A2VB><. >3;O48 =0 V=B5;5:B ?@>9H;8 ?52=C B@0=AD>@<0FVN V ACBBT2> 70;560BL 2V4 <5B>4>;>3VG=8E ?>3;O4V2 4>A;V4=8:0 B0 B8E B5ABV2, I> 28:>@8AB>2CNBL 4;O 4>A;V465==O FL>3> D5=><5=C. >23> VA=C20;0 4C<:0, I> V=B5;5:B <0T A?04:>2C >1C<>2;5=VABL: ;N48=0 =0@>46CTBLAO 01> @>7C<=>N, 01> =V. # 1884 @. 0=3;V9AL:89 CG5=89 $. 0;LB>= (1822-1911 @@.) 220602, I> ;N48 ?52=8E AV<59 V=B5;5:BC0;L=> 1V;LH @>728=5=V, 0 B0:>6, I> 6V=:8 C FL><C 2V4=>H5==V ?>ABC?0NBLAO G>;>2V:0<. $. 0;LB>= >1AB5682 45AOBL B8AOG >AV1. V= 1C2 4C65 7482>20=89, I> 70 @57C;LB0B0<8 4>A;V465==O 2840B=V 4VOGV =0C:8 =5 2V4@V7=O;8AO 2V4 ?@>AB8E A<5@B=8E, 0 6V=:8 70 45O:8<8 ?>:07=8:0<8 28O28;8AO 1V;LH @>728=5=V, =V6 G>;>2V:8. # 1885 @>FV . 5BB5;; (1860  1944 @@.) @>7@>182 =01V@ B5ABV2 V =07202 WE <5=B0;L=8<8. &8<8 B5AB0<8 287=0G0;8AO H284:VABL @50:FVW, G0A A?@89<0==O ?>4@07=8:V2, 1>;L>289 ?>@V3, 70?0< OB>2C20==O ?52=>3> 7<VABC. . 5BB5;; 28O282 @V7=V 7=0G5==O ?52=8E O:>AB59. >1C4C202 472>=8:>?>4V1=C :@82C, ?>4V1=C 4> @>7?>4V;C DV78G=8E 25;8G8=. &V 40=V 1C;8 28:>@8AB0=V 4;O 282G5==O @>7?>4V;C V=B5;5:BC A5@54 =0A5;5==O. "CB 28O28;8AL O: ;N48 A5@54=L>3> @V2=O, B0: V 2V4AB0;V B0 =04>140@>20=V. =HV 2G5=V, O:V 282G0;8 V=B5;5:B, @>73;O40;8 9>3> 1V;LH H8@>:>. =B5;5:BC0;L=0 ;N48=0  F5 B0, O:0 ?@028;L=> & @>7C<VT V <8A;8BL V <>65 ?@8AB>A>2C20B8AO 4> >1AB028= 68BBO. &N B>G:C 7>@C ?V4B@8<02 . 5:A;5@. !L>3>4=V 1V;LHVABL ?A8E>;>3V2 ?>3>46CNBLAO A0<5 7 B0:8< @>7C<V==O< V=B5;5:BC. =B5;5:B>< =07820TBLAO 3;>10;L=0 2;0AB82VABL V=482V40 040?BC20B8AO 4> =02:>;8H=L>3> A5@54>28I0. A:V;L:8 V=B5;5:B T 3;>10;L=8< O28I5<, B> 28=8:0T =5?@>AB0 ?@>1;5<0 @>7@>1;5==O 9>3> AB@C:BC@8. 5 28:;8:0T 70?5@5G5=L D0:B 1030B>@V2=52>W >@30=V70FVW V=B5;5:BC. # ?A8E>;>3VW 284V;ONBL 42V 3@C?8 B5>@V9 V=B5;5:BC: D0:B>@=V B0 VT@0@EVG=V. # 1904 @>FV 0=3;V9AL:89 2G5=89 '. !?V@<5= 284V;82 35=5@0;L=89 D0:B>@ V=B5;5:BC V ?>7=0G82 9>3> 1C:2>N G. &59 D0:B>@ 287=0G0T A?@><>6=VABL ;N48=8 040?BC20B8AO 4> =02:>;8H=L>3> A5@54>28I0. ;5 6 @>72 O7C20==O <0B5<0B8G=8E 7040G, 282G5==O V=>75<=>W <>28, =0?8A0==O 2V@HV2, @5<>=B B5E=VG=8E 28@>1V2, 1C4C20==O 1C48=:C 28<030NBL @V7=>W 4VO;L=>ABV <>7:C ?@8 ?>4V1=>ABV 35=5@0;L=>3> D0:B>@0. "><C '. !?V@<5= 22>48BL ?>=OBBO D0:B>@0 A?5F8DVG=8E 74V1=>AB59 V ?>7=0G0T 1C:2>N S. &59 D0:B>@ C @V7=8E ;N459 @>728=5=89 ?>-@V7=><C V 2?;820T =0 28@VH5==O :>=:@5B=8E 70240=L 040?B0FVW. !N48 =0;568BL 25@10;L=89, ?@>AB>@>289 V G8A;>289 D0:B>@8. "0: 28=8:;0 ?5@H0 D0:B>@=0 <>45;L V=B5;5:BC. >6=0 ;N48=0 A2>T@V4=> 28@VHCT ?8B0==O 040?B0FVW, 0 V=B5;5:B 28O2;OTBLAO C ?5@F5=B82=8E, <=5<VG=8E, <>2=8E, 25@10;L=8E B0 V=H8E 74V1=>ABOE. . "5@AB>C= (1887  1955 @@.) 4>A;V482 @V7=V 1>:8 7030;L=>3> V=B5;5:BC. V= =07202 WE ?5@28==8<8 @>7C<>28<8 ?>B5=FVO<8. V= 284V;82 AV< B0:8E ?>B5=FV9. 1. 40B=VABL 4> @0EC20==O, B>1B> 74V1=VABL >?5@C20B8 G8A;0<8 V 28:>=C20B8 0@8D<5B8G=V 4VW. 2. 5@10;L=0 3=CG:VABL, B>1B> 740B=VABL ;53:> ?>OA=N20B8, 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 =091V;LH 206;82V A;>20. 3. 5@10;L=5 A?@89<0==O, B>1B> 740B=VABL @>7C<VB8 CA=C V ?8A5<=C <>2C. 4. @>AB>@>20 >@VT=B0FVO, B>1B> 740B=VABL CO2;OB8 A>1V @V7=><0=VB=V ?@54<5B8 C ?@>AB>@V. 5. 0< OBL. 6. 40B=VABL 4> @>7<V@:>2C20==O. 7. (284:VABL A?@89<0==O 2V4<V==>AB59 V ?>4V1=8E >7=0: <V6 ?@54<5B0<8 B0 WE 7>1@065==O<8. >40;LHV 4>A;V465==O A?@8O;8 284V;5==N 1V;LH>W :V;L:>ABV D0:B>@V2. "0:, . V;D>@4 284V;82 120 D0:B>@V2 V=B5;5:BC. T@0@EVG=V <>45;V E0@0:B5@87CNBLAO B8<, I> D0:B>@8 V=B5;5:BC @>7<VICNBLAO =0 @V7=8E ?>25@E0E VT@0@EVW. V4><> 45:V;L:0 VT@0@EVG=8E B5>@V9. 8 @>73;O=5<> <>45;L $. 5@=>=0 B0 . 5:A;5@0. 5@H8=C VT@0@EVW $. 5@=>=0 709<0T 35=5@0;L=89 D0:B>@ V=B5;5:BC G 70 '. !?V@<5=><. @C389 @V25=L 709<0NBL 420 D0:B>@8: 25@10;L=>->A2VB=V 74V1=>ABV B0 ?@0:B8:>-B5E=VG=V 74V1=>ABV. "@5BV9 @V25=L 709<0NBL A?5FV0;L=V 74V1=>ABV: B5E=VG=5 <8A;5==O, <0B5<0B8G=V 74V1=>ABV, 25@10;L=V 74V1=>ABV. AB0==V9, G5B25@B89 @V25=L >1 T4=CT BV;L:8 ?@>ABV AC1D0:B>@8. T@0@EVG=0 <>45;L V=B5;5:BC . 5:A;5@0 <0T B@8 @V2=V: 1. V25=L 7030;L=>3> V=B5;5:BC. 2. V25=L 3@C?>28E D0:B>@V2: V=B5;5:B 4V9, 25@10;L=89 V=B5;5:B. 3. V25=L A?5F8DVG=8E D0:B>@V2 (2V4?>2V40T >:@5<8< AC1 T:B0<). >73;O=CBV VT@0@EVG=V <>45;V =5 28B@8<CNBL 5:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>W ?5@52V@:8, =5 ?V4B25@46CNBLAO 5<?V@8G=8<8 40=8<8 V <0NBL C<>3;O4=89 E0@0:B5@. 5.2. 8=0<V:0 B0 D0:B>@8, I> >1C<>2;NNBL V=B5;5:B =B5;5:B, O: V V=HV ?A8EVG=V CB2>@5==O, ?@>BO3>< 68BBO ;N48=8 7<V=NTBLAO, B>1B> @>72820TBLAO. >728B>: V=B5;5:BC O: 3;>10;L=>3> CB2>@5==O 70;568BL 2V4 1030BL>E D0:B>@V2. 8 @>73;O=5<> ;8H5 2?;82 2V:C, >A2VB8 B0 ?@>D5AV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. >A;V4=8:8 22060NBL, I> 3>;>2=89 @>728B>: V=B5;5:BC 2V41C20TBLAO C ?5@HV 20 @>:V2 68BBO ;N48=8. 091V;LH V=B5=A82=> V=B5;5:B @>72820TBLAO 7 42>E 4> 420=04FOB8 @>:V2. 0:A8<C<C @>728B:C V=B5;5:B 4>AO30T C 19 - 20 @>:V2. > 30 - 34 @>:V2 V=B5;5:B C ;N48=8 715@V30TBLAO AB01V;L=8<. VA;O FL>3> =0AB0T A?04 V=B5;5:BC0;L=8E DC=:FV9. A>1;82> A8;L=> V=B5;5:B 7<5=HCTBLAO ?VA;O 60 @>:V2. ;5 FV 40=V 707=0NBL :@8B8:8. V43@C=BO :@8B8:8 A:;0;8 <5B>48 4>A;V465==O. 0=V 70;56=>ABV V=B5;5:BC 2V4 2V:C ;N48=8 1C;8 >45@60=V <5B>4>< ?>?5@5G=>3> 7@V7C. @8 FL><C =5 2@0E>2C20;8AO =V @V25=L >A2VB8, =V >A>1;82>ABV ?@>D5AV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. /: 7 OAC20;>AO, ;N48 <>;>4H>3> 2V:C <0;8 28I89 @V25=L >A2VB8 V 5D5:B82=VH5 28:>=0;8 70?@>?>=>20=V B5AB8. "><C @V25=L V=B5;5:BC0;L=>ABV 28O282AO 28I8<. >A;V465==O 1C;8 284>7<V=5=V. V418@0;8 4;O 4>A;V465==O ;N459 @V7=>3> 2V:C, 0;5 ?@81;87=> >4=0:>2>3> @V2=O >A2VB8 V ?@>D5AV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. 57C;LB0B8 28:>=0==O B5ABV2 =5 28O28;8 ACBBT28E 2V4<V==>AB59. !C?5@5G;82VABL @57C;LB0BV2 4>A;V465==O V=B5;5:BC ;N459 @V7=>3> 2V:C ;8H5 ?V4B25@46CT A:;04=VABL V 1030B>3@0==VABL B0:>3> D5=><5=C, O: V=B5;5:B. @>4C:B82=VABL V=B5;5:BC0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV 70;568BL 2V4 0:B82=>ABV ?@>D5AV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. "0:, O:I> ?@>D5AV9=0 4VO;L=VABL 28<030T A8AB5<0B8G=>W V=B5;5:BC0;L=>W 0:B82=>ABV, B> V=B5;5:BC0;L=V DC=:FVW <>6CBL @>72820B8AO =02VBL C ?>E8;><C 2VFV, B>1B> C 60 - 80 @>:V2.  2A5 6, 7 2V:>< V=B5;5:BC0;L=89 @V25=L 7<5=HCTBLAO. "0:8< G8=><, V=B5;5:B ;N48=8 70;568BL 2V4 2V:C, @V2=O >A2VB8 B0 ?@>D5AV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV, I> 28<030T V=B5;5:BC0;L=>W 0:B82=>ABV. 5.3. 8<V@N20==O V=B5;5:BC 5>1EV4=VABL 28<V@N20==O V=B5;5:BC 28:;8:0=0 ?@0:B8G=8<8 ?>B@510<8, V ?5@H 70 2A5 ?>B@510<8 =02G0==O. # 1881 @>FV C $@0=FVW 1C;> 70?@>20465=5 >1>2 O7:>25 ?>G0B:>25 =02G0==O. # ?5@5?>2=5=8E :;0A0E >1 T4=C20;8AO 4VB8 >4=>3> 2V:C, 0;5 7 @V7=8< @V2=5< ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C B0 V=B5;5:BC. >;>2=>N ?@>1;5<>N =02G0==O 28O28;0AO ?>2V;L=0 @>1>B0 45O:8E 4VB59. @VT=B0FVO =0 =8E ?@872>48;0 4> 2V4AB020==O 2AL>3> :;0AC. # 72 O7:C 7 F8< 28=8:;0 =5>1EV4=VABL A5;5:FVW 4VB59 70 :@8B5@VT< H284:>ABV 28:>=0==O 70240=L. # 1905 @>FV D@0=FC7L:89 ?A8E>;>3 . V=5 (1857 - 1911 @@.) @>7@>182 <5B>48:C 287=0G5==O V=B5;5:BC. V= A:;02 10 =01>@V2 B5ABV2 4;O :>6=>W 2V:>2>W 3@C?8 2V4 3 4> 12 @>:V2. >65= =01V@ 4;O ?52=>3> 2V:C (=0?@8:;04, 5 @>:V2) <02 6 70240=L. "0:8< G8=><, >4=5 70240==O >FV=N20;>AO 2V:>< 2 <VAOFV (@V:  12 <VAOFV2). 8:>=0==O 70240=L A2>3> 2V:C (G8 =528:>=0==O) 287=0G0T V=B5;5:BC0;L=89 2V:, 2V4?>2V40T ?0A?>@B=><C 2V:C (01> =5 2V4?>2V40T ). 8:>=0==O 70240=L AB0@H>3> 2V:C 4>40T 4> ?0A?>@B=>3> 2V:C 2V4?>2V4=C :V;L:VABL <VAOFV2. "0: V=B5;5:BC0;L=89 2V: AB0T 1V;LH8< 70 ?0A?>@B=89. "0:, 48B8=0 7 @>:V2 28:>=0;0 2AV 70240==O 4;O 3, 4, 5 @>:V2, G>B8@8 70240==O 4;O 4VB59 6 @>:V2, V 420 70240==O 4;O 4VB59 7 @>:V2. ">4V WW V=B5;5:BC0;L=89 2V: AB0=>28BL 24+12+12+12+8+4=72 <VAOFV (6 @>:V2). 2V4A8 28A=>2>:, I> 48B8=0 2V4AB0T =0 1 @V: C V=B5;5:BC0;L=><C @>728B:C. >4V1=0 @V7=8FO V=B5;5:BC0;L=>3> 2V:C C 4 @>:8 V 12 @>:V2 =5 B>B>6=0. "><C 28=8:0T =5>1EV4=VABL 24>A:>=0;8B8 <5B>48:C . V=5. # 1912 @>FV =V<5FL:89 ?A8E>;>3 . (B5@= (1871  1938 @@.) 70?@>?>=C202 <0B5<0B8G=5 @V2=O==O, 70 4>?><>3>N O:>3> >45@60;8 ?52=89 ?>:07=8:, I> 2V4>1@060T 72 O7>: <V6 V=B5;5:BC0;L=8< V ?0A?>@B=8< 2V:><. &59 ?>:07=8: . (B5@= =07202 :>5DVFVT=B>< V=B5;5:BC0;L=>ABV (IQ). V4=>H5==O V=B5;5:BC0;L=>3> 2V:C 4> ?0A?>@B=>3> 2V:C 28@065=5 C ?@>F5=B0E V =07820TBLAO :>5DVFVT=B>< V=B5;5:BC0;L=>ABV.  EMBED Microsoft Equation 3.0  45 IQ  :>5DVFVT=B V=B5;5:BC0;L=>ABV;   V=B5;5:BC0;L=89 2V:;   ?0A?>@B=89 2V:. >=F5?FVO FL>3> :>5DVFVT=B0 ?5@5410G0T, I> V=B5;5:BC0;L=> =>@<0;L=0 48B8=0 - F5 B0:0 48B8=0, C O:>W V=B5;5:BC0;L=89 2V: 2V4?>2V40T ?0A?>@B=><C, B>1B> <0T ?>:07=8: 100. # 1939 @>FV 0=3;V9AL:89 ?A8E>;>3 . 5:A;5@ @>7@>182 H:0;C V=B5;5:BC 4;O 4>@>A;8E, 0 ?V7=VH5 V 4;O 4VB59. "5AB8 F8E H:0; A:;040;8AO 7 =01>@V2 25@10;L=8E B0 =525@10;L=8E 70240=L. # 70 @>:0E <8=C;>3> AB>;VBBO =0C:>20 V ?@0:B8G=0 FV==VABL V=B5;5:BC0;L=8E B5ABV2 1C;0 ?>AB02;5=0 ?V4 AC<=V2. A8E>;>38 ?>ABC?>2> 2V4<>2;ONBLAO 2V4 =8E. 5;8G57=0 :V;L:VABL V=B5;5:BC0;L=8E B5ABV2 @V7=8E 02B>@V2, =0 60;L, =5 28@VHCNBL 704>2V;L=> 70240=L 28<V@N20==O V=B5;5:BC. 465 B5AB8 4>72>;ONBL 287=0G0B8 =5 ABV;L:8 @V25=L V=B5;5:BC0;L=8E DC=:FV9, A:V;L:8 7=0==O G8 >1V7=0=VABL C ?52=V9 30;C7V 7=0=L G8 ;N4AL:>W 4VO;L=>ABV. AL G><C AL>3>4=V B5AB8 V=B5;5:BC 28:>@8AB>2CNBLAO V7 70AB5@565==O<8, 0 >45@60=V @57C;LB0B8 V=B5@?@5BCNBL =5 B0: :0B53>@8G=>. 6. >3=VB82=0 AD5@0 ;N48=8 6.1. V4GCBBO. 6.2. !?@89<0==O. 6.3. 0<'OBL. 6.4. 8A;5==O. 6.5. #O20. 6.6. #2030. 6.1. V4GCBBO. 6.1.1. >=OBBO ?@> 2V4GCBBO. 6..1. .2. $V7V>;>3VG=5 ?V4@C=BO 2V4GCBBV2. . 6.1.3. ;0A8DV:0FVO V @V7=>2848 2V4GCBBV2. 6.1.1. >=OBBO ?@> 2V4GCBBO V4GCBBO - ?V7=020;L=89 ?A8EVG=89 ?@>F5A 2V4>1@065==O >:@5<8E 2;0AB82>AB59 ?@54<5BV2 V O28I ?@8 WE 157?>A5@54=V9 4VW =0 >@30=8 GCBBO ;N48=8. V4GCBBO - F5 =09?@>ABVH89 ?A8EVG=89 ?@>F5A, ?5@28==0 D>@<0 >@VT=B0FVW 682>3> >@30=V7<C C =02:>;8H=L><C A5@54>28IV.  2V4GCBBV2 ?>G8=0TBLAO ?V7=020;L=0 4VO;L=VABL ;N48=8. 0 4>?><>3>N @V7=8E 0=0;V70B>@V2 2>=0 2V418@0T, =03@><046CT V=D>@<0FVN ?@> >1 T:B82=C @50;L=VABL, ?@> 2;0A=V AC1 T:B82=V AB0=8 V =0 FV9 ?V4AB02V 28@>1;OT 045:20B=V A?>A>18 @503C20==O =0 7>2=VH=V B0 2=CB@VH=V 2?;828. @30=8 GCBBO - F5 T48=V :0=0;8, 70 O:8<8 7>2=VH=V9 A2VB ?@>=8:0T C A2V4><VABL ;N48=8. V4GCBBO VA=CNBL C A2V4><>ABV O: AC1 T:B82=V >1@078 >1 T:B82=>3> A2VBC. &O >A>1;82VABL 2V4GCBBV2 >1C<>2;5=0 ?@8@>4>N A0<8E 2V4GCBBV2 B0 ?A8EVG=8< A:;04>< >A>18AB>ABV, O:0 740B=0 2V4GC20B8. 6.1.2. $V7V>;>3VG=5 ?V4@C=BO 2V4GCBBV2 G5==O ?@> 28IC =5@2>2C 4VO;L=VABL @>7:@820T =0C:>2> -?@8@>4=8G5 ?V43@C=BO 2V4GCBBV2. . !TG5=>2 B0 . 02;>2 A2>W<8 4>A;V465==O<8 ?>:070;8, I> 2V4GCBBO - F5 A2>T@V4=V @5D;5:B>@=V 4VW, DV7V>;>3VG=8< ?V4@C=BO< O:8E T =5@2>2V ?@>F5A8, I> 28=8:0NBL 2=0A;V4>: 2?;82C ?>4@07=8:V2 =0 >@30=8 GCBBO, 01> 0=0;V70B>@8. =0;V70B>@8 - F5 >@30=8 B20@8==>3> V ;N4AL:>3> >@30=V7<C, I> 0=0;V7CNBL =02:>;8H=N 4V9A=VABL V A?@89<0NBL ?>4@07=5==O 7 =02:>;8H=L>3> A2VBC: 7>@>289 0=0;V70B>@ A?@89<0T A2VB;>2V ?>4@07=5==O 01> :>;820==O 5;5:B@><03=VB=8E E28;L, A;CE>289 - 72C:>2V, A<0:>289, =NE>289 - EV<VG=V 2;0AB82>ABV @5G>28=, H:V@=V  B5?;>2V, <5E0=VG=V 2;0AB82>ABV ?@54<5BV2 B0 O28I. # :>6=><C 0=0;V70B>@V T ?5@8D5@V9=0, 0=0;V7CNG0 G0AB8=0, 01> @5F5?B>@. =H0 9>3> G0AB8=0  ?@>2V4=89 H;OE 2V4 @5F5?B>@0 4> F5=B@0;L=>W G0AB8=8 0=0;V70B>@0, @>7<VI5=>W C <>7:C. # F5=B@0;L=V9 G0AB8=V 0=0;V70B>@0 74V9A=NNBLAO B>=:89 0=0;V7 V A8=B57 71C465=L. 0 9>3> 4>?><>3>N ?>4@07=8:8 48D5@5=FVNNBLAO 70 >A>1;82>ABO<8, O:VABN B0 V=B5=A82=VABN. 6.1.3. ;0A8DV:0FVO V @V7=>2848 2V4GCBBV2 A=CNBL @V7=V :;0A8DV:0FVW >@30=V2 GCBBO V GCB;82>ABV >@30=V7<C 4> ?>4@07=8:V2, I> =04E>4OBL 4> 0=0;V70B>@V2 V7 7>2=VH=L>3> A2VBC 01> 7A5@548=8 >@30=V7<C. 0;56=> 2V4 <V@8 :>=B0:BC >@30=V2 GCBBO 7 ?>4@07=8:0<8 @>7@V7=ONBL GCB;82VABL :>=B0:B=C (4>B8:>2C, A<0:>2C) B0 48AB0=B=C (7>@>2C, A;CE>2C, =NE>2C). 0 @>7<VI5==O< @5F5?B>@V2 2 >@30=V7<V  =0 ?>25@E=V, 2A5@548=V >@30=V7<C, C <'O70E V ACE>68;;OE  @>7@V7=ONBL 2V4GCBBO 5:AB5@>@5F5?B82=V, I> 2V4>1@06CNBL 2;0AB82>ABV ?@54<5BV2 B0 O28I 7>2=VH=L>3> A2VBC (7>@>2V, A;CE>2V, =NE>2V, A<0:>2V), V=B5@>@5F5?B82=V, I> =5ACBL V=D>@<0FVN ?@> AB0= 2=CB@VH=VE >@30=V2 (2V4GCBBO 3>;>4C, A?@038, 2B><8), B0 ?@>?@V>@5F5?B82=V, I> 2V4>1@06CNBL @CE8 >@30=V2 BV;0 V 9>3> AB0= (:V=5AB5B8G=V B0 AB0B8G=V). /: A0<>ABV9=V 284V;ONBL B5<?5@0BC@=V 2V4GCBBO, I> T DC=:FVTN >A>1;82>3> B5<?5@0BC@=>3> 0=0;V70B>@0, I> 74V9A=NT B5@<>@53C;OFVN V B5?;>>1<V= >@30=V7<C 7 =02:>;8H=V< A5@54>28I5<. "5<?5@0BC@=V 2V4GCBBO =0;560BL B0:>6 4> 4>B8:>28E. V4?>2V4=> 4> A8AB5<8 0=0;V70B>@V2 @>7@V7=ONBL 2V4GCBBO 7>@>2V, A;CE>2V, 4>B8:>2V, 1>;L>2V, B5<?5@0BC@=V, A<0:>2V, =NE>2V, 3>;>4C V A?@038, AB0B52V, :V=5AB5B8G=V B0 AB0B8G=V. >65= V7 F8E @V7=>284V2 2V4GCBBO <0T ?52=89 >@30= (0=0;V70B>@), ?52=V 70:>=><V@=>ABV 28=8:=5==O B0 ?5@51V3C. 6.2. !?@89<0==O 6.2.1. >=OBBO ?@> A?@89<0==O. 6.2.2. ;0AB82>ABV A?@89<0=L. 6.2.1. >=OBBO ?@> A?@89<0==O >=B0:BCNG8 7 =02:>;8H=V< A2VB><, ;N48=0 >45@6CT V=D>@<0FVN =5 BV;L:8 ?@> ?52=V 2;0AB82>ABV B0 O:>ABV, I> ?@8B0<0==V B8< 01> V=H8< >1 T:B0< G8 O28I0<, 0;5 V 2V4><>ABV ?@> A0<V >1'T:B8 O: FV;VA=V CB2>@5==O. "0:5 FV;VA=5 WE 2V4>1@065==O C <>7:C ;N48=8 E0@0:B5@87CT 4@C3C ;0=:C T48=>3> ?@>F5AC GCBBT2>3> ?V7=0==O  A?@89<0==O. !?@89<0==O  F5 ?A8EVG=89 ?@>F5A FV;VA=>3> 2V4>1@065==O C <>7:C ;N48=8 ?@54<5BV2 B0 O28I, C AC:C?=>ABV 2AVE 2;0AB82>AB59 ?@8 157?>A5@54=V9 4VW =0 >@30=8 GCBBO. # @57C;LB0BV A?@89<0==O 28=8:0NBL AC1 T:B82=V >1@078 A?@89=OB8E >1 T:BV2  CO2;5==O. @>F5A A?@89<0==O 2V41C20TBLAO C 270T<>72 O7:C 7 V=H8<8 ?A8EVG=8<8 ?@>F5A0<8 >A>18AB>ABV: <>2>N (=07820T<> 9>3> A;>2><), ?>GCBBO<8 (28O2;OT<> A2>T AB02;5==O 4> =L>3>), 2>;5N (A2V4><8< 7CA8;;O< >@30=V7>2CT<> ?5@F5?B82=C 4VO;L=VABL). 06;82C @>;L C A?@89<0==V 2V4V3@0NBL 5<>FV9=89 AB0= >A>18AB>ABV. <>FVW ?>AB0NBL O: <>B82, 2=CB@VH=T A?>=C:0==O 4> ?V7=0==O ?@54<5BV2 B0 O28I. # A?@89<0==V ?@54<5BV2 B0 O28I A2VBC 206;82C @>;L 2V4V3@0NBL 0:B82=VABL, 4VT2VABL >A>18AB>ABV. >=0 28O2;OTBLAO C @CE0E >@30=V2 GCBBO, A?@O<>20=8E =0 >1 T:B8, I> A?@89<0NBLAO. 6.2.2. ;0AB82>ABV A?@89<0==O 06;82>N C<>2>N CA?VH=>3> A?@89<0==O >1 T:BV2 4V9A=>ABV T 9>3> 281V@:>2VABL. 81V@:>2VABL ?@54<5B0 A?@89<0==O >1C<>2;NTBLAO ?>B@510<8 B0 V=B5@5A0<8 ;N48=8, =5>1EV4=VABN C 7=0==OE, ?@>D5AV9=>N A?@O<>20=VABN B>I>. ;0AB82>ABV A?@89<0==O  ?@54<5B=VABL, FV;VA=VABL, AB@C:BC@=VABL, :>=AB0=B=VABL B0 >A<8A;5=VABL. @54<5B=VABL A?@89<0==O 28O2;OTBLAO C A?V22V4=>H5==V 2V4><>AB59 ?@> >1 T:B8 V7 A0<8<8 >1 T:B0<8 O: =>AVO<8 ?52=>W V=D>@<0FVW. "0:0 >1'T:B820FVO 2@065=L C :>=:@5B=8E >1'T:B0E @50;L=>3> A2VBC 70157?5GCT >@VT=BCNGC B0 @53C;NNGC DC=:FVW C ?@0:B8G=V9 4VO;L=>ABV ;N48=8. @54<5B=VABL A?@89<0==O T =01CB>N 2;0AB82VABN, I> D>@<CTBLAO C ?@>F5AV 0:B82=>W 270T<>4VW AC1 T:B0 7 >1 T:B82=8< A2VB>< V 3@C=BCTBLAO =0 ?52=V9 A8AB5<V 4V9, ?@82>48BL 4> @>7C<V==O ?@54<5B=>ABV A2VBC. @54<5B8 B0 O28I0 A?@89<0NBLAO O: T48=5 FV;5, 2 O:><C >:@5<V :><?>=5=B8 ?>AB0NBL 2 T4=>ABV. V4ACB=VABL C ?@54<5BV O:>3>AL >4=>3> 9>3> 0A?5:BC 01> 45B0;V =5 702060T FV;VA=><C A?@89<0==N. @54<5B O: FV;5, AB02;5==O 4> =L>3> O: FV;>3> 287=0G0T 9>3> AB@C:BC@C. 8H5 C ?@>F5AV 0=0;V7C ?@54<5B @>7G;5=>2CTBLAO =0 A:;04>2V, 284V;ONBLAO 9>3> E0@0:B5@8AB8:8. &V;VA=> A?@89=OB5 =5 702648 >A<8A;NTBLAO O: ?@54<5B, I> <0T ?52=C AB@C:BC@C. A<8A;5==O A?@89=OB>3> 70;568BL 2V4 4>A2V4C B0 7=0=L >A>18AB>ABV. # A?@89<0==V ?@54<5BV2 B0 O28I 206;82C @>;L 2V4V3@0NBL ?>?5@54=V9 4>A2V4, ?>?5@54=V CO2;5==O >A>18AB>ABV. 0;56=> 2V4 ?>2=>B8 WE 7<VABC V A?@O<>20=>ABV B5, I> A?@89<0TBLAO 2V4>1@060TBLAO C A2V4><>ABV 045:20B=>. <VAB ?>?5@54=L>3> 4>A2V4C, A?>@V4=5=VABL 9>3> V7 >1'T:B><, V=B5@5A 4> =L>3> T BVTN ?5@54C<>2>N 5D5:B82=>ABV B0 045:20B=>ABV A?@89<0==O, O:C =07820NBL 0?5@F5?FVTN. # 1030BL>E 28?04:0E ;N48=0 C ?@54<5B0E 10G8BL B5, I> 2>=0 E>G5 C =8E ?>10G8B8 . 6.3. 0< OBL 6.3.1. >=OBBO ?@> ?0< OBL. 6.3.2. 848 ?0<'OBV. 6.3.1. >=OBBO ?@> ?0< OBL 0< OBBN 7 402=VE - 4025= FV:028;8AO DV;>A>D8, ?A8E>;>38 B0 DV7V>;>38. 0< OBL O: 740B=VABL 2V4B2>@N20B8 <8=C;89 4>A2V4 - >4=0 7 >A=>2=8E 2;0AB82>AB59 =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8, I> 28@060TBLAO C <>6;82>ABV 4>23>AB@>:>2> 715@V30B8 V=D>@<0FVN ?@> ?>4VW 7>2=VH=L>3> A2VBC B0 @50:FVW >@30=V7<C. 04O=AL:89 ?A8E>;>3 . . C@VO B0: 3>2>@8BL ?@> ?0< OBL: >6=5 =0H5 ?5@56820==O, 2@065==O B0 @CE 70;8H0T ?52=89 2V418B>:, I> 715@V30TBLAO 4>2389 G0A V 70 2V4?>2V4=8E >1AB028= 28O2;OTBLAO 7=>2C V AB0T ?@54<5B>< A2V4><>ABV. "><C ?V4 ?0< OBBN <8 @>7C<VT<> A?@89<0==O, 715@V30==O V 2V4B2>@5==O 2V418B:V2 <8=C;>3> 4>A2V4C, I> 40T ;N48=V <>6;82VABL =0:>?8G8B8 V=D>@<0FVN V <0B8 A?@02C 7V A;V40<8 <8=C;>3> 4>A2V4C ?VA;O B>3>, O: O28I0, I> ?>@>48;8 WE, 7=8:;8. 0< OBBN =07820TBLAO ?A8EVG=89 ?@>F5A 2V4>1@065==O <8=C;>3> 4>A2V4C. 0<'OBL O: ?V7=020;L=89 ?@>F5A 28:>=CT B@8 ?@>2V4=V DC=:FVW: =0:>?8G5==O 2;0A=>3> >A>18ABVA=>3> 4>A2V4C; 715@565==O B>B>6=>ABV 2;0A=>3> /; DC=:FV>=C20==O V=B5;5:BC. @V< B>3>, C ;VB5@0BC@V 7CAB@VG0TBLAO 9 V=H5 287=0G5==O ?0< OBV: 70?0< OB>2C20==O, 715@V30==O B0 2V4B2>@5==O V=482V4>< 9>3> 4>A2V4C =07820TBLAO ?0< OBBN. # ?0< OBV @>7@V7=ONBL B0:V >A=>2=V ?@>F5A8: 70?0< OB>2C20==O, 715@V30==O, 2V4B2>@5==O V 701C20==O. 6.3.2. 848 ?0< OBV 0< OBL ;N48=8 V=482V4C0;L=0 V 70;568BL 2V4 1030BL>E D0:B>@V2 - DV78G=8E B0 ?A8E>;>3VG=8E. V4@C=BO< :;0A8DV:0FVW ?0< OBV T B@8 >7=0:8: 1) 70 ?5@52060==O< D>@<8 ?A8EVG=>W 0:B82=>ABV - @CE>20, 5<>FV9=0, >1@07=0, A;>25A=> - ;>3VG=0 01> V=B5;5:BC0;L=0; 2) 70 A?>A>1>< 70?0< OB>2C20==O - 4>2V;L=0 B0 <8<>2V;L=0; 3) 70 B@820;VABN 715@V30==O V=D>@<0FVW  >?5@0B82=0, :>@>B:>G0A=0, 4>23>B@820;0. 1 T:B8 4VO;L=>ABV - @CE, ?>GCBBO, >1@07 01> A;>2>  40;8 =0728 B0:8< 2840< ?0< OBV, O: @CE>20, 5<>FV90, >1@07=0 B0 A;>25A=> - ;>3VG=0. CE>20 ?0< OBL - 70?0< OB>2C20==O, 715@V30==O B0 2V4B2>@5==O @CEV2. >=0 28@060TBLAO C D>@<C20==V =028G>:. %>40, <0=5@0 @>7<>2;OB8, A<VOB8AO, ?>G5@: ?>2 O70=V 7 @CE>28<8 =028G:0<8. /:I> 28 740B=V ?>1;V4=VBL 01> ?>G5@2>=VB8 ?@8 >4=V9 7304FV ?@> ?5@568B5, O:I> 28 1>WB5AO 4C<0B8 ?@> 402=> ?5@568B5 =5I0ABO - C 20A T ?0<'OBL =0 ?>GCBBO, - ?8A02 .!. !B0=VA;02AL:89 ?@> 5<>FV9=C ?0< OBL. =V2 V @04VABL, 2V4G09 V =04VO, =5=028ABL B0 ;N1>2 - ?>GCBBO ?>;O@=V. !8;0 5<>FV9=>W ?0< OBV C ;N459 =5>4=0:>20. <>FV9=> 1V4=V =5 <>6CBL 2V4B2>@8B8 ?5@568BV ?>GCBBO, 1V;LHVABL ;N459 2V4B2>@NNBL WE C ?52=><C ABC?5=V, 0@B8AB8G=V =0BC@8 =5 BV;L:8 A?@89<0NBL 3>AB@> A2>W ?>GCBBO, 0;5 9 ?>GCBBO V=H8E. <>FV9=0 ?0< OBL <0T A2>T@V4=C >A>1;82VABL. >=0 ?>;O30T C B><C, I> 70?0< OB>2CNBLAO =5 A0<V 5<>FVW G8 ?>GCBBO, 0 ?@54<5B8, ;N48 G8 ?>4VW, I> WE 28:;8:0;8. /:I> ;N48=0 7CAB@VG0TBLAO 7 B8<8 >1 T:B0<8, B> 7=>2C ?5@56820T BV 6 ?>GCBBO G8 5<>FVW. 1@07=0 ?0< OBL >?5@CT CO2;5==O<8 - >1@070<8 ?@54<5BV2, AD>@<>20=8<8 C =0H><C 4>A2V4V. >=0 ?>4V;OTBLAO =0 7>@>2C, A;CE>2C, =NE>2C, A<0:>2C B0 4>B8:>2C. 091V;LH @>7?>2AN465=>N C 1V;LH>ABV ;N459 T 7>@>20 B0 A;CE>20 ?0<'OBL. 'C4>20 >1@07=0 ?0< OBL - >A>1;8289 40@ EC4>6=8:V2, <C78:0=BV2, ?8AL<5==8:V2. CE>20, 5<>FV9=0 B0 >1@07=0 ?0< OBL C A2>WE >A>1;828E D>@<0E ?@8B0<0==0 V B20@8=0<. !?5F8DVG=> ;N4AL:0 ?0< OBL  A;>25A=> - ;>3VG=0, 7<VAB>< O:>W T =0HV 4C<:8 B0 <>20. !;>25A=>-;>3VG=0 ?0< OBL - F5 =5 ?@>AB> 70?0< OB>2C20==O, 0 ?5@5@>1:0 A;>25A=>W V=D>@<0FVW, 284V;5==O 7 =5W ACBBT2>3>, 715@565==O C ?0< OBV B8E 4C<>:, I> =8<8 28@065=V. V4@C=BO< A;>25A=> - ;>3VG=>W ?0<'OBV T A:;04=89 ?@>F5A ?5@5:>4C20==O <0B5@V0;C, ?>2'O70=>3> 7 C7030;L=5==O< ?@>2V4=8E <><5=BV2 V=D>@<0FVW. "5, I> ;N48=0 A?@89<0T, <>65 715@53B8AO C ?0< OBV V B>4V, :>;8 =5 AB>WBL 70240==O 70?0< OB0B8. "0:0 D>@<0 70?0<'OB>2C20==O <0T =072C <8<>2V;L=>3> 70?0< OB>2C20==O. ;O =L>3> E0@0:B5@=0 2V4ACB=VABL =0<V@C 70?0<'OB0B8 40=89 <0B5@V0;. 0;5:> =5 2A5, I> ;N48=0 A?@89<0T, 70:@V?;NTBLAO C ?0< OBV. !?@89=OB8 - I5 =5 >7=0G0T 70?0< OB0B8. !?5FV0;L=5 >?8BC20==O 7=0G=>W :V;L:>ABV ;N459 ?@>45<>=AB@C20;>, I> 728G09=V >1 T:B8, I> ;N48 10G8;8 A>B=V @07V2, =5 715@53;8AO C WE=V9 ?0< OBV. 5@V4:> 4;O 70:@V?;5==O <0B5@V0;C C ?0< OBV =5>1EV4=>, I>1 C ;N48=8 1C;0 <5B0  70?0< OB0B8 40=89 <0B5@V0;. @8 ?>AB0=>2FV <5B8 C ;N48=8 28=8:0T =0<V@ 70?0< OB0B8 <0B5@V0;. 0<V@ ?>;O30T C 7030;L=V9 3>B>2=>ABV ;N48=8 4VOB8 ?52=8< G8=><, C 40=><C 28?04:C - :@0I5 70?0< OB0B8 B5, I> 28<030TBLAO. 8=8:=5==O =0<V@C T ;8H5 ?>G0B:>28< <><5=B>< ?@>F5AC A2V4><>3> 70?0< OB>2C20==O. >;>2=89 G8==8: - 74V9A=5==O =0<V@C. 0?0< OB>2C20==O, 4;O O:>3> 2;0AB820 =0O2=VABL <5B8 70?0< OB0B8 B0 28:>@8AB0==O @V7=8E <5B>4V2 V ?@89><V2, A?@O<>20=8E =0 CA?VH=5 70:@V?;5==O <0B5@V0;C C ?0< OBV, =07820NBL 4>2V;L=8< 70?0<'OB>2C20==O<. 84V;ONBL >A>1;82C D>@<C 4>2V;L=>3> (A2V4><>3>) 70?0< OB>2C20==O - 70CGC20==O. >=> 74V9A=NTBLAO C ?@>F5AV 1030B>@07>28E ?>2B>@5=L. @8 70CGC20==V >A>1;82C @>;L <0T 70240==O, 0 B0:>6 A?>A>18 B0 ?@89><8, I> A?@8ONBL :@0I><C 70:@V?;5==N <0B5@V0;C. 0CGC20==O =5>1EV4=> B>4V, :>;8 ?>B@V1=> 70?0< OB0B8 <0B5@V0; 7 25;8:8< ABC?5=5< B>G=>ABV B0 715@53B8 9>3> C ?0< OBV =0 4>2389 G0A. 0 B@820;VABN 715@V30==O V=D>@<0FVW ?0< OBL :;0A8DV:CNBL O:: >?5@0B82=C, :>@>B:>G0A=C B0 4>23>B@820;C. ?5@0B82=0 ?0< OBL ?>2 O70=0 7 ?@>F5A>< H284:>W ?5@5@>1:8 25;8:>3> >1AO3C V=D>@<0FVW B0 28:>=0==O ?52=8E >?5@0FV9. >@>B:>G0A=0 ?0< OBL E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO =5B@820;8< 715@V30==O< V=D>@<0FVW. >23>B@820;0  70157?5GCT 4>23>G0A=5 (2V4 :V;L:>E @>:V2 4> 45AOB8;VBL) 715@565==O <0B5@V0;C. 0< OBV ?@8B0<0==V B0:V O:>ABV, I> 287=0G0NBL V=482V4C0;L=V >A>1;82>ABV: H284:VABL 70?0<'OB>2C20==O, <VF=VABL, >1AO3 B0 B>G=VABL. (284:VABL 70?0<'OB>2C20==O 287=0G0TBLAO :V;L:VABN ?>2B>@5=L, ?>B@V1=8E ;N48=V 4;O 70?0< OB>2C20==O =>2>3> <0B5@V0;C. VF=VABL 70?0< OB>2C20==O 28O2;OTBLAO C B@820;>ABV 715@565==O 282G5=>3> <0B5@V0;C (01> C ?>2V;L=>ABV 9>3> 701C20==O). 1AO3 ?0< OBV  :V;L:VABL D0:BV2, ?@54<5BV2 V O28I, I> ;N48=0 740B=0 70?0< OB0B8 70 ?52=89 G0A. ">G=VABL 70?0< OB>2C20==O E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO 2V4?>2V4=VABN 2V4B2>@5=>3> B><C, I> 70?0< OB>2C20;>AO, B0 :V;L:VABN 4>?CI5=8E ?><8;>:. 6.4. 8A;5==O 6.4.1. @>F5A <8A;5==O. 848 <8A;5==O. 6.4.2. ?5@0FVW <8A;5==O. 6.4.1. @>F5A <8A;5==O. 848 <8A;5==O V7=020;L=0 4VO;L=VABL ;N48=8 ?>G8=0TBLAO 7 2V4GCBBV2 V A?@89<0==O. @>B5 B0:>W V=D>@<0FVW ?@> =02:>;8H=V9 A2VB ;N48=V =54>AB0B=L> 4;O 704>2>;5==O @V7=><0=VB=8E ?>B@51 ?@0:B8G=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. 8G5@?=V 7=0==O ?@> >1 T:B8 4V9A=>ABV, WE 2=CB@VH=N ACB=VABL ;N48=0 >45@6CT 70 4>?><>3>N <8A;5==O  28I>W D>@<8 ?V7=0==O >1 T:B82=>W @50;L=>ABV. >=> 28=8:0T C A8BC0FVW =0O2=>ABV 4>AB0B=L>W :V;L:>ABV 7=0=L 4;O 28@VH5==O :>=:@5B=>W ?@>1;5<8. 8A;5==O - F5 ?A8EVG=89 ?@>F5A >?>A5@54:>20=>3> B0 C7030;L=5=>3> 2V4>1@065==O 4V9A=>ABV 70 4>?><>3>N A;>20. 5@H0 >A>1;82VABL 28@060TBLAO 2 >?>A5@54:>20=><C E0@0:B5@V <8A;5==T2>3> 2V4>1@065==O 4V9A=>ABV. 5 <>6=0 157?>A5@54=L> ?>10G8B8 1C4>2C 0B><=>3> O4@0, EV<VG=C @50:FVN, C;LB@0DV>;5B>25 28?@><V=N20==O B>I>. )>1 @>7:@8B8 2AV FV 2;0AB82>ABV, ;N48=0 240TBLAO 4> <V@:C20=L, >1G8A;5=L, A?V2AB02;5==O D0:BV2. @C30 >A>1;82VABL <8A;5==O  C7030;L=5=89 E0@0:B5@ 2V4>1@065==O 4V9A=>ABV. N48=0 ?V7=0T VAB>B=V >7=0:8, I> 28O2;ONBLAO A?V;L=8<8 4;O A?>@V4=5=8E ?@54<5BV2 V >A<8A;NT WE C7030;L=5=>, >?5@CNG8 ?>=OBBO<8, I> 702648 T 7030;L=8<8, 01AB@0:B=8<8 ?>=OBBO<8. V7=V 02B>@8 ?> - @V7=><C 284V;ONBL 2848 <8A;5==O. 091V;LH ?>H8@5=V 420 ?V4E>48: 70 =0>G=VABN B0 B2>@GVABN. 84V;OBL 2848 <8A;5==O: 0 =0>G=VABN: 0 B2>@GVABN: =0>G=> - 4V9>25; - B5>@5B8G=5; =0>G=> - >1@07=5; - ?@0:B8G=5; A;>25A=> - ;>3VG=5. - B2>@G5. 0>G=>-4V9>25 <8A;5==O - F5 @>72 O7C20==O 7040G C =0>G=V9 D>@<V H;OE>< ?@0:B8G=8E 4V9 7 :>=:@5B=8<8 ?@54<5B0<8. # 48B8=8 =0>G=> - 4V9>25 <8A;5==O T ?5@H8< :@>:>< 4> ?V7=0==O A2>3> >B>G5==O. >=> 2;0AB825 V B20@8=0<. "0:, <02?0, <0=V?C;NNG8 7 ?@54<5B0<8 C :V<=0BV, 4VAB0T ?V42VH5=89 ?V4 AB5;5N 10=0=. 0>G=>->1@07=5 (>1@07=5, ?@>AB>@>25) <8A;5==O - F5 @>72 O7C20==O 7040G H;OE>< V450;L=>3> ?5@5B2>@5==O WE C<>2 70 4>?><>3>N >1@07V2 A?@89<0==O, I> <0T ;N48=0. 8B8=0 G>B8@L>E-H5AB8 @>:V2 740B=0 >?5@C20B8 >1@07>< >1'T:B0, I> 28:;8:02 V=B5@5A. @>B5 2V= I5 =5 28E>48BL 70 <56V WW A?@89<0==O. # <0B5<0B8FV 28:>@8AB>2CNBL :@5A;5==O O: C<>2C AB2>@5==O >1@07V2. !;>25A=> - ;>3VG=5 <8A;5==O - F5 ?@>2V4=89 70AV1 B5>@5B8G=>3> >2>;>4V==O 4V9A=VABN. >=> D>@<CTBLAO 2=0A;V4>: >2>;>4V==O 4VBL<8 =0C:>28<8 ?>=OBBO<8, 70DV:A>20=8<8 C A;>2V. >=> <0T 283;O4 <V@:C20==O, 74V9A=NTBLAO H;OE>< <8A;8B5;L=8E 4V9: 0=0;V7C, A8=B57C, 01AB@03C20==O, C7030;L=5==O, ?>@V2=O==O, :;0A8DV:0FVW. "5>@5B8G=5 <8A;5==O <>6=0 22060B8 @V7=>284>< A;>25A=>-;>3VG=>3>. &5 70AV1 FV;5A?@O<>20=>3> B5>@5B8G=>3> >A2>T==O 4V9A=>ABV, 2V4B2>@5==O WW C ?>=OBBOE. "5>@5B8G=5 <8A;5==O A?@O<>20=5 =0 ?>1C4>2C C7030;L=5=>3> V 7=0G=>N <V@>N CA2V4><;5=>3> >1@07C A2VBC. @0:B8G=5 <8A;5==O 35=5B8G=> ?>2 O70=5 7 =0>G=>-4V9>28<, 0;5 70 <5E0=V7<0<8 74V9A=5==O =0304CT B5>@5B8G=5. 0 2V4<V=C 2V4 B5>@5B8G=>3>, 2>=> T 70A>1>< @>72 O7C20==O :>=:@5B=8E ?@0:B8G=8E 70240=L B0 ?5@5410G0T 2=5A5==O ?52=8E 4V9 C 4V9A=VABL. @0:B8G=5 <8A;5==O <>65 <0B8 283;O4 B5E=VG=>3> (>1A;C3>2CT ?@>F5A AB2>@5==O V 24>A:>=0;5==O ;N48=>N B5E=VG=8E >1 T:BV2) G8 >?5@0B82=>3> (@>72 O70==O 7040G, I> 28=8:0NBL ?V4 G0A C?@02;V==O B5E=VG=8<8 >1 T:B0<8). "2>@G5 <8A;5==O <>65 1CB8 =0>G=> - >1@07=8< 01> A;>25A=>-;>3VG=8<, B5>@5B8G=8< 01> ?@0:B8G=8<. &5 3>;>2=5 7=0@O44O B2>@G>ABV, A?>AV1 @>72 O7C20==O >@83V=0;L=8E V A:;04=8E 70240=L. >65= 284 <8A;5==O @50;V7CTBLAO 70 4>?><>3>N ?52=8E ?A8E>;>3VG=8E <5E0=V7<V2 - A:;04>28E ?@>F5AC <8A;5==O, 0 A0<5 70 4>?><>3>N >?5@0FV9 <8A;5==O. 6.4.2. ?5@0FVW <8A;5==O 8A;5==O ?>G8=0TBLAO 7 ?@>1;5<=>W A8BC0FVW, 4;O 28E>4C 7 O:>W V=482V4 <0T 7=09B8 V 70AB>AC20B8 =>2V 4;O A515 7=0==O G8 4VW. >=0 ?>T4=CT =52V4><5 (HC:0=5), V=482V4C0;L=C ?>B@51C V=482V40, 9>3> 74V1=>ABV B0 4>A2V4. >HC: =52V4><>3> C <560E 0:BC :>=:@5B870FVW 74V9A=NTBLAO O: 157?5@5@2=89 ?@>F5A ?@>3=>7C20==O - AB2>@5==O >1@07C 1060=>3> @57C;LB0BC. &59 ?@>F5A 74V9A=NTBLAO H;OE>< <8A;8B5;L=8E 4V9 B0 >?5@0FV9: 0=0;V7C, A8=B57C, 01AB@03C20==O, C7030;L=5==O, ?>@V2=O==O. =0;V7  @>7G;5=C20==O >1 T:B0 <8A;5==O O: FV;>3> =0 G0AB8=8 70 4>?><>3>N 7>2=VH=VE 01> 2=CB@VH=VE 4V9 G8 >?5@0FV9. !8=B57 - ?@0:B8G=5 01> B5>@5B8G=5 >1'T4=0==O 284V;5=8E C ?@>F5AV 0=0;V7C G0AB8= C =>25 FV;5. 1AB@03C20==O  284V;5==O >4=8E 2;0AB82>AB59 >1 T:B0 <8A;5==O A5@54 V=H8E. #7030;L=5==O  >1 T4=0==O 206;828E 2;0AB82>AB59 >1 T:B0 <8A;5==O, >B@8<0=8E C @57C;LB0BV 0=0;V7C, A8=B57C, 01AB@03C20==O. >@V2=O==O  <8A;8B5;L=0 >?5@0FVO, I> 40T 7<>3C 2AB0=>28B8 ?>4V1=V B0 2V4<V==V >7=0:8 0=0;V7>20=8E >1 T:BV2. 6.5. #O20 6.5.1. >=OBBO ?@> CO2C. 6.5.2. 848 CO28. 6.5.1. >=OBBO ?@> CO2C N48=0 A?@89<0T B5, I> =0 =5W 4VT C ?52=89 <><5=B, 01> CO2;OT B5, I> =0 =5W 4VO;> @0=VH5. 8BBO ?>B@51CT 2V4 ;N48=8 AB2>@5==O >1@07V2 >1 T:BV2, I> 2>=0 I5 =5 A?@89<0;0, ?5@5410G5==O =0A;V4:V2 A2>WE 4V9 B0 2G8=:V2, ?@>3@0<C20==O A2>TW 4VO;L=>ABV B>I>. A5 F5 70157?5GCT CO20, 01> D0=B07VO. #O20 - F5 A?5F8DVG=> ;N4AL:89 ?A8EVG=89 ?@>F5A, I> 28=8: V AD>@<C202AO C ?@>F5AV B@C4>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV. $C=:FVO CO28 - A?5F8DVG=> ;N4AL:0 D>@<0 28?5@5460;L=>3> 2V4>1@065==O 4V9A=>ABV. 5@H =V6 I>AL @>18B8, ;N48=0 CO2;OT :V=F5289 @57C;LB0B A2>TW 4VO;L=>ABV. /:8<8 1 482>286=8<8 =5 74020;8AO ?@>4C:B8 ;N4AL:>W CO28, ?V4@C=BO< 4;O WE ?>1C4>28 702648 T ?>?5@54=V9 4>A2V4 ;N48=8, BV 2@065==O, I> 715@V30NBLAO 2 WW A2V4><>ABV. #O20  F5 ?V7=020;L=89 ?@>F5A AB2>@5==O ;N48=>N >1 T:BV2, O:8E 2>=0 =V:>;8 =5 A?@89<0;0. !B2>@5==O >1@07V2 CO28 702648 ?>2 O70=5 7 ?52=8< 2V4ABC?>< 2V4 @50;L=>ABV, 28E>4>< 70 WW <56V. &5 7=0G=> @>7H8@NT ?V7=020;L=V <>6;82>ABV ;N48=8, 70157?5GCNG8 W9 740B=VABL ?5@5410G5==O B0 AB2>@5==O =>2>3> A2VBC O: A5@54>28I0 A2>3> 1CBBO. &V==VABL CO28 ?>;O30T C B><C, I> 2>=0 4>?><030T ;N48=V >@VT=BC20B8AO C ?@>1;5<=8E A8BC0FVOE, ?@89<0B8 ?@028;L=V @VH5==O, ?5@5410G0B8 @57C;LB0B 2;0A=8E 4V9 B>4V, :>;8 =0O2=8E 7=0=L 28O2;OTBLAO =54>AB0B=L> 4;O 157?>A5@54=L>W @50;V70FVW ?V7=020;L=>W ?>B@518. #O20 DC=:FV>=CT, B0:8< G8=><, B0<, 45=54>AB0B=L> 7=0=L. 0 =0O2=>ABV =5>1EV4=8E 7=0=L DC=:FV>=CT V=H89 ?V7=020;L=89 ?@>F5A  <8A;5==O. 4=VABL CO28 V <8A;5==O ?>;O30T C AB2>@5==V G>3>AL =>2>3>, 0 2V4<V==VABL  C =0O2=>ABV 7=0=L. >;>4VT AC1 T:B 7=0==O<8  ?@0FNT <8A;5==O, =5 2>;>4VT 7=0==O<8  CO20. 0 28A;>2>< . !TG5=>20, 28B2>@8 CO28  F5 =510G5=V C A2VBV A?>;CG5==O 10G5=8E 2@065=L. 57 ?>B@V1=>3> GCBBT2>3> 4>A2V4C, 70DV:A>20=>3> C ?0< OBV, =>2V >1@078 AB2>@8B8 =5<>6;82>. '8< @V7=><0=VB=VHV A?@89<0==O ;N48=8, G8< 1030BH89 WW 68BBT289 4>A2V4, B8< OA:@02VH8<8, ?>2=VH8<8 9 B>G=VH8<8 1C20NBL AB2>@5=V =5N >1@078 ?@> ?@54<5B8, I> 157?>A5@54=L> =5 A?@89<0NBLAO. #O20  F5 DC=:FVO :>@8 25;8:8E ?V2:C;L 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C. $V7V>;>3VG=8< ?V4@C=BO< CO28 T CB2>@5==O =>28E A?>;CG5=L B8E =5@2>28E 72 O7:V2, I> 28=8:0;8 @0=VH5 C ?@>F5AV 2V4>1@065==O ;N48=>N >1 T:B82=>W @50;L=>ABV. ;O 28=8:=5==O =>2>3> >1@07C ?>B@V1=>, I>1 @0=VH5 CB2>@5=V A8AB5<8 72 O7:V2 @>7?0;8AO 9 CB2>@8;8AO =>2V A?>;CG5==O 2V4?>2V4=> 4> =>28E ?>B@51. 030BAB2> >1@07V2 D0=B07VW 70;568BL 2V4 >@83V=0;L=>ABV B>3>, O: ?>T4=CNBLAO @8A8 2V4><8E >1 T:BV2, =0A:V;L:8 =>28<8, =5AB0=40@B=8<8 T FV ?>T4=0==O. !B2>@5=V >1@078 >1 T:BV2 157?>A5@54=L> ?>2 O70=V 7 5<>FV9=>N AD5@>N >A>18AB>ABV, WW ?>GCBBO<8. N4AL:89 <>7>: <>65 A?@02;OB8 @53C;N20;L=89 2?;82 =0 ?5@8D5@V9=V G0AB8=8 >@30=V7<C, 7<V=N20B8 WE DC=:FV>=C20==O. V4><V 28?04:8, :>;8 ;N48, O:V <0;8 OA:@02C D0=B07VN, 7<V=N20;8 B5<?5@0BC@C @C:8, CAL>3> BV;0, CO2;ONG8 :@83C G8 @>7?5G5=89 ?@54<5B. 6.5.2. 848 CO28 VO;L=VABL CO28 <>65 1CB8 >E0@0:B5@87>20=0 70;56=> 2V4 CG0ABV C FL><C ?@>F5AV A?5FV0;L=>W 2>;L>2>W @53C;OFVW, 2V4 E0@0:B5@C 4VO;L=>ABV ;N48=8 B0 7<VABC AB2>@N20=8E >1@07V2. 0;56=> 2V4 FV;5?>:;040==O CO2C ?>4V;ONBL =0 <8<>2V;L=C B0 4>2V;L=C. /:I> C ;N48=8 2V4ACB=O <5B0 AB2>@N20B8 ?52=V >1@078, 0 2>=8 28=8:0NBL, B> F5 1C45 <8<>2V;L=0 CO20. 0O2=VABL <5B8 AB2>@N20B8 >1@078 E0@0:B5@87CT 4>2V;L=C CO2C. 0;56=> 2V4 E0@0:B5@C 4VO;L=>ABV ;N48=8 WW CO2C ?>4V;ONBL =0 B2>@GC B0 @5?@>4C:B82=C. #O20, I> 2:;NG0TBLAO C B2>@GC 4VO;L=VABL V 4>?><030T ;N48=V AB2>@N20B8 =>2V >@83V=0;L=V >1@078, =07820TBLAO B2>@G>N. #O20, I> 2:;NG0TBLAO C ?@>F5A 70A2>T==O B>3>, I> 265 AB2>@8;8 9 >?8A0;8 V=HV ;N48, =07820TBLAO 2V4B2>@N20;L=>N, 01> @5?@>4C:B82=>N. 0;56=> 2V4 7<VABC 4VO;L=>ABV 9 E0@0:B5@C ?@0FV ;N48=8 CO20 ?>4V;OTBLAO =0 EC4>6=N, B5E=VG=C, =0C:>2C B0 V=. %C4>6=O CO20 <0T ?5@5206=> GCBBT2V (7>@>2V, A;CE>2V, 4>B8:>2V B0 V=.) >1@078, =04728G09=> OA:@02V 9 45B0;L=V. ;O B5E=VG=>W CO28 E0@0:B5@=8<8 T AB2>@5==O >1@07V2 ?@>AB>@>28E 2V4=>H5=L C 283;O4V 35><5B@8G=8E DV3C@ V ?>1C4>2, WE >1 T4=0==O C =>2V A?>;CG5==O, CO2=5 ?5@5=5A5==O WE C @V7=V A8BC0FVW. 0C:>20 CO20 28O2;OTBLAO C ?>1C4>2V 3V?>B57, ?@>2545==V 5:A?5@8<5=BV2, 2 C7030;L=5==OE, I> WE @>1;OBL ?@8 AB2>@5==V ?>=OBL. A>1;82>N D>@<>N CO28 T <@VO. @VO  F5 ?@>F5A AB2>@5==O ;N48=>N >1@07V2 1060=>3> <091CB=L>3>. @VO T =5>1EV4=>N C<>2>N 2BV;5==O C 68BBO B2>@G8E 704C<V2, :>;8 >1@078 CO28 =5 <>6CBL @50;V7C20B8AO =5309=> 7 >1'T:B82=8E 01> AC1 T:B82=8E ?@8G8=. # FV9 A8BC0FVW <@VO ?>AB0T O: @50;L=89 <>B82 4VO;L=>ABV, 7024O:8 O:><C AB0T <>6;828< 7025@H5==O @>7?>G0B>W A?@028. 6.6. #2030 6.6.1. >=OBBO ?@> C203C. 6.6.2. 848 C2038. 6.6.3. ;0AB82>ABV C2038. 6.6.1. >=OBBO ?@> C203C 02:>;8H=T A5@54>28I5 ?>ABV9=> 2?;820T =0 >@30=8 GCBBO ;N48=8, 0;5 =5 2AV ?>4@07=8:8 2>=0 2V4>1@060T GVB:>. !2V4><VABL V=482V40 =5 A?@><>6=0 2V4>1@078B8 2A5, I> @>18BLAO =02:>;> =L>3>, =5 <>65 7 OAC20B8 2>4=>G0A CAV ?8B0==O A:;04=>3> 70240==O. ;O WE GVB:>3> CA2V4><;5==O ?>B@V1=5 284V;5==O >:@5<8E ?@54<5BV2 V O28I 4V9A=>ABV B0 ?>A;V4>2=5 WE 2V4>1@065==O. >6;82>ABV GVB:>3> 10G5==O 4>@>A;>W ;N48=8 >1<56CNBLAO 4 - 6 >1 T:B0<8 >4=>G0A=>. "><C 2>=0 702648 A?@O<>20=0 =0 I>AL, C206=0 4> >4=8E >1 T:BV2 =02:>;8H=L>3> A5@54>28I0 V =5C206=0 4> V=H8E. 7 A83=0;V2 >B>G5==O ;N48=0 284V;OT B5, I> =5>1EV4=5 4;O FV;5A?@O<>20=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. # 270T<>4VW 7 =02:>;8H=V< A5@54>28I5< A:;040TBLAO 281V@:>25 2V4>1@065==O ?@54<5BV2 V O28I, I> 70157?5GCTBLAO C203>N. 81V@:>2VABL, I> @53C;NT ?V7=020;L=C B0 ?@>4C:B82=C 4VO;L=VABL, 287=0G0TBLAO <>6;82>ABO<8 ;N48=8, A?@O<>20=VABN, <5B>N WW 4VO;L=>ABV. 5E0=V7<0<8 281V@:>2>ABV C2038 A;C60BL ?@>F5A8 4>FV;L=>W @53C;OFVW 4VO;L=>ABV. # 740B=>ABV 4>2V;L=> A?@O<>2C20B8 9 7>A5@546C20B8 C203C 28O2;OTBLAO 0:B82=VABL ;N48=8. #2030  =5 A0<5 2V4>1@065==O, 2>=0 =5 <0T A2>3> ?@54<5B0 ?V7=0==O. &5 =5 A0<>ABV9=89 ?A8EVG=89 ?@>F5A, 0 H284H5 9>3> =5>1EV4=0 C<>20, D>@<0 >:@5<>W 2V4>1@06C20=>W B0 ?@>4C:B82=>W 4VO;L=>ABV =0 @V7=8E @V2=OE A2V4><>ABV. #2030 T D>@<>N >@30=V70FVW ?A8EVG=>W 4VO;L=>ABV ;N48=8, I> ?>;O30T C A?@O<>20=>ABV B0 7>A5@5465=>ABV A2V4><>ABV =0 >1'T:B0E B0 70157?5GCT WE 28@07=5 2V4>1@065==O. #2030 702648 BVA=> ?>2 O70=0 7 4VO;L=VABN ;N48=8, 70157?5GCT WW A2V4><89 E0@0:B5@, 0 B0:>6 =5N AB8<C;NTBLAO V @53C;NTBLAO. VOB8  >7=0G0T 1CB8 C206=8< 4> >1 T:BV2 4VO;L=>ABV. 0?@C65==O C 4VO;L=>ABV 702648 ?>2'O70=5 7 2V4?>2V4=8< =0?@C65==O< C2038. >=0 A;C68BL 2=CB@VH=L>N C<>2>N ?A8EVG=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. 'CBBT25 2V4>1@065==O >1 T:BV2 7>2=VH=L>3> A2VBC 2V41820TBLAO C A2V4><>ABV AC1 T:B0, 0 :>6=89 0:B FV;5A?@O<>20=>W 4VO;L=>ABV 4>E>48BL 4> A2V4><>ABV. !0<5 2V4 WW 7>A5@5465=>ABV 70;560BL ?>2=>B0, GVB:VABL V OA=VABL =0H>3> A?@89<0==O, CO2;5==O, <8A;5==O, 28@VH5==O ?>2AO:45==8E ?@>1;5<. A>1;82>3> 7=0G5==O C2030 =01C20T C 70A2>T==V =>2>3> 7=0==O.  FL>3> ?@82>4C . . #H8=AL:89 707=0G02, I> F5 >A=>2=V 2>@>B0 4> A2V4><>ABV, T48=V 425@V =0H>W 4CHV, G5@57 O:V 2E>4OBL 4> =0A CAV 2V4><>ABV ?@> =02:>;8H=V9 A2VB, GCBBT2V 40=V V 7=0==O. "0:8< G8=><, C203>N =07820TBLAO A?@O<>20=VABL V 7>A5@5465=VABL ?A8EVG=>W 4VO;L=>ABV ;N48=8 =0 >4=8E >1 T:B0E 7 2V4:;NG5==O< 2V4 V=H8E. 5D;5:B>@=0 B5>@VO C2038 (.. !TG5=>2, .. 02;>2, .. #EB><AL:89) ?>2 O7CT ?@8G8=8, I> 28:;8:0NBL C203C. @54<5B8 V O28I0 7>2=VH=L>3> A2VBC 28:;8:0NBL >@VT=BC20;L=V @5D;5:A8 B0 ?@8AB>AC20;L=V @CE>2V @50:FVW. @VT=BC20;L=V @50:FVW 7<V=NNBL ?5@51V3 <>7:>28E ?@>F5AV2 C :>@V 25;8:8E ?V2:C;L 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C, AB2>@NNBL >A5@54>: >?B8<0;L=>3> 71C465==O (70 .. 02;>28<) 01> 4><V=0=BC (70 .. #EB><AL:8<). # F8E 7>=0E ;53:> CB2>@NNBLAO B8<G0A>2V =5@2>2V 72 O7:8, 28@VHCNBLAO =>2V ?@>1;5<8. 8=8:=5==O 4><V=0=B8 28:;8:0T 30;L<C20==O C ACAV4=VE 4V;O=:0E :>@8 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C, 1;>:CT V=HV @50:FVW >@30=V7<C, ?V4?>@O4:>2CT A>1V ?>1VG=V V<?C;LA8 7 V=H8E 4V;O=>: :>@8 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C V B8< A0<8< 4><V=0=B0 ?>A8;NTBLAO. =HV 4VW C F59 G0A <>6CBL 28:>=C20B8AO ?5@5206=> 2 02B><0B87>20=><C @568<V, >1<56CNG8AL <5=H 0:B82=8<8 4V;O=:0<8 :>@8 <>7:C. 6.6.2. 848 C2038 0;56=> 2V4 0:B82=>ABV ;N48=8 B0 A?V22V4=>H5==O 7>2=VH=VE V 2=CB@VH=VE C<>2 28=8:=5==O C203C ?>4V;ONBL =0 <8<>2V;L=C, 4>2V;L=C B0 ?VA;O4>2V;L=C. &V 2848 C2038 2>4=>G0A T V ABC?5=O<8 WW @>728B:C. 8<>2V;L=0 C2030  F5 7>A5@5465==O A2V4><>ABV ;N48=8 =0 >1 T:BV 2=0A;V4>: 9>3> >A>1;82>AB59 O: ?>4@07=8:0 157 A?5FV0;L=>W <5B8 B0 2>;L>28E 7CA8;L. >=0 E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO A0<5 B8<, I> >1 T:B8 ?@825@B0NBL 4> A515 C203C. >4@07=8:8, I> ?@825@B0NBL C203C ;N48=8, E0@0:B5@87CNBLAO A8;>N, V=B5=A82=VABN, :>=B@0AB><, =>287=>N, ?>A8;5==O< 01> ?>A;01;5==O<, ?@>AB>@>28<8 7<V=0<8 @CEC, @0?B>2VABN ?>O28 >1'T:B0, 284V;5==O< =0 ?52=><C D>=V B>I>. 0HC C203C ?@825@B0NBL 3C@:VB 4283C=V2 ;VB0:0 ?V4 G0A 7;L>BC, <83>BV==O A2VB;>2>3> A83=0;C 02B><>1V;O, @0?B>25 7=865==O V=B5=A82=>ABV 3>;>AC ;5:B>@0, =>2V 7@07:8 28@>1=8G>3> >1;04=0==O C F5EC. 8<>2>;V <8 28O2;OT<> C203C 4> B>3>, I> =0A FV:028BL, <0T 68BBT2> 206;825 A83=0;L=5 7=0G5==O, 0:B82V7CT V ?V4B@8<CT =0HC 4VO;L=VABL. /:I> 2?;828 7 A5@54>28I0 =5 <0NBL ACBBT2>3> 7=0G5==O, 2>=0 7=8:0T. 4V9A=NTBLAO 2>=0 ;53:>, 157 ACBBT28E 28B@0B =5@2>2> - ?A8EVG=>W 5=5@3VW. >2V;L=0 C2030  F5 A2V4><5 A?@O<C20==O V @53C;N20==O >A>18ABVABN A2>TW ?A8EVG=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. N48=0 28O2;OT 0:B82=VABL, AB028BL 2V440;5=V FV;V 9 7<CH5=0 4>2V;L=> 7>A5@546C20B8 A2>N C203C =0 WE 4>AO3=5==V. N48=0 <0T 4>:;040B8 7CA8;L, I>1 1CB8 C206=>N, >A>1;82> 4> B>3>, I> A?5@HC V =5?@8201;825, V =5FV:025. >2V;L=0 C2030 ?>2'O70=0 7 <5B>N 4VO;L=>ABV B0 A8;>N 2>;V, 740B=VABN 4>;0B8 7>2=VH=V 9 2=CB@VH=V ?5@5H:>48. >=0 >A>1;82> ?>B@V1=0 C =02G0;L=V9 V B@C4>2V9 4VO;L=>ABV, 70157?5GCT GVB:5 2V4>1@065==O >1 T:BV2 B0 CA?VH=VABL 4VO;L=>ABV. ;O WW DC=:FV>=C20==O ?>B@V1=0 ACBBT20 28B@0B0 =5@2>2> - ?A8EVG=>W 5=5@3VW. >2V;L=0 C2030 BVA=> ?>2 O70=0 7 ?@0F5N V <>2>N, C 270T<>4VW O:8E 2>=0 28=8:;0 9 @>72820TBLAO. 5>1EV4=>N C<>2>N 4>2V;L=>W C2038 T >2>;>4V==O <>2>N, 70 4>?><>3>N O:>W CA2V4><;NTBLAO <5B0. >AB0282H8 <5BC 4VO;L=>ABV, <8 28:>=CT<> F5 @VH5==O. >AO3=5==O <5B8 4VO;L=>ABV 28<030T C<V==O 7>A5@546C20B8AL =0 =V9, 2V42>;V:0B8AO 2V4 ?>1VG=8E AB8<C;V2, ?5@51>@N20B8 7>2=VH=V B0 2=CB@VH=V ?5@5H:>48.  G8< 2V440;5=VH0 <5B0 V A:;04=VH89 H;OE WW 4>AO3=5==O, <5=H ?@8201;820 A0<0 @>1>B0, B8< 1V;LH5 28<030T 2>=0 4>2V;L=>W C2038. 18420 2848 C2038 - <8<>2V;L=0 9 4>2V;L=0 - <0NBL 1030B> A?V;L=8E @8A V 2V4<V==>AB59, 2>=8 BVA=> ?>2 O70=V <V6 A>1>N V 270T<>4VNBL. >2V;L=0 C2030 28=8:0T 7 <8<>2V;L=>W. @>B5 9 4>2V;L=0 AB0T <8<>2V;L=>N 2=0A;V4>: 7<V=8 <>B820FVW 4VO;L=>ABV. '0AB>, ?@8ABC?0NG8 4> 28:>=0==O =>2>W @>1>B8, ;N48=0 CA2V4><;NT ?>B@51C 2 WW 28:>=0==V V 7<CH5=0 <>1V;V7C20B8 A2>N 2>;N, 7@>18B8 7CA8;;O, I>1 A:>=F5=B@C20B8 =0 =8E @>7C<>2V A8;8. !?>G0B:C 28=8:0NBL B@C4=>IV, 0;5 73>4>< ;N48=0 703;81;NTBLAO V ?>@8=0T C 28:>=0==O 70240==O, AB0T C206=>N <8<>2V;L=>, 1> WW 70FV:02;NT A0< 7<VAB 4VO;L=>ABV. &N C203C =07820NBL 2B>@8==>N <8<>2V;L=>N, 01> ?VA;O4>2V;L=>N. "0:C 70E>?;5=VABL =5@V4:> <>6=0 ?><VB8B8 C 4VO;L=>ABV D0EV2FV2, 709=OB8E B2>@G>N ?@0F5N. >=0 <0T >7=0:8 O: <8<>2V;L=>W - =5 28<030T A?5FV0;L=8E 2>;L>28E 7CA8;L, B0: V 4>2V;L=>W - 70;8H0TBLAO FV;5A?@O<>20=>N V ?5@5410GC20=>N. 5@5EV4 2V4 4>2V;L=>W C2038 4> ?VA;O4>2V;L=>W 7<5=HCT =0?@C65=VABL 4VO;L=>ABV. 6.6.3. ;0AB82>ABV C2038 V7=V 2848 4VO;L=>ABV 2V4?>2V4=> AB02;OBL >A>1;82V 28<>38 4> C2038 ;N48=8. # >4=><C 28?04:C =5>1EV4=0 1;8A:028G=0 B>G=VABL C A?@89<0==V @CEV2, 2 V=H><C - B@820;5 7>A5@5465==O =0 >4=><C >1 T:BV. AB>@8G=> AD>@<C20;8AO @V7=V 2;0AB82>ABV C2038: :>=F5=B@0FVO, ABV9:VABL, ?5@5:;NG5==O, @>7?>4V; B0 >1 T<. >=F5=B@0FVO C2038. #2030 E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO 7>A5@5465=VABN =0 :>=:@5B=><C >1 T:BV ?A8EVG=>W 4VO;L=>ABV, <0T ?52=C V=B5=A82=VABL, 0 >B65, ?52=89 ABC?V=L :>=F5=B@0FVW. '8< A8;L=VH5 7>A5@5465==O, B8< 1V;LH FV;5A?@O<>20=>N 9 ?@>4C:B82=>N AB0T A0<0 4VO;L=VABL. !BV9:VABL C2038 28O2;OTBLAO C B@820;>ABV 7>A5@5465=>ABV =0 >1 T:BV. >=0 E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO G0A><, ?@>BO3>< O:>3> 4VO;L=VABL ;N48=8 715@V30T A2>N FV;5A?@O<>20=VABL. >=0 T =5>1EV4=>N 2=CB@VH=L>N C<>2>N 28:>=0==O 70240==O 4> :V=FO. ;0AB82VABL FO 70;568BL 2V4 A8;8 =5@2>28E ?@>F5AV2, E0@0:B5@C 4VO;L=>ABV, AB02;5==O 4> A?@028. ;0AB82VABN, ?@>B8;56=>N ABV9:>ABV, T 2V42>;V:0==O C2038 >1'T:B0<8, I> =5 AB>ACNBLAO 4VO;L=>ABV. '8< <5=H ABV9:0 C2030, B8< G0ABVH5 9 ;53H5 2>=0 2V42>;V:0TBLAO. =0A;V4>: FL>3> 7=86CTBLAO 5D5:B82=VABL ?V7=020;L=>W G8 ?@>4C:B82=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. 8<>2V;L=> 2V42>;V:0NBL C203C @V7:V B0 A8;L=V @0?B>2V 7>2=VH=V ?>4@07=8:8, 5<>FV9=> 4VNGV D0:B>@8. V ABV9:VABN B0:>6 ?>2 O70=5 :>;820==O C2038. >=> 28O2;OTBLAO C B><C, I> 7>A5@5465=VABL B0 ABV9:VABL C2038 ?5@V>48G=> AB0NBL 1V;LH 01> <5=H V=B5=A82=8<8. !?>AB5@565==O A2V4G0BL, I> :>;820==O C2038 G5@57 15 - 20 E2 ?@82>4OBL 4> <8<>2V;L=>3> 2V42>;V:0==O WW 2V4 >1 T:B0. 5@5:;NG5==O C2038 ?>;O30T C 4>2V;L=><C ?5@5=5A5==V WW A?@O<>20=>ABV 7 >4=>3> >1 T:B0 =0 V=H89. &V;5A?@O<>20=89 E0@0:B5@ 2V4@V7=OT 9>3> 2V4 2V42>;V:0==O C2038, :>;8 ;N48=0 7<V=NT >1 T:B C2038 <8<>2V;L=>. >7?>4V; C2038 ?>;O30T C B><C, I> ;N48=0 <>65 >4=>G0A=> CB@8<C20B8 C 7>=V C2038 :V;L:0 >1 T:BV2, 28:>=C20B8 420, 0 B> 9 B@8 2848 4VO;L=>ABV. !:;04=V @V7=>2848 4VO;L=>ABV 28<030NBL 2V4 ;N48=8 >4=>G0A=> 28:>=C20B8 :V;L:0 WE 284V2. 1 AO3 C2038 287=0G0TBLAO BVTN :V;L:VABN >1 T:BV2, I> <>6=0 >E>?8B8 C203>N 2 >1<565=89 2V4@V7>: G0AC. >@<0B82=> F59 2V4B8=>: G0AC 2 5:A?5@8<5=B0E =0 B0EVAB>A:>?V 4>@V2=NT 0,1 A. N48=0 ?@8 FL><C A?@89<0T 4 - 6 >1 T:BV2, =5 ?>2 O70=8E <V6 A>1>N. 52<V==O 7>A5@548B8AO G8 ?5@5:;NG8B8AO 7 >4=>3> ?@54<5B0 =0 V=H89 =07820TBLAO =5C206=VABN. 5C206=VABL 28O2;OTBLAO C 7030;L=V9 =5ABV9:>ABV C2038 (2;0AB825 4;O <0;8E 4VB59) 01> C 4C65 3;81>:><C 7>A5@5465==V ;8H5 =0 >4=><C >1 T:BV (7>2=VH=V9 ?@54<5B G8 2=CB@VH=V9 AB0=, 4C<:8). @> C206=VABL >A>18AB>ABV A2V4G0BL WW <V<V:0, 65AB8, ?>70. ;5 V=>4V C206=VABL 1C20T 24020=>N. 0?8B0==O 4;O A0<>:>=B@>;N 7=0=L 1. )> =07820TBLAO V=B5;5:B><? 2. /:V T B5>@VW, I> ?>OA=NNBL V=B5;5:B? @>0=0;V7C9B5 WE. 3. 8=0<V:0 V=B5;5:BC. 4. $0:B>@8, I> 2?;820NBL =0 V=B5;5:B. 5. )> =07820TBLAO C203>N? 6. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C 284V2 C2038. 7. ;0AB82>ABV C2038. 8. 09B5 7030;L=C E0@0:B5@8AB8:C 2V4GCBBV2. 9. /:V T 2848 2V4GCBBV2? 10. )> =07820TBLAO A?@89<0==O<? 11. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C 2;0AB82>AB59 A?@89<0==O. 12. /: 2?;820T 0?5@F5?FVO =0 A?@89<0==O ?@54<5BV2 V O28I? 13. >@V2=O9B5 2V4GCBBO V A?@89<0==O. 14. )> =07820TBLAO ?0< OBBN? 15. $C=:FVW ?0< OBV. 16. ;0A8DV:0FVO 284V2 ?0<OBV. 17. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C ?@>F5AV2 ?0< OBV. 18. )> =07820NBL <8A;5==O<? 19. >OA=VBL 01AB@0:B=89 V >?>A5@54:>20=89 E0@0:B5@ <8A;5==O. 20. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C 284V2 <8A;5==O. 21. )> =07820NBL CO2>N? 22. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C 284V2 CO28. 23. >@V2=O9B5 CO2C V <8A;5==O. @0:B8G=5 70=OBBO 1. 030;L=5 ?>=OBBO ?@> V=B5;5:B. 8=0<V:0 V=B5;5:BC. 2. "5>@VW V=B5;5:BC. 8<V@N20==O V=B5;5:BC. 3. #2030 C AB@C:BC@V V=B5;5:BC. 4. V4GCBBO B0 A?@89<0==O O: ?>G0B:>2V ?@>F5A8 ?V7=0==O >1 T:B82=>W 4V9A=>ABV. 5. >@>B:0 E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 ?0< OBV. 6. 8A;5==O B0 CO20 O: 28IV ?V7=020;L=V ?@>F5A8. @07>: B5ABC 4;O A0<>:>=B@>;N 1. 84V;ONBL B0:V 2848 V=B5;5:BC: 0) =0C:>289; 1) B5>@5B8G=89; 2) ?@0:B8G=89; 3) 25@10;L=89; 4) =525@10;L=89. 2. 091V;LH V=B5=A82=> V=B5;5:B @>72820TBLAO: 0) ?@>BO3>< CAL>3> 68BBO; 1) 2V4 =0@>465==O 4> 2 @>:V2; 2) 2V4 2 4> 12 @>:V2; 3) 2V4 12 4> 20 @>:V2; 4) 2V4 20 4> 30 @>:V2. 3. !?@O<>20=VABL V 7>A5@5465=VABL ?A8EVG=>W 4VO;L=>ABV =0 ?52=8E >1'T:B0E =07820TBLAO: 0) V=B5;5:BC0;L=VABN; 1) =0?>;53;82VABN; 2) C203>N; 3) A?>AB5@56;82VABN; 4) 4>B5?=VABN. 4. 0;56=> 2V4 0=0;V70B>@V2 >1@07=C ?0<'OBL ?>4V;ONBL =0: 0) 7>@>2C; 1) A;CE>2C; 2) 4>B8:>2C; 3) =NE>2C; 4) A<0:>2C. 5. 4V1=VABL V=482V40 040?BC20B8AO 4> =02:>;8H=L>3> A5@54>28I0 =07820TBLAO: 0) 0:B82V70FVTN; 1) V=482V4C0;V70FVTN; 2) AB@C:BC@0;V70FVTN; 3) V=B5;5:B><; 4) <8A;5==O<. !?8A>: ;VB5@0BC@8 @C68=8= .. A8E>;>38O >1I8E A?>A>1=>AB59.  !1.: 8B5@, 2000.  368A. 030;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO /70 @54. !. . 0:A8<5=:0.  V==8FO. - >20 :=830, 2004.  OA>W4 .. 030;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO.-.: 8I0 H:>;0, 2000.  480A. A8E>;>3VO /70 @54. ..."@>DV<>20.  .: 81V4L, 2001. 560A. ><0=>2AL:0 .. 8D5@5=FV9=0 ?A8E>;>3VO / .. ><0=>2AL:0, .. >4:>@8B>20.  L2V2.: >289 A2VB  2000, 2008.  236A. 7. 4V1=>ABV B0 B2>@GVABL 7.1. %0@0:B5@8AB8:0 74V1=>AB59, >140@>20=>ABV, B0;0=BC B0 35=V0;L=>ABV. 7.2. "2>@GVABL ;N48=8. 7.3. A>18ABVABL B2>@G>W ;N48=8 V WW 68BBO. 7.1. %0@0:B5@8AB8:0 74V1=>AB59, >140@>20=>ABV, B0;0=BC B0 35=V0;L=>ABV !CBBT2>N E0@0:B5@8AB8:>N >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 T 74V1=>ABV. 4V1=>ABO<8 =07820NBL V=482V4C0;L=>  ?A8E>;>3VG=V >A>1;82>ABV ;N48=8, 2V4 O:8E 70;568BL CA?VH=VABL =01CBBO 7=0=L, C<V=L B0 =028G>:, 0;5 =5 B>B>6=V =8<. 4V1=>ABV 28O2;ONBLAO V @>72820NBLAO C 4VO;L=>ABV. >=8 28=8:;8 C ?@>F5AV VAB>@8G=>3> @>728B:C ;N4AB20 O: =0A;V4>: @>7?>4V;C ?@0FV, 28=8:=5==O =>28E 284V2 4VO;L=>ABV. 07>< V7 =8<8 28=8:;8 V AD>@<C20;8AO =>2V ;N4AL:V 74V1=>ABV. >=8 70157?5G8;8 24>A:>=0;5==O ?@>F5AC 28@>1=8FB20, 70A>1V2 B0 <5B>4V2 28@>1=8FB20. 4V1=>ABV ;N48=8 T ;8H5 ?>B5=FV9=>N <>6;82VABN 4;O =01CBBO 7=0=L, C<V=L B0 =028G>:, 0 WE =0O2=89 @V25=L  F5 4V9A=VABL. "><C =5 <>6=0 3>2>@8B8 ?@> 74V1=>ABV, A?8@0NG8AL =0 =0O2=89 @V25=L 7=0=L, C<V=L B0 =028G>:. 5>1EV4=> 1CB8 >15@56=8< V B0:B>2=8< C 287=0G5==V 74V1=>AB59, I>1 =5 ?@89=OB8 2V4ACB=VABL ?52=8E 7=0=L 70 2V4ACB=VABL 74V1=>AB59. "8?>28< ?@8:;04>< <>65 A;C68B8 35=V0;L=89 CG5=89, B2>@5FL B5>@VW 2V4=>A=>ABV . 9=HB59=, O:89 1C2 4>A8BL ?>A5@54=V< CG=5<. 4=VABL 74V1=>AB59 V7 7=0==O<8, C<V==O<8 B0 =028G:0<8 28O2;OTBLAO C 48=0<VFV =01CBBO WE, B>1B> C B><C, O: 70 2V4?>2V4=8E >4=0:>28E C<>2 H284:> V ;53:> ;N48=0 >2>;>4V20T =8<8. 4V1=>ABV, O: V V=HV V=482V4C0;L=> - ?A8E>;>3VG=V >A>1;82>ABV ;N48=8, =5 40NBLAO C 3>B>2><C 283;O4V. >=8 T @57C;LB0B>< @>728B:C. &N B>G:C 7>@C =5>1EV4=> 1@0B8 4> C2038, 1> VA=CT 25;8G57=0 :V;L:VABL A?@>1 ?>OA=5==O 74V1=>AB59 A?04:>2VABN. "0:, I5 AB0@>402=V9 DV;>A>D ;0B>= (427 - 347 @@. 4> =.5.) AB25@46C202, I> 74V1=>ABV T ?@8@>465=8<8, V 2AV 7=0==O, I> <0T ;N48=0, T WW A?><8=0<8 ?@> ?5@51C20==O C ?V4=515A=><C, V450;L=><C A2VBV 01A>;NB=8E 7=0=L. $@0=FC7L:89 DV;>A>D . 5:0@B (1596  1650 @@.) AB25@46C202, I> 2?;828 7>2=VH=VE >1 T:BV2 =5 40NBL VAB8==>3> 7=0==O. "0:5 7=0==O A?>:>=2VG=> 70:;045=5 C 4CHV C 283;O4V ?@8@>465=8E V459. !2>T@V4=0 B>G:0 7>@C =0;568BL $. 0;;N (1758  1828 @@.). V= ?>2 O702 @V25=L @>728B:C ?A8EVG=8E O:>AB59 7 @>7<V@0<8 >:@5<8E G0AB8= 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C. /:I> :VAB:8 G5@5?0 ?>2=VABN 2V4?>2V40NBL 28ABC?0< B0 70?048=0< C <>7:C, B> 70 G5@5?>< ;N48=8 <>6=0 287=0G8B8 WW 74V1=>ABV. $. 0;;L A:;02 B0: 720=C D@5=>;>3VG=C :0@BC (2V4 3@5FL:. phren  @>7C<), =0 O:V9 ?>25@E=O G5@5?0 1C;0 ?>4V;5=0 =0 27 7>=. >6=V9 7>=V ?@8?8AC20;8AO ?52=V 74V1=>ABV. 5?@02><V@=>N 28O28;0AL V 3V?>B570 ?@> 70;56=VABL 74V1=>AB59 2V4 <0A8 <>7:C. !5@54=T 7=0G5==O <0A8 <>7:C ;N48=8 AB0=>28BL 1400  1500 3. >7>: .!. "C@35=T20 20682 2012 3, 0 <>7>: V=H>3> ?8AL<5==8:0 . $@0=A0  1017 3. >=8 >18420 1C;8 2840B=8<8 ?8AL<5==8:0<8 7 28A>:8< @V2=5< @>728B:C 74V1=>AB59. 0?5@5GCNG8 35=5B8G=C >1C<>2;5=VABL 74V1=>AB59, ?A8E>;>38 =5 70?5@5GCNBL WE 72 O7>: V7 >A>1;82>ABO<8 1C4>28 B0 DC=:FV>=C20==O =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8 B0 >@30=V2 GCBBO. 091V;LH 4>AB>2V@=>N T 3V?>B570 ?@> 72 O7>: 74V1=>AB59 7 <V:@>AB@C:BC@>N <>7:C B0 >@30=V2 GCBBO. >728B:C 74V1=>AB59 A?@8OT CA?04:C20==O A>FV0;L=8E C<>2 68BBO. "0:, C @>48=V . 0E0 1C;> 57 <C78:0=BV2, 7 O:8E 20  2840B=8E. 8D5@5=FV9=V >A>1;82>ABV 1C4>28 =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8 B0 >@30=V2 GCBBO A:;040NBL ?V4@C=BO 4;O @>728B:C 74V1=>AB59, >2>;>4V==O ?52=8<8 7=0==O<8, C<V==O<8, =028G:0<8 G8 ?52=>N 4VO;L=VABN. &V 48D5@5=FV9=V >A>1;82>ABV T 7040B:0-<8  ?@8@>465=8<8 ?5@54C<>20<8 4;O @>728B:C 74V1=>AB59. 0B5@V0;L=8< ?V4@C=BO< 7040B:V2 T >A>1;82>ABV 1C4>28 <>7:C, :>@8 ?V2:C;L 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C B0 WE DC=:FV>=0;L=8<8 2;0AB82>ABO<8. &V >A>1;82>ABV >1C<>2;NNBLAO A?04:>2>N ?@8@>4>N >@30=V7<C, CB@>1=8< B0 ?>70CB@>1=8< @>728B:><. "0:8< G8=><, 7040B:8  F5 =5 74V1=>ABV, 0 BV;L:8 ?5@54C<>28 4> @>728B:C 74V1=>AB59. #AV ;N48 <0NBL 7040B:8 4> >2>;>4V==O <>2>N, 0;5 =5 2AV ;N48 >2>;>4V20NBL >4=0:>2>N :V;L:VABN <>2, V =5 2AV >4=0:>2> 2>;>4VNBL @V4=>N <>2>N. "20@8=8 =5 <0NBL 7040B:V2 4> <>2=>3> A?V;:C20==O V =V:>;8 =5 =02G0NBLAO 3>2>@8B8. @>2V4=C @>;L C @>728B:C 74V1=>AB59 2V4V3@0NBL =5 7040B:8, 0 A>FV0;L=V C<>28 68BBO, >A2VB0, =02G0==O B0 28E>20==O. V6 74V1=>ABO<8 V 7040B:0<8 VA=CT 1030B>7=0G=89 72 O7>:. 040B:8 B56 T 1030B>7=0G=8<8. /:V A0<5 74V1=>ABV 1C4CBL D>@<C20B8AO =0 ?V4@C=BV 7040B:V2  70;568BL 2V4 C<>2 68BBO, =02G0==O B0 28E>20==O. 0 ?V4@C=BV >4=8E V B8E A0<8E 7040B:V2 <>6CBL @>728=CB8AO @V7=V 74V1=>ABV. 4V1=>ABV O: AC:C?=VABL ?A8EVG=8E O:>AB59 <0NBL A2>N AB@C:BC@C. # AB@C:BC@V 74V1=>AB59 284V;ONBL 7030;L=V B0 A?5FV0;L=V 74V1=>ABV. 030;L=V 74V1=>ABV  F5 BV >A>1;82>ABV, I> 28O2;ONBLAO C 2AVE 2840E 4VO;L=>ABV V A?8@0NBLAO =0 7030;L=V C<V==O. !N48 <>6=0 2V4=5AB8 C<V==O A?@89<0B8 V CA2V4><;N20B8 70240==O, ?;0=C20==O V >@30=V70FVN 28:>=0==O 70240==O, A?@><>6=VABL @>7:@820B8 72 O7:8 V 2V4=>H5==O @5G59, >2>;>4V==O =>28<8 70A>10<8 ?@0FV, ?5@51>@N20==O B@C4=>IV2 V B.V=. !?5FV0;L=V 74V1=>ABV  F5 BV >A>1;82>ABV ?A8EV:8, I> 28O2;ONBLAO C A?5FV0;L=8E 2840E 4VO;L=>ABV: <8AB5FB2V, <0;O@AB2V, <C78FV, =0CFV. ;O <C78:0=BV2 F5 01A>;NB=89 A;CE, 4;O EC4>6=8:0  2V4GCBBO :>;L>@C, 4;O 0@B8AB0  C<V==O ?5@52BV;N20B8AO V B.V=. !;V4 ?0< OB0B8, I> 74V1=>ABV <0NBL @>72820B8AL C :><?;5:AV V 2A51VG=>. 4=>1VG=89 @>728B>: >4=VTW 74V1=>ABV =5 70157?5GCT CA?VH=C 4VO;L=VABL. 840B=V >A>18AB>ABV <0;8 2A51VG=> @>728=5=V 74V1=>ABV. "0:, .. ><>=>A>2, ".. (52G5=:>, .. V1VE  ?@8:;04 2A51VG=>3> @>728B:C 74V1=>AB59. "><C B@510 ?@03=CB8 4> @>728B:C C A515 @V7=><0=VB=8E 74V1=>AB59: 1V;LH5 10G8B8, G8B0B8, ?@0FN20B8, =5 2V4<>2;OB8AO 2V4 @V7=><0=VB=8E 2@065=L B0 ?5@56820=L, 2AL>3> B>3>, I> A:;040T ACB=VABL ;N48=8. )5 42V B8AOGV @>:V2 B><C 3>2>@8;8: Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienum puto. (N48=0 O V =VI> ;N4AL:5 <5=V =5 GC65). !?8@0NG8AL =0 F5 ?@8A;V2 O, <>6=0 4>AO3B8 A2>TN =0?>;53;82VABN 2A51VG=>3> @>728B:C 2;0A=8E 74V1=>AB59. /:VA=> A2>T@V4=5 ?>T4=0==O 74V1=>AB59, I> 70157?5GCT CA?VH=VABL 28:>=0==O 4VO;L=>ABV, =07820TBLAO >140@>20=VABN. 140@>20=VABL C 4VB59 28O2;OTBLAO 4>A8BL @0=>. # 3 - 4 @>:8 2>=8 <>6CBL G8B0B8, ?8A0B8 CA?VH=> @0EC20B8. >=8 C206=> <>6CBL 709<0B8AO 7=0G=89 ?@><V6>: G0AC ?52=>N A?@02>N, ?@03=CBL 4> @>7C<>28E 70=OBL. &V O:>ABV <>6CBL 715@V30B8AL V C 1V;LH AB0@H><C 2VFV. ;O 0=0;V7C >140@>20=>ABV 284V;ONBL B@8 3@C?8 270T<>?>2 O70=8E ?>:07=8:V2: - 28?5@5460;L=89 @>728B>: ?V7=0==O; - >A>18ABVA=89 @>728B>:; - DV78G=V 40=V. # 28?5@5460;L=><C @>728B:C ?V7=0==O 284V;ONBL B0:V >A>1;82>ABV. 1. A>1;82V A5=78B82=V (2V4 ;0B. sensus  2V4GCBBO, ?>GCBBO) ?5@V>48. "0:V ?5@V>48 E0@0:B5@87CNBLAO ?V428I5=>N GCBBT2VABN 4> ?52=8E 2?;82V2. # FV ?5@V>48 >140@>20=V 4VB8 =V18 ?>3;8=0NBL 2A5 7 =02:>;8H=L>3> A2VBC. > B>3> 6 >140@>20=V 4VB8 <>6CBL >4=>G0A=> 709<0B8AO =5 >4=VTN A?@02>N. 2. >?8B;82VABL. 140@>20=V 4VB8 0:B82=> 4>A;V46CNBL =02:>;8H=V9 A2VB. >=8 =5 28=>AOBL 6>4=8E >1<565=L C A2>WE 4>A;V465==OE. :B82=VABL >140@>20=8E 4VB59 ?>OA=NTBLAO ?V428I5=>N 1V>EV<VG=>N B0 5;5:B@8G=>N 0:B82=VABN <>7:C. 3. 'C4>20 ?0<'OBL. 140@>20=V 4VB8 4>1@5 70?0< OB>2CNBL ?>4VW, ?@54<5B8, O28I0, A;>20. A5 F5 >1C<>2;5=> @0==V< @>728B:>< <>28 B0 01AB@0:B=>3> <8A;5==O. 140@>20=8< ;N4O< 2;0AB820 A?@><>6=VABL :;0A8DV:C20B8 V :0B53>@87C20B8 V=D>@<0FVN V 4>A2V4. >=8 C<VNBL 5D5:B82=> 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 =0:>?8G5=V 7=0==O. 4. 5;8:89 A;>2=8:>289 70?0A. 140@>20=V 4VB8 2V4GC20NBL ?>ABV9=C ?>B@51C 2 V=B5;5:BC0;L=V9 4VO;L=>ABV. 0:>?8G5=89 70?0A A;V2 40T <>6;82VABL AC?@>2>46C20B8 <>2C A:;04=8<8 A8=B0:A8G=8<8 :>=AB@C:FVO<8, AB028B8 =5?@>ABV 70?8B0==O. 0;5=L:V 2C=45@:V=48 G8B0NBL A;>2=8:8 B0 5=F8:;>?54VW, ?@84C<CNBL A;>20, I> 2V4>1@060NBL WE @>7C<V==O A2VBC B0 CO2=V ?>4VW. "0:V 4VB8 2V440NBL ?5@5203C V3@0<, I> 0:B82V7CNBL @>7C<>2V 74V1=>ABV. 5. 5@V2=><V@=89 @>728B>: ?A8E>;>3VG=8E >A>182>AB59 <>65 28:;8:0B8 >4=>1VG=C <0B5<0B8G=C G8 3C<0=VB0@=C >140@>20=VABL. ><V=C20==O <0B5<0B8G=8E 74V1=>AB59 <>65 AB2>@8B8 ?5@5H:>48 4;O <>2=>3> @>728B:C B0 ?@83=VGC20B8 G8B0==O.  =02?0:8, 4><V=C20==O 3C<0=VB0@=8E 74V1=>AB59 AB2>@NT ?5@5H:>48 4;O >2>;>4V==O B>G=8<8 =0C:0<8: <0B5<0B8:>N, DV78:>N, EV<VTN. 6. V428I5=0 :>=F5=B@0FVO C2038. ;O >140@>20=8E 4VB59 2;0AB820 4>2V;L=VABL ?A8EVG=8E ?@>F5AV2 B0 C2038. >=8 =0?>;53;82V C 4>AO3=5==V @57C;LB0BC 2 >1@0=V9 30;C7V. >2V;L=VABL ?A8EVG=8E ?@>F5AV2 70157?5GCT ?V428I5=89 @V25=L 70=C@5==O C 7040GC. 7. 140@>20=8< 4VBO< 2;0AB8289 28A>:89 @V25=L @>728B:C CO28 B0 @V7=8E 284V2 <8A;5==O. A>18ABVA=89 @>728B>: >140@>20=>W ;N48=8 ?5@5410G0T @>73;O4 B0:8E @8A: 1. >GCBBO A?@0254;82>ABV. &5 ?>GCBBO @>7?>2AN46CTBLAO =0 A515 B0 >B>GCNG8E. "0:, 2V4><89 28?04>:, :>;8 3 -@VG=0 48B8=0 ?VA;O 2V42V4C20==O =54V;L=>W H:>;8 70O28;0: >3 =5A?@0254;8289. 0 C@>FV C B>9 45=L 3>2>@8;>AO ?@> >T2 :>2G53. 8B8=0 ?>OA=8;0: >3 A:0702 ;N4O<, I> =5>1EV4=> @>18B8, V I> WE G5:0T, O:I> 2>=8 1C4CBL ?>30=> A515 ?>2>48B8. "0:, I> 2>=8 <>3;8 2@OBC20B8AL V =5 ?>B>=CB8.  B20@8=0< 2V= =VG>3> =5 A:0702, 2V= WE =5 ?>?5@5482, B> 6 G><C 2>=8 <0;8 ?><8@0B8? >3 =5A?@0254;8289. 2. (8@>:V >A>18ABVA=V A8AB5<8 FV==>AB59. 140@>20=V 4VB8 3>AB@> ?5@56820NBL A>FV0;L=C =5A?@0254;82VABL, 2AB0=>2;NNBL 28A>:V 28<>38 4> A515 B0 >B>GCNG8E, 2V4:;8:0NBLAO =0 ?@024C, A?@0254;82VABL, 30@<>=V9=VABL, :@0AC, ?@8@>4=VABL. 3. @30=VG=5 ?>T4=0==O @50;L=>ABV B0 D0=B07VW. VB8 2 -5 @>:V2 =5 <>6CBL @>725AB8 @50;L=VABL V D0=B07VN. >=8 <0;L>2=8G> ?5@540NBL C A;>20E 2;0A=V D0=B07VW V ?@0:B8G=> 682CBL C A2VBV 2;0A=>W 682>W D0=B07VW. /A:@020 CO20 ?>@>46CT D0=B0AB8G=5, 1030B5 V OA:@025 68BBO. # 4>@>A;8E 715@V30NBLAO 5;5<5=B8 3@8, 28=0EV4;82>ABV, B2>@G>3> ?V4E>4C  O:>ABV, I> 70157?5G8;8 <0B5@V0;L=89 V 5AB5B8G=89 @>728B>: ;N4AB20. 4. >1@5 @>728=5=5 ?>GCBBO 3C<>@C. 140@>20=V V B0;0=>28BV ;N48 ;N1;OBL =VA5=VB=8FV, 3@C A;V2, ?V4:>;:8, 60@B8. >=8 G0AB> 10G0BL 3C<>@ B0<, 45 V=HV 9>3> =5 10G0BL. C<>@ 4;O >140@>20=8E ;N459 T @OBV2=>N 1;03>40BBN V 74>@>28< I8B>< 70E8ABC B>=:>W ?A8EV:8 2V4 C40@V2, O:8E <>6CBL =0=>A8B8 <5=H GCB;82V ;N48. 5. 0<030==O @>72 O7C20B8 =5?>A8;L=V 70240==O. 140@>20=V 4VB8 @>1;OBL CA?VE8, I> =54>AO6=V 4;O 1V;LH>ABV 4VB59. 5@51V;LH5=V AB@0E8. 8A>:89 @V25=L @>728B:C D0=B07VW 70157?5GCT A?@><>6=VABL CO28B8 1030B> =5157?5G=8E =0A;V4:V2. 140@>20=V ;N48 GCB;82V 4> =5<>2=8E ?@>O2V2 ?>GCBBV2 >B>GCNG8E. >=8 2V4GC20NBL <>2G07=5 =0?@C65==O =02:>;> A515. :AB@0A5=A>@=5 A?@89<0==O. 8A>:89 @V25=L D0=B07VW, 28A>:0 0:B82=VABL 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C B0 5<>FV9=0 GCB;82VABL 4>72>;ONBL >140@>20=8< 4VBO< A?@89<0B8 B5, I> V=H8< =5 ?V4 A8;C: G8B0B8 4C<:8 V=H8E, ?5@5410G;82VABL V B. V=. AV FV >A>1;82>ABV ?A8EV:8 >140@>20=8E 4VB59 A:;040NBL ?V4@C=BO A?@89<0==O A515 O: =5=>@<0;L=8E. "0:V >A>1;82>ABV ?A8EV:8 ?@8B0<0==V 4;O 28A>:>>140@>20=8E 4VB59, B><C 4> FL>3> =5>1EV4=> AB028B8AL V 7 @>7C<V==O<, V 7 B5@?V==O<, V 7 ?>203>N. 3>F5=B@87< C ?>OA=5==V ?>4V9 V O28I. 3>F5=B@87< T ?@>5:FVTN 2;0A=>3> A?@89<0==O B0 5<>FV9=>W @50:FVW =0 ?>4VW, O28I0, @>7C< V ?>GCBBO >B>GCNG8E. V= =5 <VAB8BL C A>1V =530B82=>3> 2V4BV=:C 53>W7<C. # DV78G=V9 E0@0:B5@8AB8FV >140@>20=>ABV T 420 ?@>B8;56=V AB5@5>B8?8. 5@H89  >140@>20=8E 4VB59 @>73;O40NBL O: EC45=L:8E, <0;5=L:8E, 1;V48E :=86:>28E G5@2 O:V2 2 >:C;O@0E. @C389  >140@>20=V 4VB8 28IV 70 7@>AB><, DV78G=> <VF=VHV, 74>@>2VHV, :@0A82VHV. @C389 >1@07 >140@>20=>W 48B8=8 1V;LH ?@8201;8289. ;5 V ?5@H89, V 4@C389 >1@078 40;5:V 2V4 VAB8=8. 5 <>6=0 @>18B8 C7030;L=5=8E 28A=>2:V2 ?@> 7@VAB, 74>@>2 O G8 7>2=VH=VABL >140@>20=8E ;N459. AB8=0 702648 7=0E>48BLAO <V6 ?>;O@=8<8 4C<:0<8. 8I89 @V25=L @>728B:C 74V1=>AB59 =07820TBLAO B0;0=B><. V= 70157?5GCT <>6;82VABL CA?VH=> V >@83V=0;L=> 28:>=C20B8 A:;04=C 4VO;L=VABL. "0;0=B, O: V 74V1=>ABV, T ;8H5 <>6;82VABN, 0 @50;L=VABL 70;568BL 2V4 :>=:@5B=8E ACA?V;L=>-VAB>@8G=8E C<>2. >728B>: B0;0=BV2 702648 70;568BL 2V4 ?>B@51 5?>E8. "0:, C ?5@V>48 2V9= @>72820NBLAO ?>;:>2>4GV B0;0=B8, C <8@=89 G0A  V=65=5@=V, :>=AB@C:B>@AL:V, <8AB5FL:V V B.V=. "0;0=B, O: V 74V1=>ABV, 28O2;OTBLAO C 0:B82=V9 4VO;L=>ABV ;N48=8. "0;0=B  F5 AC:C?=VABL O:>AB59, WE ?>T4=0==O. >728B>: >4=VTW ?A8E>;>3VG=>W O:>ABV, =02VBL =04728G09=> 28A>:89, =5 70157?5GCT B0;0=BC. @> F5 A2V4G0BL 2>;>40@V D5=><5=0;L=>W ?0< OBV, O:V C A2>T<C @>728B:C >1<568;8AO ;8H5 45<>=AB@0FVTN WW =0 AF5=V. # B0;0=>28B8E ;N459 ?0<'OBL <>65 1CB8 O: 4C65 30@=>N, B0: V =5 4C65. ;5 ?>@O4 7 ?0< OBBN <0NBL 1CB8 4C65 30@=> @>728=5=V 3=CG:VABL @>7C<C, A8;L=0 2>;O B0 D0=B07VO, 28A>:89 2;0A=89 E0@0:B5@ <>B820FVW, B>;5@0=B=VABL 4> =5287=0G5=>ABV A8BC0FVW. 0928I89 @V25=L @>728B:C 74V1=>AB59, I> 28O2;OTBLAO C B2>@GV9 4VO;L=>ABV, =07820TBLAO 35=V0;L=VABN. @> 35=V0;L=VABL A2V4G0BL @57C;LB0B8, I> <0NBL VAB>@8G=5 7=0G5==O C 68BBV ACA?V;LAB20, C @>728B:C =0C:8, ;VB5@0BC@8, <8AB5FB20. 5=V0;L=8E ;N459 =04728G09=> <0;>. 2060TBLAO, I> 70 2AN VAB>@VN ;N4AB20 2V4><> =5 1V;LH5 400 >AV1. > 35=VW2 2V4=>AOBL, =0?@8:;04, @VAB>B5;O, . 5:0@B0, .. ><>=>A>20. "0:, .. ><>=>A>2 <02 5?>E0;L=V 4>AO3=5==O C 1030BL>E 30;C7OE ;N4AL:>W 4VO;L=>ABV: EV<VW, 0AB@>=><VW, <0B5<0B8FV, DV78FV. # B>9 A0<89 G0A 2V= 1C2 EC4>6=8:><, ?>5B><, <>2>7=02F5<. 5=V0;L=VABL ?5@5410G0T =0?@C65=C ?@0FN. 5=VW 2 VAB>@VW ;N4AB20  F5 B8B0=8 ?@0FV, 7024O:8 O:V9 2>=8 V 4>AO3;8 25@H8= <09AB5@=>ABV V 2A5A2VB=L>3> 287=0G5==O. 0 70?8B0==O ?@> ?@8G8=8 35=V0;L=>ABV 4VA>= (O:89 ?@0FN202 ?> 16 3>48= =0 4>1C) 2V4?>2V2, I> 2>=0 A:;040TBLAO =0 99% 7 ?>BC V BV;L:8 =0 1% 7 B0;0=BC. 7.2. "2>@GVABL ;N48=8 "2>@GVABL 2V4V3@0T 206;825 7=0G5==O 2 CAVE AD5@0E ;N4AL:>W 4VO;L=>ABV. "2>@GVABL, O: V 1C4L-O:0 4VO;L=VABL ;N48=8, >@30=VG=> ?>2 O70=0 7 CO2>N B0 D0=B07VTN. 57C;LB0B>< ?@>F5AC ?@0FV T ?@>4C:B, I> 1C2 =0 ?>G0B:C 2 CO2V ;N48=8 O: WW <5B0. >?5@54=T, V450;L=5 AB2>@5==O ?@>4C:BV2 4VO;L=>ABV <>6;825 7024O:8 B2>@GV9 CO2V. N48 B2>@OBL VAB>@VN C 0:B82=V9 4VO;L=>ABV, ?V7=0NBL 70:>=8 ACA?V;L=>3> @>728B:C, ?@03=CBL ?5@5410G8B8 <091CB=T. A5 F5 28<030T B2>@G>ABV B0 CO28. "2>@GVABN =07820TBLAO 4VO;L=VABL, @57C;LB0B>< O:>W T =>2V <0B5@V0;L=V B0 4CE>2=V FV==>ABV. ;O 0=0;V7C ?@>F5AC B2>@G>ABV 28:>@8AB>2CNBL 420 ?V4E>48: >A>18ABVA=89 B0 ?@>F5AC0;L=89. A>18ABVA=89 ?V4EV4 ?5@5410G0T 0=0;V7 B8E 2;0AB82>AB59 >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8, I> 70157?5GCNBL ?@>F5A B2>@G>ABV. &5 74V1=>ABV, 7=0==O, 2>;O, D0=B07VO, <>B828, C<V==O, I> 70157?5GCNBL AB2>@5==O =>2>3>, >@83V=0;L=>3> ?@>4C:BC. 06;820 @>;L C B2>@G>ABV >A>18AB>ABV =0;568BL CO2V, V=BCWFVW, =5CA2V4><;5=8< :><?>=5=B0< @>7C<>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV. @V< B>3>, 4> B2>@G>ABV >A>18ABVABL A?>=C:0T ?>B@510 C A0<>0:BC0;V70FVW. @>F5AC0;L=89 ?V4EV4 ?5@5410G0T 0=0;V7 A0<>3> ?@>F5AC B2>@G>ABV. 091V;LH ?>?C;O@=>N T <>45;L B2>@G>ABV . #>;;5A0. V= 284V;OT G>B8@8 AB04VW ?@>F5AC B2>@G>ABV: ?V43>B>2:C, 4>7@V20==O, =0BE=5==O (V=A09B) V ?5@52V@:C. &V AB04VW ?>ABV9=> ?5@5?;VB0NBLAO B0 ?5@5E>4OBL >4=0 2 >4=C, 0 ?@>2V4=0 @>;L =0;568BL C ?@>F5AV B2>@G>ABV V=A09BC  V=BCWB82=><C AE>?;5==N ?>HC:>2>3> @57C;LB0BC. "2>@GVABL, O: V A?@><>6=VABL 4> B2>@G>ABV 01> :@50B82=VABL (2V4 ;0B. creo -, are - B2>@N, B2>@8B8), ?5@5410G0T =570;56=C ?>254V=:C. @8 FL><C AB2>@NTBLAO >48=8G=5, >@83V=0;L=5, I> E0@0:B5@87CT 28EV4 70 <56V A>FV0;L=>W =>@<8, ?>@CH5==O A>FV0;L=>W AB01V;L=>ABV. !CA?V;LAB2> 6, =02?0:8, 70FV:02;5=5 C 2=CB@VH=V9 AB01V;L=>ABV V 157?5@5@2=><C 2V4B2>@5==V VA=CNG8E D>@< 2V4=>A8= B0 728G09=8E ?@54<5BV2 <0B5@V0;L=>W B0 4CE>2=>W :C;LBC@8. A>1;82>ABV B2>@G>ABV V :@50B82=>ABV 40NBL <>6;82VABL 284V;8B8 C<>28 D>@<C20==O B2>@G>W >A>18AB>ABV. &5 B0:V C<>28: 2V4ACB=VABL @53;0<5=B0FVW ?@54<5B=>W 0:B82=>ABV, B>G=VH5  2V4ACB=VABL 7@07:0 @53;0<5=B>20=>W ?>254V=:8, =0O2=VABL ?>78B82=>3> 7@07:0 B2>@G>W ?>254V=:8, AB2>@5==O C<>2 4;O =0A;V4C20==O B2>@G>W ?>254V=:8 V 1;>:C20==O ?@>O2V2 03@5A82=>W V 45AB@C:B82=>W ?>254V=:8, A>FV0;L=5 ?V4:@V?;5==O B2>@G>W ?>254V=:8. !5=78B82=8< ?5@V>4>< 4;O D>@<C20==O :@50B82=>ABV T 2V: 2V4 3 4> 5 @>:V2. # 3 @>:8 48B8=0 3>B>20 4> A>FV0;V70FVW, 0;5 I5 =5 A>FV0;V7>20=0, B>1B> I5 =5 ?@82;0A=8;0 A8AB5<C 2AB0=>2;5=8E D>@< 2V4=>A8= C ACA?V;LAB2V. ;O :@50B82=>3> @>728B:C 48B8=8 =5>1EV4=0 =0O2=VABL 7@07:0 B2>@G>W ?>254V=:8. >3> @>;L ?>;O30T C B><C, I>1 ?@>B8AB>OB8 7@07:C ?@028;L=>W ?>254V=:8. # 2VFV 5 - 6 @>:V2 :@50B82=0 ?>254V=:0 7<5=HCTBLAO (7@>AB0T V=B5;5:BC0;L=0 0:B82=VABL B0 @V25=L A>FV0;V70FVW), 1> 48B8=0 2A5 1V;LH5 ?@82;0A=NT A>FV0;L=> A?@89=OB;82V D>@<8 ?>254V=:8 B0 =5 10G8BL <>6;82>AB59 2V4E8;5=L 2V4 AB5@5>B8?V2 C A>FV0;L=V9 270T<>4VW. ?;82 AV<59=>3> 28E>20==O V 68BBO C AV< W =0 @>728B>: :@50B82=>ABV V B2>@G>ABV C 4VB59 1030B>7=0G=89 V 1030B>1VG=89. "0:, . ;L15@B B0 . C=:> AB25@46CNBL, I> 1V;LH 28A>:89 @V25=L :@50B82=>ABV <0NBL 4VB8, O:V 682CBL C AV< OE 7 =530@<>=V9=8<8 5<>FV9=8<8 2V4=>A8=0<8 B0 ?A8E>B8G=VABN 10BL:V2. 02?0:8, . !B5=15@3 AB25@46CT =5>1EV4=VABL 30@<>=V9=8E 2V4=>A8=. "0:V ?>;O@=V B>G:8 7>@C, <01CBL, =54>AB0B=L> >1@C=B>20=V. 57AC<=V2=5 >4=5 - 4;O @>728B:C :@50B82=>ABV C 4VB59 2 C<>20E AV< W =5>1EV4=V H8@>:89 A?5:B@ ?>254V=:8 48B8=8 7 <V=V<0;L=>N :V;L:VABN AB5@5>B8?=8E D>@< ?>254V=:8, 45<>:@0B8G=5 A5@54>28I5, 2V4ACB=VABL A;V?>W A;CE=O=>ABV. 7.3. A>18ABVABL B2>@G>W ;N48=8 V WW 68BBO "2>@8BL >A>18ABVABL ;N48=8 7V A2>W<8 >A>1;828<8 ?A8EVG=8<8 ?@>O20<8. !L>3>4=V 4>A;V4=8:8 AE8;ONBLAO 4> 4C<:8, I> =5<0T B2>@G8E (:@50B82=8E) 74V1=>AB59, 0 T ;8H5 B2>@GV >A>18AB>ABV 7V A2>TN A2>T@V4=>N <>B820FVTN. @0240, @V7=V 02B>@8 22060NBL ?V4@C=BO< B2>@G>ABV V @V7=V <>B828: . $@594  AC1;V<0FVN 5=5@3VW AB0B52>3> ?>BO3C 2 V=HV AD5@8 4VO;L=>ABV B0 B2>@G>ABV; . 4;5@  O: @57C;LB0B :><?;5:AC =5?>2=>FV==>ABV; .. .=3  ?@>O2 0@E5B8?V2 :>;5:B82=>3> =5A2V4><>3>; . A046V>;V  O: ?@>F5A AE>465==O >A>18AB>ABV 4> V450;L=>3> /; . >465@A  <>B820FVN >A>18ABVA=>3> @>ABC; .. 0BNH:V=  <>B820FVN 4>AO3=5=L. V7=><0=VB=VABL ?>3;O4V2 =0 <>B820FVN B2>@G>ABV 4>72>;OT AB25@46C20B8, I> 157AC<=V2=8< 4;O B2>@G8E >A>18AB>AB59 T =0O2=VABL ?52=>W <>B820FVW B0 >A>18AB>W 70E>?;5=>ABV. >A;V4=8:8 B2>@G8E >A>18AB>AB59 284V;ONBL C =8E A2>T@V4=V @8A8: - =570;56=VABL  >A>18ABVA=V AB0=40@B8 206;82VHV 70 3@C?>2V; - =>=:>=D>@<V7< >FV=>: V AC465=L; - 2V4:@8BVABL @>7C<C  3>B>2=VABL ?>2V@8B8 GC68< V A2>W< D0=B07VO<; - A?@89=OB;82VABL 4> =>2>3> V =5728G=>3>; - 28A>:0 B>;5@0=B=VABL 4> =5287=0G5=8E V =5@>72 O70=8E A8BC0FV9, :>=AB@C:B82=0 0:B82=VABL C =8E; - 28A>:0 0:B82=VABL 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C; - @>728=5=V 5AB5B8G=V ?>GCBBO; - 5<>FV9=0 =5AB01V;L=VABL. "0:, $. 0@@>= AB25@46CT, I>1 1CB8 B2>@G8<, A;V4 1CB8 B@VH:8 =52@>B8:><. 0A?@024V, =52@>B8G=VABL T ?>1VG=8< @57C;LB0B>< B2>@G>W 0:B82=>ABV. >254V=:C B2>@FO V =52@>B8:0 <>6=0 @>73;O40B8 O: 28EV4 70 <56V AB5@5>B8?=8E =>@<. "><C '. ><1@>7> AB25@46CT, I> 35=V9 V 157C<AB2> <>6CBL ?>T4=C20B8AO 2 >4=V9 ;N48=V. ;O =8E 2;0AB825 ?>ABV9=5 ?5@5?>2=5==O <>7:C :@>2 N, A8;L=89 60@ C 3>;>2V V >E>;>465==O :V=FV2>:. @V< B>3>, W< 2;0AB820 ?>30=0 < O7>20 B0 AB0B520 4VO;L=VABL. !?8A>: 35=VW2, E2>@8E 4CH52=8<8 E2>@>10<8, ?A8E>?0BV2, =0@:><0=V2, ? O=8FL V =52@>B8:V2 157:V=5G=89. 0 5?V;5?AVN E2>@V;8 5B@0@:0, >;LT@, $;>15@, >AB>T2AL:89, 0:54>=AL:89, 0?>;5>=, &570@. A8E>?0B0<8 1C;8 !0=4, V:5;0=465;>, 09@>=, 5B5. 0;NF8=0FVO<8 AB@0640;8 09@>=, >3>;L, >=G0@>2. V;L:VABL ? O=8FL, =0@:><0=V2, A0<>3C1FV2 A5@54 B2>@G>W 5;VB8 =5 ?V4;O30T >1;V:C: NAA5, ;59AO, !>:@0B, !5=5:0, 5=45;L, ;>:, >, A5=V=, 0O:>2AL:89. !L>3>4=V . 0@;A>= 22060T, I> 35=V9 T =>AVT< @5F5A82=>3> 35=C H87>D@5=VW. # 3><>783>B=><C AB0=V F59 35= A?@8G8=OT E2>@>1C. !8= 35=V0;L=>3> . 9=HB59=0 E2>@V2 =0 H87>D@5=VN. # FL><C A?8A:C . 5:0@B, . 0A:0;L, . LNB>=, . $0@0459, '. 0@2V=, . 0=B, . <5@A>=, $. VFH5. "0:8< G8=><, B0;0=B, 35=V0;L=VABL, B2>@GVABL  F5 =5 BV;L:8 25;8:89 40@ >689, 0;5 9 25;8:5 ?>:0@0==O. "2>@GVABL <0T >1<565==O C G0AV. 0:A8<C< B2>@G>ABV ?@8?040T =0 2V: 30 - 45 @>:V2. >AV9AL:89 ?8AL<5==8: . >I5=:> ?>4V;82 B2>@FV2 =0 42V 3@C?8: B8E EB> ?@>682 :>@>B:5, 5<>FV9=> =0A8G5=5 68BBO, V B8E EB> ?><5@ 4> 45 @>:V2 B0 4>23>68B5;V2. > ?5@H>W 3@C?8 =0;560BL: >F0@B (?><5@ C 36 @>:V2), (>?5= (39), 5=45;LA>= (37), 0D05;L (37), 0= >3 (37), . > (40), . CH:V= (37), . >3>;L (42), T;V=AL:89 (37), . 5@<>=B>2 (26), . 0O:>2AL:89 (37), !. A5=V= (30), . ;>: (40), . '5E>2 (43). !<5@BL V A0<>3C1AB2> 35=VW2 T =0A;V4:>< ?5@52B><;5==O 2V4 B2>@G>3> ?@>F5AC, =52@0AB5=VW V BO6:>3> 68BBO. /: 707=0G0T . >I5=:>, & 4>;N A2>N 2>=8 70@>18;8 2;0A=8<8 @C:0<8. > FVTW 3@C?8 =0;560BL B0: 720=V ?>:V9=8:8 70 68BBO, B>1B> B2>@FV, O:V ?5@5AB0;8 B2>@8B8 C <>;>4V @>:8 V ?@>68;8 4>235 68BBO. &5 ;V=:0, (C<0=, $>=2V7V=, 52V, V1VE, C4A2>@B, >;@V46. "2>@G89 ?5@V>4 7025@HCTBLAO 4>23>B@820;8< A?04>< A8;8 B0 45?@5AVTN. ;O 2V4B2>@5==O B2>@G8E A8; =5>1EV4=V 7>2=VH=V (@53;0<5=B) V 2=CB@VH=V (A0<>@53C;OFVO) 7CA8;;O. %B> =8<8 2>;>4V2, B>9 =0;5602 4> 4@C3>W 3@C?8 4>23>68B5;V2: 0=B (81), 52 ">;AB>9 (82), . 0;V;59 (79), >11A (92), VD03>@ (76), 5B5 (82), . LNB>= (84), . $0@0459 (77), . 0AB5@ (74), '. 0@2V= (73), ;0B>= (81). "0:8< G8=><, 74V1=>ABV B0 B2>@GVABL T <>=>;VB=8< A?;02>< :><?;5:AC 45B5@<V=0=B, A5@54 O:8E =0 ?5@H5 <VAF5 28E>4OBL 1V>;>3VG=V ?5@54C<>28, 01> 7040B:8, 2;0A=0 0:B82=0 4VO;L=VABL B0 2<V==O C?@02;OB8 A>1>N. A5 F5 GC4>2> C 2V@H>20=V9 D>@<V 28:;02 .. 01>;>F:89: 5 ?>72>;O9 4CH5 ;5=8BLAO 5 ?>72>;O9 4CH5 ;5=8BLAO! >;L 40BL 59 274C<05HL 'B>1 2>4C 2 ABC?5 =5 B>;>GL, ?>1;06:C, CH0 >1O70=0 B@C48BLAO A2>1>640O >B @01>B,  45=L 8 =>GL, 8 45=L 8 =>GL! =0 ?>A;54=NN @C10H:C ! B51O 157 60;>AB8 A>@25B. >=8 55 87 4><0 : 4><C,  BK E20B09 55 70 ?;5G8, "0I8 A MB0?0 =0 MB0?, #G8 8 <CG09 4> B5<=0, > ?CABK@N, ?> 1C@5;><C, 'B>1 68BL A B>1>9 ?>-G5;>25GL8 '5@57 AC3@>1, G5@57 CE01! #G8;0AL 70=>2> >=0. 5 @07@5H09 59 A?0BL 2 ?>AB5;8 =0 @01K=O 8 F0@8F0, @8 A25B5 CB@5==59 72574K, =0 @01>B=8F0 8 4>GL, 5@68 ;5=BO9:C 2 G5@=>< B5;5 =0 >1O70=0 B@C48BLAO  =5 A=8<09 A =55 C74K!  45=L 8 =>GL, 8 45=L 8 =>GL! 0?8B0==O 4;O A0<>:>=B@>;N )> =07820TBLAO 74V1=>ABO<8? # G><C ?>;O30T T4=VABL 7=0=L, C<V=L, =028G>: B0 74V1=>AB59. )> =07820TBLAO 7040B:0<8? !B@C:BC@0 74V1=>AB59. 030;L=V B0 A?5FV0;L=V 74V1=>ABV. >OA=VBL =5>1EV4=VABL 2A51VG=>3> @>728B:C 74V1=>AB59. /:V ?>:07=8:8 287=0G0NBL >140@>20=VABL? 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C 28?5@5460;L=><C @>728B:C ?V7=0==O C >140@>20=8E 4VB59. )> E0@0:B5@87CT >A>18ABVA=89 @>728B>: ?V7=0==O C >140@>20=8E 4VB59. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C B0;0=BC. '8< 287=0G0TBLAO 35=V0;L=VABL ;N48=8? 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C ?V4E>40< 4> ?>OA=5==O B2>@G>ABV ;N48=8? #<>28 D>@<C20==O :@50B82=>ABV ;N48=8. >OA=VBL, G><C A5=78B82=8< ?5@V>4>< 4;O D>@<C20==O :@50B82=>ABV T 2V: 2V4 3 4> 5 @>:V2. /:V >A>1;82>ABV >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 287=0G0NBL B2>@GVABL? >OA=VBL 270T<>72 O7>: B2>@G>ABV B0 =52@>B8G=>ABV. A8EVG=V @>7;048 B0 B2>@GVABL. >OA=VBL B>G:C 7>@C . 0@;A>=0 =0 35=5B8G=C >1C<>2;5=VABL 35=V0;L=>ABV. %B> B0:V ?>:V9=8:8 70 68BBO? /:V C<>28 =5>1EV4=V 4;O 4>23>B@820;>3> B2>@G>3> 68BBO? @0:B8G=5 70=OBBO 4V1=>ABV, B2>@GVABL B0 B2>@G0 >A>18ABVABL AB>@VO 282G5==O B0 ACG0A=5 @>7C<V==O 74V1=>AB59. 140@>20=VABL. "0;0=B. 5=V0;L=VABL. "2>@G0 >A>18ABVABL B0 WW 68BBO. #<>28 D>@<C20==O :@50B82=>ABV. !?8A>: ;VB5@0BC@8 1. @C68=8= .. A8E>;>38O >1I8E A?>A>1=>AB59.  !1.: 8B5@, 2000.  368 A. 2. 030;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO /70 @54. !.. 0:A8<5=:0.  V==8FO.  >20 :=830, 2004. 3. 59B5A .!. #<AB25==K5 A?>A>1=>AB8 8 2>7@0AB.  .: 5403>38:0, 1971.  280 A. 4. 0<1@>7> '. 5=80;L=>ABL 8 ?><5H0B5;LAB2>.-.: #:@0W=0, 1995.  276 A. 5.  OA>W4 .. 030;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO. - .: 8I0 H:>;0, 2000.  480 A. 6. >;O:> .. "2>@G5A:0O :>=AB@C:B>;>38O (?@>;53><5=K).  .: A28B0 #:@08=K, 2007.  388 A. 7. ><0=>2AL:0 .. 8D5@5=FV9=0 ?A8E>;>3VO / .. ><0=>2AL:0, .. >4:>@8B>20.  L2V2.: >289 A2VB  2000, 2008.  236 A. 8. ><5=5FL .. A8E>;>3VO B2>@G>ABV.  .: 81V4L, 2001.  288 A. 8. <>FVW V ?>GCBBO 8.1. >=OBBO ?@> 5<>FVW V ?>GCBBO. 8.2. $>@<8 ?5@56820==O 5<>FV9 V ?>GCBBV2. 8.3. 8IV ?>GCBBO. 8.1. >=OBBO ?@> 5<>FVW V ?>GCBBO N4AL:5 68BBO 28O2;OTBLAO 42><0 D>@<0<8 0:B82=>ABV: ?>254V=:>N V 4VO;L=VABN. VO;L=VABL ;N48=8, WW ?>254V=:0 28:;8:0NBL ?>78B82=5 01> =530B82=5 AB02;5==O 4> =8E. V4 ?>254V=:>N @>7C<VNBL 7>2=VH=V ?@>O28 A8AB5<8 @CE>28E @50:FV9 >@30=V7<C ;N48=8 =0 2?;828 >1'T:B82=>3> A2VBC, 0 4VO;L=VABL - F5 270T<>4VO 7 >1'T:B82=8< A2VB><, C ?@>F5AV O:>W ;N48=0 0:B82=> B0 A2V4><> ?@03=5 4>AO3B8 ?>AB02;5=>W <5B8. !0<>@53C;OFVO ?>254V=:8 V 4VO;L=>ABV T >4=VTN 7 206;828E DC=:FV9 ?A8EV:8 ;N48=8. VO;L=VABL A:;040TBLAO 7 4V9, 2V4=>A=> 7025@H5=8E 5;5<5=BV2 4VO;L=>ABV, A?@O<>20=8E =0 @>72'O70==O ?@><V6=8E 70240=L. !B02;5==O 4> 4V9A=>ABV 2V4>1@060TBLAO C <>7:C B0 ?5@56820TBLAO O: 704>2>;5==O 01> =5704>2>;5==O, @04VABL, AC<, 3=V2, A>@><. "0:V ?5@56820==O =07820NBL 5<>FVO<8, ?>GCBBO<8. <>FVW B0 ?>GCBBO >@30=VG=> 270T<>?>2'O70=V, 0;5 70 7<VAB>< V D>@<>N ?5@56820==O 2>=8 =5 B>B>6=V. <>FVO - F5 7030;L=0 0:B82=0 D>@<0 ?5@56820==O >@30=V7<>< A2>TW 68BBT4VO;L=>ABV. >7@V7=ONBL ?@>ABV B0 A:;04=V 5<>FVW. 5@56820==O 704>2>;5==O 2V4 W6V, 104L>@>ABV, 2B><8, 1>;N - F5 ?@>ABV 5<>FVW. >=8 2;0AB82V V ;N4O<, V B20@8=0<. @>ABV 5<>FVW C ;N4AL:><C 68BBV ?5@5B2>@8;8AO =0 A:;04=V 5<>FVW B0 ?>GCBBO. %0@0:B5@=0 >7=0:0 A:;04=8E 5<>FV9 ?>;O30T C B><C, I> 2>=8 28=8:0NBL 2=0A;V4>: CA2V4><;5==O >1'T:B0 ?>B@518 (=0?@8:;04, ?5@56820==O 704>2>;5==O ?@8 A?@89<0==V <C78:8, ?59706C). >GCBBO - F5 A?5F8DVG=V ;N4AL:V ?5@56820==O, C7030;L=5=5 AB02;5==O 4> ;N4AL:8E ?>B@51. 04>2>;5==O 01> =5704>2>;5==O ?>B@51 28:;8:0T ?>78B82=V 01> =530B82=V 5<>FVW: @04VABL, ;N1>2, 3>@4VABL 01> AC<, 3=V2, A>@>< B>I>. <>FVW B0 ?>GCBBO E0@0:B5@87CNBLAO ?52=>N O:VABN B0 ?>;O@=VABN, 0:B82=VABN B0 V=B5=A82=VABN. >GCBBO<8 T AB02;5==O >A>18AB>ABV 4> ?@0FV, ?>4V9, V=H8E ;N459, 4> A0<>W A515. 0 O:VABN ?5@56820=L 2V4@V7=ONBLAO >4=V 5<>FVW B0 ?>GCBBO 2V4 V=H8E (=0?@8:;04, @04VABL  2V4 3=V2C, ;N1>2  2 V4 =5=028ABV). <>FVO< V ?>GCBBO< 2;0AB820 ?>;O@=VABL. >=0 28O2;OTBLAO C B><C, I> :>6=0 5<>FVO, :>6=5 ?>GCBBO 70 @V7=8E >1AB028= <>6CBL 28O2;OB8AO ?@>B8;56=>: @04VABL  3>@5, ;N1>2  =5=028ABL, A8<?0BVO  0=B8?0BVO, 704>2>;5==O  =5704>2>;5==O. >;O@=V ?5@56820==O <0NBL 28@065=89 ?>78B82=89 01> =530B82=89 2V4BV=>:. #<>28 68BBO B0 4VO;L=>ABV 28:;8:0NBL ?>GCBBO @V7=>3> @V2=O 0:B82=>ABV. >7@V7=ONBL AB5=VG=V 5<>FVW B0 ?>GCBBO - BV, I> ?>A8;NNBL 0:B82=VABL, A?>=C:0NBL 4> 4VO;L=>ABV, B0 0AB5=VG=V - BV, I> ?@83=VGCNBL ;N48=C, 7<5=HCNBL WW 0:B82=VABL. 0;56=> 2V4 V=482V4C0;L=8E >A>1;82>AB59 >A>18AB>ABV, WW AB0=C V AB02;5==O 4> A8BC0FVW B0 >1'T:BV2, I> 28:;8:0NBL ?5@56820==O, 5<>FVW B0 ?>GCBBO 28O2;ONBLAO ?52=>N V=B5=A82=VABN, 1C20NBL 4>23>B@820;8<8 01> :>@>B:>G0A=8<8. %0@0:B5@=0 >A>1;82VABL 5<>FV9 V ?>GCBBV2 ?>;O30T C B><C, I> 2>=8 FV;:>28B> 70E>?;NNBL >A>18ABVABL. <>FVW A83=0;V7CNBL ?@> :>@8A=V 01> H:V4;82V 2?;828 =0 >@30=V7<, 7024O:8 G><C <0NBL C=V25@A0;L=5 7=0G5==O 4;O 68BBO >@30=V7<C. %0@0:B5@ ?5@56820=L >1C<>2;NTBLAO AB02;5==O< >A>18AB>ABV 4> ?>B@51. >B@518 ;N48=8 V B20@8= 2V4@V7=ONBLAO 70 7<VAB><, V=B5=A82=VABN B0 A?>A>1>< WE 704>2>;5==O.  F5 >1C<>2;NT 2V4<V==VABL 2 5<>FVOE ;N459 V B20@8=, =02VBL C B0:8E, O:V T A?V;L=8<8 4;O =8E: 3=V2, AB@0E, @04VABL, AC< B>I>. <>FVW 4>:>@V==> 7<V=8;8AO C ?@>F5AV VAB>@8G=>3> @>728B:C ;N48=8, 2>=8 >;N4=8;8AO, =01C;8 A2>T@V4=8E >A>1;82>AB59. >;>4, =0?@8:;04, ?5@56820TBLAO ;N48=>N =5 B0:, O: B20@8=>N. N48=0 70;56=> 2V4 >1AB028= <>65 AB@8<C20B8 3>;>4, 2V4<>2;OB8AO 2V4 W6V. # ;N48=8 O: ACA?V;L=>W VAB>B8 28=8:;8 28IV, 4CE>2=V ?>B@518, 0 7 =8<8 9 28IV ?>GCBBO - <>@0;L=V, 5AB5B8G=V, ?V7=020;L=V, I> =5 2;0AB82V B20@8=V. "20@8==V 5<>FVW 70;8H8;8AO =0 @V2=V V=AB8=:B82=8E D>@< 68BBT4VO;L=>ABV. >GCBBO A>@><C, 707=0G02 '. 0@2V=, 2;0AB825 ;8H5 ;N48=V. <>FVW, ?>GCBBO ;N48=8 ?>2 O70=V 7 WW 4VO;L=VABN. VO;L=VABL 28:;8:0T @V7=V ?5@56820==O C 72'O7:C 7 CA?VE0<8. <>FVW B0 ?>GCBBO AB8<C;NNBL ;N48=C 4> 4VO;L=>ABV, AB0NBL WW <>B820<8. >GCBBO 71030GCNBL 68BBO ;N48=8. <>FVO<8 B0 ?>GCBBO<8 =07820NBLAO 2V4>1@065==O ;N48=>N AC1 T:B82=>3> AB02;5==O 4> >1 T:B82=>3> A2VBC C 72 O7:C 7 704>2>;5==O< G8 =5704>2>;5==O< ?>B@51. 8.2. $>@<8 ?5@56820==O 5<>FV9 V ?>GCBBV2 <>FV9=V AB0=8 B0 D>@<8 WE 28O2;5==O 45B5@<V=CNBLAO A>FV0;L=8<8 G8==8:0<8. 5 <>6=0 V3=>@C20B8 45O:8E ?@8@>465=8E >A>1;82>AB59 ;N48=8. 030BAB2> 5<>FV9=8E AB0=V2 28O2;OTBLAO C D>@<V =0AB@>W2, 0D5:BV2, AB@5AV2, D@CAB@0FV9, ?@8AB@0AB59. 0AB@V9 - F5 4>23>B@820;89 5<>FV9=89 AB0=, I> A2>T@V4=> 7010@2;NT =0 ?52=89 G0A 4VO;L=VABL ;N48=8, E0@0:B5@87CT WW 68BBT289 B>=CA. >7@V7=ONBL =0AB@>W ?>78B82=V, I> 28O2;ONBLAO C 104L>@>ABV, V =530B82=V, I> ?@83=VGCNBL, 28:;8:0NBL ?0A82=VABL. 0AB@V9 F5 B0:89 7030;L=89 5<>FV9=89 AB0=, I> 28@07=> =5 A?@O<>20=89 =0 I>AL :>=:@5B=5. @8G8=8 =0AB@>N =09@V7=><0=VB=VHV: =5?V43>B>2;5=VABL 4> 4VO;L=>ABV, AB@0E ?5@54 >GV:C20=>N =5240G5N, E2>@>1;82V AB0=8, ?@8T<=V 72VAB:8 B>I>. A>1;825 <VAF5 A5@54 ?@8G8=, I> 28:;8:0NBL =0AB@V9, ?>AV40T <0@=>2V@AB2>. V@0 C ?@8:<5B8, >A>1;82> =530B82=V, 28:;8:0T ?0A82=VABL, AB@0E, A?>B2>@NT ?A8EVG=C 4VO;L=VABL >A>18AB>ABV. V@0 ?V440B;82>ABV =0AB@>O< <0T V=482V4C0;L=89 E0@0:B5@. A>18, O:8< 2;0AB825 A0<>2;040==O, =5 ?V440NBLAO =0AB@>N, =5 70=5?040NBL 4CE>< =02VBL B>4V, :>;8 4;O FL>3> T ?52=V ?V4AB028, 0 =02?0:8, ?5@51>@NNBL B@C4=>IV. 53:>4CEV H284:> ?V440NBLAO =0AB@>O<. >=8 ?>B@51CNBL ?V4B@8<:8 :>;5:B82C. D5:B - F5 A8;L=0, :>@>B:>G0A=0 5<>FVO, I> 28=8:0T @0?B>2>, >2>;>4V20T ;N48=>N B0: A8;L=>, I> 2>=0 2B@0G0T 740B=VABL :>=B@>;N20B8 A2>W 4VW B0 2G8=:8, 7<5=HCT @V25=L A2V4><>ABV. @8:;04>< 0D5:BV2 <>65 1CB8 =5A?>4V20=5 ?5@56820==O - A8;L=0 @04VABL, 281CE 3=V2C, AB@0E. # AB0=V 0D5:BC ?>@CHCTBLAO A0<>@53C;OFVO >@30=V7<C, I> 74V9A=NTBLAO 5=4>:@8==>N A8AB5<>N, ?>A;01;NNBLAO 30;L<V2=V ?@>F5A8 :>@8 25;8:8E ?V2:C;L 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C. . 02;>2, 0=0;V7CNG8 0D5:B=89 AB0=, 707=0G02, I> ;N48=0 C AB0=V 0D5:BC, I> ?5@528ICT 30;L<V2=C DC=:FVN :>@8, 3>2>@8BL V @>18BL B5, G>3> 2>=0 =V:>;8 =5 7@>18BL C A?>:V9=><C AB0=V V ?@> I> H:>4CT, :>;8 <8=5 0D5:B. A>1;82> @V7:> 28O2;OTBLAO 0D5:B82=89 AB0= ?@8 A? O=V==V, 70 O:>3> 30;L<V2=V ?@>F5A8 7=0G=> ?>A;01;NNBLAO. D5:B8 28:;8:0NBLAO =5A?>4V20=8<8 3>AB@8<8 68BBT28<8 A8BC0FVO<8, 2 O:V ?>B@0?;OT ;N48=0. D5:B, O: V =0AB@V9, 70;568BL ?52=>N <V@>N 2V4 V=482V4C0;L=8E >A>1;82>AB59 ;N48=8: WW B5<?5@0<5=BC, E0@0:B5@C, 28E>20=>ABV. D5:B82=V ;N48 G0AB> - 3CAB> A?0;0ECNBL 70 1C4L - O:8E ?@8G8=. D5:B8 28:;8:0NBL 3;81>:V 7<V=8 C ?A8EVG=><C 68BBV ;N48=8, 28A=06CNBL WW. N48=0 <0T 28E>20B8 C A>1V 740B=VABL :>=B@>;N20B8 A515, 2>;>4VB8 @CE0<8, <>65 :>=B@>;N20B8 A2>W 0D5:B82=V @50:FVW. 07>< 7 B8< CAV< ;N4O< 1V;LH>N G8 <5=H>N <V@>N 2;0AB825 0D5:B82=5 68BBO, 157 O:>3> 2>=8 ?5@5B2>@8;8AO 1 =0 ?0A82=8E, 1094C68E VAB>B. !B@5A 45I> =0304CT 0D5:B. V= 28=8:0T 70 =0?@C65=8E C<>2 68BBO B0 4VO;L=>ABV, C =5157?5G=8E A8BC0FVOE, I> 28O2;ONBLAO =5A?>4V20=> 9 ?>B@51CNBL 26820==O =5309=8E 70E>4V2. # AB@5A>2><C AB0=V ?>254V=:0 7=0G=>N <V@>N 457>@30=V7CTBLAO, A?>AB5@V30NBLAO 157;04=V @CE8, ?>@CH5==O <>2;5==O, ?><8;:8 C ?5@5:;NG5==V C2038, C A?@89<0==V, ?0< OBV B0 <8A;5==V, 28O2;ONBLAO =5045:20B=V 5<>FVW. 8H5 B25@4V C<V==O B0 =028G:8 C AB@5A>2><C AB0=V <>6CBL 70;8H0B8AO 157 7<V=. @0:B8:0 ?>:07CT, I> 28A>:V 48AF8?;V=>20=VABL, >@30=V7>20=VABL B0 A0<>2;040==O 70?>1V30NBL 457>@30=V70FVW ?>254V=:8 70 C<>2 AB@5AC. 84V;ONBL 420 2848 AB@5AC: 48AB@5A B0 ACAB@5A. 8AB@5A <0T =530B82=89 E0@0:B5@, 457>@30=V7>2CT ?>254V=:C B0 4VO;L=VABL. !CAB@5A <0T ?>78B82=89 E0@0:B5@, A?@8OT 0:B82V70FVW ?A8EVG=>W 4VO;L=>ABV ;N48=8. $@CAB@0FVO  F5 4>23>B@820;89 5<>FV9=89 AB0=, E0@0:B5@=>N >7=0:>N O:>3> T 457>@30=V70FVO A2V4><>ABV B0 4VO;L=>ABV C AB0=V 157=04V9=>ABV, 2B@0B8 ?5@A?5:B828. >=0 28=8:0T C 2V4?>2V4L =0 @50;L=V G8 CO2=V ?5@5H:>48 =0 H;OEC 4> ?>AB02;5=>W <5B8. >7@V7=ONBL B0:V 2848 D@CAB@0FVW, O: 03@5A82=VABL, 4VO;L=VABL 70 V=5@FVTN, 45?@5A82=V AB0=8, E0@0:B5@=8<8 4;O O:8E T AC<, =52?52=5=VABL, 157A8;;O, 2V4G09. $@CAB@0FVO 28=8:0T C @57C;LB0BV :>=D;V:BV2 >A>18AB>ABV 7 V=H8<8, >A>1;82> C :>;5:B82V, 45 ;N48=0 =5 <0T ?V4B@8<:8, A?V2GCB;82>3> AB02;5==O. 530B82=0 A>FV0;L=0 >FV=:0 ;N48=8, I> 70GV?0T WW >A>18AB>, WW 7=0GCIV AB>AC=:8, 703@>6CT ?@5AB86C, ;N4AL:V9 3V4=>ABV, A?@8G8=NT AB0= D@CAB@0FVW. V= 28=8:0T C ;N459 7 ?V428I5=>N 71C4;82VABN, 7 =54>AB0B=L> @>728=5=8<8 30;L<V2=8<8 ?@>F5A0<8, C =528E>20=8E, @>715I5=8E 4VB59. @8AB@0ABV - F5 A8;L=V, ABV9:V, B@820;V ?>GCBBO, I> 70E>?;NNBL ;N48=C, 2>;>4VNBL =5N V 28O2;ONBLAO 2 >@VT=B0FVW 2AVE ?@03=5=L >A>18AB>ABV 2 >4=><C =0?@O<:C, C 7>A5@5465==V WE =0 >4=V9 <5BV. @8AB@0ABL - F5 A8;0 ;N48=8, I> ?@03=5 4> A2>3> ?@54<5B0. >=0 ?>@>46CT =5>A;01=C 5=5@3VN C ?@03=5==V 4> <5B8. @8AB@0ABL 28O2;OTBLAO C =09@V7=><0=VB=VH8E AD5@0E ;N4AL:>3> 68BBO B0 4VO;L=>ABV: C ?@0FV, =02G0==V, =0CFV, A?>@BV, <8AB5FB2V. >=0 <0T 281V@:>289 E0@0:B5@ V 28O2;OTBLAO 2 5<>FV9=V9, C ?V7=020;L=V9, 2>;L>2V9 AD5@0E. >7@V7=ONBL ?@8AB@0ABV ?>78B82=V B0 =530B82=V. >78B82=0 ?@8AB@0ABL, O:I> 2>=0 702060T 4VO;L=>ABV, AB0T =530B82=>N. >;8 CG5=L, 70E>?;NNG8AL G8B0==O< 01> A?>@B><, ?@>?CA:0T C@>:8, =54>A8?0T, B> F5 70E>?;5==O 7 ?>78B82=>W ?@8AB@0ABV ?5@5B2>@NTBLAO =0 =530B82=C. @8AB@0ABL 4> 0;:>3>;N, :C@V==O 73C1=> ?>7=0G0TBLAO =0 ?@0FV B0 68BBV ;N48=8. >78B82=V ?@8AB@0ABV  70E>?;5==O ?@0F5N, =02G0==O<  T BVTN A8;>N >A>18AB>ABV, I> A?@8OT 4VO;L=>ABV. 8.3. 8IV ?>GCBBO # 5<>FV9=V9 AD5@V ;N48=8 >A>1;825 <VAF5 ?>AV40NBL 28IV ?>GCBBO. >=8 T 2V4>1@065==O< AB02;5==O 4> O28I A>FV0;L=>W 4V9A=>ABV. 0 7<VAB>< 28IV ?>GCBBO ?>4V;ONBL =0 <>@0;L=V, 5AB5B8G=V, ?@0:A8G=V B0 V=B5;5:BC0;L=V. V25=L 4CE>2=>3> @>728B:C ;N48=8 >FV=NNBL 70 B8<, O:>N <V@>N W9 2;0AB82V FV ?>GCBBO. # 28I8E ?>GCBBOE OA:@02> 28O2;ONBLAO V=B5;5:BC0;L=V B0 2>;L>2V :><?>=5=B8. 8IV ?>GCBBO T =5 ;8H5 >A>18AB8<8 ?5@56820==O<8, 0 9 70A>1>< 28E>2=>3> 2?;82C =0 V=H8E. >@0;L=V ?>GCBBO  F5 ?>GCBBO, 2 O:8E 28O2;OTBLAO ABV9:5 AB02;5==O ;N48=8 4> ACA?V;L=8E ?>4V9, 4> V=H8E ;N459, 4> A0<>W A515. 65@5;>< <>@0;L=8E ?>GCBBV2 T A?V;L=5 68BBO ;N459, WE 270T<8=8, 1>@>BL10 70 4>AO3=5==O ACA?V;L=8E FV;59. >@0;L=V ?>GCBBO ;N48=8 AD>@<C20;8AL C ACA?V;L=>-VAB>@8G=><C 68BBV ;N4AB20, C ?@>F5AV A?V;:C20==O ;N459 V AB0;8 206;828< 70A>1>< >FV=N20==O 2G8=:V2 V ?>254V=:8, @53C;N20==O 270T<8= >A>18AB>ABV. AB5B8G=V ?>GCBBO - F5 2V4>1@065==O AB02;5==O 4> :@0A8 2 O28I0E ?@8@>48, C ?@0FV, C 30@<>=VW 10@2, 72C:V2, @CEV2 V D>@<. 0@<>=V9=0 7;03>465=VABL 2 >1 T:B0E FV;>3> B0 G0AB8=, @8B< ?>2 O70=V 7 ?>GCBBO< ?@8T<=>3>, =0A>;>4>N. &V ?>GCBBO 28:;8:0NBL B2>@8 <8AB5FB20. 5 BV;L:8 C <8A;5==V, 0 9 C ?>GCBBOE ;N48=0 AB25@46CT A515 C ?@54<5B=><C A2VBV. 0;56=> 2V4 @V2=O 7030;L=>W B0 <8AB5FL:>W :C;LBC@8 ;N48 ?> - @V7=><C 2V43C:CNBLAO =0 :@0AC. 4=V 3;81>:> ?5@56820NBL 30@<>=V9=> 28@065=V @8B< V @8<C, ?5@5E>48 :>;L>@V2, 72C:V2, D>@< B0 @CEV2, V=HV =5 2V4GC20NBL FVTW 30@<>=VW V 70E>?;NNBLAO 3@C18<8, @V7:8<8 72C:0<8, 157;04=8<8 @CE0<8, 28?04:>28<8 ?>T4=0==O<8 :>;L>@V2. AB5B8G=V ?>GCBBO BVA=> ?>2'O70=V 7 <>@0;L=8<8. >=8 A?>2=NNBL >A>18ABVABL 28A>:8<8 ?@03=5==O<8, CB@8<CNBL 2V4 =530B82=8E 2G8=:V2. B65, 5AB5B8G=V ?>GCBBO T VAB>B=8<8 G8==8:0<8 C D>@<C20==V <>@0;L=>3> >1;8GGO ;N48=8. @0:A8G=V ?>GCBBO ( 2V4 ;0B. @racsis  4V;>) - F5 2V4>1@065==O ;N48=>N A2>3> AB02;5==O 4> 4VO;L=>ABV. N48=0 2V43C:CTBLAO =0 @V7=V 2848 4VO;L=>ABV: B@C4>2C, =02G0;L=C, A?>@B82=C. &5 28O2;OTBLAO C 70E>?;5==V, C 704>2>;5==V 4VO;L=VABN, B2>@G><C ?V4E>4V, @04>ABV 2V4 CA?VEV2 01> C =5704>2>;5==V, 1094C6><C AB02;5==V 4> 4VO;L=>ABV. @0:A8G=V ?>GCBBO 28=8:0NBL C 4VO;L=>ABV. /A:@025 CO2;5==O ?@> 7<VAB V D>@<8 4VO;L=>ABV, WW ?@>F5A V @57C;LB0B, 3@><04AL:C FV==VABL  >A=>2=0 ?5@54C<>20 28=8:=5==O 9 @>728B:C ?@0:A8G=8E ?>GCBBV2. @0:A8G=V ?>GCBBO @>72820NBLAO 01> 730A0NBL 70;56=> 2V4 >@30=V70FVW B0 C<>2 4VO;L=>ABV. >=8 >A>1;82> CA?VH=> @>72820NBLAO V AB0NBL ABV9:8<8 B>4V, :>;8 4VO;L=VABL 2V4?>2V40T V=B5@5A0< V 74V1=>ABO< ;N48=8, :>;8 C 4VO;L=>ABV 28O2;ONBLAO 5;5<5=B8 B2>@G>ABV, @>72820NBLAO ?5@A?5:B828 WW @>728B:C. @0:A8G=V ?>GCBBO AB0NBL 1030BH8<8, O:I> ?>T4=CNBLAO 7 <>@0;L=8<8. 9. >; O 9.1. >=OBBO ?@> 2>;N. 9.2. A=>2=V O:>ABV 2>;V. 9.3. 572V;;O, 9>3> ?@8G8=8 V ?5@51>@5==O. 9.1. >=OBBO ?@> 2>;N >;O - ?A8EVG=89 ?@>F5A A2V4><>W B0 FV;5A?@O<>20=>W @53C;OFVW ;N48=>N A2>TW 4VO;L=>ABV B0 ?>254V=:8 7 <5B>N 4>AO3=5==O ?>AB02;5=8E FV;59 B0 ?>4>;0==O ?5@5H:>4 =0 H;OEC 4> =5W. # 2>;L>28E 4VOE ;N48=0 74V9A=NT 2;0A=C A2V4><C <5BC. !2V4><0 4VO;L=VABL  F5 4>2V;L=0 4VO;L=VABL. >2V;L=5 =0?@C65==O DV78G=8E A8;, 4>2V;L=5 A?@89<0==O, 70?0<'OB>2C20==O, 4>2V;L=0 C2030 B>I>  F5 A2V4><0 @53C;OFVO, A2V4><5 A?@O<C20==O DV78G=8E V @>7C<>28E A8; =0 4>AO3=5==O A2V4><> ?>AB02;5=>W <5B8. B65, 2>;O T >4=VTN 7 =09206;82VH8E C<>2 ;N4AL:>W 4VO;L=>ABV. >;O ;N48=8 28@>18;0AL C ?@>F5AV WW ACA?V;L=> - VAB>@8G=>3> @>728B:C, C B@C4>2V9 4VO;L=>ABV. # 1>@>BL1V 70 VA=C20==O, 4>;0NG8 B@C4=>IV, ;N48=0 28@>18;0 C A>1V @V7=V O:>ABV 2>;V. >;L>2C 4VO;L=VABL =5 <>6=0 72>48B8 4> 0:B82=>ABV >@30=V7<C 9 >B>B>6=N20B8 7 =5N. :B82=VABL 2;0AB820 V B20@8=0<. >=8 ?@8AB>A>2CNBLAO 4> C<>2, 0;5 157 FV;5?>:;040==O. >;O 28O2;OTBLAO C A2>T@V4=><C 7CA8;;V, C 2=CB@VH=L><C =0?@C65==V, I> ?5@56820T ;N48=0, ?5@51>@NNG8 2=CB@VH=V B0 7>2=VH=V B@C4=>IV. >;O T 45B5@<V=>20=8< ?@>F5A><. 5B5@<V=VAB8G=5 @>7C<V==O 2>;V ?V4B25@46CTBLAO DV7V>;>3VG=8<8 4>A;V465==O<8 . !TG5=>20 B0 . 02;>20. . !TG5=>2 707=0G02, I> 2>;L>2V 4VW ?@8G8==> >1C<>2;5=V 7>2=VH=V<8 ?>4@07=8:0<8. #AV 4>2V;L=V @CE8 T 2V4>1@06C20;L=8<8, B>1B> @5D;5:B>@=8<8. . 02;>2 707=0G02, I> 25AL <5E0=V7< 2>;L>2>3> @CEC - F5 C<>2=89 ?@>F5A, I> ?V4?>@O4:>2CTBLAO 70:>=0< 28I>W =5@2>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV. 9.2. A=>2=V O:>ABV 2>;V 4=VTN 7 =09206;82VH8E 2>;L>28E O:>AB59 >A>18AB>ABV T FV;5A?@O<>20=VABL. >=0 287=0G0TBLAO ?@8=F8?>2VABN B0 ?5@5:>=0==O< ;N48=8 V 28O2;OTBLAO C 3;81>:><C CA2V4><;5==V A2>WE 70240=L V =5>1EV4=>ABV WE 74V9A=N20B8. &V;5A?@O<>20=VABL 28O2;OTBLAO 2 C<V==V ;N48=8 :5@C20B8AL C A2>WE 4VOE ABV9:8<8 ?5@5:>=0==O<8, ?@8=F8?0<8. &V;5A?@O<>20=VABL V ?@8=F8?>2VABL >A>18AB>ABV - ?V4@C=BO WW A8;L=>W 2>;V. N48 157 GVB:>W FV;5A?@O<>20=>ABV, B25@48E ?5@5:>=0=L, ?@8=F8?V2 G0AB> ?5@51C20NBL ?V4 2?;82>< 28?04:>28E 1060=L, 707=0NBL 2?;82C V=H8E. 57 B25@4>3> ?5@5:>=0==O B0 ?@8=F8?>2>W A?@O<>20=>ABV ?>254V=:8 C ;N48=8 =5 <>65 1CB8 9 A8;L=>W 2>;V. 06;820 2>;L>20 O:VABL ;N48=8 - V=VFV0B82=VABL, B>1B> 740B=VABL A0<>ABV9=> AB028B8 ?5@54 A>1>N 70240==O 9 157 =0304C20=L V A?>=C:0=L V=H8E 28:>=C20B8 WE. =VFV0B82=VABL ;N48=8 E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO 4V9>2>N 0:B82=VABN. 0;>, 28O282H8 V=VFV0B82C, ?>AB028B8 ?5@54 A>1>N 70240==O, B@510 9>3> 74V9A=8B8, 4>25AB8 4> :V=FO. &5 <>6;82> ;8H5 70 =0;56=>W 0:B82=>ABV C 4VOE. AB>B=8<8 O:>ABO<8 2>;V ;N48=8 T B0:>6 @VHCGVABL, AB@8<0=VABL, =0?>;53;82VABL, A0<>ABV9=VABL. >=8 28O2;ONBLAO 2 C<V==V A2>TG0A=> B0 @0FV>=0;L=> ?@89<0B8 @VH5==O, >A>1;82> C A:;04=8E >1AB028=0E, C 30;L<C20==V =530B82=8E ?@03=5=L B0 4V9, C 740B=>ABV ;N48=8 4>;0B8 B@C4=>IV, I> 28=8:0NBL =0 H;OEC 4> 4>AO3=5==O <5B8. &V O:>ABV 4>?><030NBL ;N48=V 4>2>48B8 4> :V=FO :>6=C @>7?>G0BC A?@02C, 4>;0NG8 2AV ?5@5H:>48, I> 7CAB@VG0NBLAO =0 H;OEC 4> WW 28:>=0==O. 5;8:V A?@028, 287=0G=V =0C:>2V 28=0E>48 <>6;82V ;8H5 70 =0O2=>ABV F8E O:>AB59. 0?>;53;82VABL ;N48=8 A;V4 2V4@V7=OB8 2V4 B0:>W WW O:>ABV, O: C?5@BVABL. #?5@BVABL - F5 =5>14C<0=5, =VG8< =5 28?@0240=5 28O2;5==O 2>;V. #?5@B0 ;N48=0 =0?>;O30T =0 A2>T<C =54>FV;L=><C 1060==V, =572060NG8 =0 >1AB028=8. #?5@BVABL T ?@>O2>< =5 A8;8, 0 H284H5 A;01:>ABV 2>;V. @89<0NG8 @VH5==O, 2?5@B0 ;N48=0 70?5@5GCT @>7C<=V 4>:078, =5 72060T =0 V=B5@5A8 V=H8E, ACA?V;L=V V=B5@5A8. &5 =530B82=0 O:VABL ;N48=8, B><C A;V4 =0<030B8AO WW ?>71CB8AO. !0<>ABV9=VABL 2>;V 28O2;OTBLAO C 740B=>ABV ;N48=8 :@8B8G=> AB028B8AL O: 4> 2;0A=8E 2G8=:V2 V 4V9, B0: V 4> 2G8=:V2 V=H8E ;N459, =5 ?V44020B8AO =530B82=8< 2?;820< V=H8E. !0<>ABV9=VABL - F5 @57C;LB0B 28A>:>W ?@8=F8?>2>ABV ;N48=8, WW <>@0;L=>W 28B@8<:8. @>B8;56=>N A0<>ABV9=>ABV T =02VN20=VABL. 02VN20=VABL 28O2;OTBLAO C B><C, I> ;N48=0 ;53:> ?V440TBLAO 2?;82C V=H8E. 02VN20=VABL 1C20T C B8E ;N459, O:V =5 <0NBL ABV9:8E ?5@5:>=0=L, B25@48E ?@8=F8?V2, =5:@8B8G=> =0A;V4CNBL V=H8E, =5 <0NBL 2;0A=>W 4C<:8. "V, EB> ;53:> ?V440NBLAO =02VN20==N B0 A0<>=02VN20==N, F5 ;N48 7 =5ABV9:>N 2>;5N. !0<>2;040==O 28O2;OTBLAO C 740B=>ABV ;N48=8 2>;>4VB8 A>1>N, :5@C20B8 2;0A=>N ?>254V=:>N B0 4VO;L=VABN. !0<>2;040==O - 206;8289 :><?>=5=B B0:>W O:>ABV >A>18AB>ABV, O: <C6=VABL. >;>4VNG8 A>1>N, ;N48=0 A<V;82> 15@5BLAO 70 2V4?>2V40;L=5 70240==O. !0<>2;040==O  >4=0 7 =52V4 T<=8E O:>AB59 48AF8?;V=>20=>W ;N48=8. V4ACB=VABL A0<>2;040==O @>18BL ;N48=C =5AB@8<0=>N, V<?C;LA82=>N. N48, O:V =5 2>;>4VNBL A>1>N, ;53:> ?V440NBLAO 2?;82C ?>GCBBV2, G0AB> ?>@CHCNBL 48AF8?;V=C, 2V4ABC?0NBL ?5@54 B@C4=>I0<8, 2?040NBL C @>7?0G. !2>T@V4=8< ?@>O2>< 1572V;;O >A>18AB>ABV T :>=D>@<=VABL. !CBL WW 28O2;OTBLAO C B><C, I> ;N48=0 ?V440TBLAO 2?;82C, B8A:C 3@C?8 C A2>WE 4VOE V 2G8=:0E, =5 28O2;OT =570;56=>ABV, =5 >1AB>NT A2>W ?>78FVW. /: ?>:070;8 4>A;V465==O, :>=D>@<=8< >A>10< 2;0AB82V =53=CG:VABL ?A8EVG=8E ?@>F5AV2, 1V4=VABL V459, 7=865=0 740B=VABL 2>;>4VB8 A>1>N. < =5 28AB0G0T 2V@8 C A515, 2>=8 28O2;ONBL 1V;LHC ?0A82=VABL, =02VN20=VABL V 70;56=VABL 2V4 V=H8E. !C:C?=VABL ?>78B82=8E O:>AB59 2>;V, 2;0AB828E ;N48=V, 7C<>2;NT A8;C 2>;V. /: ?>78B82=V, B0: V =530B82=V O:>ABV 2>;V =5 T ?@8@>465=8<8. >=8 @>72820NBLAO C ?@>F5AV 68BBO B0 4VO;L=>ABV. 9.3. 572V;;O, 9>3> ?@8G8=8 V ?5@51>@5==O 572V;;O 1V;LH>N G8 <5=H>N <V@>N 28O2;OTBLAO C @V7=8E DV78G=8E V @>7C<>28E 4VOE. %0@0:B5@=8<8 9>3> >A>1;82>ABO<8 T 7=865==O 7030;L=>W 0:B82=>ABV, ?A8EVG=0 <;O2VABL, 2030==O B0<, 45 =5>1EV4=VABL 4VW >G5284=0. 572V;L=V ;N48 =5 4>2>4OBL @>7?>G0B>W A?@028 4> :V=FO, =5 740B=V ?5@51>@N20B8 =02VBL =57=0G=V B@C4=>IV, 2V4:;040NBL A?@02C =0 ?>BV<. >=8 ;53:> 2V42>;V:0NBLAO 2V4 206;82>W 4VO;L=>ABV, 15@CBLAO 70 <0;>206;825, 4@V1=5, =5?>B@V1=5, W< =5 2;0AB82V ABV9:V, FV;5A?@O<>20=V V=B5@5A8, A0<>ABV9=VABL V :@8B8G=5 AB02;5==O 4> A515 B0 4> V=H8E. 572V;L=V ;N48 =5 <0NBL 2;0A=>W 4C<:8, ;53:> ?V4?040NBL ?V4 2?;82 V=H8E, ;53:> ?V440NBLAO =02VN20==N B0 A0<>=02VN20==N, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> =52?52=5=V C A2>WE 4VOE. >=8 <0;>V=VFV0B82=V, E>G0 V 7=0NBL A?@02C, =5 740B=V AB@8<C20B8 A2>W 1060==O, 4>;0B8 C A>1V BV G8 V=HV 5<>FV9=V AB0=8 - 3=V2, AB@0E, 0D5:B8. # 5:AB@5<0;L=8E A8BC0FVOE 2>=8 @>73C1;NNBLAO, AB0NBL 157?>@04=8<8, W< 2;0AB825 <@V9=8FB2>, 2>=8 G0A>< ?>40NBL FV:02V ?@>?>78FVW, 0;5 =5 @50;V7CNBL WE. 572V;;O 2;0AB825 :>=D>@<=8< >A>10<, O:V AE8;L=V C=8:0B8 A0<>ABV9=8E @VH5=L, ?0A82=> ?@89<0NBL ?>3;O48 V=H8E, ?@8AB>A>2CNBLAO 4> 3>B>28E AB0=40@BV2 ?>254V=:8. 8?04:8 E2>@>1;82>3> 1572V;;O =07820NBLAO 01C;VTN. 572V;;O >1C<>2;NTBLAO 1030BL<0 ?@8G8=0<8. =>4V 9>3> A?@8G8=ONBL >@30=VG=V 01> DC=:FV>=0;L=V @>7;048 C 4VO;L=>ABV :>@8 25;8:8E ?V2:C;L 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C, >A>1;82> ;>1>2=8E 9>3> 4V;O=>:, 48A>FV0FVO, @>7 T4=0=VABL >1@07V2 4VW B0 @CEV2, ?0A82=VABL V459, CO2;5=L. > FL>3> A?@8G8=NNBL @V7=V E2>@>18, >A>1;82> 26820==O 0;:>3>;N, =0@:>B8:V2, I> 28:;8:0NBL ?0A82=VABL @>7C<>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV, @C9=CNBL 30;L<V2=C DC=:FVN :>@8 25;8:8E ?V2:C;L 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C, C @57C;LB0BV G>3> 0:B82V7CNBLAO ?V4:V@:>2V ?@>F5A8, 7>:@5<0 5<>FVW. 1<565==O @CEV2 B0 4V9 4VB59, ?@03=5==O 2 CAL><C 4>?><030B8 W< 28E>2CNBL C =8E ?0A82=VABL, I> AB0T 728G:>N, 206:> ?5@528E>2CTBLAO C AB0@H><C 2VFV. $>@<C20==O C 4VB59 ?@0FL>28B>ABV, 70;CG5==O WE 4> FV;5A?@O<>20=8E B@C4>28E 4V9, A?>=C:0==O 4>2>48B8 @>7?>G0BC A?@02C 4> :V=FO T =09206;82VH8<8 70E>40<8 I>4> ?5@51>@5==O 1572V;;O. $V78G=5 28E>20==O, A?>@B, @V7=V 2848 7<030=L 25;8:>N <V@>N A?@8ONBL @>728B:C 0:B82=>ABV, A0<>2;040==O, A8;L=>W 2>;V. 0?8B0==O 4;O A0<>:>=B@>;N 1. >OA=VBL ?>;O@=VABL 5<>FV9. 2. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C AB5=VG=8< B0 0AB5=VG=8< ?>GCBBO<. 3. )> =07820TBLAO 5<>FVO<8 B0 ?>GCBBO<8. 4. 072VBL D>@<8 ?5@56820==O 5<>FV9. 5. >@V2=O9B5 0D5:B V D@CAB@0FVN. 6. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C AB@5AC. 7. 072VBL 28IV ?>GCBBO. 8. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C <>@0;L=8< ?>GCBBO<. 9. @>0=0;V7C9B5 C<>28 28=8:=5==O B0 VA=C20==O ?@0:A8G=8E ?>GCBBV2. 10. )> =07820TBLAO 2>;5N? 11. 072VBL O:>ABV 2>;V. 12. >@V2=O9B5 =0?>;53;82VABL V 2?5@BVABL. 13. >@V2=O9B5 A0<>ABV9=VABL V =02VN20=VABL. 14. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C 1572V;;N. 15. @8G8=8 28=8:=5==O 1572V;;O. @0:B8G=5 70=OBBO <>FV9=>-2>;L>20 AD5@0 ;N48=8 1. !CB=VABL 5<>FV9 V ?>GCBBV2. 2. $>@<8 ?5@56820==O 5<>FV9 V ?>GCBBV2 B0 WE 2?;82 =0 4VO;L=VABL ;N48=8. 3. 8IV ?>GCBBO ;N48=8. #<>28 WE D>@<C20==O. 4. !CB=VABL 2>;V. 5. A=>2=V O:>ABV 2>;V B0 C<>28 WE 28=8:=5==O. 6. 572V;;O B0 C<>28 9>3> ?>4>;0==O. @07>: B5ABC 4;O :>=B@>;N 7=0=L 1. !?>=C:0NBL 4> 4VO;L=>ABV ?>GCBBO: 0) 0AB5=VG=V; 1) AB5=VG=V; 2) 4>23>B@820;V; 3) V=B5=A82=V; 4) 0<1V20;5=B=V. 2. 84V;ONBL 5<>FV9=V AB0=8: 0) =0AB@>W; 1) 0D5:B8; 2) AB@5A8; 3) D@CAB@0FVW; 4) ?@8AB@0ABV. 3. 8IV ?>GCBBO  F5: 0) <>@0;L=V; 1) V450;L=V; 2) 0AB5=VG=V; 3) ?@0:A8G=V; 4) V=B5;5:BC0;L=V. 4. >;O 70157?5GCT 4>AO3=5==O: 0) @53C;OFVW; 1) =0?@C65==O; 2) ?>AB02;5=>W <5B8; 3) ?@8G8=8 4VW; 4) @>7C<V==O A2VBC. 5. 84V;ONBL 2>;L>2V O:>ABV ;N48=8: 0) V=VFV0B82=VABL; 1) @VHCGVABL; 2) AB@8<0=VABL; 3) =0?>;53;82VABL; 4) A0<>ABV9=VABL. !?8A>: ;VB5@0BC@8 1. >4>=>2 ..  <8@5 M<>F89.  .: >;8B8740B #:@08=K 1987.  140 A. 2. 030;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO / 70 @54. !.. 0:A8<5=:0.  V==8FO: >20 :=830, 2004.  704 A. 3. ;L8= .. A8E>;>38O 2>;8.  !1.: 8B5@.2000.  288 A. 4. 0:;0:>2 .. 1I0O ?A8E>;>38O. !1. 8B5@, 2001.  592A. 5.  OA>W4 .. 030;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO.  .: 8I0 H:>;0., 2000.  480 A. 10. "5<?5@0<5=B B0 E0@0:B5@ 10.1. !CB=VABL B0 B5>@VW B5<?5@0<5=BC. 10.2. %0@0:B5@8AB8:0 B8?V2 B5<?5@0<5=BC. 10.3. "5<?5@0<5=B B0 4VO;L=VABL ;N48=8. 10.4. >=OBBO ?@> E0@0:B5@. 10.5. !B@C:BC@0 E0@0:B5@C. 10.6. V4E>48 4> B8?>;>3VW E0@0:B5@V2. 10.7. 70T<>2V4=>A8=8 E0@0:B5@C V B5<?5@0<5=BC. 10.1. !CB=VABL B0 B5>@VW B5<?5@0<5=BC >6=0 ;N48=0 =5?>2B>@=0 C A2>W9 V=482V4C0;L=>ABV. =482V4C0;L=C A2>T@V4=VABL :>6=>W >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 <>6=0 28O28B8 V C 48=0<VFV WW ?A8EVG=8E ?@>O2V2. "0:, >4=0 ;N48=0 A?>:V9=0, C@V2=>2065=0, 5<>FV9=> =528@07=0, ?>2V;L=0, AB@8<0=0, <>2;5==O C?>2V;L=5=5 V B8E5. =H0  AB@V<:0, @CE;820, 62020, 5<>FV9=0, <>2;5==O H284:5 V 3>;>A=5. &V V=482V4C0;L=V 48=0<VG=V ?@>O28 ?A8EV:8 E0@0:B5@87CNBL B5<?5@0<5=B (2V4 ;0B. temperamentem - 7<VHC20B8 C =0;56=8E A?V22V4=>H5==OE). A>1;82>ABV B5<?5@0<5=BC <0NBL 1V>;>3VG=C, 01> 35=5B8G=C >1C<>2;5=VABL. "5<?5@0<5=B>< =07820TBLAO V=482V4C0;L=> A2>T@V4=0, ?@8@>4=> >1C<>2;5=0 AC:C?=VABL 48=0<VG=8E ?@>O2V2 ?A8EV:8. "5@<V= B5<?5@0<5=B ?@89H>2 4> =0A 7 3;81>:>W 402=8=8. 02=L>3@5FL:89 ;V:0@ V <8A;8B5;L V??>:@0B (460-377 @@. 4> =.5.) 220602, I> >A>1;82>ABV B5<?5@0<5=BC ;N48=8 28O2;ONBLAO C A?V22V4=>H5==V :V;L:>ABV @V48= 2 >@30=V7<V. !0<5 A?V22V4=>H5==O @V48= V 287=0G0T ?@>O28 B5<?5@0<5=BC. /:I> >4=0 7 @V48= ?5@52060T, B> 1V;LH GVB:> 28O2;OTBLAO ?52=89 B8? B5<?5@0<5=BC. V??>:@0B 220602, I> C >@30=V7<V ;N48=8 T G>B8@8 @V48=8: 6>2G, :@>2, A;87 V G>@=0 6>2G. "0: 1C;8 284V;5=V G>B8@8 B8?8 B5<?5@0<5=BC: E>;5@8G=89 ( 2V4 3@5FL:. chole  6>2G), A0=32V=VG=89 ( 2V4 ;0B. sanquis  :@>2), D;53<0B8G=89 ( 2V4 3@5FL:. phlegm0  A;87) B0 <5;0=E>;VG=89 ( 2V4 3@5FL:. melanos  G>@=89, chole  6>2G). "0: 28=8:;0 ?5@H0 2 VAB>@VW ;N4AB20 3C<>@0;L=0 ( 2V4 ;0B. humor  @V48=0) B5>@VO B5<?5@0<5=BC. V<5FL:89 ?A8EV0B@ . @5G<5@ (1888  1964 @@.) >1@C=BC202 72 O7>: BV;5A=>W :>=AB8BCFVW ;N48=8 7 B8?0<8 B5<?5@0<5=BV2. V= 284V;82 420 B8?8 B5<?5@0<5=BC (482. ?V4E>48 4> B8?>;>3VW >A>18AB>ABV). &5 :>=AB8BCFV9=0 B5>@VO B5<?5@0<5=BV2. >2VB=V<8 4>A;V465==O<8 %% AB>;VBBO C 30;C7V 4VO;L=>ABV <>7:C ?>:070;8, I> 48=0<VG=V ?@>O28 ?A8EV:8 =091V;LH5 ?>2 O70=V 7 4VO;L=VABN =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8. "0: 28=8:;0 =59@>DV7V>;>3VG=0 B5>@VO B5<?5@0<5=BC, I> ?>OA=N20;0 72 O7>: B8?V2 B5<?5@0<5=BC 7 B8?0<8 28I>W =5@2>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV. 2B>@ FVTW B5>@VW 2840B=89 @>AV9AL:89 DV7V>;>3 .. 02;>2. ;O E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 B8?V2 28I>W =5@2>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV .. 02;>2 284V;82 B@8 2;0AB82>ABV =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8: A8;C, C@V2=>2065=VABL, @CE><VABL. V4 A8;>N =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8 @>7C<VNBL A8;C ?@>F5AV2 71C465==O V 30;L<C20==O, I> 287=0G0NBL ?@0F5740B=VABL =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8, 28B@820;VABL :;VB8= :>@8 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C, A?@><>6=VABL 30;L<C20B8 @50:FVN >4=8E ?>4@07=8:V2 ?V4 4VTN V=H8E. !8;0 =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8 E0@0:B5@87CT <0:A8<0;L=5 =020=B065==O, I> <>65 28B@8<0B8 =5@2>20 A8AB5<0 V 4020B8 =0 =8E 045:20B=C 2V4?>2V4L. V4 71C465==O< @>7C<VNBL ?@>2V4=C DC=:FVN =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8, ?>2 O70=C 7 0:B82=>N 2V4?>2V44N =0 ?>4@07=5==O. 0;L<C20==O  F5 ?@>F5A 70B@8<:8 4VO;L=>ABV =5@2>28E :;VB8=, 7<5=H5==O @V2=O 71C465==O. 0 A8;>N =5@2>2C A8AB5<C ?>4V;ONBL =0 A8;L=C V A;01:C. #@V2=>2065=VABL =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8 E0@0:B5@87CT 2V4?>2V4=VABL A8;8 71C465==O A8;V 30;L<C20==O V =02?0:8. &5 2V41C20TBLAO =5 702648. /:I> >48= V7 ?@>F5AV2 ?5@52060T, =0?@8:;04, 71C465==O, B> B0:0 =5@2>20 A8AB5<0 1C45 =5C@V2=>2065=0. A:V;L:8 C A;01:>W =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8 ?@>F5A8 71C465==O V 30;L<C20==O 28O2;ONBLAO A;01>, B> 4;O =5W =5 1C45 E0@0:B5@=0 C@V2=>2065=VABL. >=0 2;0AB820 ;8H5 A8;L=V9 =5@2>2V9 A8AB5<V. 0 C@V2=>2065=VABN WW ?>4V;ONBL =0 =5C@V2=>2065=C B0 C@V2=>2065=C. CE><VABL =5@2>28E ?@>F5AV2 E0@0:B5@87CT A?@><>6=VABL 4> H284:>W 7<V=8 ?@>F5AV2 71C465==O ?@>F5A0<8 30;L<C20==O V =02?0:8. !8AB5<0B8G=V 7<V=8 2 =02:>;8H=L><C A5@54>28IV 28<030NBL A8AB5<0B8G=8E 7<V= C 4VO;L=>ABV =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8. 5C@V2=>2065=0 =5@2>20 A8AB5<0 ?>ABV9=> ?5@51C20T C AB0=V 71C465==O, 0 B><C @CE><VABL W9 =5 2;0AB820. CE><VABL 2;0AB820 C@V2=>2065=V9 =5@2>2V9 A8AB5<V, O:C ?>4V;ONBL =0 @CE><C B0 <0;>@CE><C. >73;O=5<> FV 2;0AB82>ABV =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8 AE5<0B8G=>: 0 AE5<V GVB:> 284=> G>B8@8 B8?8 =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8, 01> G>B8@8 B8?8 28I>W =5@2>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV: A8;L=0, =5C@V2=>2065=0; A8;L=0, C@V2=>2065=0, @CE><0; A8;L=0, C@V2=>2065=0, <0;>@CE><0; A;01:0. &V B8?8 28I>W =5@2>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV A:;040NBL DV7V>;>3VG=5, 01> 1V>;>3VG=5 ?V4@C=BO B5<?5@0<5=BV2: A8;L=0, =5C@V2=>2065=0  E>;5@8G=><C; A8;L=0, C@V2=>2065=0, @CE><0  A0=32V=VG=><C; A8;L=0, C@V2=>2065=0, <0;>@CE><0  D;53<0B8G=><C; A;01:0  <5;0=E>;VG=><C. 10.2. %0@0:B5@8AB8:0 B8?V2 B5<?5@0<5=BC A8E>;>3VG=V >A>1;82>ABV ?@>O2V2 B5<?5@0<5=BV2 ?>2 O70=V 7 >A>1;82VABN 48=0<V:8 @V7=><0=VB=8E ?A8EVG=8E >A>1;82>AB59. @8 E0@0:B5@8AB8FV B8?V2 B5<?5@0<5=BC B@510 <0B8 =0 C207V, I> =02545=V B8?8 B5<?5@0<5=BC  ;8H5 B5>@5B8G=0 <>45;L, O:0 @50;L=> <>65 V =5 7CAB@VG0B8AO C 68BBV, 0465 @50;L=> =5 VA=CNBL G8ABV B8?8 B5<?5@0<5=BV2. # :>6=>W ;N48=8 <>6=0 7=09B8 ?@>O28 2AVE B8?V2 B5<?5@0<5=BV2: 1) ?@8 ?5@52060==V >4=>3> 7 =8E; 2) 45:V;L:0 (2 - 3 ); 3) 7=0E>4OBLAO C @V2=8E ?@>?>@FVOE. %>;5@8G=89 B5<?5@0<5=B. 0 V??>:@0B>< 2 >@30=V7<V ;N48=8 ?5@52060T 6>2G. 0 .. 02;>28< B0:V9 ;N48=V 2;0AB8289 A8;L=89 =5C@V2=>2065=89 B8? 28I>W =5@2>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV. %>;5@8:8 ?@0FL>28BV, A?@><>6=V =0 H284:V @50:FVW, W< 206:> A515 AB@8<C20B8, 1>@>B8AO 7 A0<8< A>1>N. >=8 <0NBL @V7:V @CE8. # =8E ;53:> 28=8:0NBL @>74@0BC20==O V 03@5A82=VABL. 0 ?>4VW E>;5@8:8 @503CNBL H284:>, 5=5@3V9=>, ?@8AB@0A=>. < 2;0AB820 AE8;L=VABL 4> 1C@E;828E 5<>FV9. %>;5@8:8 FV;5A?@O<>20=V, =0?>;53;82V C 4>AO3=5==V ?>AB02;5=>W <5B8. >20 E>;5@8:V2 3>;>A=0, H284:0, =02VBL ?>:20?;820, 70:V=G5==O A;V2 2>=8 =V18 :>2B0NBL, ?@03=CBL H284H5 28A;>28B8AO. V4ACB=VABL C@V2=>2065=>ABV V @CE><>ABV ?@8 =54>AB0B=L> 5D5:B82=><C 28E>20==V <>65 28O28B8AO C =5AB@8<0=>ABV, 70?0;L=>ABV, =5740B=>ABV :>=B@>;N20B8 2;0A=V 5<>FV9=V @50:FVW C 5<>FV9=8E A8BC0FVOE. !0=32V=VG=89 B5<?5@0<5=B. 0 V??>:@0B>< 2 >@30=V7<V ?5@52060T :@>2. 0 .. 02;>28< A0=32V=V:0< 2;0AB8289 A8;L=89, C@V2=>2065=89, @CE><89 B8? 28I>W =5@2>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV. !0=32V=V: ?@0F5740B=89, 28B@8<CT B@820;C V =0?@C65=C ?@0FN, C A:;04=8E A8BC0FVOE =5 28E>48BL V7 A515, 715@V30T A?>:V9, =5 2B@0G0T 104L>@>ABV, ;53:> @503CT =0 7<V=8 A8BC0FVW V ?@8AB>A>2CTBLAO 4> =8E, ;53:> =01C20T =>28E =028G>: V ;53:> ?5@5E>48BL 2V4 >4=>3> 4> V=H>3> 284C 4VO;L=>ABV. 5@2>2>  ?A8EVG=0 0:B82=VABL 4>A8BL 28A>:0, <V<V:0 B0 @CE8 1030B><0=VB=V B0 28@07=V. <>FV9=V ?5@56820==O =53;81>:V, 0 28A>:0 @CE><VABL =5@2>28E ?@>F5AV2 A?@8OT WE H284:V9 7<V=V. >20 A0=32V=V:0 3>;>A=0, GVB:0, 4>AB0B=L> H284:0, 0;5 A;>20 28<>2;ONBLAO ?>2=VABN (=0 2V4<V=C 2V4 E>;5@8:0). @8 =54>AB0B=L><C 28E>20==N @CE><VABL =5@2>28E ?@>F5AV2 28O2;OTBLAO C =54>AB0B=V9 7>A5@5465=>ABV, :>=F5=B@0FVW C2038 =0 ?52=V9 4VO;L=>ABV B0 =54>2545==V A?@028 4> ;>3VG=>3> 7025@H5==O. $;53<0B8G=89 B5<?5@0<5=B. 0 V??>:@0B>< 2 >@30=V7<V ?5@52060T A;87. 0 .. 02;>28< D;53<0B8:0< 2;0AB820 A8;L=0, C@V2=>2065=0, <0;>@CE;820 =5@2>20 A8AB5<0. $;53<0B8:8 <0NBL 28A>:C ?@0F5740B=VABL, 2=CB@VH=L> AB01V;L=V, 206:> 2:;NG0NBLAO C @>1>BC V 206:> 28E>4OBL 7 =5W, 5<>FVW =528@07=V, 0;5 AB01V;L=V, 2>=8 =5 ;N1;OBL <V=OB8 @>7:;04 68BBO, >1AB028=8, C?>4>10==O, 206:> ?@8AB>A>2CNBLAO 4> =>28E C<>2. :B82=VABL D;53<0B8:V2 4>A8BL =87L:0, =0AB@V9 A?>:V9=89 V ABV9:89. >GCBBO ABV9:V, 206:> 7<V=NNBLAO. AL G><C <>6=0 ?>@048B8 >4@C6C20B8AO 7 D;53<0B8:0<8, 1> ?>4@C6=V 7<V=8 ?@0:B8G=> 28:;NG0NBLAO. VW @>7<V@5=V. >2=VH=T 28O2;5==O 5<>FV9 V ?>GCBBV2 A;01:5. 5@5:;NG5==O 7 >4=>3> 284C 4VO;L=>ABV =0 V=H89 ?@>1;5<0B8G=5. >20 D;53<0B8:0 GVB:0, 4>AB0B=L> 3>;>A=0, <0;>A;V2=0. @> D;53<0B8:0 :06CBL: !:0702, O: 2V4@V702.  =51030B> 3>2>@8BL, 0 2A5 7@>7C<V;>. 54>AB0B=VABL 28E>2=>W @>1>B8 7 D;53<0B8:0<8 <>65 ?@8725AB8 4> B0:8E =530B82=8E @8A: <;O2>ABV, 71V4=5=>ABV V A;01:>ABV 5<>FV9, AE8;L=>ABV 4> 28:>=0==O 728G=8E 4V9. 5;0=E>;VG=89 B5<?5@0<5=B. 0 V??>:@0B>< C >@30=V7<V ?5@52060T G>@=0 6>2G. 0 .. 02;>28< <5;0=E>;V:0< 2;0AB8289 A;01:89 B8? 28I>W =5@2>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV V 3;81>:V ?5@56820==O. 5@2>2> - ?A8EVG=0 0:B82=VABL =87L:>3> @V2=O, <>B>@8:0 C?>2V;L=5=0. <>FV9=0 @50:B82=VABL 7=0G=>W A8;8, 0;5 7>2=VH=L> 28@060TBLAO A;01:>. 5;0=E>;V:8 H284:> 2B@0G0NBL ?@0F5740B=VABL, ?>B@51CNBL 2V4?>G8=:C 2V4 ?@0FV. >=8 =04728G09=> 70;56=V 2V4 7>2=VH=VE =5ACBBT28E 2?;82V2. 06:> ?5@5=>AOBL 4>23>B@820;5 =0?@C65==O B0 A8;L=V 5<>FV9=V 2?;828. >=8 ;O:;82V, ?;0:A82V, 2@07;82V. >20 <5;0=E>;V:V2 B8E0, ;5425 GCB=0, ?>2V;L=0. 54>AB0B=T 28E>20==O A?@8OT @>728B:C B0:8E =530B82=8E @8A, O: E2>@>1;820 5<>FV9=0 2@07;82VABL, 70<:=5=VABL, 2V4GC65=VABL, AE8;L=VABL 4> 206:8E 5<>FV9=8E ?5@56820=L. A>1;82>ABV B5<?5@0<5=BC 28O2;ONBLAO =5 BV;L:8 C 7>2=VH=V9 <0=5@V ?>254V=:8, 0;5 9 C =02G0==V, C ?@0FV, @>7C<>2V9 AD5@V. @8 FL><C A;V4 <0B8 =0 C207V B@8 <><5=B8. 5@H89. V4<V==>ABV B5<?5@0<5=BV2 28O2;ONBLAO =5 C @V2=V <>6;82>AB59 ?A8EV:8 4> 4>AO3=5=L, 0 ;8H5 C A2>T@V4=>ABV 48=0<VG=8E ?@>O2V2. @C389. 5<0T 30@=8E G8 ?>30=8E B5<?5@0<5=BV2. >65= B5<?5@0<5=B <0T O: A2>W ?5@52038, B0: V =54>;V:8. "@5BV9. #<>2=> 2AV B5<?5@0<5=B8 ?>4V;ONBL =0 42V 3@C?8: A8;L=V (E>;5@8G=89 B0 A0=32V=VG=89) B0 A;01:V (D;53<0B8G=89 B0 <5;0=E>;VG=89). A>1;82>ABV B5<?5@0<5=BV2 ?@8201;NNBL =5 BV;L:8 ?A8E>;>3V2. 8<8 FV:02;OBLAO EC4>6=8:8, ?8AL<5==8:8, ?>5B8. 'C4>2C V;NAB@0FVN B8?V2 B5<?5@0<5=BC 7@>182 %. VAB@C?. @>O28 B5<?5@0<5=BV2 28@07=> >?8A02 . >FN18=AL:89 C =>25;V Intermezzo =0 ?@8:;04V ?>254V=:8 A>10:. # % AB>;VBBV @=>;L4 V7 V;;0=>28 C ?>5B8G=V9 D>@<V >?8A02 B5<?5@0<5=B8. "5<?5@0<5=BK 064K9 A0=328=8: 2A5340 25A5;LG0: 8 HCB=8: ?> =0BC@5, 04:89 4> 2AO:>9 <>;2K 8 2=8<0BL =5CAB0==> 3>B>2K9, 0:E 8 5=5@0  CA;040 5<C, 8 540, 8 25A5;L5; ! =8<8 >= @04>AB8 ?>;>= 8 @5GL 53> A;04>AB=> ;L5BAO. !:;>==>ABLN >= >1;0405B : =0C:0< ;N1K< 8 A?>A>15=, 'B> 1 =8 A;CG8;>AL, => >= =5;53:> @0A?0;O5BAO 3=52><. ;N1G82K9, I54@K9, 25A5;K9, A<5NI89AO, @C<O=>;8FK9, N1OI89 ?5A=8, <OA8ABK9, ?>8AB8=5 A<5;K9 8 4>1@K9. 5;GL ACI5AB2C5B  >=0 =5>1C740==K< A2>9AB25==0 ;N4O<, A5E 8 2> 2A5< ?@527>9B8 G5;>25: ?>4>1=K9 AB@5<8BAO; =>3> >= 5AB, ?@52>AE>4=> @0AB5B 8 ;53:> 2>A?@88<G82, 5;8:>4CH5= 8 I54@, =587<5==> AB@5<8BAO : 25@H8=0<; 5G=> 27J5@>H5=, ;C:02, @074@068B5;5=, A<5; 8 =5A45@60=, !B@>5= 8 E8B@>AB8 ?>;>=, ACE>9 >= 8 A ;8:>< H0D@0==K<. $;53<0 ;8HL A:C4=K5 A8;K 405B, H8@8=C, <0;>@>A;>ABL. 8@ ?>@>6405B >=0 8 ;5=82>5 :@>28 42865=85. !=C  =5 70=OB8O<  A2>8 ?>A2OI05B D;53<0B8: 4>AC38. 5=L 8 A>=;82>ABL, @0AAC4>: BC?>9 8 2O;>ABL 42865=89. AO:89 D;53<0B8: A>=;82, 8 ;5=82, 8 A >18;L=>9 A;N=>N, "CG5= >= B5;>< 8 @07C<>< BC?, 15;>;8FK9 >1KG=>. ">;L:> ?@> G5@=CN 65;GL <K 5I5 =8G53> =5 A:070;8. !B@0==KE ;N459 ?>@>6405B >=0, <>;G0;82KE 8 <@0G=KE. >4@AB2CNB 25G=> 2 B@C40E, 8 =5 ?@540= 8E @07C< 4@5<>B5; "25@4K 2 =0<5@5=8OE, => ;8HL >?0A=>AB8 64CB >B>2AN4C. 04=K, ?5G0;L=K, 8E 7028ABL 3@K75B, A2>53> =5 C?CABOB, >1:8, =5 GC64 8< >1<0=, 0 ;8F> 8E 75<;8AB>3> F25B0. A>1;82>ABV B5<?5@0<5=BC 28A2VB;5=V =0W2=>, =5 702648 A?@0254;82>, 1> BCB ?>T4=0=V O: B5<?5@0<5=B=V, B0: V E0@0:B5@>;>3VG=V ?@>O28 ?A8EV:8. # FL><C B2>@V 2V4>1@065=V @V25=L @>728B:C ?A8E>;>3VW % AB>;VBBO B0 02B>@>AL:5 @>7C<V==O FL>3> D5=><5=C. 10.3. "5<?5@0<5=B B0 4VO;L=VABL ;N48=8 <VAB V C<>28 4VO;L=>ABV ?> @V7=><C 2?;820NBL =0 ?@>O28 2;0AB82>AB59 B8?C 28I>W =5@2>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV. >=8 <>6CBL 28O2;OB8AO O: C ?>78B82=><C, B0: V =530B82=><C 7=0G5==V. "0:, A;01:VABL =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8 28O2;OTBLAO C 28A>:V9 GCB;82>ABV V T ?5@5203>N, 0 A8;L=0 =5@2>20 A8AB5<0 <0T =87L:C GCB;82VABL. /: =0A;V4>:, 2>=8 ?@81;87=> @V2=>7=0G=V C ?@>F5A0E ?@8AB>AC20==O B0 4VO;L=>ABV. # 1C4L - O:V9 4VO;L=>ABV <>6=0 284V;8B8 3 5B0?8: ?V43>B>2G89, 28:>=02G89 V :>=B@>;L=89. @54AB02=8:8 A8;L=8E B8?V2 B5<?5@0<5=BC <0;> G0AC 2V42>4OBL ?V43>B>2G><C V :>=B@>;L=><C 5B0?0<. >=8 2V4@07C ?@8ABC?0NBL 4> 28:>=0==O. !;01:V  1V;LH5 G0AC 2V42>4OBL ?V43>B>2G><C 5B0?C, @5B5;L=> ?5@52V@ONBL >1;04=0==O B0 7=0@O44O V ;8H5 :>;8 2?52=5=V C 3>B>2=>ABV, ?@8ABC?0NBL 4> 28:>=0==O. !8;L=V B8?8 7=0G=89 ?@><V6>: G0AC <>6CBL 28:>=C20B8 4VO;L=VABL 157 ?;0=C20==O V @>7?>4V;C C G0AV. !;01:V 6 2V440NBL ?5@5203C ?;0=C20==N B0 @>7?>4V;C C G0AV. 0 :V=F528< @57C;LB0B>< ?5@5203C 2V440B8 =5 <>6=0 6>4=><C. !8;L=V B8?8 B5<?5@0<5=BC C ?@>F5AV 28:>=0==O 28O2;ONBL =54>;V:8 C ?V43>B>2FV, 7C?8=ONBLAO, CAC20NBL WE. &5 V 28@V2=NT WE O: C G0AV, B0: V C ?@0:B8G=V9 @57C;LB0B82=>ABV. &V >A>1;82>ABV >@30=V70FVW 4VO;L=>ABV ?@54AB02=8:0<8 @V7=8E B8?V2 B5<?5@0<5=BC 1C;8 2AB0=>2;5=V ?@8 282G5==V >A>1;82>ABV 4VO;L=>ABV B:0;L. @54AB02=8FV A8;L=8E B8?V2 =0 ?>G0B:C 7<V=8 2:;NG0;8 25@AB0B 157 ?5@52V@:8, C B>9 G0A O: ?@54AB02=8FV A;01:8E B8?V2 @5B5;L=> ?5@52V@O;8 25@AB0B8, =0O2=VABL =8B>:, WE 70?@02;5=VABL, DV:A0FVN V B. V=. AB0==T 28:;NG0;> =5?5@5410GC20=V V 5<>FV9=> A8;L=V A8BC0FVW. # A8;L=8E 7 ?>G0B:>< @>1>B8 ?>G8=0;8AL V ?@>1;5<8: =5?>;04:8 25@AB0BV2, ?>@82 =8B>:, =5DV:A>20=VABL =8B>: V B. V=. &5 28<030;> CAC=5==O. V=F5289 @57C;LB0B 4VO;L=>ABV C ?@54AB02=8:V2 42>E 3@C? ?@81;87=> >4=0:>289. &5 A2V4G8BL ?@> B5, I> ;N48 70;56=> 2V4 B8?C B5<?5@0<5=BC A0<>ABV9=> D>@<CNBL 2;0A=89, V=482V4C0;L=89 AB8;L 4VO;L=>ABV. !0<5 2V= >15@V30T 2V4 =530B82=8E 2?;82V2 A8;L=8E 5<>FV>35==8E A8BC0FV9 ?@54AB02=8:V2 A;01:8E B8?V2 B5<?5@0<5=BC.  2A5 6 >A>1;82>ABV B8?V2 B5<?5@0<5=BC B0 2;0AB82>ABV B8?V2 28I>W =5@2>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV <>6CBL 287=0G0B8 O: ?5@52038, B0: >1<565==O 70;56=> 2V4 7<VABC A0<>W 4VO;L=>ABV. "0:, C <>=>B>==8E 2840E 4VO;L=>ABV ( 70 B:0FL:8< 25@AB0B><, :>=25T@><, HB0<?C20;L=>N <0H8=>N) >A>18 7V A;01:8<8 B8?0<8 B5<?5@0<5=BC <0NBL ?5@52038. # =8E 28A>:0 GCBBT2VABL >15@V30T 2V4 7=865==O A?@89=OB;82>ABV, @>728B:C A>=;82>ABV. 0;0 @CE><VABL V ABV9:VABL =5@2>28E ?@>F5AV2 70157?5GCNBL 715@565==O @V2=O 0:B82=>ABV C 4VO;L=>ABV. @54AB02=8:8 A8;L=8E B8?V2 B5<?5@0<5=BV2 <5=H ?@840B=V 4> B0:8E 284V2 4VO;L=>ABV. >=8 206:> 28:>=CNBL <>=>B>==V 2848 4VO;L=>ABV, H284:> 7<>@NNBLAO, 2B@0G0NBL ?@>4C:B82=VABL. 5O:V 2848 ;N4AL:>W ?@54<5B=>W 4VO;L=>ABV <>6CBL 70;560B8 2V4 B5<?5@0<5=BC, 0 B8? B5<?5@0<5=BC <>65 AB0B8 ?5@5H:>4>N =0 H;OEC 4> >2>;>4V==O B0:>N 4VO;L=VABN. "0:, 5:AB@5<0;L=V 2848 ?@54<5B=>W 4VO;L=>ABV ( ;L>BG8:8, 28?@>1C20GV, 02V048A?5BG5@8, 48A?5BG5@8 70;V7=8FL, >?5@0B>@8 0B><=8E 5;5:B@>AB0=FV9 V B. V=.) 28<030NBL H284:>ABV @50:FVW, 28A>:>W V=B5=A82=>ABV, =5@2>2> - ?A8EVG=>W ABV9:>ABV V 28B@820;>ABV, H284:>ABV ?@8 ?@89=OBBV @VH5==O. (284:VABL 7<V=8 C<>2 B0 >1AB028= 4VO;L=>ABV C ?@54AB02=8:V2 A;01:8E B8?V2 B5<?5@0<5=BC 28:;8:0T 30;L<C20==O. 03@>7;82V ?>4@07=8:8 @C9=CNBL 4VO;L=VABL. !;01:V B8?8 B5<?5@0<5=BC C B0:8E 2840E 4VO;L=>ABV T D0:B>@>< =5?@840B=>ABV. ;O B0:8E 4VO;L=>AB59 1V;LH5 ?V4E>4OBL E>;5@8:8 B0 A0=32V=V:8. 02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL H:>;O@V2 B0 ABC45=BV2 =5 =0;560BL 4> 5:AB@5<0;L=8E, 0 B><C B8?8 B5<?5@0<5=BV2 =5 <0NBL ACBBT2>3> 2?;82C.  2A5 6 2V4<V==>ABV C =02G0;L=V9 4VO;L=>ABV <0NBL <VAF5. @54AB02=8:8 A8;L=8E B8?V2 B5<?5@0<5=BC H284H5 70A2>NNBL =02G0;L=89 7<VAB. >=8 1V;LH5 4>?CA:0NBL ?><8;>: ?@8 28:>=0==V 70240=L 01> =5410;> 28:>=CNBL 70240==O. @54AB02=8:8 A;01:8E B8?V2 ?>2V;L=VH5 70A2>NNBL <0B5@V0;, W< ?>B@V1=> 1V;LH5 G0AC 4;O 2V4B2>@5==O =02G0;L=>3> 7<VABC. 8:>=0==O =02G0;L=8E 70240=L @5B5;L=> 3>BCTBLAO, 0 B><C 2>=8 <5=H5 4>?CA:0NBL ?><8;>:. 57C;LB0B82=VABL =02G0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV C 42>E 3@C? 28O2;OTBLAO ?>4V1=>N. 465 G0A ?V43>B>2:8 C 4@C38E 28:>@8AB>2CTBLAO ?5@H8<8 4;O 28?@02;5==O ?><8;>:. =482V4C0;L=89 AB8;L 4VO;L=>ABV 28@>1;OTBLAO :>6=>N ;N48=>N H;OE>< 0:B82=>3> ?>HC:C 70A>1V2, D>@< B0 5B0?V2, I> 70157?5GCNBL 5D5:B82=VABL 4VO;L=>ABV. >A;V465==O<8 2AB0=>2;5=>, I> @V25=L V=B5;5:BBC0;L=>3> @>728B:C =5 70;568BL 2V4 B5<?5@0<5=BC. A>18 7 28A>:8< @V2=5< V=B5;5:BC 7CAB@VG0NBLAO A5@54 @V7=8E B8?V2 B5<?5@0<5=BC. @54AB02=8:8 >4=>3> B8?C B5<?5@0<5=BC <0NBL =09@V7=><0=VB=VHV @V2=V V=B5;5:BC. 10.4. >=OBBO ?@> E0@0:B5@ "5@<V= E0@0:B5@ (2V4 3@5FL:. charakter  2V418B>:, @8A0, >7=0:0, >A>1;82VABL) 1C2 22545=89 3@5FL:8< DV;>A>D>< "5>D@0AB>< 370  286 @@. 4> =.5. 4;O 287=0G5==O 2;0AB82>AB59 ;N48=8. V= 284V;O2 31 B8? ;N4AL:8E E0@0:B5@V2. 0?@8:;04, E20;L:C20B89, 10;0:CG89, =5I8@89, =C4=89 V B. V=. %0@0:B5@  F5 V=482V4C0;L=> A2>T@V4=5 ?>T4=0==O ABV9:8E ?A8EVG=8E >A>1;82>AB59 ;N48=8, I> >1C<>2;NNBL B8?>289 A?>AV1 5<>FV9=>3> @503C20==O B0 ?>254V=:8 C B8?>28E 68BBT28E >1AB028=0E B0 C<>20E. >;>2=0 >A>1;82VABL E0@0:B5@C O: ?A8EVG=>3> D5=><5=C ?>;O30T C B><C, I> 2V= 702648 28O2;OTBLAO C 4VO;L=>ABV, C AB02;5==V ;N48=8 4> >B>GCNG>W WW 4V9A=>ABV B0 ;N459. "0:, =0?@8:;04, >4=V ;N48 =040NBL ?5@5203C A:;04=8< 70240==O<, V=HV  ;53:8<; 4;O >4=8E 206;82> ?5@525@H8B8 V=H8E, 4;O V=H8E  4>AB0B=L> A5@54=L>3> @57C;LB0BC. 06;82VABL 7=0==O E0@0:B5@C >1C<>2;5=0 B8<, I> T =5>1EV4=VABL B0 <>6;82VABL ?5@5410G0B8 ?>254V=:C ;N48=8. %0@0:B5@ T ?@868BBT28< CB2>@5==O< V <>65 B@0=AD>@<C20B8AO ?@>BO3>< CAL>3> 68BBO ;N48=8. !B8;L 68BBO, ACA?V;L=V C<>28 V :>=:@5B=V 68BBT2V >1AB028=8 2V4V3@0NBL 206;82C @>;L C D>@<C20==V E0@0:B5@C. 0;56=> 2V4 B>3>, O:0 3@C?0 4;O >A>18AB>ABV T @5D5@5=B=>N V O:V FV==>ABV ?V4B@8<CT 9 :C;LB82CT FO 3@C?0, C ;N48=8 @>72820NBLAO 2V4?>2V4=V @8A8 E0@0:B5@C. 8A8 E0@0:B5@C  F5 ?A8EVG=V 2;0AB82>ABV ;N48=8, I> 287=0G0NBL WW ?>254V=:C C B8?>28E C<>20E. A=CT 1030B> :;0A8DV:0FV9 @8A E0@0:B5@C: 1) CAV @8A8 E0@0:B5@C ?>2 O7CNBL V7 ?A8EVG=8<8 ?@>F5A0<8 V B><C 284V;ONBL 2>;L>2V (@VHCGVABL, =0?>;53;82VABL, 0:B82=VABL, A0<>ABV9=VABL, >@30=V7>20=VABL), 5<>FV9=V (V=5@B=VABL, 1094C6VABL, 2@07;82VABL, ?>@82G0ABVABL, GC9=VABL) 9 V=B5;5:BC0;L=V (:<VB;82VABL, 28=0EV4;82VABL, 4>?8B;82VABL) @8A8; 2) @8A8 E0@0:B5@C @>73;O40NBLAO 2V4?>2V4=> 4> A?@O<>20=>ABV >A>18AB>ABV. <VAB A?@O<>20=>ABV 28O2;OTBLAO C AB02;5==V 4> ;N459 (G5A=VABL, ?@02482VABL, A?@0254;82VABL, :><C=V:015;L=VABL, 22VG;82VABL, GC9=VABL), 4> 4VO;L=>ABV (68BBT2V FV;V, V=B5@5A8; <>B820FVO =0 4>AO3=5==O CA?VEC G8 =0 C=8:=5==O =5240G), 4> =02:>;8H=L>3> A5@54>28I0 (A8AB5<0 ?5@5:>=0=L) V 4> A515 (53>W7< G8 0;LB@CW7<), 4> @5G59 (15@56;82VABL, 1> F5 <>T; =5410;VABL, 1> F5 =0H5; G8 >4=0:>2> 4> 2AVE); 3) 70 2?;82>< =0 4VO;L=VABL 284V;ONBL <>B820FV9=V (A?>=C:0NBL V =0?@02;ONBL 4VO;L=VABL) B0 V=AB@C<5=B0;L=V (=040NBL 4VO;L=>ABV ?52=>3> AB8;N) @8A8. 10.5. !B@C:BC@0 E0@0:B5@C %0@0:B5@ >A>18AB>ABV  F5 FV;VA=5 CB2>@5==O, I> ?>OA=NT ;N4AL:5 / O: T4=VABL. 87=0G8B8 AB@C:BC@C E0@0:B5@C >7=0G0T 284V;8B8 C =L><C 3>;>2=V :><?>=5=B8, 157 O:8E FV;VA=VABL E0@0:B5@C CO28B8 =5 <>6=0. 5@H 70 2A5 C AB@C:BC@V E0@0:B5@C 28>:@5<;NNBL 7<VAB B0 D>@<C. <VAB 287=0G0NBL ACA?V;L=V C<>28 68BBO B0 28E>20==O. $>@<0 6 70;568BL 2V4 >1AB028= B0 A8BC0FV9, C O:8E ?5@51C20T ;N48=0, B0 2V4 B5<?5@0<5=BC. > :><?>=5=BV2 E0@0:B5@C 2V4=>AOBL: !?@O<>20=VABL  3>;>2=0 A:;04>20 AB@C:BC@8 E0@0:B5@C, I> 28O2;OTBLAO C 281V@:>2><C ?>78B82=><C 01> =530B82=><C AB02;5==V 4> 2G8=:V2 V 4VO;L=>ABV ;N459 B0 4> A0<>W A515. 5@5:>=0==O  F5 7=0==O, V45W, ?>3;O48, I> T <>B820<8 ?>254V=:8 ;N48=8, AB0NBL @8A0<8 WW E0@0:B5@C B0 287=0G0NBL AB02;5==O 4> 4V9A=>ABV, 2G8=:8, ?>254V=:C. <>FVW, I> =040NBL E0@0:B5@C A?5F8DVG=>3> 7010@2;5==O. >;O, I>, 7C<>2;NNG8 A8;C B0 =5?>E8B=VABL E0@0:B5@C, O2;OT A>1>N 9>3> AB@86=5289 :><?>=5=B. >7C<>2V @8A8 28O2;ONBLAO C @>7AC4;82>ABV, A?>AB5@56;82>ABV B0 ?><V@:>20=>ABV ;N48=8. >2=>B0 287=0G0TBLAO 2A51VG=8< @>728B:>< 3>;>2=8E AB@C:BC@=8E :><?>=5=BV2 E0@0:B5@C - @>7C<>28E, <>@0;L=8E B0 5<>FV9=> - 2>;L>28E. &V;VA=VABL 28O2;OTBLAO C 2=CB@VH=V9 T4=>ABV @8A E0@0:B5@C. 87=0G5=VABL ?>7=0G0TBLAO =0 ?@8=F8?>2>ABV B0 AC<;V==>ABV 4V9 ;N48=8 =570;56=> 2V4 206;82>ABV 4>@CG5==O. !8;0 28O2;OTBLAO 2 5=5@3V9=8E 4VOE, 7027OBBV B0 0:B82=>ABV 4VO;L=>ABV, 1>@>BL1V 70 4>2545==O A?@028 4> 7025@H5==O, =572060NG8 =0 ?5@5H:>48. "5<?5@0<5=B  F5 48=0<VG=89 0A?5:B ?@>O2C E0@0:B5@C. # E0@0:B5@V ;N48=8 702648 ?>T4=CTBLAO B8?>25 B0 V=482V4C0;L=5. "8?>25 AB2>@NT D>= 4;O V=482V4C0;L=8E ?@>O2V2 @8A E0@0:B5@C. A>1;82>ABV B8?>2>3> E0@0:B5@C 28O2;ONBL AB02;5==O ;N48=8 4>: - 4VO;L=>ABV (?@0F5;N1=VABL, 7=52030 4> ?@0FV, 0:C@0B=VABL, AC<;V==VABL, 48AF8?;V=>20=VABL, >@30=V7>20=VABL); - V=H8E ;N459 (AE20;5==O G8 >AC4, ?V4B@8<:0 G8 70?5@5G5==O, I> <>6CBL 1CB8 28A;>2;5=V 22VG;82> B0 B0:B>2=> G8 6 1@CB0;L=>, V@>=VG=> B0 >1@07;82>); - A0<>W A515 (A:@><=VABL B0 28<>3;82VABL 4> A515 G8 6 E20;L:C20BVABL B0 3>@48=O); - @5G59 B0 ?@8@>48 (>I04;82VABL, 4109;82VABL, 0:C@0B=VABL). "8?>2V @8A8 E0@0:B5@C 702648 <0NBL V=482V4C0;L=C V=B5=A82=VABL A2>3> ?@>O2C. @09=N V=B5=A82=VABL @8A E0@0:B5@C =07820NBL 0:F5=BC0FVTN. :F5=BC0FVO - F5 :@09=V <56V =>@<8 @8A E0@0:B5@C. &5 =04<V@=5 ?V4A8;5==O >:@5<8E @8A E0@0:B5@C, I> 28:;8:0T 2V4E8;5==O C ?>254V=FV ;N48=8. >=8 =5 28E>4OBL 70 <56V =>@<8, ?@>B5 <56CNBL 7 ?0B>;>3VTN. &5 @8A8, I> A:;040NBL ACB=VABL >A>18AB>ABV, 287=0G0NBL WW @>728B>:, 040?B0FVN V ?A8EVG=5 74>@>2'O. 0 7=0G=>W 28@065=>ABV >A=>2=8E @8A 2>=8 =0:;040NBL 2V418B>: =0 >A>18ABVABL C FV;><C, V 70 =5A?@8OB;828E C<>2 <>6CBL 7@C9=C20B8 2AN AB@C:BC@C >A>18AB>ABV. %0@0:B5@ ;N48=8 T A:;04=8< A8=B57>< B8?C =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8 ;N48=8 B0 ACA?V;L=8E C<>2 68BBO V 28E>20==O. 57C;LB0B>< B0:>3> A8=B57C T CB2>@5==O 48=0<VG=8E AB5@5>B8?V2. 8=0<VG=89 AB5@5>B8?  F5 A8AB5<0 =5@2>28E 72 O7:V2 C :>@V 25;8:8E ?V2:C;L 3>;>2=>3> <>7:C, I> 28=8:0NBL ?V4 2?;82>< @V7=><0=VB=8E ?>4@07=5=L V 4VNBL C ?52=V9 ?>A;V4>2=>ABV. 030B>@07>2V ?>2B>@5==O ?>4V1=8E ?>4@07=5=L ?@872>4OBL 4> <8<>2V;L=8E 4V9, I> D>@<CNBL AB0;V @8A8 E0@0:B5@C. 10.6. V4E>48 4> B8?>;>3VW E0@0:B5@V2 %0@0:B5@>;>3VO  F5 A0<>ABV9=5 2G5==O ?@> E0@0:B5@, ?@>1;5<>N O:>3> T 28O2;5==O B8?V2 E0@0:B5@C V WE 287=0G5==O 70 7>2=VH=V<8 ?@>O20<8 7 <5B>N ?@>3=>7C20==O ?>254V=:8 ;N48=8 C @V7=8E A8BC0FVOE. "8?>;>3VO E0@0:B5@V2 @C=BCTBLAO =0 VA=C20==V 265 7304C20=8E ?52=8E B8?>28E @8A. "0:8< G8=><, B8? E0@0:B5@C  F5 VA=C20==O 2 V=482V4C0;L=><C E0@0:B5@V @8A, A?V;L=8E 4;O 45O:>W 3@C?8 ;N459. !?@>18 AB2>@5==O B8?>;>3V9 E0@0:B5@C =5 702648 @C=BC20;8AO =0 =0C:>28E <5B>40E. "0:, H8@>:> 2V4><V B0:V ?V4E>48, O:: 0AB@>;>3VO: 287=0G5==O E0@0:B5@C B0 2G8=:V2 ;N48=8 70 40B>N =0@>465==O (3>@>A:>?); 72'O7>: E0@0:B5@C 7 V<5=5< ;N48=8; 72'O7>: <V6 7>2=VH=VABN ;N48=8 B0 =0;56=VABL WW 4> >:@5<>3> B8?C >A>18AB>ABV, O:89 282G0T DV7V>3=><V:0; 287=0G5==O V=482V4C0;L=8E >A>1;82>AB59 70 ?>7>N B0 ?>;>65==O< BV;0 ;N48=8; ?5@5410G5==O @8A E0@0:B5@C ;N48=8 B0 WW 4>;V 70 H:V@=8< @5;LTD>< 4>;>=V (EV@><0=BVO); 0=0;V7 ?>G5@:C ;N48=8 (3@0D>;>3VO); ?>OA=5==O ?>254V=:8 ;N48=8 B8?>< 1C4>28 BV;0 (:>=AB8BCFV9=0 B5>@VO . @5G<5@0). 0C:>2> 287=0=>N T :;0A8DV:0FVO E0@0:B5@V2, 70?@>?>=>20=0 .. .=3><. V= @>7@V7=O2 ;N459 2V4?>2V4=> 4> WE =0;56=>ABV 4> 5:AB@025@B>20=>3> G8 V=B@>25@B>20=>3> B8?C. "0:, 5:AB@025@B  F5 ;N48=0, >@VT=B>20=0 =0 =02:>;8H=V9 A2VB, G0AB> V<?C;LA82=0, V=VFV0B82=0, :><C=V:015;L=0, 7 28A>:>N 3=CG:VABN ?>254V=:8. =B@>25@B, =02?0:8 6, 7>A5@5465=89 =0 A2>T<C 2=CB@VH=L><C A2VBV, AE8;L=89 4> A0<>0=0;V7C, 70<:=5=89 B0 <0;> A?V;:CTBLAO 7 >B>G5==O<. V4@C=BO V=H>W :;0A8DV:0FVW E0@0:B5@V2 A:;040T :>=F5?FVO 0:F5=BC0FV9 E0@0:B5@C . 5>=30@40. V= 284V;O2 420=04FOBL 0:F5=BC0FV9 E0@0:B5@C ;N48=8: 3V?5@B8<=89, 48AB8<=89, F8:;>W4=89, 71C4;8289, 70AB@O30NG89, ?540=B8G=89, B@82>6=89, 5<>B82=89, 45<>=AB@0B82=89, 5:70;LB>20=89, 5:AB@025@B82=89, V=B@>25@B82=89. "0:>6 VA=CT A>FV0;L=0 B8?>;>3VO E0@0:B5@V2 . $@><0. >=0 2@0E>2CT AB02;5==O ;N48=8 4> 68BBO, ACA?V;LAB20 V <>@0;L=8E FV==>AB59. !>FV0;L=89 E0@0:B5@ 287=0G0T <8A;5==O, 5<>FVW B0 2G8=:8 V=482V4V2. V= 284V;82 B@8 B8?8 E0@0:B5@V2. 07>EVAB - A048AB. !E8;L=89 10G8B8 ?@8G8=8 A2>WE 68BBT28E =5240G, 0 B0:>6 ?@8G8=8 A>FV0;L=8E O28I =5 2 >1AB028=0E, I> A:;0;8AO, 0 C ;N4OE. V:2V4CNG8 WE, 2V= A?@O<>2CT A2>N 03@5AVN =0 ;N48=C, I> T ?@8G8=>N =5240GV, 01> =0 A515. C9=V2=8:. %0@0:B5@87CTBLAO 28@065=>N 03@5A82=VABN 9 0:B82=8< ?@03=5==O< 4> CAC=5==O, 7=8I5==O >1 T:B0, I> 28:;8:02 D@CAB@0FVN, :@0E =04V9 C 40=>W ;N48=8. >=D>@<VAB - 02B><0B. !;V?> ?V4:>@OTBLAO >1AB028=0<, ACA?V;LAB2C 1C4L - O:>3> B8?C, 28<>30< A>FV0;L=>W 3@C?8, H284:> 70A2>NT B>9 B8? <8A;5==O B0 A?>AV1 ?>254V=:8, O:89 2;0AB8289 1V;LH>ABV C 40=V9 A8BC0FVW. 10.7. 70T<>2V4=>A8=8 E0@0:B5@C V B5<?5@0<5=BC A=CT @O4 ?>3;O4V2 =0 B5, O: A?V22V4=>AOBLAO E0@0:B5@ B0 B5<?5@0<5=B ;N48=8. B>B>6=5==O E0@0:B5@C B0 B5<?5@0<5=BC. !?>AB5@V30TBLAO, =0?@8:;04, C :>=F5?FV9 . @5G<5@0. @>B8AB02;5==O E0@0:B5@C B0 B5<?5@0<5=BC. "5<?5@0<5=B  5;5<5=B E0@0:B5@C, 9>3> O4@>. (!.. C1V=HB59=, !.. 0:A8<5=:>). "5<?5@0<5=B  ?@8@>4=5 ?V4@C=BO E0@0:B5@C. ;5, A;V4 707=0G8B8, I> B5<?5@0<5=B =5 287=0G0T E0@0:B5@. # ;N459 7 >4=0:>28<8 2;0AB82>ABO<8 B5<?5@0<5=BC, <>65 1CB8 7>2AV< @V7=89 E0@0:B5@, 1> E0@0:B5@ <0T A>FV0;L=C >1C<>2;5=VABL V 70;568BL 2V4 C<>2 68BBO V 4VO;L=>ABV. # B>9 A0<89 G0A, B5<?5@0<5=B <0T 35=5B8G=C (1V>;>3VG=C) >1C<>2;5=VABL. 0?8B0==O 4> A0<>:>=B@>;N !CB=VABL B5<?5@0<5=BC. "5>@VW B5<?5@0<5=BC. %0@0:B5@8AB8:0 B8?V2 B5<?5@0<5=BC. "5<?5@0<5=B B0 V=482V4C0;L=89 B8? 4VO;L=>ABV. "5<?5@0<5=B B0 CA?VH=VABL =02G0==O. "5<?5@0<5=B B0 281V@ ?@>D5AVW. !CB=VABL E0@0:B5@C. 8A8 E0@0:B5@C. !B@C:BC@0 E0@0:B5@C. "8?>25 B0 V=482V4C0;L=5 C E0@0:B5@V ;N48=8. 8=0<VG=89 AB5@5>B8? B0 AB0;V @8A8 E0@0:B5@C. 12. 70T<>2V4=>A8=8 E0@0:B5@C V B5<?5@0<5=BC. @0:B8G=5 70=OBBO "5<?5@0<5=B B0 E0@0:B5@ 1.>=OBBO B0 >1C<>2;5=VABL B5<?5@0<5=BC. 2."8?8 B5<?5@0<5=BC. 3."5<?5@0<5=B B0 V=482V4C0;L=89 AB8;L 4VO;L=>ABV. 4.030;L=5 @>7C<V==O B0 ?@8@>40 E0@0:B5@C. 5.!B@C:BC@0 E0@0:B5@C. 6.0FV>=0;L=89 E0@0:B5@. @07>: B5ABC 4;O :>=B@>;N 7=0=L =482V4C0;L=> A2>T@V4=0, ?@8@>4=>->1C<>2;5=0 AC:C?=VABL 48=0<VG=8E ?@>O2V2 ?A8EV:8 =07820TBLAO: V=482V4C0;L=VABN; E0@0:B5@><; B8?>< =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8; B5<?5@0<5=B><; 74V1=>ABO<8. .. 02;>2 284V;82 3 2;0AB82>ABV =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8: A8;0; C@V2=>2065=VABL; <>1V;L=VABL; ;01V;L=VABL; @CE><VABL. 3. 5;0=E>;VG=><C B8?C B5<?5@0<5=BC 2V4?>2V40T B8? : A8;L=0 2@V2=>2065=0 @CE><0; A8;L=0 =52@V2=>2065=0 <0;>@CE;820; A8;L=0 2@V2=>2065=0 <0;>@CE;820; A8;L=0 =52@V2=>2065=0; A;01:0. 4. /:><C 5B0?C 4VO;L=>ABV 1V;LH5 C2038 ?@84V;ONBL ?@54AB02=8:8 A8;L=8E B8?V2 B5<?5@0<5=BC: ?V43>B>2G><C; 28:>=02G><C; 0=0;V7CNG><C; :>=B@>;L=><C; ?V4AC<:>2><C. 5. A>1;82>ABV B8?>2>3> E0@0:B5@C 28O2;ONBLAO C AB02;5==V 4>: ?@0FV; V=H8E ;N459; A0<>3> A515; @5G59; 4VO;L=>ABV. !?8A>: ;VB5@0B@8 0@>=8= .!. -B=>?A8E>;>38O.  .: #, 2000.  116 A. @0=>2A:0O .. -;5<5=BK ?@0:B8G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388.  !1.: !25B, 1997.  607 A. @C68=8= .. A8E>;>38O >1I8E A?>A>1=>AB59.  !1.: 8B5@, 2000.  368 A. >@=T2 .., >20;5=:> .. !>FV0;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO.  ., 1995.  304 A.  OA>W4 .. 030;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO. - .: 8I0 H:>;0, 2000.  480 A. A=>28 7030;L=>W ?A8E>;>3VW /70 @54. !..0:A8<5=:0.  .: 5@A?5:B820, 1998.  256 A. ><0=>2AL:0 .. 8D5@5=FV9=0 ?A8E>;>3VO / .. ><0=>2AL:0, .. >4:>@8B>20.  L2V2: >289 A2VB  2000, 2008.  236 A. !B>;O@5=:> .. A=>2K ?A8E>;>388.  >AB>2 =/.: $5=8:A, 2003.  672 A. "5?;>2 .. 71@0==K5 B@C4K: 2 2 B.  .: 5403>38:0, 1985.  ".1.  328A.; ".2.  330 A. 11. @C?0 B0 >A>18ABVABL 11.1. 0;0 3@C?0  ?>=OBBO B0 D>@<C20==O. 11.2. 70T<>4VO V=482V40 B0 <0;>W 3@C?8. 11.3. V63@C?>2V 2V4=>A8=8. 11.4. 3@5AVO B0 0;LB@CW7< O: ?A8E>;>3VG=V D5=><5=8. 11.1. 0;0 3@C?0  ?>=OBBO B0 D>@<C20==O @C?0  F5 >1<565=0 C :V;L:>ABV A?V;L=VABL ;N459, I> 284V;OTBLAO 70 ?52=8<8 >7=0:0<8. V;LHVABL 4>A;V465=L C A>FV0;L=V9 ?A8E>;>3VW ?>1C4>20=V =0 282G5==V <0;8E 3@C?. >6=0 =0720B8 :V;L:0 ?@8G8= 40=>3> D0:BC. > - ?5@H5, 1V;LHVABL @V7=><0=VB=8E D>@< 4VO;L=>ABV ;N48=8 2V41C20TBLAO C <0;V9 3@C?V (AV< O, 4@C7V, H:V;L=89 :;0A, B@C4>289 :>;5:B82 B>I>). >  4@C35, C <0;V9 3@C?V D>@<CTBLAO >A>18ABVABL, 28O2;ONBLAO WW O:>ABV. >  B@5BT, <0;0 3@C?0 >?>A5@54:>2CT 2?;82 H8@>:>3> A>FV0;L=>3> >B>G5==O. &5=B@0;L=8< ?A8E>;>3VG=8< D5=><5=><, I> E0@0:B5@87CT <0;C 3@C?C, T ?>=OBBO ?A8E>;>3VG=>W A?V;L=>ABV. A=>2=8<8 :@8B5@VO<8 D5=><5=C ?A8E>;>3VG=>W A?V;L=>ABV T: D5=><5= AE>6>ABV, I> 28O2;OTBLAO C A?V;L=>ABV <>B82V2, FV;59, FV==VA=8E >@VT=B0FV9 B0 A>FV0;L=8E CAB0=>2>:; O28I5 V45=B8DV:0FVW, I> ?>;O30T C B><C, I> V=482V4 CA2V4><;NT 2;0A=C =0;56=VABL 4> 40=>W 3@C?8, T4=VABL 7 =5N, I> 70157?5GCT D>@<C20==O ?>GCBBO 8; CA2V4><;5==O G;5=0<8 40=>W 3@C?8 2;0A=>W 2V4<V==>ABV 2V4 V=H8E 3@C? (D5=><5= >=8); =0O2=VABL A>FV0;L=>-?A8E>;>3VG=8E >A>1;82>AB59, E0@0:B5@=8E 4;O 40=>W 3@C?8 O: >:@5<>W A?V;L=>ABV (AC<VA=VABL, A>FV0;L=>-?A8E>;>3VG=89 :;V<0B B>I>). >7?>2AN465=>N :;0A8DV:0FVN <0;8E 3@C? T ?>4V; 3@C? =0 D>@<0;L=V B0 =5D>@<0;L=V. > D>@<0;L=8E 3@C? =0;560BL ?5@28==V :>;5:B828 ?V4@>74V;V2 A>FV0;L=8E >@30=V70FV9 B0 V=AB8BCBV2 (H:V;L=89 :;0A, ?V4@>74V; 2 >@30=V70FVW, ABC45=BAL:0 3@C?0). 5D>@<0;L=V <0;V 3@C?8  F5 >1 T4=0==O ;N459, AB2>@5=V =0 ?V4@C=BV 2=CB@VH=VE ?>B@51 (C @>7C<V==V, A8<?0BVW, ;N1>2V, =0;56=>ABV). A8E>;>3VG=V <5E0=V7<8 D>@<C20==O <0;8E 3@C? ACBBT2> @>7@V7=ONBLAO 70;56=> 2V4 B>3>, ?@> O:C D>@<C 3@C? 1C45 9B8 <>20. $>@<C20==O D>@<0;L=8E 3@C?, I> T AB@C:BC@=8<8 5;5<5=B0<8 A>FV0;L=8E >@30=V70FV9, 2V41C20TBLAO ?>70 1060==O< >:@5<8E V=482V4V2 >1 T4=0B8AL C <560E A0<5 FVTW 3@C?8. 5D>@<0;L=V 3@C?8, =02?0:8, D>@<CNBLAO =0 ?V4@C=BV ?>B@51 V=482V4V2 C A?V;:C20==V, CG0ABV, =0;56=>ABV. !0<5 B><C C 28=8:=5==V =5D>@<0;L=8E 3@C? 25;8:C @>;L 2V4V3@0NBL D5=><5=8 A8<?0BVW, 5<>FV9=>W ?@8E8;L=>ABV, ?A8E>;>3VG=>W AC<VA=>ABV. $>@<C20==O 3@C?8 <>6=0 >?8A0B8 O: ?>A;V4>2=C 7<V=C AB04V9 2V4 @>7@V7=5=>W A?V;L=>ABV V=482V4V2 4> >@30=V7>20=>3> FV;VA=>3> >1 T4=0==O. .. #<0=AL:89 284V;82 AB04VW C @>728B:C 3@C?8: =><V=0;L=0 3@C?0, 4;O O:>W T E0@0:B5@=8< D>@<0;L=5 >1 T4=0==O 4;O 28:>=0==O ?52=8E 70240=L, 3@C?0-0A>FV0FVO, 2 O:V9 <>6=0 ?>10G8B8 ?5@28==C <V6>A>18ABVA=C V=B53@0FVN, 3@C?0 - :>>>?5@0FVO, 2 O:V9 >1 T4=0==O 2V41C20TBLAO =5 BV;L:8 =0 ?V4@C=BV 5<>FV9=8E, 0;5 9 4V;>28E D0:B>@V2; 3@C?0-02B>=><VO, 4;O O:>W T E0@0:B5@=8< 28A>:89 @V25=L 3@C?>2>W 0:B82=>ABV 70 >A=>2=8<8 ?0@0<5B@0<8 68BBT4VO;L=>ABV. !0<5 =0 FL><C 5B0?V <>6;82V 420 20@V0=B8 @>728B:C 3@C?8 V D>@<C20==O 3@C?8-:>@?>@0FVW, I> 7>A5@5465=0 =0 2=CB@VH=L>3@C?>28E FV;OE, 01> 3@C?8-:>;5:B82C, I> 2V4@V7=OTBLAO >@VT=B0FVTN =0 H8@>:V A>FV0;L=V 72 O7:8 B0 ?@>4C:B82=C ACA?V;L=C 4VO;L=VABL. @>2V4=8< ?0@0<5B@>< @>728B:C <0;>W 3@C?8 T 3@C?>20 73C@B>20=VABL 01> T4=VABL 3@C?8. A=CNBL @V7=V B>G:8 7>@C 2V4=>A=> B>3>, I> A;V4 @>7C<VB8 ?V4 ?0@0<5B@0<8 3@C?>2>W 73C@B>20=>ABV. # <560E H:>;8 3@C?>2>W 48=0<V:8 ?V4@C=BO< 3@C?>2>W 73C@B>20=>ABV 22060TBLAO 5<>FV9=0 ?@8E8;L=VABL V=482V40 4> 3@C?8, :>@8A=VABL 3@C?8 4;O V=482V40 B0 ?>2 O70=5 7 F8< ?>GCBBO 704>2>;5==O ?5@51C20==O< C 3@C?V. V25=L 73C@B>20=>ABV 287=0G0TBLAO G0AB>B>N B0 ABV9:VABN :><C=V:0B82=8E 72 O7:V2. !>FV><5B@8G=89 =0?@O<>: @V25=L 3@C?>2>W 73C@B>20=>ABV 287=0G0T @V2=5< 270T<=8E ?>78B82=8E >FV=>:, I> VA=CNBL <V6 G;5=0<8 3@C?8.  1>:C FV==VA=>3> =0?@O<:C 73C@B>20=VABL 3@C?8 70;568BL 2V4 @V2=O 3@C?>2>W 73>48. &8< B5@<V=>< ?>7=0G0TBLAO 71V3 ?>3;O4V2, 4C<>: B0 >FV=>: <V6 G;5=0<8 3@C?8. 11.2. 70T<>4VO V=482V40 B0 <0;>W 3@C?8 >A;V465==O 270T<>4VW V=482V40 B0 <0;>W 3@C?8 2V41C20TBLAO C 42>E =0?@O<:0E. >-?5@H5, 282G0NBLAO 2?;828 7 1>:C <0;>W 3@C?8 =0 V=482V40, ?>-4@C35  4>A;V46CNBLAO 70:>=><V@=>ABV 2?;82C V=482V40 =0 3@C?>2V ?@>F5A8 B0 O28I0. 5@HV 5:A?5@8<5=B0;L=V 4>A;V465==O C FL><C =0?@O<:C 1C;8 ?@8A2OG5=V 282G5==N D5=><5=C 2?;82C 3@C?8 =0 ?A8EVG=V ?@>F5A8 V=482V40 ($. ;?>@B, .. 5EB5@T2). >:@5<0, 5:A?5@8<5=B0;L=8< H;OE>< 1C;> 28O2;5=>, I> C ?@8ACB=>ABV V=H8E ;N459 C V=482V40 7=86CTBLAO GCB;82VABL (1>;L>20, A;CE>20, =NE>20, :V=5AB5B8G=0), >1AO3 B0 :>=F5=B@0FVO C2038, ?@028;L=VABL 28:>=0==O 0@8D<5B8G=8E 4V9, 35=5@C20==O >@83V=0;L=8E V459. =H8<8 A;>20<8, C ?@8ACB=>ABV 3@C?8 C V=482V40 7=86CNBLAO B>G=VABL B0 O:VABL ?5@51V3C ?A8EVG=8E ?@>F5AV2.  V=H>3> 1>:C, ?@8ACB=VABL V=H8E ;N459 AB8<C;NT H284:VABL ?5@51V3C ?A8EVG=8E ?@>F5AV2  ;N48=0 <>65 1V;LH5 =040B8 V459, :@0I5 ?@8304CT =5>1EV4=C V=D>@<0FVN B>I>. ?8A0=V O28I0 2V4>1@060NBL VA=C20==O 42>E ?A8E>;>3VG=8E <5E0=V7<V2, I> 28O2;ONBLAO C 270T<>4VW V=482V40 B0 3@C?8. $5=><5= A>FV0;L=>W V=3V1VFVW ?>;O30T C B><C, I> 3@C?0 ?@83=VGCT 45O:V ?A8EVG=V ?@>F5A8 C V=482V40. $5=><5= A>FV0;L=>W D0A8;VB0FVW <0T <VAF5 ?@8 ?>:@0I5==V ?5@51V3C ?A8EVG=>W 0:B82=>ABV. "0:8< G8=><, 2?;82 3@C?8 =0 >:@5<>3> V=482V40 T =5>4=>7=0G=8<. "0:>6 <0T <VAF5 2V4ACB=VABL ?@O<>3> 270T<>72 O7:C <V6 @57C;LB0B0<8 3@C?>2>W B0 V=482V4C0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV.  >4=>3> 1>:C, 3@C?>20 4VO;L=VABL <>65 1CB8 1V;LH 5D5:B82=>N, =V6 @57C;LB0B8 V=482V4C0;L=8E 7CA8;L.  V=H>3> 1>:C, :>;8 ;N48 ?@0FNNBL C 3@C?V, >A>1;82> C 25;8:V9, B> 2V@>3V4=5 D>@<C20==O O28I0 A>FV0;L=8E ;V=>IV2, I> ?>;O30T C B><C, I> ;N48 ?>G8=0NBL ?@0FN20B8 157 =5>1EV4=8E 7CA8;L. &5 O28I5 AB0;> 2V4><8< C @57C;LB0BV 4>A;V465=L 2G5=8E, O:V 282G0;8 5D5:B82=VABL ?@0FV. >:@5<0 . 8=35;L<0=, O:89 282G02 ?@0FN 20=B06=8:V2, 70220682, I> >4=0 ;N48=0 C A5@54=L><C BO3=C;0 203C C 63 :V;>3@0<8, 42>T  118 :3, B@>T  149 :V;>3@0<V2. "0:8< G8=><, 3@C?0 7 2>AL<8 @>1VB=8:V2 @>18;0 7CA8;;O =0 256 :3 =86G5 A2>WE ?>B5=FV9=8E <>6;82>AB59. &V:02>, I> 2V= ?>@V2=N202 >45@60=V @57C;LB0B8 7 ?@0F5N B20@8= ( =0?@8:;04, V7 @>1>B>N :>=59), O:V BO3=C;8 203C 2V4?>2V4=> 4> ;>3V:8  420 :>=V C 420 @078 1V;LH5, =V6 >48=, B@8  C B@8 @078 V B. 4. # ?>40;LH><C O28I5 A>FV0;L=8E ;V=>IV2 282G0;8 ?A8E>;>38, O:V 70DV:AC20;8 7=865==O 5D5:B82=>ABV 4VO;L=>ABV C V=482V4V2 ?@8 28:>=0==V @V7=><0=VB=8E 284V2 4VO;L=>ABV. >OA=8B8 F59 D5=><5=, =0 4C<:C ?A8E>;>3V2, <>6=0 B8<, I> 1C4L-O:0 ;N48=0 ?>B@51CT, I>1 WW 4VO;L=VABL ?><VB8;8 B0 >FV=8;8. # 3@C?V ;N48=0 7=8:0T, WW V=482V4C0;L=V 7CA8;;O 206:> 70DV:AC20B8. >:07>< 40=>3> 28A=>2:C 1C;8 5:A?5@8<5=B8, 2 O:8E 4>A;V46C20=8< ?>2V4><;O;>AO, I>, =572060NG8 =0 3@C?>2C 4VO;L=VABL, 1C45 >FV=N20B8AL V=482V4C0;L=89 2=5A>: :>6=>3>. @8 B0:8E C<>20E D5=><5= A>FV0;L=8E ;V=>IV2 =5 28O2;O2AO. :A?5@8<5=B8 7 282G5==O A>FV0;L=>W D0A8;VB0FVW A2V4G0BL, I> 3@C?0 A?@8OT ?V428I5==N 0:B82=>ABV >:@5<>3> V=482V4C. >A;V465==O A>FV0;L=8E ;V=>IV2 A2V4G0BL, I> C 3@C?V >A>18AB0 2V4?>2V40;L=VABL 70 28:>=0==O A?V;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV ?>A;01;NTBLAO. /:I> ?>T4=CNBLAO O28I0 A>FV0;L=>W D0A8;VB0FVW B0 A>FV0;L=8E ;V=>IV2  @57C;LB0B8 <>6CBL 1CB8 =5?5@5410GC20=8<8. 8 <>65<> ?>10G8B8 @V7=><0=VB=V D>@<8 ?>254V=:8, I> 28E>4OBL 70 <56V 4>72>;5=>3>  2V4 2V4=>A=> =57=0G=8E 2V4E8;5=L (7=5206;82V >FV=:8 0@1VB@0 ?V4 G0A DCB1>;L=8E 7<030=L, 2>;0==O ?V4 G0A @>:-:>=F5@BC) 4> A5@9>7=8E ?>@CH5=L A>FV0;L=8E B0 ?@02>28E =>@< (3@C?>289 20=40;V7<, >@3VW, ?>3@01C20==O). AV =530B82=V ?@>O28 ?>254V=:8 A?@>2>:>20=V 3@C?>28< 2?;82><: ;N48=0 22060T, I> 2>=0 T 28@07=8:>< =5 2;0A=>3> /, 0 G>3>AL 1V;LH>3> B0 7=0G=VH>3>. >4V1=5 O28I5 C A>FV0;L=V9 ?A8E>;>3VW >45@60;> =072C 45V=482V4C0;V70FVO. 5V=482V4C0;V70FVO - ?>254V=:0, I> 28=8:0T ?V4 2?;82>< 3@C?8 B0 E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO 2B@0B>N 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV 70 2;0A=V 2G8=:8. 06;82>N ?@8G8=>N 45V=482V4C0;V70FVW T 0=>=V<=VABL >:@5<>3> V=482V40 C 3@C?V: ?>254V=:0 C <560E 3@C?8 ?>@>46CT C ;N48=8 2V4GCBBO 2;0A=>W =5?><VB=>ABV. # ?>40;LH><C 4>A;V465==O 2?;82C <0;>W 3@C?8 =0 ?5@51V3 ?A8EVG=8E ?@>F5AV2 7>A5@548;8AO =0 282G5==V D5=><5=C :>=D>@<V7<C. /28I5 :>=D>@<V7<C 1C;> 2V4:@8B> 0<5@8:0=AL:8< ?A8E>;>3>< !. H5< C 1952 @>FV. # 5:A?5@8<5=B0E AB028;>AO 70240==O ?>@V2=OB8 B0 >FV=8B8 4>268=C ;V=V9. @8 V=482V4C0;L=><C 28:>=0==V 70240==O B@C4=>IV2 C ?V44>A;V4=8E =5 28=8:0;>, B>1B> 4>268=0 ;V=VW 287=0G0;0AO ?@028;L=>. # ?@>F5AV >A=>2=>3> 5:A?5@8<5=BC 1@0;0 CG0ABL 3@C?0. @8 FL><C 2AV G;5=8 3@C?8, :@V< >4=>3>, 1C;8 ?V4AB02=8<8 >A>10<8, B>1B> 2>=8 A2V4><> 4020;8 =5?@028;L=C 2V4?>2V4L. 4=0 ;N48=0 (=0W2=89 ?V44>A;V4=89) =5 7=02 ?@> 7<>2C, ?@8 FL><C 2V= 28:>=C202 70240==O >AB0==V<. # 5:A?5@8<5=BV !. H0 1C;> 28O2;5=>, I> 1;87L:> 30% ?V44>A;V4=8E, =0A;V4CNG8 3@C?C, 4020;8 =52V@=V 2V4?>2V4V, B>1B> 45<>=AB@C20;8 :>=D>@<=C ?>254V=:C, 0 A0<5 ?@8AB>A>2C20;8AO 4> 3@C?>2>W 4C<:8. # ?>40;LH><C 5:A?5@8<5=B8 !. H0 ?@>2>48;8 V=HV ?A8E>;>38. C;> 28O2;5=> VA=C20==O @V7=8E 284V2 :>=D>@<V7<C. >:@5<0, 45O:V ;N48, 28:>=02H8 70240==O =5?@028;L=>, FV;:>< I8@> 22060;8, I> 2>=8 40;8 ?@028;L=C 2V4?>2V4L A0<>ABV9=>, 70?5@5GCNG8 VA=C20==O 1C4L-O:>3> 2?;82C =0 =8E 7 1>:C 3@C?8. "0:C ?>254V=:C <>6=0 ?>OA=8B8 5D5:B>< 3@C?>2>3> =02VN20==O, ?@8 O:><C 2?;82 3@C?8 =0 V=482V40 2V41C20TBLAO =0 =5CA2V4><;5=><C @V2=V. =HV ?V44>A;V4=V 707=0G0;8, I> 2>=8 =5 73>4=V 7 4C<:>N 3@C?8, 0;5 =5 1060NG8 2ABC?0B8 C 2V4:@8BC :>=D@>=B0FVN, 4020;8 =5?@028;L=C 2V4?>2V4L. "0:89 284 :>=D>@<V7<C <>6=0 =0720B8 7>2=VH=V<. "@5BO 3@C?0 :>=D>@<VABV2 @>7?>2V40;0 ?@> ?5@56820==O A8;L=>3> 2=CB@VH=L>3> :>=D;V:BC, I> 28=8:02 2=0A;V4>: @>7E>465==O <V6 2;0A=>N 4C<:>N B0 3@C?>28< @VH5==O. V44>A;V4=V FVTW 3@C?8 A2V4><> @>18;8 281V@ C 1V: 3@C?>2>W 4C<:8, 22060NG8, I> 3@C?0 =5 <>65 ?><8;OB8AO. "0:89 B8? :>=D>@<V7<C =07820TBLAO 2=CB@VH=V<, 01> 2;0A=5 :>=D>@<V7<><. "0:8< G8=><, :>=D>@<=VABL :>=AB0BCTBLAO C 28?04:0E, :>;8 VA=CT :>=D;V:B <V6 4C<:0<8 (?>254V=:>N, FV==>ABO<8) 3@C?8 B0 4C<:>N V=482V4C, V >AB0==V9 @>18BL A2V4><89 281V@ =0 :>@8ABL 3@C?8. >=D>@<=VABL O: O28I5 A;V4 2V4@V7=OB8 2V4 :>=D>@<=>ABV O: E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 >A>18AB>ABV, I> 28O2;OTBLAO C B><C, I> ;N48=0 4C65 A8;L=> 70;568BL 2V4 3@C?>2>3> 2?;82C C @V7=><0=VB=8E A8BC0FVOE (>A>18ABVA=89 :>=D>@<V7<).  V=H>3> 1>:C, VA=CT O28I5 A8BC0B82=>3> :>=D>@<V7<C, :>;8 V=482V4 ?>:07CT 28A>:C 70;56=VABL 2V4 3@C?>2>3> 2?;82C 2 >:@5<8E A8BC0FVOE. @>B8;56=VABN :>=D>@<V7<C 22060TBLAO A0<>ABV9=VABL >A>18AB>ABV, I> 28O2;OTBLAO C =570;56=>ABV FV==>AB59 B0 ?>254V=:8 V=482V40 2V4 3@C?8. # 4>A;V465==V :>=D>@<V7<C 282G0TBLAO, O: 2?;820T 1V;LHVABL C 3@C?V =0 ?>254V=:C >:@5<8E ;N459.  V=H>3> 1>:C, >:@5<V ;N48 01> <5=HVABL C 3@C?V <>65 2?;820B8 =0 3@C?>2V =>@<8, FV==>ABV B0 ?>254V=:C. !0<5 F59 0A?5:B 2V4=>A8= C 3@C?V 4>A;V46C202 !. >A:>2VGV. V= ?>:0702, I> >:@5<V >A>18AB>ABV 2?;820NBL =0 D>@<C20==O 3@C?>2>W 4C<:8, ?@8 FL><C 3@C?0 =5 CA2V4><;NT FL>3> 2?;82C, 0;5 7<V=NT ?>254V=:C. V7=VH5 ?A8E>;>38 . >9G B0 . 65@0@4, ?>@V2=NNG8 <5E0=V7<8 2?;82C 1V;LH>ABV B0 <5=H>ABV =0 3@C?C, ?>7=0G8;8 WE O: 420 @V7=8E 2848 2?;82C: =>@<0B82=89 (4C<:0 1V;LH>ABV A?@89<0TBLAO O: =>@<0, >1>2 O7:>20 4;O 28:>=0==O) B0 V=D>@<0FV9=89 (4C<:0 <5=H>ABV @>73;O40TBLAO O: 4>40B:>20 V=D>@<0FVO, I> 28:>@8AB>2CTBLAO 01> V3=>@CTBLAO). 11.3. V63@C?>2V 2V4=>A8=8 0=VH5 265 707=0G0;>AO, I> ;N48=0 ?@>BO3>< 68BBO T G;5=>< @V7=><0=VB=8E 3@C?. ';5=AB2> C 3@C?V ?52=8< G8=>< 2?;820T =0 D>@<C20==O FV==>AB59 B0 CAB0=>2>: V=482V40, D>@<CT ?52=89 ?>3;O4 =0 A2VB V =0 V=HV 3@C?8. "0:8< G8=><, <>6=0 A:070B8 ?@> VA=C20==O D5=><5=C <V63@C?>2>W 270T<>4VW, :>;8 2V4=>A8=8 <V6 G;5=0<8 @V7=8E 3@C? >?>A5@54:>2CNBLAO 3@C?>28<8 2?;820<8. # FL><C :>=B5:ABV <>6=0 284V;8B8 =87:C ?V4E>4V2 4> 282G5==O 707=0G5=>3> D5=><5=C. 82G5==O 5B=>F5=B@87<C. 0 ?>G0B:C %% AB>;VBBO, C 1906 @>FV, A>FV>;>3 #. !0<=5@, 282G0NG8 5B=VG=V 3@C?8, 28O282, I> :>6=0 3@C?0 22060T 2;0A=V FV==>ABV, A?>AV1 68BBO, =02VBL 7>2=VH=V9 283;O4 1V;LH ?@89=OB=8<8 ?>@V2=O=> 7 V=H8<8 5B=>A0<8. "0:5 O28I5 #. !0<=5@ =07202 5B=>F5=B@87<><. # ?>40;LH><C 4>A;V4=8:8 5B=>F5=B@87<C ?>10G8;8, I> B5=45=FVO 4> A0<>725;8G5==O VA=CT =5 BV;L:8 =0 @V2=V 5B=VG=8E 3@C?, 0;5 9 <>65 1CB8 70DV:A>20=0 C 4VO;L=>ABV 1C4L-O:>W 3@C?8. C;> >?8A0=5 O28I5 3@C?>F5=B@87<C, I> >7=0G0T ?>4V; 3@C? =0 8 (A2>O 3@C?0) B0 >=8 (V=HV 3@C?8). &5 O28I5 >7=0G0T >FV=N20==O 2;0A=>W 3@C?8 7 ?>78FV9 ?@8E8;L=>ABV, 0 V=H>W  =54>1@>78G;82>ABV. ;0A=0 3@C?0 B0 WW >:@5<V G;5=8 >FV=NNBLAO ?>78B82=>. 02VBL =54>;V:8 2;0A=>W 3@C?8 @>7C<VNBLAO C H8@>:><C ?>78B82=><C :>=B5:ABV. 0?@8:;04, =548AF8?;V=>20=VABL ?>OA=NTBLAO :@50B82=VABN, I> =5 B5@?8BL >1<565=L, 01> ?>:V@;82VABL  B5@?;OGVABN.  V=H>3> 1>:C, =02VBL ?>78B82=V 2G8=:8 V=H>W 3@C?8 >FV=NNBLAO C =530B82=><C :>=B5:ABV. 0?@8:;04, 2 >4=V9 <VAF52V9 3075BV @>73>@=CB0 48A:CAVO ?@> V=>75<FV2, I> 2A8=>2;ONBL =0H8E 4VB59 7 <5B>N 7024020==O W< H:>48. 4=>G0A=> C FV9 A0<V9  $NT\  d f h  $ t : `  {l{l{l{l\l\l{lh/hCJ\aJmH"sH"h6CJ\aJmH"sH"hCJ\aJmH"sH"h/CJaJmH"sH"hCJaJmH"sH"hmH"sH"h6CJaJmH"sH"h/hmH"sH"h/mH"sH"h/h/mH"sH"h\mH"sH"h5CJPaJPmH"sH"h5CJHaJHmH"sH"h5mH"sH"$  "$NPRT      ` $`a$gd/$`a$$a$$`a$  ^ h b : h`hgd?$`a$$a$$a$$a$gd!S$`a$   0XZ^"v~˼򓠆yl_hUCJ\aJmH"sH"h?"CJ\aJmH"sH"h+CJ\aJmH"sH"hhuCJ\aJmH"sH"h/CJ\aJmH"sH"hCJ\aJmH"sH"h5CJ\aJmH"sH"h?5CJ\aJmH"sH"h\mH"sH"h/6CJ\aJmH"sH"h6CJ\aJmH"sH"hCJ\aJmH"sH" Vh&(Pb"08:|ȻȻȲȥȻȻtȻh_RIh5CJaJh6CJaJmH"sH"h5mH"sH"hCJaJmH"sH"h?CJaJmH"sH"h?CJaJmH sH hCJaJmH"sH"h5CJaJmH"sH"h5CJaJmH"sH"hCJ\aJh?CJ\aJmH"sH"hCJ\aJmH"sH"hCJ\aJmH"sH"hhCJ\aJmH"sH"hCJ\aJmH sH NP xH!$$$$$$&%(%\%$^a$$`a$`$da$ d$a$ ` gd?  ^ `$a$$`a$H!$$$$(%4%6% 'b'n'''AADD@GHGRGHHHJJKK&v|8Lͫh56mH"sH"h5mH sH hhmH sH hmH"sH" h5h5mH"sH"h5CJaJmH"sH"hCJaJmH"sH"h\mH"sH"hCJaJ?\%%&&&' 'N*,:,\,,,02578;N>?2@@PA$ & F ^a$$a$$`a$^$^a$$^a$PAAB@CDDDDEFzHJJNPQJUVWX.ZZ`^_dlh*iVk$a$`$`a$Vknqry8~ȅzĎ܎ڒTО2|Ұ$a$`$`a$ļ$z8z6$`a$$a$$a$|hldf J$ & F hh^`ha$$ & F hh^h`a$ h E$a$$`a$@rpz|X~\ $ a$ $ & Fk ha$$ & F hh^`ha$$ ha$ h$ & F hh^`ha$\   $ ` b r     6 N P          $ & F h^`a$$ & F h^`a$$ ha$$ a$   H j l  t8*d & F p^` h$ ha$$ & F h^`a$$ ha$$ & F h^`a$ \ %:)0$1$7$8$H$`a$ $$1$7$8$H$a$1$7$8$H$ $1$7$8$H$a$$1$7$8$H$^a$ $d^a$$$1$7$8$H$^a$ $$1$7$8$H$a$ hLN \!!==RBSUU`ggrjtj&zPnp6HJRTprĝhCJaJh56>*mH"sH"hmH sH h\]mH"sH"h6\mH"sH"h\mH"sH"h5mH"sH"hCJaJh5\mH"sH"h5CJ\aJmH"sH"hmH"sH"h103p5*779=?ADEEKLrORRBSDSTtY]`gbg$1$7$8$H$`a$d$1$7$8$H$`a$bgggs*yڀ&(~Ԋ2~~$ & Fl `a$gd$ & Fl h`a$gd$ & Fl L^`La$gd$h^ha$h^h$h^ha$$1$7$8$H$`a$ $1$7$8$H$a$$1$7$8$H$^a$|<&xzbfNh`h$h`ha$$h^ha$h^h$a$$ & Fl h^`ha$gd$ & Fl `a$gdNP$fF(Hܖ&$ & FR h```a$gd$ & FQ h^ha$gd$a$$ & FP h```a$gd$ & FPa$h`h&fh$dƘȘ:Nfh`h$ & FT h```a$gd$ & FS h```a$gd$ & FPa$$a$$ & FR h```a$gd 6ĝn2}d^ $d^a$d$ h^h`a$ $ `a$$ & Fm h^ha$gd$a$$ & Fm hh^ha$gd & Fm h^`gd2zDƺ0~$d^`a$$hd^`ha$$d]^`a$$d^`a$$Vd^V`a$ $d^a$fnp~<>vDH000667CDDDDDEE8F:F G GGGI IIIzJ|J޽ޱΖކޖ}qqqqqqqqqhCJaJmH"sH"h5CJaJhCJOJQJaJmH"sH"hmH"sH"$h5>*CJOJQJaJmH"sH"hCJOJQJaJ!h6CJOJQJaJmH"sH"hCJOJQJaJmH sH hCJOJQJaJmH"sH"!h5CJOJQJaJmH"sH",vx@Vz0RHJ$d^`a$$d^`a$$d^`a$ (4RR!#&X&&'b(..8///0>0$d^`a$$d^`a$>00b778Z889d99\;&<<=8>>ABBjBVC $^`a$$`a$$ & FN )^`a$gd$`a$$a$ $d^a$$d^`a$VCXCCDD D6DHDXDfD~DDDD $$If`a$ $$If`a$$d$If^`a$$`a$ DDDDDD`SSSS $$If`a$kd$$Ifl\H Xd t0p44 laDDDDE(EHE`WJWWW $$If`a$ $$Ifa$kd$$Ifl\H Xd t0p44 laHE\EnEEEE-kd6$$Ifl\H Xd t0p44 la $$Ifa$ $H$If`Ha$$ & Fj $If^`a$gdEEEEFF8F:FTFpFQkd$$Ifl\H Xd t0p44 la$If $$Ifa$ pFFFFFFF G GWkdl$$Ifl\H Xd t0p44 la $$Ifa$ G$G>GZGGGG $If^ $$Ifa$$V$If^V`a$$V$If^V`a$GGH.HDHRH^M<</ $T$If^Ta$$V$If^V`a$$V$If^V`a$kd$$Ifl-\H Xd t0p44 laRHhHHHHHHI $$If`a$$V$If^V`a$$$If^`a$ $$Ifa$$T$If^T`a$I I"I4IHIhI~I`O>>55 $$Ifa$$V$If^V`a$$V$If^V`a$kd$$Ifl\H Xd t0p44 la~IIIIII5kdA$$Ifl\H Xd t0p44 la$$If^`a$$V$If^V`a$ $$Ifa$IIJJOO5 $$Ifa$$V$If^V`a$$V$If^V`a$kd$$Ifl\H Xd t0p44 laJKK.K0KL,NpOWNNN$`a$kdw$$Ifl\H Xd t0p44 la $$Ifa$|J.KpOOʌ̌02>HJPXlxnp6"24,>@4606D< FHh56mH"sH"h5CJaJmH"sH" h5h56>*mH"sH"hmH sH hh5mH"sH"hmH"sH"hCJaJmH"sH"DpOrOOOSxXY\^`befimpsvyz}f$ & FO )^`a$gd$a$$`a$$`a$ vƏRܗ nVXj np $ h`a$$`a$$`a$ $ `a$txغ2DfƼ*H4 |T h & F h^`$ & F h^`a$f$j46|$ & F h^`a$$ & F h^`a$$ & F h^`a$ $ h`a$^4HhDx :fh`$ & F h^`a$$ ha$ $ h`a$$ & F h^`a$`x "4.4D4 & Fn p^`gd$ & Fn p^`a$gd$ ha$ $ h`a$$ & F h^`a$4 8HDFb`tz$`a$ ^^h`h$`a$ `HBDz|prl~8"$&<>@TdjVXjlvxdf      V Z ^ b 㳯h6mH sH h5mH sH hhmH sH h>*mH"sH"jhUmHnHujhUh6mH"sH"hmH"sH"h56mH"sH"h5mH"sH">RJ nF68"::T$  $ h`ha$$h`ha$$h^ha$$h`ha$$ & F8 `a$$`a$ ^   nDxNf#$ & F; h^`ha$$ & F; h^`ha$$`a$$a$$`a$$h`ha$$ & F< ,h^`ha$$ & F< ,^a$b 28BDJL68bfR`*,T*X***5566>>>>*?8?CCCC|FFHI"J(J`JdJJJJK KKKKZK^KKKKKKKKKKKzM|MMMMMMNNhmH sH h5mH"sH"h56mH"sH"h6mH"sH"hmH sH hmH"sH"P#r$'x)V*X***:-0245>::;<<E|FHK $ `a$ $ `a$ $  `a$$a$$`a$$`a$$`a$NNNOOPPPPTTTTUUWWXXXX^^ aabbffLppBuHuuuwwVyXy^`tvΒ˜̘&Ԛ֚*,8pӻӻh\mH"sH"hh\]mH"sH"h5mH"sH"h56mH"sH"hmH sH h6mH"sH"hmH"sH"GKPTU6VVWXXZ>[^_b*f mnLpNpppbP@$ & F9 ,`a$$`a$$h`ha$ tvB".V$ & F> h^`ha$$ & F>a$$ & F> h^`ha$$h`ha$$`a$ $`a$PRhlvx|.:V$~<x|RX^`n .0>@lnJLBF\`rtvhcOmH"sH"hh5mH"sH"h]mH"sH"h]mH sH h6mH"sH"hmH"sH"h56mH"sH"JBXN.$ & F=a$$ & F= h^`ha$ $hd`ha$$h`ha$$`a$$ & F> h^`ha$$ & F>a$|:<VX >@r`$a$$h`ha$$h^ha$ $h^h`a$$ & F=a$$ & F= Lh^`ha$Xxx"$$h`ha$$a$$`a$$<h&68|\^$^a$ L^L$`a$d$a$$ & F=a$$h`ha$$ & F? h^`ha$gdcO$ & F? h^`ha$vx$&BHNPTVnp$48x^RNVzln DFBH^b46@RFzhmH sH h5mH"sH" h5hhmH"sH"X^z@ & Z   v*D<$Z(*$a$$ ha$$h`ha$T^j~ $Fjln    n t   ( . @ J L N P X Z d   2 8 Z h t x b f *.PTfh "(.*02h5mH"sH" h5hmH sH hmH"sH"hX*hx "0#D%%&&&*15506f66J9=====$`a$$`a$$a$$a$$h^ha$$ & Fa$@B06~  &(,.02fp~##$$*%,%.%0%&&&&n'p'''(())** + +0+2+<+>+@+B+P+R+++H,J,---- ..@.B.001122222222234 h5h5mH"sH"hhmH"sH"Z4485>5B5T5555555555,606b6f6(7,777(:,:::=== >$>b>v>x>>>>>>>>? ?ƹ찀sh5@RHemH"sH"h5@RHemH"sH"h5@B*mH"phsH"$h56@B*]mH"phsH"h5mH"sH"h5CJaJmH"sH"h5mH sH jhEHUjLՁ hUVjhUhmH"sH"hhmH sH +=>8>v>>>>> ?d???@@VFXFFFNNNNvV$`a$$`a$$`a$$6`6a$$a$ $-DM a$$`a$ ??d?t?~???@@@ @EEEEVFXFdFfFFH0I2IFIJJjLxLNNNNOBPS븫xpp븓cpYph@mH"sH"h5@RHemH"sH"hmH"sH"h@RHemH"sH"h6@RHe]mH"sH"h@RHemH"sH"h@RHemH"sH"h5@RHemH"sH"h@RHemH"sH"h5@RHemH"sH"h5@RHemH"sH"h5@RHemH"sH"h5mH"sH"h5@mH"sH""S:TTTWWW~XXX Y\YY(Z"\$\8\:\\d]0aa,b.b\bbbBdDd e"ehhh:iiTnnpp"p2pnp~pppp˦vh5@B*mH"phsH"h5@B*mH"phsH"h5@B*mH"phsH"!h5@B*]mH"phsH"h@mH"sH"h@mH"sH"hh5@mH"sH"h5@mH"sH"h5mH"sH"hmH"sH"h@mH"sH".vVXXX Y\Y^YYY$\\b^bbb6cDdehlpp$  -DM ] ^ `a$$`a$$a$ $^`a$$`a$p4pnpppspxjzlzzzv[[[$ x -DM ] ^x`a$$-DM ]`a$$-DM ]`a$$j-DM ]^j`a$$  -DM ] `a$$ -DM ] `a$  J-DM ] ^ `J pZq^qq*rrsssstvvnxpxJyyjzzz{L{N{{|>|d||}}׻vhZLh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h5mH"sH"h5@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hB*phh@B*mH"phsH"hmH"sH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@ B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h5B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH"zN{}~2ցdiR$ -DM ] `a$$-DM ]^`a$$ -DM ] ^`a$$ -DM ^`a$$ -DM ]^`a$$ -DM ^`a$$  -DM ] ^`a$}}}D~F~~~~~~~~~J02ƀԁցbd"Ƹ{m]h@B*]mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h6B*]mH"phsH"hB*]mH"phsH"hmH"sH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*phh@B*mH"phsH"!h6@B*]mH"phsH"h@B*]mH"phsH"hhB*phhB*mH"phsH""$*,4\Ɔև؇VprFHTx|ϫ{mcmSBm!h6@B*]mH"phsH"h@B*]mH"phsH"h@B*phh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*phh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*phh@B*mH"phsH"hmH"sH"h@ B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hB*phhB*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"؇r‰42iP$ -DM ] ^`a$$ M-DM ] ^M`a$$ -DM ] `a$$ -DM ]`a$$   -DM ] ^ `a$$-DM ]^`a$$  -DM ^ `a$‰NҊԊ܊h؋244@XƸ~vh^hNh@B*]mH"phsH"h@B*phh@B*mH"phsH"hB*phhmH"sH"hB*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*phh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*phh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*]mH"phsH"hXZdftv@B02^v̒Β 02<>6lļ~rn`h@B*mH"phsH"hhB*mH"phsH"h@B*phh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*phhmH"sH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH phsH h@B*mH"phsH"!h5@B*]mH"phsH"%lnĔƔ02JLt 8PRΘšĚʚ̚X罱㱣sskkhB*phh5@B*mH"phsH"hmH"sH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*phh@B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*phh@B*mH"phsH"hh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*ph*2ƔĚ̛dlnn$; -DM ^; `a$$`a$$V-DM ^V`a$$ -DM ]^ `a$$ -DM ^`a$$ -DM ^ `a$$ -DM `a$ Xz|bdjltv bRޡHģԣأޤ̾՚ՐՈ}pf`} h@h@mH"sH"h5@]mH"sH"h@]mH"sH"hI mH"sH"h@mH"sH"h@mH"sH"hI 5@EHmH"sH"h5@EHmH"sH" h5hI 5mH"sH"h5mH"sH"hmH"sH"h5B*mH"phsH"hB*phhB*mH"phsH""nܟ`bģΩ$-DM `a$$-DM a$$-DM ]^`a$$-DM `a$$-DM `a$$; -DM ^; `a$ ʦΦ̩ΩªĪ(*<>XZjp~ ŻӻӻӲӻőwmg h@h@mH"sH"h6@]mH"sH"h5@]mH"sH"h@]mH"sH"h6]mH"sH"h5]mH"sH"h]mH"sH"h@mH"sH"hh@mH"sH"hmH"sH"h@]mH"sH" h@h@mH"sH"hI @mH"sH"(Ī>bֲдqV$ -DM ]`a$$-DM ^`a$$-DM ^`a$$"-DM ^"`a$$-DM `a$ $ & FF 3m-DM ^`a$$ & FF 3m-DM ^`a$ ( XbԲֲZδдP8ķηзFHZ\zyh@]mH"sH"h@mH"sH"hI mH"sH"h h@h6]mH"sH"h5]mH"sH"h]mH"sH"h@mH"sH"h6@]mH"sH"h5@]mH"sH"h@]mH"sH"hmH"sH"h@mH"sH".\ƹ "м̾pu-DM ]^`$ -DM ^ `a$$-DM `a$$-DM `a$$-DM `a$$-DM `a$$ -DM ^` a$ z|θ npĹƹJ$6ܽR̾ؾھLƿnpទ׀sh[h6@]mH"sH"h@]mH"sH"h6@]mH"sH"h@]mH"sH" h@h6@]mH"sH"h@]mH"sH"h@mH"sH"hI 5@EHmH"sH"h5@EHmH"sH"h h@h@mH"sH"hmH"sH"h@mH"sH"h6@]mH"sH"  "*,ln68:FHJ^`bnp氪Ģ~~uj_j~hI 5@mH"sH"h5@mH"sH"hI 5mH"sH"hI 5@mH"sH"h5@mH"sH" h5h5mH"sH"hmH"sH" h@h@mH"sH"hI @mH"sH"h h@h5@]mH"sH"h@]mH"sH"h@mH"sH" h@h@mH"sH"%:bd t 6^`6$6`6a$$`a$$a$$a$$-DM ^`a$$-DM ]^`a$p" $(*^rt (Ntκ즠찚찇찚}hI @mH"sH"hhI mH"sH" hI h h@ h@h@mH"sH"h@mH"sH"h@mH"sH"hI @mH"sH"h@mH"sH"h@mH"sH"h@mH"sH"hmH"sH"h5@mH"sH"0Bnpvxz*BDFH@B8TV8>bhjzؼθέظإzzzz!hs+5@B*\mH"phsH"!h5@B*\mH"phsH"hs+5mH"sH"hs+mH"sH"h5@mH"sH"hhI mH"sH"h@mH"sH"h@mH"sH"hmH"sH"h5mH"sH"hI 5@mH"sH"h5@mH"sH",znH&`bzDFxzTF$-DM ]`a$$`a$$6^6a$-DM `$`a$ 6^6`$a$$6`6a$$`a$@BDFPRzRTrDF^l8pǶǨxnx`VHh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*phhs+@B*mH"phsH"h@B*phh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hmH"sH"hB*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"!hs+5@B*\mH"phsH"!h5@B*\mH"phsH"h5mH"sH"hs+5B*\mH"phsH"h5B*\mH"phsH"p BTlvxj2B0T㿯㒄v㯞hZLhLhh@ B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hs+@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH"!h5@B*\mH"phsH"h@B*\mH"phsH"hmH"sH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@ B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"J iX$-DM `a$$ S 7-DM ] `7a$$  -DM ] ^a$$ -DM ]^ `a$$ -DM ^ `a$$ -DM ]^ `a$$0 -DM ]0`a$ TJ4HJz|$jHZ X廳zl^PzF^h@B*phh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@ B*mH"phsH"h6B*]mH"phsH"hB*]mH"phsH"hmH"sH"h@ B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH"h@ B*mH"phsH"Xb2~  ǹse]M<2h@B*ph!h6@B*]mH"phsH"h@B*]mH"phsH"hmH sH h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH"h@ B*mH"phsH"hs+5B*\mH"phsH"h5B*\mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hs+@B*mH"phsH" 8`tD   峥{m{_WGh@B*]mH"phsH"hmH"sH"hs+@B*mH"phsH"hs+@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hs+@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hB*phhB*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"      J    N nvvxZ ƸƜrfrVrHrHrrh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*RH~mH"phsH"hs+B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@ B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH"hs+@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"!h6@B*]mH"phsH" "Xtxhjzdtɹxi^i^i^O^ih5B*\mH"phsH"h5B*\phh5B*\mH"phsH"hmH"sH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@ B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH"!h6@B*]mH"phsH"h@B*]mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH" zz!#%'xc$-DM ]`a$$ -DM a$$-DM ^`a$$-DM ]`a$$-DM ]`a$$-DM ^`a$ $-DM a$$-DM `a$ 8prxzxzyk]OK;h@B*\mH"phsH"hh@ B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*phh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"!h5@B*\mH"phsH"h@B*\mH"phsH" h5hB*phhB*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@ B*phh@ B*mH"phsH"Z !!N!f!h!r!t!!$"z"####$Ϳ{m_QGQ9Qh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*phh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"!h6@B*]mH"phsH"!h5@B*]mH"phsH"h@B*]mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH"h@B*phh@B*mH"phsH"$$%&&&$&P&&&&'''' (`(b((,)z)|)))**+&+yyk\Nyh@B*mH"phsH"h5B*\mH"phsH"hB*\mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*\mH"phsH"hmH"sH"hB*phhB*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*\mH"phsH"!h5@B*\mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h5@B*mH"phsH"'|)j+T.V....L/z///F0r000<112`2223$h`ha$$a$$(-DM ^`(a$$ -DM ]^ a$&+(+B+D+j+l+,",T..004000001122B3F3P3R3L4P444"5H5L5N555*7,77777ʻʲʌ؁n%h0J5CJaJmH"nH"sH"tH"h5B*\phhB*\mH phsH hmH sH hmH"sH"hmH"sH"h5mH"sH"h6B*\mH"phsH"hB*\mH"phsH"h5B*\mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*ph'3^334f444 5"5F5H556P66:7777 8:8 1$$  hdM1$`ha$$c-DM ^`ca$h`h$-`-a$$a$$h`ha$77888809299999999:::::.;2;t;v;z;|;~;`<b<f<h<<<<= ="=L=N=x=z=====جججؤԬx,h0J5CJOJQJ^JaJmH"o(sH"(h0J5CJ\aJmH"nH"sH"tH"hmH"sH")h0J5@CJaJmH"nH"sH"tH"%h0J5CJaJmH"nH"sH"tH"h%h0J5CJaJmH"nH"sH"tH"(h0J5CJ\aJmH"nH"sH"tH",:8Z8x88889L9999::::;*;V;t;v;;<<$  hdC1$`ha$d1$ 1$$ hdH1$a$ $d1$a$ 1$<2<H<`<b<<=H=t=====j>??@@@2A$a$ & Fq h^`hgd$ & Fq h^`ha$gdd  1$^   dH1$d1$ 1$====j>????@@"@$@R@V@X@@@@@AAA4A:ALBQTWZ ^p`cd4g*inq $`a$gd6$a$$`a$ $^`a$ ^` $[^`[a$`$a$KKRLTLLLPP"P$PQQQQQQSSTTUUUUUUWWWWYYZ Z^^aabbc"c gg,i4iRlTlBmJmLmRmVmbmdmnmpmrmtmxmzmmmmhojoVr`rsssstu v6vڄ܄4>™hmH sH hh6mH"sH"hmH"sH"hmH"sH"Wq@rrrrxsutwy*}ց$tH$ & Fq^`a$gd$h`ha$$ a$$`a$$`a$$`a$ $^`a$$a$Hp"46Nxr6$a$$`a$$a$$`a$$ & Fq^`a$gd$ & Fq^`a$gd™ʝ̝ΟПnzҤԤ,86&(<>^`HJ¶ĶVX~p\^DTjl46@Bh#mnmH"sH"hmH sH hmH"sH"h5mH"sH"hh6mH"sH"hmH"sH"Onp^t2hL4@BD$`a$$`a$$`a$XZ^`"$ @.0:BJLNzJvBt"X06rt\HJN06ƺίh5>*mH"sH"hr CJaJmH"sH"hCJaJhCJaJmH"sH"hhr 5mH"sH"h5mH"sH"hmH"sH"hr mH"sH"EJB"rt`v$ & Fo 8`a$gd$ & Fo 8^a$gd$ & Fo `a$gd$h^ha$$G^Ga$$a$`(v<`}c$ & Fo (^`(a$gd$ & Fo  ^` a$gd$ & Fo h^`ha$gd$ & Fo \ ^\` a$gd$ & Fo 8\ ^\` a$gd$ & Fo h^`ha$gd`LNt>\l .$ & Fp`a$gd$a$$h`ha$ $ 8`a$$ & Fo h^`ha$gd$ & Fo L^`La$gd.0$JV|~$6-DM `6a$$v-DM ^va$$ v-DM ] ^va$$ -DM ] ^a$h`hgd!`$h`ha$$`a$LT~$BDHJ,.\`b RT\^xzFijh@B*mH"phsH"!h!`5@B*\mH"phsH"!h5@B*\mH"phsH")h5@B*CJ\aJmH"phsH"h!`h!`mH"sH"h!`mH"sH"hmH"sH"hhr mH"sH"8Fj .8:`nRz\.׻孟哅{m_QCCh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@ B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h5B*phh5B*mH"phsH"h!`B*mH"phsH"h!`@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH": \  "Hxz| %/5<C$";-DM ]"`;a$$2-DM ^`2a$$6-DM `6a$$-DM a$gd!`$6-DM `6a$\2   2 : < > " ( *        N  v   $ǹǭ㓅wխk]h@B*mH"phsH"hbB*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h!`@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h!`B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH"h!`@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h!`@B*mH"phsH"$6>t&",XFVDFHɻ׻ןɃugY׻KAh5B*phh5B*mH"phsH"hb@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@ B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@ B*mH"phsH"h@ B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hb@B*mH"phsH"xzP2rB  z!""R##$$%%&(''̻̳{m_{Q牥C{h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hmH"sH"!hb5@B*\mH"phsH"!h5@B*\mH"phsH"h@B*phhB*mH"phsH"hbB*mH"phsH"'"(b(d((d)*p*r**:++^,--B..v///0001~23\3^33555ɻɕyk]RhbhmH"sH"hb@B*mH"phsH"h5B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@ B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*phh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH"hb@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"55X67>88v9 ::<==&>>L??R@@jAABBB0C6C8CCCCCCٽٽ罡瓅wwwiaP!h5@B*\mH"phsH"hmH"sH"h@B*mH"phsH"hb@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@ B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@ B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH"hbB*mH"phsH"CCCNDjD|DDvEFF$G|GGGGGXHH,JJ KKϗ{m_mSϥEhb@B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH"hb@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hb@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hb@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"!h5@B*\mH"phsH"!hb5@B*\mH"phsH"CCC\GJQzX|XXXXHYJYvYrr$ *;-DM ^;a$$6-DM `6a$$ *;-DM ^;a$$ 2-DM ^ `2a$$ 2-DM ^ `2a$$--DM ^`-a$$NF-DM ^Na$ KKKL L"LL^MNN$OOPZQQQQQQQQ^RRSFTT(U.UUVVDWWzXXXŷũ۩ۋ۩۩ۛ}ũ۩h\hCJaJmH"sH")h5@B*CJ\aJmH"phsH"hb@B*mH"phsH"hB*mH phsH hh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hB*phhB*mH"phsH"h@ B*phh@ B*mH"phsH"#XXXXXXXXXDYFYLYPYRYTYvYxYZZf[l[[T\Z\\]d^^_t_пݬРxjx\\Nh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hb@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hbB*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH"hh5B*\mH"phsH"!h5@B*\mH"phsH"h5@B*\ph!hb5@B*\mH"phsH"!h5@B*\mH"phsH"vYxYzbcdddildt؁,$@B-DM `@a$@B-DM `@$2-DM ]^`2a$ $-DM a$ -DM $6-DM `6a$$ *;-DM ^;a$ t__0``fahb~bbbbcc.ddddddxe&ff:gg*hhh iiɻɻ國ugYMh tB*mH"phsH"h@ B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hmH"sH"!h t5@B*\mH"phsH"!h5@B*\mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h t@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"ii*izijjkl(m,mhmmmjn oo:ppbqdqqqqqs(t0tfttɻխխխssbTɁh t@B*mH"phsH"!h th@B*mH"phsH"h t@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h5@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h t@B*mH"phsH"t4v8ww(xtxxxyyzz{{{{6||\}}j~~Fց؁ށ񻭻㟑ykk]YLh5@B*\phhh t@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*phh@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h t@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"ށ.Ă@B>XDΊlz:L´~pbTKh5mH"sH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"hB*mH"phsH"h t@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"h@B*mH"phsH"!h5@B*\mH"phsH"h5@B*\ph!h t5@B*\mH"phsH"JLPޔP2fHЗҗ24r`$6-DM `6a$$h-DM `ha$LЗҗ04,lpRTМҜ ڞޞdf"fhܠޠ&ءܡh5CJOJQJaJ!h5CJOJQJaJmH"sH"h5CJaJmH sH h5CJaJmH"sH"h5CJaJh th h5hmH sH h5mH"sH"h5mH sH h tmH"sH"hmH"sH"5,.np֚0RTқ>Xr $-DM a$$6-DM `6a$$h-DM `ha$МҜ,Jt.Jjܞޞl$6-DM `6a$$h-DM `ha$ $-DM a$ڡܡ*|̢:46F\0t$`a$d$ & F hd^`a$$6`6a$$h-DM `ha$h-DM `h24Ԣ֢ 68BD246lTVlnĪȪR\XfҺԺprĿĺijhkmH"sH"hh tmH"sH"hmH sH hmH"sH" h th h>* h t>*h th>*mHsH!h t5CJOJQJaJmH"sH"h5CJOJQJaJ!h5CJOJQJaJmH"sH"8r>@ Zj<JTVX`xz$&VptHJżŴ֬h#h5mH"sH"h#mH"sH"hkh5hk5mH"sH"h5mH"sH"hBmH"sH"hhmH sH jhBUmHnHuhkmH"sH"hmH"sH"=t>   &$a$$`a$$`a$$`a$~^`zN|P&dDF$a$$a$$`a$BDPZ "t^zLNP.xz&(l "(2BT V   >@N@DhXmH"sH"h#hmH"sH"hhmH sH h#mH"sH"hmH"sH"h5mH"sH"h#5mH"sH"GrLzX0l`,Fr|$`a$$`a$ $`a$$a$$`a$$a$.0t!!"#$#:$<$~%%d(f())h*l*****x,,B-D-.../ /55b6d67788:<><R<T<====8>:>>>>> ?"?~GGGhXh5hX5mH"sH"hXmH"sH"hh6mH"sH"hmH sH hXmH"sH"h56mH"sH"hmH"sH"h5mH"sH"hX5mH"sH"@ $##'*-../ /P223"55H667p8B9Z:$ & FCh^`ha$$`a$$`a$$`a$Z:::<=<>>Z?j@CHE~GGGGJK`LLvMN$ & FB h^`ha$$ & FA h^`ha$$`a$$h`ha$$`a$$ & FCh^`ha$GGGGIII J JJBKDKKKLLMM N NNNHQ^QRR2R4RSSSSUUUUVVV&V2VZZ\\ \"\$\t\x\]]]]``\a^abadaaddܹܭܥhmH sH hh]Fh5h6mH"sH" h]Fhh56mH"sH"h]FmH"sH"hmH"sH"h5mH sH h5mH"sH"h]F5mH"sH">NNOOSjW6YrZ\v\x\]]^^_`adaaa$h`ha$$a$$ & F@ h^`ha$$`a$$ ` a$$`a$$ & FB h^`ha$aaa8bbbcBcbccc@ddddddeeXeee|h}L`ҊҐԐ$a$$h`ha$$ & Fhd^`ha$ & Fhd^`h$a$$`a$$`a$ $d`a$$`a$Ԑ$&ذ|L<>, 4 8 8> :> > > x@ JC F H $`a$d`$a$$a$ZFHhjơʡ֡ءpڲܲ6@0`ljl"4rtнҽ:<>jl.0~24BV, @. J. f/ p/ 7 "7 f8 h8 f: h: j: l: : žU hhhhCJaJhCJaJmH"sH"hCJaJmH"sH"hmH"sH"h~mH"sH"hmH"s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verbum  A;>2>, 4VTA;>2>)  F5 ?5@540G0 ?>2V4><;5==O 70 4>?><>3>N <>28. >7@V7=ONBL 2=CB@VH=T B0 7>2=VH=T <>2;5==O. =CB@VH=T <>2;5==O  F5 <>20 4;O A515. >=0 T 73>@=CB>N B0 D@03<5=B0@=>N, B><C I> A?V;:C20==O 2V41C20TBLAO 7 =091V;LH 1;87L:>N ;N48=>N  7 A0<8< A>1>N. 5>1EV4=VABL C @>73>@=CBV9 0@3C<5=B0FVW =5 28=8:0T. >2=VH=T <>2;5==O  F5 <>20 4;O V=H8E. &59 284 <>2;5==O 1C4CTBLAO =0 ?52=8E 3@0<0B8G=8E ?@028;0E, 28:>@8AB>2CNBLAO A:;04=V ;>3VG=V B0 A8=B0:A8G=V :>=AB@C:FVW B>I>. >2=VH=T <>2;5==O VA=CT 2 CA=V9 B0 ?8AL<>2V9 D>@<0E. #A=5 <>2;5==O  F5 7<VAB>2=0 ?>A;V4>2=VABL A;V2, I> A?@89<0TBLAO =0 A;CE. >=> <>65 1CB8 <>=>;>3VG=8< B0 4V0;>3VG=8<. V0;>3VG=5 <>2;5==O  F5 @>7<>20 42>E 01> 1V;LH5 >AV1. &59 284 <>2;5==O T ?@>AB8< ?>@V2=O=> 7 <>=>;>3VG=8< <>2;5==O<. 0?@8:;04, C 48B8=8 <>20 A?>G0B:C D>@<CTBLAO C 283;O4V 4V0;>3C 7 4>@>A;8<. >=>;>3  F5 1V;LH A:;04=89 284 <>2;5==O, :>;8 >4=0 ;N48=0 725@B0TBLAO 7 @>73>@=CB8< ?>2V4><;5==O< 4> V=H>W ;N48=8 01> 0C48B>@VW. >=>;>3VG=5 <>2;5==O ?>B@51CT 7=0G=>W ?>?5@54=L>W @>1>B8 ?5@54 ?>G0B:>< @>7<>28  AB2>@5==O ;>3VG=>W AB@C:BC@8 ?>2V4><;5==O, 28:>@8AB0==O A8AB5<8 0@3C<5=B0FVW B0 3@0<0B8G=8E ?@028;. 8AL<>25 <>2;5==O  F5 <>20, 2V4>1@065=0 C 283;O4V 3@0DVG=8E 7>1@065=L. &59 284 <>2;5==O 7 O2;OTBLAO 2 VAB>@VW ;N4AB20 7=0G=> ?V7=VH5 CA=>3> A?V;:C20==O. >=> 1V;LH A:;04=5. 2B>@ <0T ?5@5410G8B8 B@C4=>IV C @>7C<V==V =0?8A0=>3> B0 ?>?5@548B8 WE. 525@10;L=0 :><C=V:0FVO  F5 A?V;:C20==O 157 28:>@8AB0==O <>2=>W DC=:FVW. "8?8 =525@10;L=>W :><C=V:0FVW: 1. V=5AB5B8G=89, ?>2 O70=89 7 @CE0<8 BV;0. "CB <0T 7=0G5==O: ?>;>65==O BV;0 C ?@>AB>@V, ?>70, 65AB8, <V<V:0. 2. >;>A>289, I> 2:;NG0T =03>;>A, 284V;5==O ?52=>3> A;>20, B>= 3>;>AC, B5<1@, 3CG=VABL B0 ?0@0;V=32VAB8:C (283C:8, 7VBE0==O B>I>). 3. "0:B8;L=89, I> 282G0T, O: V 4> O:>W G0AB8=8 BV;0 4>B>@:0NBLAO, O: 4>23> 2V41C20TBLAO :>=B0:B, =0>48=FV 2V41C20TBLAO :>=B0:B G8 C ?@8ACB=>ABV V=H8E. 4. 4O3, I> A8<2>;V7CT A>FV0;L=89 AB0BCA, T 70A>1><, I>1 ?@825@=CB8 C203C, ?V4:@5A;NT =0;56=VABL 4> ?52=>W AC1:C;LBC@8. 5. 8AB0=FVO, A5@54 O:>W 284V;ONBL: V=B8<=C, <V6>A>18ABVA=C, A>FV0;L=C B0 ?C1;VG=C. V7C0;L=5 A?V;:C20==O. '0A>20 >@30=V70FVO A?V;:C20==O. >73;O=5<> 4>:;04=VH5 2?;82 48AB0=FVW =0 A?V;:C20==O. 84V;ONBL B0:V G>B8@8 48AB0=FVW ?V4 G0A A?V;:C20==O: =B8<=0 7>=0 (15 - 45 A<) - 4> FVTW 7>=8 4>?CA:0NBLAO 1;87L:V, 4>1@5 7=09><V ;N48; BCB <0T <VAF5 4>2V@;82VABL, =53CG=5 <>2;5==O, B0:B8;L=89 :>=B0:B, 4>B>@:0==O 4> BV;0. >A;V465==O ?>:07CNBL, I> :>;8 C FV9 7>=V 7=0E>48BLAO =57=09><0 01> <0;>7=09><0 ;N48=0, B> F5 ?@82>48BL ?> ?52=8E DV7V>;>3VG=8E 7<V=: ?>A8;5=5 A5@F518BBO, 284V;5==O 04@5=0;V=C, ?>B>284V;5==O B>I>; >A>18AB0, 01> ?5@A>=0;L=0 7>=0 (45 - 120 A<) 28:>@8AB>2CTBLAO 4;O ?>2AO:45==8E @>7<>2 7 4@C7O<8 B0 :>;530<8. >=0 ?5@5410G0T BV;L:8 2V7C0;L=89 :>=B0:B <V6 ?0@B=5@0<8, O:V ?V4B@8<CNBL @>7<>2C; A>FV0;L=0 7>=0 (120 - 400 A<) 28:>@8AB>2CTBLAO, O: ?@028;>, ?V4 G0A >DVFV9=8E 7CAB@VG59 C @V7=><0=VB=8E ?@8<VI5==OE ;N459, O:V =5 4C65 4>1@5 7=0NBL >48= >4=>3>; ?C1;VG=0 7>=0 (1V;LH5 400 A<) 28:>@8AB>2CTBLAO 4;O A?V;:C20==O 7 25;8:>N 3@C?>N ;N459 - C ;5:FV9=V9 0C48B>@VW, =0 <VB8=3C B>I>. =0G=C G0AB8=C =525@10;L=>3> A?V;:C20==O A:;040T :V=5A8:0. # =V9 ACBBT25 7=0G5==O =0;568BL <V<VFV. V<V:0  @CE8 < O7V2 >1;8GGO, I> 2V4>1@060NBL 2=CB@VH=V9 5<>FV9=89 AB0= ;N48=8. # 45O:8E 28?04:0E <V<V:0 40T 4> 70% V=D>@<0FVW C @>7<>2V, B>1B> >GV, >1;8GGO, ?>3;O4 740B=V A:070B8 1V;LH5, =V6 >4=V BV;L:8 A;>20. 0?@8:;04, ?A8E>;>38 ?><VB8;8, O:I> ;N48=0 :065 =5?@024C, B> 2>=0 7CAB@VG0TBLAO >G8<0 7 ?0@B=5@>< <5=H5 1/3 G0AC. V7C0;L=5 A?V;:C20==O  F5 >1<V= ?>3;O40<8 C ?@>F5AV A?V;:C20==O. 84V;ONBL B0:V 2848 ?>3;O4C. V;>289 ?>3;O4 DV:ACTBLAO C 7>=V ;>10 A?V215AV4=8:0 70 B@8:CB=8:><: >GV, ;>1; 2V= ?5@5410G0T AB2>@5==O A5@9>7=>W 0B<>AD5@8. @8 A2VBAL:><C A?V;:C20==V ?>3;O4 >?CA:0TBLAO =86G5 @V2=O >G59 A?V215AV4=8:0 (70 B@8:CB=8:><: >GV B0 O<>G:0 =0 1>@>4V )  F5 AB2>@NT 0B<>AD5@C =528<CH5=>3> A?V;:C20==O. =B8<=89 ?>3;O4 >?CA:0TBLAO =86G5 >1;8GGO, =0 V=HV G0AB8=8 BV;0 A?V215AV4=8:0. 5;8:89 >1AO3 V=D>@<0FVW =5ACBL 65AB8. 84V;ONBL B0:V 3@C?8 65ABV2: 1) 65AB8-V;NAB@0B>@8 - F5 65AB8 - ?>2V4><;5==O: 2:07V2=8:8 ("2:07CNG89 ?5@AB"), ?V:B>3@0<8, B>1B> AB2>@5==O :0@B8= 70 4>?><>3>N 65ABV2 (">AL B0:>3> @>7<V@C B0 :>=DV3C@0FVW"); V45>3@0<8, B>1B> A2>T@V4=V @CE8 @C:0<8, I> 7 T4=CNBL CO2=V ?@54<5B8; 2) 65AB8 - @53C;OB>@8 - F5 65AB8, I> 2V4>1@060NBL AB02;5==O ;N48=8 4> G>3>AL. > =8E 2V4=>AOBL ?>A<VH:C, :820==O, =0?@O< ?>3;O4C, FV;5A?@O<>20=V @CE8 @C:0<8; 3) 65AB8 - 5<1;5<8  F5 A2>T@V4=V 70<V==8:8 A;V2 01> D@07 C A?V;:C20==V. 0?@8:;04, @C:>AB8A:0==O C 1030BL>E 28?04:0E 70<V=NT A;>20  4>1@>3> 4=O; 4) 65AB8-040?B>@8  F5 A?5F8DVG=V 728G:8 ;N48=8, ?>2 O70=V 7 @CE0<8 @C:: 0) ?>GVAC20==O, 1) 4>B>@:0==O 4> ?0@B=5@0; 2) @V7=><0=VB=V 4VW 7 ?@54<5B0<8 (>;V25FL, C478:, >:C;O@8 B>I>); 5) 65AB8 - 0D5:B>@8  F5 65AB8, I> G5@57 @CE8 BV;0 B0 < O78 >1;8GGO 2V4=>AOBL ?52=V 5<>FVW. > 40=>W 3@C?8 2V4=>AOBLAO <V:@>65AB8: @CE8 >G59, ?>G5@2>=V==O IV:, H284:V :;V?0==O, ?>A<8:C20==O 3C10<8 B>I>. >73;O=5<> 65AB8, I> T =091V;LH @>7?>2AN465=8<8: 65AB8 >FV=:8  ?>GCEC20==O ?V41>@V44O; 28BO3C20==O 2:07V2=>3> ?0;LFO 274>26 I>:8; 65AB8 2?52=5=>ABV - 7 T4=0==O ?0;LFV2 C :C?>; ?V@0<V48; 65AB8 =52?52=5=>ABV  ?5@5?;5BV==O ?0;LFV2 @C:; ?>I8?C20==O 4>;>=V; ?>ABC:C20==O ?> AB>;C ?0;LFO<8; B>@:0==O 70 A?8=:C ABV;LFO ?5@54 B8<, O: =0 =L>3> AVAB8 B0 V=HV; 65AB8 A0<>:>=B@>;N - @C:8 70 A?8=>N, >4=0 ?@8 FL><C AB8A:0T V=HC; 65AB8 >GV:C20==O - ?>B8@0==O 4>;>=L; 65AB8 2V4<>28  @C:8 A:;045=V =0 3@C4OE; 2V4E8;5=89 =0704 :>@?CA; AE@5I5=V @C:8; 4>B>@:0==O 4> :V=G8:0 =>A0 B>I>; 65AB8 ?@8E8;L=>ABV - ?@8:;040==O @C:8 4> 3@C459; 65AB8 4><V=C20==O - @V7:V ?><0E8 @C:0<8; 65AB8 =5?@02482>ABV - ?@8:@820==O @C:>N @>B0, 4>B>@:0==O 4> =>A0, ?>2>@>B C 1V: 2V4 A?V215AV4=8:0, 1V30NG89 ?>3;O4 B0 V=HV. '0A>20 >@30=V70FVO A?V;:C20==O A2V4G8BL ?@> ?C=:BC0;L=VABL ;N48=8, ?>203C 4> G0AC V=H8E ;N459, 28<>3;82VABL O: 4> A515, B0: V 4> V=H8E. '0A>20 >@30=V70FVO A?V;:C20==O <>65 28:>@8AB>2C20B8AL V O: 70AV1 B8A:C =0 ?0@B=5@V2 ?> A?V;:C20==N. 13.3. !?V;:C20==O O: 270T<>4VO !?V;:C20==O O: 270T<>4VO  F5 AC:C?=VABL 270T<=8E 2?;82V2 >4=>3> A?V215AV4=8:0, I> 28:;8:0T 2V4?>2V4L -@50:FVN V=H>3>. V6>A>18ABVA=0 270T<>4VO 74V9A=NTBLAO, O: ?@028;>, =0 @V2=V @>;V. >;L  F5 ?>254V=:0, O:>W G5:0NBL >B>GCNGV 2V4 ;N48=8, O:0 709<0T ?52=C A>FV0;L=C ?>78FVN. N48=0 28:>=CT @V7=><0=VB=V @>;V  10BL:0, <0B5@V, 1@0B0, A5AB@8, CG=O, ABC45=B0, 28:;040G0 B>I>. !CA?V;LAB2> A;V4:CT 70 ?@028;L=8< 28:>=0==O< @>;59 B0 28:>@8AB>2CT @V7=><0=VB=V A0=:FVW ?@8 WE ?>@CH5==V. /:I> ;N48=0 =5?@028;L=> 28:>=CT @>;L, B> ACA?V;LAB2> WW :0@0T (=0?@8:;04, @>;L ?0A068@0 ?5@5410G0T A?;0BC 70 ?@>W74, C 28?04:C =528:>=0==O 40=>W 28<>38 ;N48=0 A?;0GCT HB@0D). >;V <>6CBL 1CB8 A>FV0;L=8<8 B0 <V6>A>18ABVA=8<8. !>FV0;L=V @>;V 2V4>1@060NBL <VAF5 ;N48=8 C A8AB5<V A>FV0;L=8E 2V4=>A8= (ABC45=B, 28:;040G). V6>A>18ABVA=V @>;V 2V4>1@060NBL <VAF5 ;N48=8 C A8AB5<V =5D>@<0;L=8E 2V4=>A8= (;V45@, 4CH0 :><?0=VW B>I>). # ?@>F5AV 270T<>4VW @>7C<V==O V=H>W ;N48=8 2V41C20TBLAO 70 4>?><>3>N <5E0=V7<V2 V45=B8DV:0FVW, 5<?0BVW, @5D;5:AVW B0 AB5@5>B8?V70FVW. 45=B8DV:0FVO  F5 ?@>F5A C?>4V1=5==O A515 V=HV9 ;N48=V. 45=B8DV:0FVO =09G0ABVH5 28=8:0T =0 ?V43@C=BV BVA=>3> 5<>FV9=>3> 72 O7:C <V6 ;N4L<8, I> 70157?5GCT A?@89<0==O ?>254V=:8 B0 FV==>AB59 >4=VTW ;N48=8 V=H>N. 0?@8:;04, <0;5=L:0 4V2G8=:0, V45=B8DV:CNG8 A515 7 <0BV@ N, :>?VNT WW ?>254V=:C. <?0BVO  @>7C<V==O ?>GCBBV2, 4C<>:, 1060=L V=H>W ;N48=8 =0 @V2=V 5<>FV9, 157 :@8B8G=>W >FV=:8. @8 5<?0BVW <8 A?@89<0T<> ?5@56820==O V=H>W ;N48=8 B0:, O:18 <8 F5 ?5@568;8 A0<>ABV9=>. 5D;5:AVO  F5 CA2V4><;5==O ;N48=>N, O: WW A?@89<0T ?0@B=5@ ?> A?V;:C20==N. &5 A2>T@V4=89 ?@>F5A 475@:0;L=>3> 2V4>1@065==O 4C<>: B0 ?>GCBBV2 ?0@B=5@V2 ?> A?V;:C20==N. !B5@5>B8?V70FVO  F5 A?@>I5=5 A?@89=OBBO V=H>W ;N48=8. /: ?@028;>, AB5@5>B8?8 T @57C;LB0B>< 71V4=5=>3> A>FV0;L=>3> 4>A2V4C. C65 G0AB> AB5@5>B8?8 28=8:0NBL 2V4=>A=> ?@>D5AV9=>W 01> =0FV>=0;L=>W =0;56=>ABV ;N48=8 (2AV 2G8B5;V <0NBL E8AB 4> A?V;:C20==O, 2AV =V<FV  ?540=B8). 13.4. A8E>;>3VG=89 70E8AB C ?@>F5AV A?V;:C20==O 13.4.1. !B@C:BC@=89 B0 B@0=A0:B=89 0=0;V7 >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 V A?V;:C20==O. 13.4.2. A8E>;>3VG=89 70E8AB C :>=:@5B=8E C<>20E 68BBO. 13.4.1. !B@C:BC@=89 B0 B@0=A0:B=89 0=0;V7 >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 V A?V;:C20==O 030B>?;0=>2VABL V A:;04=VABL ?@>F5AC A?V;:C20==O >1C<>2;NNBL V @V7=>?;0=>2VABL 9>3> 2?;82C =0 ?0@B=5@V2 ?> A?V;:C20==N. !?V;:C20==O 28:>@8AB>2CNBL O: 7 <5B>N A?>=C:0==O ;N48=8 4> G>3>AL, B0: V 4;O 7024020==O W9 H:>48 70 C<>28 25@10;L=>W 03@5AVW. "><C =5>1EV4=> 7=0B8 V C<VB8 :>@8ABC20B8AO 70A>10<8 ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> 70E8ABC C ?@>F5AV A?V;:C20==O. V4@C=BO ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> 70E8ABC C A?V;:C20==V @>7@>1;5=V 2=0A;V4>: 28:>@8AB0==O AB@C:BC@=>3> 0=0;V7C >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 B0 B@0=A0:B=>3> 0=0;V7C A?V;:C20==O. !B@C:BC@=89 B0 B@0=A0:B=89 0=0;V7 @>7@>182 :0;VD>@=V9AL:89 ?A8E>B5@0?52B . 5@= C 50  60 - BV @>:8 <8=C;>3> AB>;VBBO. &59 0=0;V7 2V= 28:>@8AB>2C202 O: <5B>4 ;V:C20==O C ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G=V9 ?@0:B8FV. . 5@= 28E>482 7 B>3>, I> ?>B@510 C A?V;:C20==V T >4=VTN 7 =09206;82VH8E ?>B@51. >=0 <0T 1CB8 704>2>;5=>N. 5704>2>;5==O ?>B@518 C A?V;:C20==V 28:;8:0T 3>;>4, 40;V =52@>B8G=V @>7;048, V =02VBL A<5@BL. A>18ABVABL ;N48=8 <0T A:;04=C AB@C:BC@C, V, O: <8 265 707=0G0;8, <0T 25;8:C :V;L:VABL ?V4E>4V2 V B>G>: 7>@C. 4=VTN 7 B0:8E B>G>: 7>@C T AB@C:BC@=89 0=0;V7 >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 . 5@=0. # AB@C:BC@V >A>18AB>ABV 2V= 284V;OT 3 ?V4AB@C:BC@8, 01> B@8 /-AB0=8. >=8 2;0AB82V :>6=V9 ;N48=V. # ?@>F5AV A?V;:C20==O 2>=8 <>6CBL 28E>48B8 =0 AF5=C 01> ?> G5@7V, 01> 2AV @07><. /-AB0=8 T =>@<0;L=8<8 ?A8EVG=8<8 D5=><5=0<8 ;N48=8. . 5@= 284V;82 B0:V / - AB0=8: 0BL:> (), >@>A;89 (), 8B8=0 (B). AV 2>=8 =5>1EV4=V 4;O =>@<0;L=>3> 68BBO ;N48=8. 8B8=0  465@5;> =0H8E 1060=L, ?>B@51. "CB @04VABL, B2>@GVABL, D0=B07VO, 4>?8B;82VABL, 0:B82=VABL. "CB 65 V AB@0E8, =5704>2>;5==O, ?@8<E8, 5<>FVW. "CB :>E0==O V 704>2>;5==O, @>72038 V 2BVE8. > B>3> 6 C 48B8=8 2AO ?A8EVG=0 5=5@3VO. 0@048 :>3> 6825<>? 0@048 48B8=8. >@>A;89 =5>1EV4=89 4;O 286820==O ;N48=8. 8B8=0 E>G5, 4>@>A;89 28:>=CT. >@>A;89 1C4CT 68B;> V 4>@>38, 4>1C20T W6C, H8T >4O3, :5@CT B@0=A?>@B><. >@>A;89 :>=B@>;NT 4VW 0BL:0 B0 8B8=8. /:I> 4VO 28:>=CTBLAO G0AB>, B> 02B><0B87CTBLAO, =01C20T D>@<8 =028G:8 V 28:>=CTBLAO 02B><0B8G=>. 8:>=CTBLAO B0: B><C, I> B0: ?@89=OB>. 0 AF5=C 28E>48BL 0BL:>. V= 72V;L=OT >@>A;>3> 2V4 ?@89=OBBO 728G09=8E @CB8==8E @VH5=L, F5 V 30;L<0, I> CB@8<CNBL ;N48=C 2V4 =5>10G=8E 2G8=:V2. 0BL:>  F5 =0H0 A>2VABL. "CB 701>@>=8, B01C, <>@0;L, G5ABL. /-AB0=8 <0NBL A2>W 452V78: 8B8=0  E>GC, ?>4>10TBLAO; >@>A;89  4>FV;L=>, :>@8A=>; 0BL:>  <0T 1CB8, =5 <>6=0.  I0A;820 ;N48=0, O:I> C =5W E>GC, 4>FV;L=> V <0T 1CB8 >4=>3> 7<VABC. !2>TG0A=5 704>2>;5==O 1060=L 8B8=8 70157?5GCT WE ?><V@=VABL V 28:>=CTBLAO ;53:>. 0B@8<:8 C 704>2>;5==V ?@82>4OBL 01> 4> 7=8:=5==O ?>B@51, 01> 4> =04;8H:V2. 57<V==V C<>28 68BBO ?@82>4OBL 4> 02B><0B8G=>3> C?@02;V==O. 060==O 8B8=8 ?5@5E>4OBL C @>7?>@O465==O 0BL:0. >@>A;89 C F59 G0A 709<0TBLAO 728G09=8<8 A?@020<8 V ?@>1;5<0<8. 01>@>=8 7 1>:C 0BL:0 AB0NBL =52V4GCB=8<8. VW /-AB0=V2 740NBLAO 4>FV;L=8<8 V =02VBL @>7C<=8<8. !2V4><VABL C =8E 15@5 <V=V<0;L=C CG0ABL, 0 <8A;5==O ?@0:B8G=> 2V4ACB=T. <V=0 C<>2 VA=C20==O ;N48=8 =5 28:;8:0T 2V4?>2V4=>W 7<V=8 4>FV;L=8E 4V9, 1> 2>=8 28:>=CNBLAO 02B><0B8G=> 7024O:8 :>=A5@20B82=>ABV V @83V4=>ABV ?@>3@0< 0BL:0. @>3@0<8 0BL:0 =04728G09=> ABV9:V. ;O WE @C9=C20==O ?>B@V1=> 1030B> 7CA8;L. "0: 0BL:> C A2>WE 28<>30E AB0T 03@5A82=8<, ?@8<CHCT ?@0FN20B8 >@>A;>3>, 70240T H:>48 8B8=V. "8A: 0BL:0 1C20T =04728G09=> A8;L=8<. #AV A8;8 @>7C<C >@>A;>3> A?@O<>2CNBLAO =0 28:>=0==O =5@>7C<=8E A?@02. "0:, 4;O 704>2>;5==O ?>B@518 8B8=8 ?V4 G0A A2OB :C?CTBLAO ?@>4C:BV2 C 45AOBL @07 1V;LH5, 7 W40TBLAO C ? OBL @07 1V;LH5, =V6 ?>B@V1=> 8B8=V. V:0@V 4>1@5 7=0NBL, I> A0<5 ?V4 G0A A2OB 4> ;V:0@5=L ?@89<0NBLAO E2>@V V7 703>AB@5==O< ?0=:@50B8BV2, 28@07>:, 30AB@8BV2 V B. V=. # @>7?>@O465==V 0BL:0 T A8;L=0 701>@>==0 ?@>3@0<0. >=0 ?5@5H:>460T 704>2>;5==N >A>18ABVA=8E, =>@<0;L=8E ?>B@51. 5 >4@C6C9AO 4> >45@60==O 28I>W >A2VB8. "0: ?@>3@0<0 ?52=89 G0A AB@8<CT 8B8=C. =5@3VO =5704>2>;5=8E ?>B@51 @C9=CT 701>@>=C. >;8 8B8=0 (E>GC) V 0BL:> (=5 <>6=0) ?>G8=0NBL ;0OB8AL, 0 >@>A;89 =5 <>65 WE ?@8<8@8B8, @>72820TBLAO 2=CB@VH=L>>A>18ABVA=89 :>=D;V:B. N48=0 AB@0640T 2V4 2=CB@VH=VE AC?5@5G=>AB59, I> <>65 ?@8725AB8 4> @>728B:C =52@>7V2. AL G><C 4;O ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> 70E8ABC =5>1EV4=> C206=> ?@>0=0;V7C20B8 7<VAB ?@>3@0< 2;0A=>3> 0BL:0, 7@C9=C20B8 =5?>B@V1=V B0 70AB0@V;V >1<565==O, 28@>18B8 =>2V A?>A>18 4VW, I> 2V4?>2V40NBL =>28< C<>20<. #A5 F5 <>6;82>. # ?@>F5AV A?V;:C20==O 15@CBL CG0ABL :><C=V:0B>@ (?>A8;0T AB8<C;) B0 @5F8?VT=B (A?@89<0T AB8<C;). ;O ?@>4>265==O A?V;:C20==O 2>=8 <0NBL ?><V=OB8AO :><C=V:0B82=8<8 @>;O<8. >;8 @5FV?VT=B 2V4?>2V40T, B> 2V= AB0T :><C=V:0B>@><. !B8<C; V 2V4?>2V4L =0 =L>3> <>6=0 =0720B8 B@0=A0:FVTN. >=0 T >48=8F5N A?V;:C20==O. ">4V A?V;:C20==O <>6=0 @>73;O40B8 O: A5@VN B@0=A0:FV9. !E5<0B8G=> B@0=A0:FVN <>6=0 7>1@078B8 B0:: AB8<C;   , 2V4?>2V4L 45   :><C=V:0B>@;   @5FV?VT=B. 5B0 B@0=A0:B=>3> 0=0;V7C ?>;O30T C B><C, I>1 7 OAC20B8, O:89 /-AB0= :><C=V:0B>@0 ?>A8;02 :><C=V:0B82=89 AB8<C; V O:89 /-AB0= @5FV?VT=B0 402 2V4?>2V4L. 09G0ABVH5 AB8<C; V 2V4?>2V4L =0;560BL >@>A;><C. &5 ?@>ABV B@0=A0:FVW, I> <0NBL <VAF5 ?V4 G0A ?@>4C:B82=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. >B@0 3>48=0? 5AOBL E28;8= =0 2>AL<C. "CB B@0=A0:FVO 74V9A=NTBLAO ?> ;V=VW  . "0:C B@0=A0:FVN =07820NBL ?0@0;5;L=>N. > ?0@0;5;L=8E B@0=A0:FV9 =0;560BL:  B B. 0?@8:;04:   !BC45=B8 >AB0==V< G0A>< =5 4>A8BL =0?>;53;82V. "0:, @0=VH5 1C;8 AB0@0==VHV.  B B  0209 70<VABL ;5:FVW ?V45<> C :V=>? 0@=0 V45O. VH;8. > ;V=VW   <8 ?@0FNT<>, ?> ;V=VW B B  :>E0T<>, @>72060T<>AO, @04VT<>, ?> ;V=VW    ?;VB:CT<>. &V B@0=A0:FVW 2V41C20NBLAO B0:, I> C ?A8E>;>3VG=><C 2V4=>H5==V :><C=V:0=B8 4>@V2=NNBL >48= >4=><C. &5 B@0=A0:FVW ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> @V2=>?@02 O, 01> B@0=A0:FVW ?5@H>3> B8?C. . 5@= AD>@<C;N202 206;8289 70:>= A?V;:C20==O: ?>:8 B@0=A0:FVW ?0@0;5;L=V V @V2=>?@02=V, ?@>F5A A?V;:C20==O B@820T @V2=> V 4>23>. @C389 B8? ?0@0;5;L=8E B@0=A0:FV9   B V B   28=8:0T C A8BC0FVW >?V:8, ?@83=VG5==O, ?V:;C20==O (  B) 01> 15770E8I5=>ABV, :0?@87C, 70E>?;5==O (B  ). &5 B@0=A0:FVW ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> =5@V2=>?@02 O. "0:5 A?V;:C20==O 1C45 ?@>4>26C20B8AO 4> B>3> G0AC, 4>:8 71V30NBLAO 25:B>@8. 0BL:> >?V:0T 4VB59, A0<>4C@ - =0G0;L=8: B8@0=8BL ?V4;53;>3>. VB8 <0NBL B5@?VB8 4> ?52=>3> G0AC B8A: 10BL:V2, ?V4;53;89  B8@0=VN =0G0;L=8:0. ;5 =0AB0T G0A, :>;8 :><CAL =01@84=5 ?V4:>@OB8AO, 0 :><CAL >?V:0B8, EB>AL =5 28B@8<0T B8@0=0. >;8AL 2>=8 70:V=GCNBLAO V @C9=CNBLAO. VB8 ?5@5AB0NBL <0B5@V0;L=> 70;560B8 2V4 10BL:V2, ?V4;53;89 >45@602 1V;LH 28A>:C :20;VDV:0FVN G8 ?52=V <0B5@V0;L=V 1;030. VB8 ?>G8=0NBL 68B8 A0<>ABV9=>, ?V4;53;89 <V=OT <VAF5 @>1>B8. /:I> B0:V 2V4=>A8=8 1C4CBL ?@>4>26C20B8AO, B> >1>2 O7:>2> @>72820TBLAO :>=D;V:B, @>72820TBLAO 1>@>BL10. ">9, EB> 1C2 2=87C, =0<030B8<5BLAO ?V4=OB8AO 23>@C V >?CAB8B8 2=87 B>3>, EB> =03>@V. # :@09=VE A2>WE D>@<0E 2V4=>A8=8  B T @01AL:>-B8@0=VG=8< 2V4=>H5==O<. 01AB2> V B8@0=VO  F5 =5 BV;L:8 7>2=VH=V 2V4=>H5==O, F5 AB0= 4CHV. # :>6=><C @01V A848BL B8@0=, 0 C B8@0=V  @01. 01 702648 ?@03=5 289B8 7-?V4 @01AL:>W 70;56=>ABV, ?V4A2V4><> ?@03=5 ?>78FVW B8@0=0. >73;O=5<> ?@8:;04. # AV< W 12-@VG=89 A8= ?@0:B8G=> ?5@5AB02 =02G0B8AO. A>1;82> 1030B> @>182 3@0<0B8G=8E ?><8;>:. >:>@8, 2<>2;O==O, ?>3@>78 B8?C '8 T C B515 3>;>20?, 2V4:8 C B515 @C:8 @>ABCBL?, ><C ?>B@V15=? 1C;8 157A8;8<8. &5 2V4=>A8=8 B8?C   B, 01> B8@0=  @01. "@510 1C;> 7<V=8B8 2V4=>A8=8: ?@8?8=8B8 ?@8<CHC20==O, ?>3@>78, 701>@>=8. 5@51C4>20 2V4=>A8= 2V41C;0AO B0:: 10BL:> 725@B0TBLAO 4> A8=0: / >AL <>6C ?8A0B8 157 ?><8;>:! (&8< 2V= >?CA:0TBLAO 4> @V2=O 8B8=8. "V, EB> ?8H5 7 ?><8;:0<8, 22060NBL, I> 2AV ?8HCBL 7 ?><8;:0<8). 5 <>65 1CB8! 0:;040T<>? 0 :>6=C 7=0945=C C <5=5 ?><8;:C O B>1V A?;0GCN 10 :>?V9>:. 57 >1<0=C? %V10 O B515 >14C@N202? B65, ?>18;8AL >1 70:;04. 0BL:> ?5@5?8A02 A8=>25 70240==O 7 9>3> 6 ?><8;:0<8. ><8;>: 1C;> 1030B>. !8= =V:>;8 I5 =5 ?@0FN202 B0:. >6=5 A;>2> 2V= ?5@52V@82 70 A;>2=8:><. VA;O :>6=>W ?><8;:8 2V= 3>2>@82: "0BC, O 482CNAL, O: B>1V 40;8 0B5AB0B?, 2V4:8 C B515 @C:8 @>ABCBL?,  I> 70 ?>G5@:?, /: B515 B@8<0NBL =0 @>1>BV? "@8<02AO 2V= ?>206=>. 0 >1;8GGV 1@573;82> -?>1;06;8289 28@07. &5 1C;0 ?>2=0 :>?VO 10BL:0. >78FVO G8 AB0= 0BL:0. >ABC?>2> A8= =5 BV;L:8 ?>G02 :@0I5 =02G0B8AO, 0;5 V ?> V=H><C, @50;L=> 4828B8AO =0 A2VB V A2>N ?>254V=:C. >65= / - AB0= >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 <>6=0 4V03=>ABC20B8 7>2=VH=V<8 >7=0:0<8. 0BL:>. :07V2=89 ?0;5FL A?@O<>20=89 =0 V=H>3> :><C=V:0=B0. $V3C@0 =0304CT 1C:2C $, =0 >1;8GGV ?>1;06;82VABL, ?@578@AB2>, 7=52030, G0AB>  :@820 ?>A<VH:0. 06:89 ?>3;O4 725@EC 2=87. !848BL 2V4:8=C2H8AL =0704. ><C 702648 2A5 7@>7C<V;>, 2V= 7=0T B09=C, I> V=H8< =54>ABC?=0. N18BL ?@>?8A0=V VAB8=8 V 28A;>2;N20==O: / FL>3> =5 ?>B5@?;N!, )>1 1C;> 7@>1;5=> 2G0A=>!, 5265 206:> 7@>7C<VB8?, C@=N OA=>!, "CB 28 FV;:>< =5?@02V!, / ?>2=VABN =5 ?>3>46CNAL!, /:89 V4V>B F5 ?@84C<02?, 8 <5=5 =5 7@>7C<V;8?, %B> 6 B0: @>18BL?, !:V;L:8 0< 3>2>@8B8?, 8 7>1>2 O70=V!, /: 0< =5 A>@><=>?, 5 <>6=0!, V 2 O:><C 28?04:C!. >@>A;89. >3;O4 A?@O<>20=89 =0 >1 T:B, BV;> =V18 ?>40TBLAO 2?5@54, >GV 45I> @>7H8@5=V 01> 72C65=V. 0 >1;8GGV 28@07 C2038, G5@57 O:89 <>6=0 ?>10G8B8 4>?8B;82VABL 8B8=8. 6820T 28@07: 810GB5, O 0A =5 7@>7C<V2, ?>OA=VBL 1C4L-;0A:0 I5 @07!, /, <01CBL, =5?@028;L=> ?>OA=82, B><C <5=V 2V4<>28;8!, 0209B5 ?>4C<0T<>!, 0209B5 7@>18<> B0:!, /: 28 ?;0=CTB5 7@>18B8?. 8B8=0. >70, 28@07 >1;8GGO 2V4?>2V40NBL 2=CB@VH=L><C AB0=C: @04>ABV, 3>@N, AB@0EC, B@82>7V. '0AB> 28<>2;OT: 'C4>2>!, 04728G09=>!, %>GC!, ;L>2>!, 5 E>GC!, 5 1C4C!, 01@84;>!, AB>384;>!, %09 2A5 738=5!, %09 2A5 3>@8BL 2>3=5<!, 8 ?@>AB> GC4>2V!, / 0A ;N1;N!, V 70 I> =5 ?>3>46CAL!, ;O G>3> F5 0< B@510?, >;8 F5 2A5 70:V=G8BLAO?. "@5BN 3@C?C A:;040NBL ?5@5E@5A=V B@0=A0:FVW. !0<5 70 =8<8 @>72820NBLAO :>=D;V:B8. >73;O=5<> ?@8:;04. 0 @8AC=:C (@8A. ! 1. >A;V4>2=VABL B@0=A0:FV9 ?>7=0G0TBLAO F8D@0<8).           8A. 1 5@5E@5A=V B@0=A0:FVW '>;>2V: V7 6V=:>N 718@0NBLAO =0 70?@>H5=C 25GV@:C. 18420 ?>A?VH0NBL. '>;>2V: 725@B0TBLAO 4> 6V=:8: - N10, 45 <V9 3>48==8:? - "8 =5<0;5=L:89, B>1V ?>@0 =02G8B8AO :;0AB8 @5GV =0 <VAF5. - /:18 C =0A 24><0 1C2 ?>@O4>:, 2A5 1 7=0;> A2>W <VAFO. - /:18 B8 <5=V E>G0 1 B@VH:8 4>?><0302, B> V 3>A?>40@AB2> 1C;> 1 C ?>@O4:C. - 5 B0:5 2>=> V 25;8:5. "@510 1CB8 ?@>2>@=VH>N. 8AC=>: ! 1 5@5E@5A=V B@0=A0:FVW - /:18 B2>O <0<0 A=V40=>: =5 ?>4020;0 B>1V C ;V6:>, 0 =02G8;0 4>?><030B8. @>4>265==O @>7<>28 ?5@5E>48BL =0 >1@078, 40;V A?07<8 AC48=, ?V428I5==O B8A:C, A5@F5289 1V;L. >EV4 C 3>ABV 70<V=OTBLAO ;V:0<8. @>0=0;V7CT<> F59 ?@>F5A A?V;:C20==O. 5@H0 B@0=A0:FVO 2V4 G>;>2V:0 945 70 AE5<>N  . # 6V=:8 >1@07;825 48BO V A8;L=89 0BL:>, 01> 265 702545=0. "><C 725@B0==O A?@89=O;0 O: B8A: =0 8B8=C. 8B8=C 70E8I0T 0BL:>. "5 6 A?>AB5@V30TBLAO C =0ABC?=V9 3 B@0=A0:FVW 2V4 G>;>2V:0. 0ABC?=V B@0=A0:FVW <0NBL B>B>6=89 E0@0:B5@. A8E>;>3VG=> :>=D;V:B V45 4> 7=8I5==O. 0 AE5<V 284=>, I> =0 AF5=V :><C=V:0FVW 28ABC?0T 6 >AV1.  F5 265 1070@!  OA>2CNBL 2V4=>A8=8: 0BL:> 6V=:8 7 8B8=>N G>;>2V:0, 8B8=0 6V=:8 7 0BL:>< G>;>2V:0. >@>A;8E G>;>2V:0 V 6V=:8 =5 GCB8 G5@57 ;5<5=B 0BL:V2 B0 ?;0G VB59. ;5 6 A?@02C @>1;OBL >@>A;V. V4 G0A A20@>: A?@020 =5 @>18BLAO. /: 65 70E8AB8B8AL C FV9 A8BC0FVW? !20@:C <>6=0 1C;> 1 7C?8=8B8 =0 B@5BV9 B@0=A0:FVW. 5@HV 42V B@0=A0:FVW 70;8H0NBLAO =57<V==8<8.        8AC=>: ! 2 5@5EV4 =0 @V25=L A?V;:C20==O 48B8=0 - 4>@>A;89 '>;>2V:C B@510 70;8H8B8AO =0 @V2=V 48B8=8 V 725@B0B8AO 4> 4>@>A;>3> /-AB0=C 6V=:8: "0:, O =5<0;5=L:89. 5=V ?>@0 7=0B8 <VAF5 4;O A2>WE @5G59. / 4>A8BL =5A0<>ABV9=89. 0B5 B8 C <5=5 4>1@0 3>A?>48=O V 2A5 7=0TH. VA;O FL>3> 6V=:0 70;8H8BL A2V9 <0:VO6 V 1C45 HC:0B8 3>48==8: G>;>2V:0. >=D;V:BC =5 1C45. ;O 70E8ABC C :>=D;V:BV =5>1EV4=V ?A8E>;>3VG=0 3=CG:VABL B0 4>B@8<0==O 42>E C<>2. 1. 2>;>4VB8 C<V==O< 70<8:0B8AO =0 ?>78FVW, 4>@>A;>3>. ;O FL>3> =5>1EV4=>: AB0B8 GCB;828< 4> A83=0;V2 0BL:0 B0 8B8=8, O:V ?@0FNNBL 02B><0B8G=>; 70?@>3@0<C20B8 A515 =0 70?8B0==O '8 F5 ?@0240? , '8 <>6=0 F5 28:>@8AB0B8? 2V4:8 FO V45O?; :>;8 C 0A ?>30=89 =0AB@V9, A?8B09B5, G><C 0H 0BL:> 1 T 0HC 8B8=C ; 2V4?@0FN9B5 ?@89=OBBO 206;828E @VH5=L; A8AB5<0B8G=> B@5=C9B5 A2>3> >@>A;>3>; ?>3>46C9B5AL V7 B25@465==O< 0H>3> ?0@B=5@0. 2. 5>1EV4=> 2825AB8 =0 ?>78FVN >@>A;>3> 0H>3> ?0@B=5@0 ?> A?V;:C20==N. 13.4.2. A8E>;>3VG=89 70E8AB C :>=:@5B=8E C<>20E 68BBO 0 @>1>BV. !8AB5<0 4V;>28E 270T<>2V4=>A8= C :>;5:B82V =5 1C20T 157E<0@=>N. '0AB> 28=8:0NBL =5?>@>7C<V==O V :>=D;V:B8. >;>2=5, A;V4 C<VB8 7<5=HC20B8 =530B82=89 2?;82 03@5A82=8E B@0=A0:FV9. 0?@8:;04, C 28:;040G0 :0D54@8 28=8:;8 =5?>@>7C<V==O V7 702V4CNG8<. 0D54@0 I><VAOG=> ?@>2>48BL =0C:>2V :>=D5@5=FVW. 8:;040G 70 5 E28;8= 709H>2 4> 0C48B>@VW, AB>O2 V @>7<>2;O2 V7 7=09><8<. # F59 <><5=B 4> 0C48B>@VW 709H>2 702V4CNG89. V41C;0AO @>7<>20. 02V4CNG89 ?>G02 @>7<>2C. >482VBLAO  1@C4! ;5 6 F5 =5 <>W >1>2 O7:8. AL 10G8B5, 20< =5<0T 4V;0 4> G5ABV :>;5:B82C! 8 <>65B5 ?@>9B8 ?>27 1@C4, 0 O =5 <>6C! / A0< <0N 70 2AV< A;V4:C20B8. ">, I> O <02 @>18B8? 8 I> =5 7<>3;8 >@30=V7C20B8 ?@818@0==O? @81@0;8 1 A0<V, =VG>3> 7 0<8 1 =5 B@0?8;>AO. @>0=0;V7CT<> A8BC0FVN V ?><8;:8 28:;040G0. 02V4CNG89 :>=AB0BC202 =0O2=VABL 1@C4C 2 0C48B>@VW. "@0=A0:FVW  . 8:;040G ?>G02 3>2>@8B8 ?@> DC=:FV>=0;L=V >1>2 O7:8, B>1B> 70 AE5<>N  B. !?V;:C20==O ?VH;> 70 B8?>< ?5@5E@5A=8E B@0=A0:FV9. 8:;040G C40@82 8B8=C 702V4CNG>3>. =5@3VO 2V4 8B8=8 ?5@59H;0 C ?>78FVN 0BL:0, 0 72V4B8  C40@ ?> 8B8=V 28:;040G0. 5>1EV4=> 7<V=8B8 ?>78FVW. '5@57 <VAOFL 2V41C;0AO ?>4V1=0 15AV40, 0;5 7 V=H8< =0?@O<:>< B@0=A0:FV9. >7<>2C 7=>2C ?>G02 702V4CNG89. >3;O=LB5  1@C4! "0:, 1@C4. & AL 10G8B5, =V:><C =5<0T 4V;0 4> G5ABV :>;5:B82C. AV ?@>E>4OBL ?>27 1@C4. >2>48BLAO 0< 2=8:0B8 C 2A5. & /:18 O ?@89H>2 @0=VH5, O >@30=V7C202 18 ?@818@0==O. # :@09=L><C 28?04:C, O ?@81@02 18 A0<. VG>3> 1 7V <=>N =5 AB0;>AO. (BO<82AO). )5 G>3> =5 28AB0G0;>? / 7=0N, EB> F5 <0T @>18B8. 0?@>AVBL 4> <5=5 V@C 02;V2=C (2V4?>2V40;L=C 70 ?@818@0==O). 0A;C3>2CT =0 C203C ;8H5 >AB0==O D@070 28:;040G0 V 702V4CNG>3>. "CB <0T <VAF5 D5=><5= V45=B8DV:0FVW, :>;8 28:;040G 70?@>?>=C202 ?@818@0==O. 465 V ?5@H89, V 4@C389 =0;560BL 4> ?@>D5A>@AL:>-28:;040FL:>3> A:;04C, B> C 702V4CNG>3> =5 <>3;0 =5 28=8:=CB8 4C<:0, I> V 9><C A:>@> 4>2545BLAO ?@818@0B8 ?@8<VI5==O. "><C 9>3> 2V4?>2V4L >1@C=B>20=0. # >A>18AB><C V AV<59=><C 68BBV. !:;04=V 2V4=>A8=8, I> G0AB> 28=8:0NBL <V6 <>;>48<8, <>6CBL 282>48B8 7 @V2=>2038, 28:;8:0B8 7;VABL, =5@2>2V @>7;048, 0;5 A0<0 ?@>1;5<0 =5 7=0E>48BL @>72 O70==O. /: ?@028;>, ?V4@C=BO< WE T C?5@BVABL 4V2G8=8. AV A?@>18 E;>?FO 28@V2=OB8 2V4=>A8=8 @>71820NBLAO. VA;O :>=AC;LB0FVW 7 ?A8E>;>3>< E;>?5FL 7CAB@VG0TBLAO 7 4V2G8=>N V ?@>?>=CT 7 OAC20B8 2V4=>A8=8. ("CB ?><8;:0. 5>1EV4=>, I>1 2>=0 70?@>?>=C20;0). @>BO3>< B@820;>3> G0AC 2V= 28A;CE>2C202 B>9 1@C4, I> 2>=0 28;820;0 9><C =0 3>;>2C. '5@57 45O:89 G0A 2V= A:0702: C I> 6, ;N10, <>6;82>, B8 V <0TH ?>-A2>T<C @0FVN. ;5 40209 ?>4828<>AL H8@H5& 0=VH5 E;>?5FL =5 <V3 28B@8<0B8 ?>4V1=8E >1@07 V ?@>BO3>< E28;8=8.  B5?5@ B5@?V2, V I> =09FV:02VH5, G8< 40;V, B8< ;53H5 AB020;> A;CE0B8 WE. (> 2AL>3> 728:0TH).  B>4V V 7>2AV< ?5@5AB02 725@B0B8 C203C =0 4>:>@8, 0 ;8H5 ?>A<VE02AO. >ABC?>2> >1@078 AB020;8 <5=H 7;8<8, 0 ?>BV< V 7>2AV< ?@8?8=8;8AO. (0B0@A8A, 70<V=0 >4=8E ?>GCBBV2 V=H8<8). 5:V;L:0 4=V2 ?@>4>26C20;>AO <>2G0==O.  BV;L:8 ?>BV< 1C;0 A5@9>7=0 @>7<>20. >2>@8;8 A?>:V9=>. /: BV;L:8 2>=0 ?V428IC20;0 3>;>A, G8 ?5@5E>48;0 =0 >1@078, 2V= 70<>2:02 V ?>3>46C202AO 7 =5N. ">= 7<V=N202AO. !V<59=0 ?0@0 =5 2V41C;0AO. >7V9H;8AO <8@=>. # AV<59=8E 2V4=>A8=0E =0?@C65==O 28=8:0NBL O: <V6 ?>4@C66O<, B0: V <V6 10BL:0<8 B0 4VBL<8 2AVE ?>:>;V=L. V=:0 28E>2CT 4>G:C >4=0. 9 13 @>:V2, V 2>=0 289H;0 7-?V4 :>=B@>;N <0B5@V. 0<0 2A5 @>18;0 70 =5W. >G:0 2V4<>28;0AO 2V4 70=OBL C <C78G=V9 H:>;V, 28<030;0 2V4 <0<8 BC0;5B8, I> 1C;8 =5 ?> :8H5=V 6V=FV, 28<030;0 A0<>ABV9=> @>7?>@O460B8AO A2>W< G0A><. VA;O :>=AC;LB0FVW <0<0 7 CAV< ?>3>46C20;0AO. "0:, ;N, B8 ?@020, O 7@>7C<V;0, I> B8 4>@>A;0. V4 AL>3>4=V C B515 ?>2=0 A2>1>40. 48=5 ?@>E0==O, :>;8 945H 7 4><C, 3>2>@8, :>;8 ?@8945H. "CB =5>1EV4=> 225AB8 I5 >4=5 ?@028;> ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> 70E8ABC: =5 ?@>?>=C9 A2>W ?>A;C38. >?><0309, :>;8 7@>18H A2>W A?@028. ;O, O: 702648, ?@89H;0 ?V7=> V ?>?@>A8;0 WAB8. 0<0 1C;0 C ;V6:C V 70?@>?>=C20;0 27OB8 A0<V9. %;V10 =5 1C;>. 0<0 =5 2AB83;0. ;O ?>G0;0 4>:>@OB8, I> 2>=0 ?>30=0 <0B8, =5 ;N18BL WW.  E>G0, O: F5 =5 1C;> 206:>, <0<0 ?>3>46C20;0AO. V7=VH5 2>=0 A0<0 ?>G0;0 3>2>@8B8, I> ;V =5 ?>257;> 7 <0BV@ N. "0: ?@>4>26C20;>AO ?V2@>:C. 0AB02 45=L, :>;8 ;O 27O;0 V=VFV0B82C C A2>W @C:8 V ?>G0;0 @>7?>4V;OB8 >1>2 O7:8. 0<V 1C;0 2V42545=0 @>;L ?>20@0, ;O 709<0;0AO ?@818@0==O< V @>18;0 4@V1=V ?>:C?:8. 5;8:5 ?@0==O @>18;8 @07><. @V1=8FV ?@0;8 :>65= A2>W. >ABC?>2> C ;V 7<V=8;>AO AB02;5==O 4> =02G0==O, 3@>H59, 4@C7V2. 0 FVTN AE5<>N ;53:> <>6CBL 1CB8 @>72 O70=V 3>@572VA=V =0?@C65=V 2V4=>A8=8 <V6 =52VAB:>N B0 A25:@CE>N, <V6 7OB5< V B5I5N. >;>2=5, I>1 <>;>4HV ?>3>46C20;8AO 7V AB0@H8<8 V =5 =02 O7C20;8 W< A2>WE ?>A;C3. 0G5:09B5, E09 0A ?>?@>AOBL. @8 >@30=V70FVW C?@02;V==O. @8 >@30=V70FVW C?@02;V==O =5>1EV4=> :5@C20B8AO 3>;>2=8< ?@028;><, AD>@<C;L>20=8< . 0@=53V: 45O <0T =0;560B8 ?0@B=5@C. 5@V2=8: <0T AD>@<C;N20B8 70240==O C 7030;L=><C 283;O4V, ?0@B=5@C 70?@>?>=C20B8 28@VH8B8 WW. AV ?@>?>78FVW <0NBL 2V4<>2;OB8AO <>B82>20=> 4> B>3> G0AC, ?>:8 =5 1C45 28A;>2;5=0 0H0 V45O. 5 <>6=0 @>18B8 70C2065==O ?V4;53;8< C ?@8ACB=>ABV V=H8E A?V2@>1VB=8:V2, 0 B8< 1V;LH5 =0 ?>G0B:C @>1>G>3> 4=O. !;V4 4>B@8<C20B8AO ?@028;0: %20;8B8 ?@8 2AVE, 0 28A;>2;N20B8 =524>2>;5==O  =0>48=FV V C :V=FV @>1>G>3> 4=O. 0 =0@040E, :>=D5@5=FVOE G8 V=H8E ?C1;VG=8E 70E>40E =V:>;8 =5 ?5@51820B8 A?V2@>1VB=8:V2, O:V 7040NBL 70?8B0==O. 5>1EV4=> 40B8 <>6;82VABL 28A;>2;N20B8AO. 28G09=> 70?8B0==O AB02;OBL 01> 4C65 @>7C<=V ;N48, 01> 4C65 =5@>7C<=V. 5@HV AB02;OBL <0;> 70?8B0=L, :>@>B:V B0 2V4?>2V4=V A8BC0FVW, 0 4@C3V  4>23V V 1030B>, 4>A8BL 70?;CB0=V. "CB :5@V2=8:C =5>1EV4=5 B5@?V==O. 0 1>FV :5@V2=8:0 1C45 V B>9, EB> AB028BL 70?8B0==O, V B>9, EB> A;CE02 @07>< 7 =8<. AB0==T ?@028;>: ?V4A8;N9 BC O:VABL, I> ?@8?8A02 B>1V ?0@B=5@ ?> A?V;:C20==N. # ?>W74V, C ?;0F:0@B=><C 203>=V, 2=>GV B@8 :><?0=L9>=8 2;0HBC20;8 ?8OB8:C. '5B25@B89, AB>@>==V9 G>;>2V:, A?>4V202AO 2V4?>G8B8, 1> 702B@0 =0?@C65=89 45=L, =0ABC?=>W =>GV 72>@>B=0 ?>W74:0 V 7=>2C =0 @>1>BC. ;5 70A=CB8 =5 240;>AO. 0;5:> 70 ?V2=VG :@V< HC<C, ?8OB8:8 ?>G0;>AO :C@V==O C 203>=V. 0 70C2065==O G>;>2V:0 >48= 7 ? O=8E A:0702: !;CE09, B8 :>75; & "0:, O :>75;.  =5 BV;L:8 :>75;. / I5 V ?V4;>B=8:. & 0@07 ?>W74 ?@8945 C >=>B>?, O 28:;8GC <V;VFVN V 28 C FL><C ?5@5:>=0TB5AO. VA;O FL>3> 02B>@ F8E A;V2 =5 10G82 BVTW :><?0=VW 4> AL>3>4=V. "0:8< G8=><, 28:>@8AB0==O< 70:>=><V@=>AB59 A?V;:C20==O B0 9>3> B@0=A0:B=>3> E0@0:B5@C <>6=0 70E8AB8B8 A515 2V4 03@5A82=>W 25@10;L=>W ?>254V=:8 ?0@B=5@0 B0 C=8:=CB8 :>=D;V:BC. 0?8B0==O 4;O A0<>:>=B@>;N )> =07820TBLAO A?V;:C20==O<? 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C 0A?5:BV2 A?V;:C20==O. /:V T :><C=V:0B82=V 10@ T@8? 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C 25@10;L=V9 :><C=V:0FVW. /:V T ?@>AB>@>2V 7>=8 C ?@>F5AV A?V;:C20===O? 848 ?>3;O4C C ?@>F5AV A?V;:C20==O. !CB=VABL A?V;:C20==O O: 270T<>4VW. )> =07820TBLAO V45=B8DV:0FVTN? )> =07820TBLAO 5<?0BVTN? )> =07820TBLAO @5D;5:AVTN? )> =07820TBLAO AB5@5>B8?870FVTN? /:V T /-AB0=8 >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 70 . 5@=><? >OA=VBL 28=8:=5==O :>=D;V:BC ?@8 ?5@5E@5A=8E B@0=A0:FVOE. #<>28 ?>?5@5465==O :>=D;V:BC C ?@>F5AV A?V;:C20==O. #<>28 ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> 70E8ABC C ?@>F5AV A?V;:C20==O. 5>1EV4=VABL V 7=0G5==O ?V4A8;5==O O:>AB59, I> ?@8?8ACT >?>=5=B. @0:B8G=5 70=OBBO !?V;:C20==O B0 <>6;82>ABV ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> 70E8ABC C ?@>F5AV A?V;:C20==O 1. >=OBBO ?@> A?V;:C20==O . 2. 848 B0 DC=:FVW A?V;:C20==O. 3. V6>A>18ABVA=0 AC<VA=VABL. 4. !B@C:BC@=89 0=0;V7 >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8. 5. "@0=A0:B=89 0=0;V7 A?V;:C20==O. 848 B@0=A0:FV9. 6. >6;82>ABV ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> 70E8ABC C >A>18AB><C B0 AV<59=><C 68BBV. 7. >6;82>ABV ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> 70E8ABC =0 @>1>BV. @07>: B5ABC 4;O A0<>:>=B@>;N 1. 525@10;L=0 A8AB5<0 ?5@540GV V=D>@<0FVW  F5: 0) 28:>@8AB0==O V=B>=0FVW; 1) 28:>@8AB0==O <>28; 2) 28:>@8AB0==O @CEV2 BV;0; 3) 28:>@8AB0==O 65ABV2; 4) 28:>@8AB0==O <C78:8. 2. @>:A5<V:0  F5: 0) ?>70 V @CE8 BV;0 ;N48=8; 1) ?@>AB>@>20 V G0A>20 >@30=V70FVO A?V;:C20==O; 2) @CE8 @C:0<8; 3) @CE8 < O7V2 >1N;8GGO; 4)A8;0 V B5<1@ 3>;>AC. 3.!8AB5<0 :>=B0:BV2 <V6 ;N4L<8, I> 28=8:0T C ?@>F5AV A?V;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV, =07820TBLAO: 0) 270T<>4VO; 1) A?V;:C20==O; 2) 270T<>2V4=>A8=8; 3) @53C;N20==O; 4) A?@89<0==O. 4.!?V;:C20==O 2V4V3@0T ?@>2V4=C @>;L C: 0) 4VO;L=>ABV; 1) A?@89<0==V; 2) <8A;5==V; 3) :>E0==V; 4) ?A8EVG=><C @>728B:C 48B8=8. 5.. 70@4 284V;82 B0:V 5<>FVW, O: 10@ T@8 C A?V;:C20==V: 0) AB@0640==O; 1) >1C@5==O; 2) >384C; 3) ?@578@AB2>; 4) AB@0E. !?8A>: ;VB5@0BC@8 1. 5@= -. 3@K, 2 :>B>@K5 83@0NB ;N48. A8E>;>38O G5;>25G5A:8E 2708<>>B=>H5=89; N48, :>B>@K5 83@0NB 2 83@K. A8E>;>38O G5;>25G5A:>9 AC4L1K.  !1.: 5=8740B, 1992.  400A. 2. @8<0: .. 1I5=85 A A>1>9.  .: >;8B8740B, 1991.  320A. 3. 030= .!. 8@ >1I5=8O.  .: >;8B8740B, 1988.  320A. 4. @10=-5<1@8: .. !>FV0;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO: C 2 :=. =.1. !>FV0;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO >A>18AB>ABV V A?V;:C20==O.  .: 81V4L, 2004.  576A. 5. 87 . /7K: B5;>42865=89.  .: 9 :LN, 1992.  268A. 6. &8<10;N: .. A8E>;>3VO A?V;:C20==O. .:  @>D5AV>=0;, 2004.  304A. 7. .AC?>2 .. A8E>;>38O 2708<>?>=8<0=8O.  070=L: "0B0@A:0O :=. 874-2>, 1991.  192A. '0B8=0  14. A8EVG=5 74>@>2 O 14.1. V4E>48 4> 287=0G5==O ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O. 14.2. @8B5@VW ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O. 14.3. A8E>B5@0?VO. 14.1. V4E>48 4> 287=0G5==O ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O >A8BL 4>2389 G0A ?A8EVG=5 74>@>2 O @>73;O40;>AL C <560E <548G=>W =0C:8  ?A8EV0B@VW (282G0;8AO 7030;L=V B5=45=FVW B0 >A>1;82>ABV ?5@51V3C ?A8EVG=8E E2>@>1  H87>D@5=VW, 5?V;5?AVW, <0=V0:0;L=>-45?@5A82=>3> ?A8E>7C, ?A8E>?0BV9 B>I>) B0 =52@>?0B>;>3VW (?A8EVG=V @>7;048 ?@8 @V7=><0=VB=8E =52@>B8G=8E, ?A8E>?0B8G=8E B0 V=H8E ?>@CH5==OE DC=:FV>=C20==O =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8). 8=8:=5==O ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> ?V4E>4C 4> ?@>1;5<8 ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O ?>2 O70=5 7 =0C:>28< 2=5A:>< . $@5940 (1856  1939 @@.), O:89 @>73;O402 ?A8EVG=V @>7;048 O: @57C;LB0B 2?;82C 2=CB@VH=L>>A>18ABVA=8E :>=D;V:BV2. V= 220602, I> 25AL A?5:B@ =530B82=8E 5<>FV9=8E ?5@56820=L (45?@5AVO, B@82>30, 60E8 B0 V=HV) T AC1 T:B82=8< 1>:>< F8E :>=D;V:BV2. !CG0A=0 ?A8E>;>3VO =0:>?8G8;0 7=0G=89 <0B5@V0; I>4> 287=0G5==O ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O, 9>3> 4>AO3=5==O B0 <5B>4V2 :>@5:FVW =530B82=8E ?A8EVG=8E AB0=V2. BV< 287=0G5==O ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O 70;8H0TBLAO 4>A8BL A:;04=8< B0 1030B>20@V0=B=8<. A=CT ?@8=F8?>20 @V7=8FO C @>7C<V==V ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O C <548F8=V, ?A8E>;>3VW, A>FV>;>3VW, A>FV0;L=V9 0=B@>?>;>3VW. >73;O=5<> @V7=V <>45;V @>7C<V==O ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O. ><5>AB0B8G=0 <>45;L 74>@>2 O @>73;O40T 9>3> O: 2=CB@VH=N C73>465=VABL @V7=><0=VB=8E 5;5<5=BV2. A8EVG=> 74>@>20 >A>18ABVABL  F5 ;N48=0, ?A8EVG=V ?@>F5A8 O:>W ?5@51C20NBL C AB0=V 30@<>=V9=>W @V2=>2038. C4L - O:0 48A30@<>=VO, =52@V2=>2065=VABL, ?5@52060==O (=0?@8:;04, =04<V@=V 5<>FVW) 01> =5AB0G0 G>3>AL (=0?@8:;04, 7=865=0 A0<>@53C;OFVO) 2V4>1@060NBL =0O2=VABL ?52=8E ?A8EVG=8E @>7;04V2. "0:89 ?V4EV4 T E0@0:B5@=8< 4;O ?A8E>0=0;VB8G=>3> =0?@O<:C, I> ?@>?>=CT A?5FV0;L=V ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G=V B5E=V:8 4;O ;V:C20==O 2=CB@VH=VE ?A8E>;>3VG=8E :>=D;V:BV2. !;V4 707=0G8B8, I> ?>4V1=0 <>45;L 74>@>2 O 28:>@8AB>2CTBLAO ACG0A=>N ?A8EV0B@VTN. >:@5<0, .. >9:> 40T B0:5 287=0G5==O ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O: A8EVG=5 74>@>2 O  F5 AB0= V=482V40, I> E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO FV;VA=VABN B0 C73>465=VABN 2AVE ?A8EVG=8E DC=:FV9 >@30=V7<C, I> 70157?5GCT 2V4GCBBO AC1 T:B82=>3> ?A8EVG=>3> :><D>@BC, 740B=VABL 4> FV;5A?@O<>20=>W >A<8A;5=>W 4VO;L=>ABV B0 045:20B=V D>@<8 ?>254V=:8. FV=:0 3><5>AB0B8G=>W <>45;V. 57C<>2=>, V45O >A>18ABVA=>W 30@<>=VW T ?@8201;82>N, B><C 2>=0 4>A8BL G0AB> 28:>@8AB>2CTBLAO ?A8E>B5@0?52B0<8 B0 ?A8E>;>30<8 - :>=AC;LB0=B0<8. !CB=VABL @>1>B8 WE ?>;O30T C 287=0G5==V ?@>2V4=8E ?@>1;5< >A>18AB>ABV B0 4>?><>7V C =01C20==V AB0=C @V2=>2038 B0 AB01V;L=>ABV.  V=H>3> 1>:C, =0720=0 <>45;L =5 2@0E>2CT A>FV0;L=C @50;L=VABL VA=C20==O V=482V40; ?A8EVG=5 74>@>2 O ;N48=8 >1<565=5 <560<8 WW V=482V4C0;L=>3> VA=C20==O. 40?B0FV9=0 <>45;L 206;82>N C<>2>N ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O =07820T 045:20B=C ?>254V=:C ;N48=8 C A>FVC<V. /:I> ;N48=0 <>65 ?@8AB>AC20B8AO 4> A>FV0;L=>3> A5@54>28I0, 4>B@8<CTBLAO <>@0;L=8E B0 ?@02>28E =>@<, B> 2>=0 22060TBLAO ?A8EVG=> 74>@>2>N. 5?@028;L=0 01> G0AB:>20 040?B0FVO, =52<V==O 01> =51060==O 2ABC?0B8 2 045:20B=V 2V4=>A8=8 7 ACA?V;LAB2>< 40NBL 7<>3C >FV=N20B8 BV G8 V=HV ?@>O28 ?>254V=:8 O: 20@V0=B8 ?A8EVG=>W E2>@>18. 06;828< :@8B5@VT< 74>@>2 O T ?>=OBBO =>@<0;L=>ABV  ACA?V;LAB2> 7040T A8AB5<C =>@< B0 ?@028;, O:8E ?>B@V1=> 4>B@8<C20B8AL. =H8<8 A;>20<8, ?A8EVG=> 74>@>20 ;N48=0  F5 =>@<0;L=0 ;N48=0. 0=89 ?V4EV4 4> ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O @>72820TBLAO C <560E 1VE52V>@87<C, ?A8E>0=0;V7C, A>FV0;L=>-:>3=VB82=>W ?A8E>;>3VW. FV=:0 040?B0FV9=>W <>45;V. =482V4 C =02545=V9 <>45;V @>73;O40TBLAO O: ?V4A8AB5<0 1V;LH H8@>:>W A8AB5<8  ACA?V;LAB20. #<>2>N ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O 22060TBLAO 045:20B=0 A>FV0;V70FVO, ?@8AB>AC20==O 4> A>FV0;L=8E =>@<. &59 ?@>F5A <>65 AC?@>2>46C20B8AO =04<V@=8< B8A:>< ACA?V;LAB20 =0 >:@5<C >A>18ABVABL, B>1B> ?@8AB>AC20==O 4> A>FV0;L=8E =>@< <>65 ?@8725AB8, =02?0:8, 4> =52@>B870FVW V=482V40. =H8<8 A;>20<8, C <560E 040?B0FV9=>W <>45;V ?A8EVG=> 74>@>20 ;N48=0  F5 ;N48=0, O:0 T C<>2>N =>@<0;L=>3> DC=:FV>=C20==O ACA?V;LAB20 C FV;><C. =482V4C0;L=V ?>B@518 >A>18AB>ABV ?@8=>AOBLAO C 65@B2C ACA?V;LAB2C.  V=H>3> 1>:C, <>6=0 707=0G8B8, I> D>@<C20==O >A>18AB>ABV 4V9A=> 2V41C20TBLAO C ACA?V;LAB2V, 70A2>T==O @V7=><0=VB=8E =>@< B0 ?@028; (=0?@8:;04, =>@<8 <>28, ?@028;0 ?8AL<0 B>I>) T C<>2>N @>728B:C >A>18AB>ABV. @V< B>3>, >A>18ABVABL, I> =5 <>65 70A2>WB8 <>@0;L=V B0 ?@02>2V =>@<8 ACA?V;LAB20 (7;>G8=FV, =0@:><0=8 B>I>), 4V9A=> <>65 AB0B8 D0:B>@><, I> 70240T H:>48 O: ACA?V;LAB2C, B0: V >:@5<8< ;N4O<. >45;L >A>18ABVA=>W A0<>@50;V70FVW 0:B82=> @>72820TBLAO C <560E 3C<0=VAB8G=>W ?A8E>;>3VW. 0A=>2=8:8 3C<0=VAB8G=>W ?A8E>;>3VW ?V4:@5A;NNBL, I> 2>=8 282G0NBL 74>@>2C B0 040?B>20=C >A>18ABVABL, O:0 >@VT=B>20=0 =0 ?>HC: 7<VABC 2;0A=>3> 68BBO, @>7:@8BBO B2>@G>3> ?>B5=FV0;C B0 A0<>24>A:>=0;5==O. @54AB02=8:0<8 3C<0=VAB8G=>3> =0?@O<:C, O:V @>72820;8 ?>=OBBO ?@> ?A8EVG=> 74>@>2C >A>18ABVABL, <>6=0 =0720B8 . ;?>@B0, . >465@A0. . 0A;>C. 091V;LH ?>2=89 >?8A ?A8EVG=> 74>@>2>W >A>18AB>ABV =02545=89 C B5>@VW . 0A;>C. >:@5<0, 2V= 284V;O2 B0:V E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 74>@>2>W >A>18AB>ABV. !0<>0:BC0;V70FVO  A?@O<>20=VABL =0 @>7:@8BBO 2;0A=>3> ?>B5=FV0;C. A>18ABVA=5 7@>AB0==O - 3>B>2=VABL 4> ?>ABV9=8E 2=CB@VH=VE 7<V=. >2V@0 4> 68BBO  ;N48=0 740B=0 ?@89=OB8 1C4L - O:V ?>4VW 2;0A=>3> 68BBO, C B><C G8A;V =530B82=V, @>73;O40NG8 WE O: 68BBT2V C@>:8. 40B=VABL 4> 4V0;>3C  ?>2030 >A>18AB>ABV V=H>W ;N48=8. !2>1>40 A0<>28@065==O  740B=VABL @5?@575=BC20B8 2;0A=V 4C<:8, V45W, FV==>ABV V=H8< ;N4O<. A<8A;5=VABL VA=C20==O  @>7C<V==O 7<VABC 2;0A=>3> 68BBO. &V;VA=VABL  =5 ABV;L:8 265 VA=CNG0 AB01V;L=VABL >A>18AB>ABV, A:V;L:8 ?>ABV9=5 =0<030==O >A<8A;8B8 B0 V=B53@C20B8 =>289 4>A2V4. . 0A;>C 284V;O2 420 B8?8 74>@>2>W >A>18AB>ABV. 5@H89 B8?  F5 ;N48, I> 682CBL B0 @50;V7CNBL A515 C ?>2AO:45==V9 @50;L=>ABV. &5 0:B82=V B0 ?@03<0B8G=V >A>18AB>ABV, 2>=8 4>1@5 ?@8AB>A>20=V. @C389 B8?  ;N48, >@VT=B>20=V =0 @50;L=VABL V459 B0 28I8E FV==>AB59. 8BBO B0:8E ;N459 ?V4?>@O4:>20=5 B2>@G>ABV, 2>=8 AE8;L=V 4> <VAB8G=8E, A0:@0;L=8E, 5:AB0B8G=8E ?5@56820=L, I> AC?@>2>46CNBLAO >AOO==O<8 B0 ?@>7@V==O<8. FV=:0 <>45;V A0<>0:BC0;V70FVW. 87=0G5==O ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O C <560E A0<>287=0G5==O >A>18AB>ABV T 157C<>2=8< 4>AO3=5==O< 3C<0=VAB8G=>W ?A8E>;>3VW. A>18ABVABL 265 =5 @>73;O40TBLAO O: >1 T:B 7>2=VH=VE 2?;82V2, 0 ?@54AB02;5=0 O: A0<>ABV9=V9 AC1 T:B, 740B=89 ?>1C4C20B8 2;0A=5 68BBO B0 2V4?>2V40B8 70 2;0A=V 2G8=:8.  V=H>3> 1>:C, =0A?@024V A0<>0:BC0;V7>20=8E >A>18AB>AB59, 740B=8E 7=09B8 2;0A=89 H;OE C 68BBV B0 ?>2=VABN A0<>@50;V7C20B8AO =5 4C65 1030B>. /: ?@028;>, ?5@5206=0 G0AB8=0 ;N459 2545 B@048FV9=5 68BBO, 040?BCNG8AL 4> >B>GCNG>W @50;L=>ABV. >45;L 74>@>2>W >A>18AB>ABV ?52=>N <V@>N 740TBLAO V450;V7>20=>N. &59 D0:B =5 7=86CT 7=0G5==O <>45;V 74>@>2>W >A>18AB>ABV, I> 1C;0 AB2>@5=0 ?A8E>;>30<8 3C<0=VAB8G=>W A?@O<>20=>ABV. 8=0<VG=0 <>45;L 74>@>2 O >4=8< 7 ?@>2V4=8E :@8B5@VW2 >A>18AB>ABV 22060T 2V4:@8BVABL =>2><C 4>A2V4C V, B0:8< G8=><, ?>ABV9=89 @>728B>: B0 >A>18ABVA=V 7<V=8. =CB@VH=V9 48A10;0=A =5 @>73;O40TBLAO O: =530B82=89 ?@>O2. 02?0:8, 2V= <>65 A2V4G8B8 ?@> >A>18ABVA=5 7@>AB0==O B0 4CE>2=C B@0=AD>@<0FVN. # <560E 40=>3> =0?@O<:C @>7@V7=ONBL 4CE>2=V :@878 B0 ACB> ?0B>;>3VG=V ?@>O28 ?A8EV:8. V7=8FO ?>;O30T C B><C, I> ?@8 ?0B>;>3VG=><C AB0=V 2B@0B0 >A>18ABVA=>W FV;VA=>ABV AC?@>2>46CTBLAO @53@5AVTN >A>18AB>ABV (?5@5EV4 =0 1V;LH =87L:89 @V25=L DC=:FV>=C20==O, 70<V=0 A:;04=8E <>B82V2 B0 FV==>AB59 1V;LH ?@>AB8<8, 5;5<5=B0@=8<8). >@<0;L=89 @>728B>: >A>18AB>ABV B0:>6 AC?@>2>46CTBLAO 48A30@<>=V9=8<8 AB0=0<8, 0;5 2>=8 T C<>2>N 1V;LH 28A>:>3> @V2=O V=B53@0FVW. 8=0<VG=0 <>45;L ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O 0:B82=> @>72820TBLAO 2 <560E 5:7VAB5=FV>=0;L=>W B0 B@0=A?5@A>=0;L=>W ?A8E>;>3VW (#. 65<A, . A046>;V, !. @>D). FV=:0 48=0<VG=>W <>45;V. @0E>2CNG8 B5 I> 48=0<VG=0 <>45;L ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O @>72820TBLAO 4>A8BL =54>2389 G0A, <>6=0 707=0G8B8, I> =5 VA=CT GVB:8E :@8B5@VW2, 70 O:8<8 <>6=0 287=0G8B8 @V7=8FN <V6 ?0B>;>3VG=8< B0 =>@<0;L=8< AB0=0<8 48A30@<>=V9=>3> @>728B:C.  V=H>3> 1>:C, F59 =0?@O<>: T 4>A8BL ?5@A?5:B82=8<, 2V4>1@060NG8 ACG0A=V B5=45=FVW A>FV0;L=>3> 68BBO  ?>ABV9=V 7<V=8 B0 @>728B>:. !0<5 B><C 2V4:@8BVABL 4>A2V4C, 740B=VABL 7<V=N20B8AO B0 A?@89<0B8 =>2C V=D>@<0FVN T 206;82>N E0@0:B5@8AB8:>N ACG0A=>W ;N48=8. 14.2. @8B5@VW ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O 0 ?5@H89 ?>3;O4 VA=CT 4>A8BL ACBBT20 V 7@>7C<V;0 @V7=8FO <V6 ?A8EVG=>N =>@<>N B0 ?A8EVG=8< 2V4E8;5==O<. BV< ?@8 1V;LH 3;81>:><C 0=0;V7V 40=>W ?@>1;5<8 ?>AB0T 4>A8BL 1030B> 70?8B0=L, I> 702060NBL D>@<C;N20==N >4=>7=0G=>W 2V4?>2V4V. 0?@8:;04, ;N48 B2>@G>W ?@0FV, 7 >4=>3> 1>:C, <0NBL ?52=V ?@>1;5<8 2 5<>FV9=V9 AD5@V, =5 702648 T 040?B>20=8<8 4> ?>2AO:45==>W @50;L=>ABV.  V=H>3> 1>:C, @>728B>: ;N4AB20 7=0G=>N <V@>N 7>1>2 O70=89 A0<5 F8< 4820:0<. # ?A8EV0B@VW 4>A8BL 4>2389 G0A VA=C20;> CO2;5==O, I> ?A8EVG=0 =>@<0 B0 ?0B>;>3VO <0NBL GVB:> >:@5A;5=V <56V, B>1B> VA=CNBL BV;L:8 42V 0;LB5@=0B828  ;N48=0 01> ?A8EVG=> 74>@>20 01> ?A8EVG=> E2>@0.  %V AB>;VBBO B0:5 CO2;5==O ?>G8=0T 7<V=N20B8AO  @V7:0 <560 <V6 ?A8EVG=>N =>@<>N B0 ?A8EVG=>N ?0B>;>3VTN 70<V=NTBLAO ?>=OBBO< ?@> VA=C20==O ?@><V6=8E AB0=V2 B0 ?5@5EV4=8E D>@<. ;0A8DV:0FVN ?@><V6=8E AB0=V2 <V6 ?A8EVG=8< 74>@>2 O< B0 ?A8EVG=>N E2>@>1>N 70?@>?>=C202 .!. !5<8G>2. 450;L=0 =>@<0. >=0 >7=0G0T 2V4ACB=VABL 1C4L-O:8E E2>@>1;828E ?A8EVG=8E AB0=V2 O: =0 <><5=B >1AB565==O, B0: V 2 0=0<=57V :>=:@5B=>W ;N48=8. !5@54=L>AB0B8AB8G=0 =>@<0. &5 ?>:07=8:, I> E0@0:B5@87CT :>=:@5B=C ?>?C;OFVN, B><C <>65 2:;NG0B8 @V7=><0=VB=V =5 4C65 28@065=V 2V4E8;5==O 2V4 V450;L=>W =>@<8. 4>@>2 O :>=:@5B=>W ;N48=8 ?>@V2=NTBLAO 7V 74>@>2 O< ;N459 ?52=>W A>FV0;L=>W 3@C?8. >=AB8BCFV9=0 =>@<0  F5 ?>@V2=O==O 74>@>2 O ;N48=8 7 >A>1;82>ABO<8 ?A8EVG=>3> AB0=C V=482V4V2, I> =0;560BL 4> ?52=>3> :>=AB8BCFV9=>3> B8?C (=0?@8:;04, 71V;LH5=0 2030 BV;0 AC?@>2>46CTBLAO 3V?5@B>=VTN, B><C =57=0G=5 71V;LH5==O B8A:C 4;O ;N48=8 7 ?V428I5=>N 203>N 1C45 @>73;O40B8AL O: 20@V0=B =>@<8, C B>9 G0A O: B0:89 A0<89 B8A: 4;O ;N48=8 7 ?>=865=>N 203>N  O: ACBBT289 @>7;04). :F5=BC0FVO E0@0:B5@C  F5 :@09=O <560 @8A =>@<0;L=>3> E0@0:B5@C. :F5=BC9>20=0 ;N48=0, 2V4@V7=ONG8AL 7=0G=8< @>728B:>< 45O:8E @8A, <0T 45I> 7=865=C 040?B0FVN C :>=:@5B=8E A8BC0FVOE (=0?@8:;04, AB@5A>28< D0:B>@>< 4;O ;N48=8 7 ;01V;L=>N 0:F5=BC0FVTN <>6CBL AB0B8 A0<>B=VABL, 2V4ACB=VABL B5?;8E AB>AC=:V2). 5@54?0B>;>3VO 01> ?V428I5=89 @878: 28=8:=5==O ?A8EVG=8E ?>@CH5=L. %0@0:B5@=8< C 40=><C 28?04:C T, 7 >4=>3> 1>:C, =0O2=VABL AB@5A>35==8E D0:B>@V2, 7 V=H>3>, - 4>A8BL =>@<0;L=5 DC=:FV>=C20==O ;N48=8. BV< >@30=V7< B0 ?A8EV:0 DC=:FV>=CNBL =0 @V2=V ?V428I5=>3> @878:C, 28:>@8AB>2CNG8 @575@2=V A8;8. 5@54E2>@>10 01> AB0= 48ADC=:FVW. !B0= 48ADC=:FVW CB2>@NT =87:0 @V7=8E 70 O:VABN ?>@CH5=L, >4=V 7 O:8E 1V;LH5 =01;865=V 4> =>@<8 (0AB5=VG=89 AB0=), V=HV  4> E2>@>18 (?A8E>B8G=V ?@>O28). :@5<V ?@>O28 E2>@>1;828E AB0=V2 I5 =5 A2V4G0BL ?@> =0O2=VABL ?A8EVG=>3> 70E2>@N20==O. 48=8G=V 28?04:8 30;NF8=0FV9 I5 =5 A2V4G0BL ?@> ?A8EVG=C E2>@>1C. AB5@8G=0 @50:FVO <>65 AB0B8AL C 1C4L - O:>W ;N48=8 C AB@5A>2V9 A8BC0FVW, 0;5 F5 =5 A2V4G8BL ?@> =0O2=VABL ?A8EVG=>3> 70E2>@N20==O. .. >@>;L>2 @>74V;82 ?A8E>?0B>;>3VG=V B0 =52@>B8G=V ?>@CH5==O ?A8EV:8 B0 ?>254V=:8 =0 ?0B>;>3VG=V B0 =5?0B>;>3VG=V. 0NG8 >4=0:>2V 7>2=VH=V ?@>O28, FV ?>@CH5==O ?@8=F8?>2> 2V4@V7=ONBLAO. 0 <5E0=V7<0<8 28=8:=5==O ?0B>;>3VG=V ?>@CH5==O 107CNBLAO =0 DV78G=8E B0 1V>EV<VG=8E 7<V=0E C 4VO;L=>ABV =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8. 5?0B>;>3VG=V ?>@CH5==O  F5 @57C;LB0B 70A2>T==O V=482V4>< ?>3;O4V2, D>@< ?>254V=:8, I> =5 T E0@0:B5@=8<8 4;O 40=>3> ACA?V;LAB20. 8=0<V:0 ?0B>;>3VG=8E ?>@CH5=L 28O2;OTBLAO C D>@<C20==V ?52=8E :;V=VG=8E A8=4@><V2. @8 =5?0B>;>3VG=8E ?>@CH5==OE <>6=0 70DV:AC20B8 BV;L:8 71V;LH5==O ?>@CH5==O <>@0;L=8E =>@<. .. #H0:>2 ?5@5EV4=8<8 AB0=0<8 <V6 ?A8EVG=>N =>@<>N B0 ?0B>;>3VTN =078202 0=><0;L=V @50:FVW, 0=><0;L=V AB0=8 B0 0=><0;L=89 @>728B>:. =><0;L=V @50:FVW  F5 =5045:20B=5 @503C20==O C A8BC0FVW AB@5AC (ACWF848, VAB5@8G=V AB0=8, =5<>B82>20=0 03@5AVO). =><0;L=V AB0=8  F5 =5045:20B=5 DC=:FV>=C20==O ?A8EV:8 B0 >@30=V7<C C A8BC0FVW ?A8E>B@02<8. @8 FL><C =5 2V41C20TBLAO ?0B>;>3VG=8E 7<V= ?A8EV:8 V ?@8 ?52=8E C<>20E (7=8:=5==O =5=0;56=>W A8BC0FVW 01> 7<V=0 AB02;5==O 4> =5W) ?A8EVG=89 AB0= ;N48=8 ?5@5E>48BL C @568< =>@<0;L=>3> DC=:FV>=C20==O. =><0;L=89 @>728B>:  F5 D>@<C20==O ABV9:8E ?>254V=:>28E B0 ?A8EVG=8E @50:FV9, I> ?>G8=0NBL 28O2;OB8AO =5 BV;L:8 C A8BC0FVW WE D>@<C20==O, 0;5 C 1V;LH H8@>:><C :>=B5:ABV 68BBO 40=>W ;N48=8. 8E>4OG8 7 =02545=8E ?@8:;04V2 :;0A8DV:0FVW AB0=V2, I> 7=0E>4OBLAO <V6 ?A8EVG=>N E2>@>1>N B0 ?A8EVG=8< 74>@>2 O<, 7@>7C<V;>, I> GVB:> 287=0G8B8 ?A8EVG=5 74>@>2 O B0 ?A8EVG=C E2>@>1C 4>A8BL 206:>. 0 >FV=:C ?A8EVG=8E AB0=V2 O: E2>@>1;828E 01> 74>@>28E B0:>6 2?;820T :C;LBC@=89 :>=B5:AB, 2 O:8E 2>=8 28=8:0NBL. 70T<>72 O7>: :C;LBC@8 B0 ?A8E>?0B>;>3VW @>73;O40TBLAO 7 ?>78FV9 42>E >A=>2=8E =0?@O<:V2. Etic-?V4EV4 ?@54AB02;OT C=V25@A0;VABAL:89 ?>3;O4, ?V4:@5A;NNG8, I> >4=0:>2V ?A8E>?0B>;>3VG=V 2V4E8;5==O <0NBL <VAF5 C 2AVE :C;LBC@0E. C;LBC@0 <>65 2?;8=CB8 BV;L:8 =0 7<VAB A8<?B><C, 0;5 =5 =0O2=VABL A8<?B><C O: B0:>3>. /: ?@8:;04 <>6=0 =025AB8 4>A;V465==O >A>1;82>AB59 ?A8EVG=8E 70E2>@N20=L, I> ?@>2>48;8AO A5A2VB=L>N >@30=V70FVTN >E>@>=8 4>@>2 O. >:@5<0, 282G5==O H87>D@5=VW C 452 OB8 :@0W=0E ?>:070;> VA=C20==O >4=0:>28E A8<?B><V2 40=>3> 70E2>@N20==O C ?@54AB02=8:V2 @V7=8E :C;LBC@. =0;>3VG=V @57C;LB0B8 1C;8 >45@60=V I>4> 45?@5AVW  ;N48 @V7=8E :@0W= C AB0=V 45?@5AVW 2V4GC20;8 70A<CG5==O, =5740B=VABL 2V4GC20B8 @04VABL, 4C<:8 ?@> =54>FV;L=VABL 68BBO.  V=H>3> 1>:C, C=V25@A0;L=V A8<?B><8 70E2>@N20==O =5 28:;NG0;8 ?52=>W @V7=8FV C ?5@51V3C E2>@>18. >:@5<0, 1C;> 28O2;5=>, I> C :@0W=0E, I> @>72820NBLAO, H87>D@5=VO <0T 1V;LH ;53:V D>@<8 ?>@V2=O=> 7 @>728=5=8<8 :@0W=0<8. #O2;5==O ?@> 7=0G=89 2?;82 :C;LBC@8 =0 D>@<C20==O B0 ?5@51V3 ?A8EVG=8E 70E2>@N20=L @>72820TBLAO C <560E Emic-?V4E>4C. &59 =0?@O<>: >@VT=BCTBLAO =0 :C;LBC@=C C=V:0;L=VABL. V4E8;5==O ?>254V=:8 2V4 =>@<8 0=0;V7CTBLAO C <560E :C;LBC@=>3> :>=B5:ABC, 2V4E8;5==O, I> VA=CNBL 2 >4=V9 :C;LBC@V, <>6CBL =5 7CAB@VG0B8AO 2 V=HV9 01> @>7C<VB8AL C <560E =>@<0;L=>W ?>254V=:8. # A?5FV0;L=V9 ;VB5@0BC@V >?8A0=V 45O:V ?A8E>?0B>;>3VG=V AB0=8, I> 7CAB@VG0NBLAO BV;L:8 2 >:@5<8E :C;LBC@0E. <>: >7=0G0T =5:>=B@>;L>20=C 03@5AVN, ?@8 O:V9 T 1060==O 218B8 V=HC ;N48=C. <>: 7CAB@VG0TBLAO C 0;097VW, =4>=57VW, "0W;0=4V. 8A=065==O <>7:C 2:;NG0T ?@>1;5<8 7 0:045<VG=>N CA?VH=VABN, 3>;>2=89 1V;L, 2B><C >G59 B0 B@C4=>IV 7>A5@5465==O. CAB@VG0TBLAO C 70EV4=>0D@8:0=AL:8E ABC45=BV2, ?@0:B8G=> T =52V4><8< 2 V=H8E :C;LBC@=8E A5@54>28I0E. V1;>:B>3  =5:>=B@>;L>20=5 1060==O ?>:8=CB8 ?@8<VI5==O, 7V@20B8 7 A515 >4O3 B0 7=0E>48B8AO =0 0@:B8G=><C <>@>7V. &5 O28I5 70DV:A>20=5 C @5=;0=4VW, =0 ;OAFV, 2 0@:B8G=8E @09>=0E 0=048. !CAB>  =5A?0==O, 0?0BVO, 45?@5AVO, B@82>30, AB@0E. CAB@VG0TBLAO A5@54 ;N459, I> =0A5;ONBL 28A>:>3V@ O =4. VBV:> - ?5@5410G0T >384C 4> 728G09=>W W6V, 45?@5AVN, =5A?>:V9, G0AB> 70:V=GCTBLAO 2182AB2>< B0 :0=V10;V7<><. CAB@VG0TBLAO A5@54 :0=04AL:8E V=4V9FV2. "0:8< G8=><, 4>A;V4=8:8, O:V 709<0NBLAO ?@>1;5<0<8 ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O, =0<030NBLAO ?@89B8 4> :>=A5=ACAC C 9>3> 287=0G5==V.  >4=>3> 1>:C, VA=CT D0:B ;N4AL:>W @V7=><0=VB=>ABV, 7 V=H>3>  >A>1;82>ABV ;N4AL:>3> A?V2VA=C20==O ?>B@51CNBL 2AB0=>2;5==O ?52=8E =>@< B0 ?@028;, =0?@8:;04, 4;O B>3>, I>1 70157?5G8B8 A>FV0;L=C AB01V;L=VABL B0 215@53B8 >B>GCNG8E 2V4 =5:>=B@>;L>20=>W ?>254V=:8 ?A8E>?0BV2. !L>3>4=V ?A8EV0B@8 O: 7030;L=V >7=0:8 ?A8EVG=>3> 70E2>@N20==O 284V;ONBL =04<V@=C 2V4AB>@>=5=VABL 2V4 A>FVC<C, ?@>O28 =0A8;LAB20 I>4> >B>GCNG8E, 30;NF8=0FVW B0 <0@5==O. >=F5?FVO 4>3>2>@C T I5 >4=8< CO2;5==O< ?@> =>@<C B0 ?0B>;>3VN. !CB=VABL FVTW :>=F5?FVW ?>;O30T C B><C, I> ?@>D5AV>=0;8 C AD5@V ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O 2AB0=>2;NNBL :@8B5@VW ?A8EVG=>W =>@<8 B0 ?A8EVG=>W ?0B>;>3VW, 7 O:8<8 ?>3>46CTBLAO O: =0C:>20 A?V;L=>B0, B0: V ACA?V;LAB2> C FV;><C. @>7C<V;>, I> B0:V :@8B5@VW <>6CBL ?52=8< G8=>< 7<V=N20B8AL 70;56=> 2V4 =>@< B0 FV==>AB59, I> VA=CNBL =0 40=><C 5B0?V @>728B:C ACA?V;LAB20 01> 2V4 AB0=C @>728B:C ?A8EV0B@VW B0 ?A8E>;>3VW C :>=:@5B=V9 :@0W=V. 0?@8:;04, 4>A8BL 4>2389 G0A A0<>3C1AB2> ?>2 O7C20;>AO 7 206:8<8 ?A8EVG=8<8 ?>@CH5==O<8, AL>3>4=V 2>=> 22060TBLAO @50:FVTN =0 AB@5A>2C A8BC0FVN. 25@=VBL C203C =0 DV;L<8 30 - 50 @>:V2, 2 O:8E >4=8< V7 206;828E 0B@81CBV2 3>;>2=>3> 35@>N 1C;> :C@V==O  F5 22060;>AO ?>78B82=>N @8A>N. !L>3>4=V :C@V==O >FV=NTBLAO =530B82=>. )5 >48= D0:B, 70 4>?><>3>N O:>3> <>6=0 ?@>V;NAB@C20B8 2?;82 @V2=O @>728B:C ?A8EV0B@8G=>W =0C:8 =0 >FV=:C ?52=8E A8<?B><V2. 0 ?>G0B:C 4204FOB>3> AB>;VBBO 0<5@8:0=AL:89 =52@>?0B>;>3 . V@4 22V2 ?>=OBBO =52@0AB5=VW (AB0= DV78G=>W B0 ?A8EVG=>W 2B><8). >3> 4C65 H8@>:> 28:>@8AB>2C20;8, >FV=NNG8 ?A8EVG=89 AB0= ;N48=8. # A5@548=V %% AB>;VBBO C !( 1C2 28?CI5=89 =>289 4>2V4=8: V7 4V03=>AB8:8 ?A8EVG=8E 70E2>@N20=L, 2 O:><C ?>=OBBO =52@0AB5=VW 1C;> 2V4ACB=V<. V4?>2V4=V A8<?B><8 1C;8 2V4=5A5=V 4> 45?@5AVW 01> B@82>6=>3> AB0=C. "0: =52@0AB5=VO 7=8:;0 C !?>;CG5=8E (B0B0E.  V=H>3> 1>:C, C 04O=AL:><C !>N7V, 8B0W 4V03=>7 =52@0AB5=VW AB0282AO 4>A8BL G0AB>, 1C;8 =0?8A0=V G8A;5==V :5@V2=8FB20, 70E8I5=V 48A5@B0FVW I>4> 4V03=>AB8:8 B0 ;V:C20==O ?>4V1=8E ?A8EVG=8E @>7;04V2. 14.3. A8E>B5@0?VO A8EVG=V @>7;048 ;V:CNBL <548:0<5=B>7=> 01> 70 4>?><>3>N A?5FV0;L=8E ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G=8E <5B>4V2. A=CT 157<56=0 :V;L:VABL @V7=><0=VB=8E <5B>4V2 ?A8E>B5@0?VW. ;O B>3> I>1 :@0I5 7@>7C<VB8 ACB=VABL @V7=><0=VB=8E ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G=8E B5E=V:, =02545<> WE :;0A8DV:0FVN. 5@H 70 2A5 2AV ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G=V <5B>48 <>6=0 ?>4V;8B8 =0 B@8 25;8:V :0B53>@VW: V=B@0?A8EVG=C, A>FV0;L=C B0 ?>254V=:>2C B5@0?VN. =B@0?A8EVG=0 B5@0?VO 28E>48BL 7 B>3>, I> 0=><0;L=0 ?>254V=:0 T @57C;LB0B>< =5?@028;L=>W V=B5@?@5B0FVW ;N48=>N 2;0A=8E ?>GCBBV2, ?>B@51 B0 1060=L. > >A=>2=8E <5B>4V2 V=B@0?A8EVG=>W B5@0?VW <>6=0 2V4=5AB8 ?A8E>0=0;V7, :;VT=B -F5=B@>20=C B5@0?VN, 5<>B82=> - @0FV>=0;L=C B5@0?VN, ?A8E>4@0<C. A8E>0=0;V7 (. $@594) >A=>2=>N <5B>N 22060T =5>1EV4=VABL 4>?><>3B8 ;N48=V 2V4HC:0B8 =5CA2V4><;5=V 28B>:8 2;0A=8E B@C4=>IV2, I> A?@8G8=5=V 2=CB@VH=V<8 :>=D;V:B0<8. =0A;V4>: FL>3> ;N48=0 72V;L=OTBLAO 2V4 5<>FV9=8E ?@>1;5< B0 7<>65 2V41C4C20B8 2;0A=5 / =0 74>@>2><C ?V4@C=BV. >;>2=5 70240==O B5@0?52B0  28A;CE0B8 B0 V=B5@?@5BC20B8 @>7?>2V4V ?0FVT=B0. ;VT=B-F5=B@>20=0 B5@0?VO (. >465@A) >@VT=B>20=0 B0 B5, I>1 40B8 ?0FVT=BC <>6;82VABL A0<>ABV9=> AD>@<C20B8 2;0A=C ?>78B82=C A0<>>FV=:C B0 CA2V4><8B8, O:8< G8=>< 9>3> A?@89<0NBL >B>GCNGV. 0240==O ?A8E>B5@0?52B0  AB2>@8B8 0B<>AD5@C, =5>1EV4=C 4;O <0:A8<0;L=>3> A0<>@>7:@8BBO B0 A0<>0=0;V7C. <>B82=>-@0FV>=0;L=0 B5@0?VO (. ;VA) @>73;O40T ?@8G8=C ?A8EVG=8E ?>@CH5=L C =5?@028;L=V9 V=B5@?@5B0FVW ?0FVT=B>< A8BC0FVW. 0240==O< ?A8E>B5@0?52B0 T 282G5==O <8A;8B5;L=8E ?@>F5AV2 :;VT=B0 B0 4>2545==O 4> 9>3> @>7C<V==O B>3>, I> 2V= =5?@028;L=> @>7C<VT B0 V=B5@?@5BCT A8BC0FVN. $>@<C20==O C :;VT=B0 1V;LH @0FV>=0;L=>3> ?>3;O4C =0 4V9A=VABL 40T <>6;82VABL AD>@<C20B8 045:20B=V A?>A>18 ?>254V=:8. A8E>4@0<0 (. >@5=>) ?@>?>=CT ;N48=V @>;L 35@>O C 3@V, 7<VAB O:>W >@VT=B>20=89 =0 9>3> ?@>1;5<8. =HV ;N48 28:>=CNBL @>;V 3>;>2=8E ?5@A>=06V2 9>3> 68BBO. )5 >4=0 3@C?0 A?>AB5@V30T 70 3@>N. VA;O 70:V=G5==O ? TA8 2V41C20TBLAO WW 3@C?>25 >13>2>@5==O. !CB=VABL ?A8E>4@0<8 ?>;O30T C B><C, I>1 C OA:@02V9 D>@<V @>7:@8B8 ?0FVT=BC 9>3> ?@>1;5<8. !>FV0;L=0 B5@0?VO >@VT=B>20=0 =0 D>@<C20==O 30@<>=V9=8E 2V4=>A8= 7 V=H8<8 ;N4L<8. > A>FV0;L=>W B5@0?VW <>6=0 2V4=5AB8 3@C?8 @>728B:C B0 AV<59=C B5@0?VN. @C?8 @>728B:C >@VT=B>20=V =0 D>@<C20==O C ;N48=8 ?52=8E A>FV0;L=8E O:>AB59. >:@5<0, 284V;ONBL 3@C?8 A5=A81V;V70FVW, CG0A=8:8 O:8E 2G0BLAO =0;03>46C20B8 2V4:@8BV 2V4=>A8=8 7 V=H8<8, :@0I5 @>7C<VB8 ;N459, 5D5:B82=> :>@8ABC20B8AO @V7=><0=VB=8<8 70A>10<8 A?V;:C20==O. # 3@C?0E 7CAB@VG59 3>;>2=8< T 0=0;V7 ?5@56820=L B0 5<>FV9 ;N48=8 C 3@C?V, @>7C<V==O WW A>FV0;L=8E <0A>:. !V<59=0 B5@0?VO >@VT=B>20=0 =0 D>@<C20==O 1V;LH 2V4:@8B8E 2V4=>A8= C @>48=V B0 =0;03>465==O 5D5:B82=8E AB>AC=:V2 <V6 WW G;5=0<8. >254V=:>20 B5@0?VO 3>;>2=>N ?@8G8=>N ?A8EVG=>W 457040?B0FVW 22060T =5?@028;L=C ?>254V=:C V >@VT=B>20=0, B0:8< G8=><, =0 <>48DV:0FVN ?>254V=:8. >;>2=8<8 <5B>40<8 ?>254V=:>2>W B5@0?VW T :>=B@>1C<>2;5==O, >?5@0=B=V <5B>48, B5@0?VO 7 45<>=AB@0FVTN <>45;V B0 ?@>F54C@8 A0<>:>=B@>;N. >=B@>1C<>2;5==O 28:>@8AB>2CTBLAO, :>;8 ?>B@V1=> ?>:@0I8B8 ?>254V=:C 01> ?>71028B8AO =530B82=8E ?>254V=:>28E ?@>O2V2. @8 A8AB5<0B8G=V9 45A5=A81V;V70FVW D>@<CNBLAO @50:FVW, ?@>B8;56=V =5040?B82=8< D>@<0<. 0?@8:;04, :>;8 ?0FVT=B ?5@56820T B@82>3C, 9>3> 2G0BL 2V4GC20B8 A?>:V9. 25@A82=5 >1C<>2;5==O 28:>@8AB>2CNBL 70 =5>1EV4=>ABV ?>71028B8AO =530B82=8E 728G>:. &59 <5B>4 ?>T4=CT ?@8T<=V 4;O ?0FVT=B0 (0;5 =51060=V) 4VW 7 =5?@8T<=8<8 AB8<C;0<8. 0?@8:;04, 0;:>3>;V:, 28?820NG8 3>@V;:C, >45@6CT C40@ 5;5:B@8G=8< AB@C<><. ?5@0=B=V <5B>48 28:>@8AB>2CNBL 4;O D>@<C20==O 1060=>W ?>254V=:8. 0?@8:;04, 70 ?@028;L=C ?>254V=:C ?0FVT=B :>6=>3> @07C >B@8<CT ?52=C 28=03>@>4C. "5@0?VO 7 45<>=AB@0FVTN <>45;V 40T ?0FVT=BC D>@<8 ?@028;L=>W ?>254V=:8, I> 2V= <0T ?>2B>@N20B8. @>F54C@8 A0<>:>=B@>;N ?>;O30NBL C B><C, I> ?0FVT=B0 =02G0NBL A?>A>1V2 :>=B@>;N 70 2;0A=>N ?>254V=:>N, I> 2V= ?>BV< 74V9A=NT A0<>ABV9=>. &59 <5B>4 28:>@8AB>2CTBLAO 4;O ;V:C20==O :C@V==O, >68@V==O, 45O:8E =51060=8E 728G>: (=0?@8:;04, 3@87V==O =V3BV2). 0FVT=B 2G8BLAO CB@8<C20B8AO 2V4 =51060=8E A8BC0FV9, 2545 I>45==8:, 2 O:><C 70?8ACT 7<V=8 2;0A=>3> AB0=C. 0?8B0==O 4;O A0<>:>=B@>;N '8< >1C<>2;5=89 ?A8E>;>3VG=89 ?V4EV4 4> ?@>1;5<8 ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O? 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C 3><5>AB0B8G=>W <>45;V ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C 040?B0FV9=>W <>45;V ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C <>45;V >A>18ABVA=>W A0<>@50;V70FVW. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C 48=0<VG=>W <>45;V ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C AB0=0< 74>@>2 O 70 .!. !5<8G>28<. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C ?A8E>?0B>;>3VG=8E ?>@CH5=L 70 .. >@>;L>28<. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C ?5@5EV4=8E AB0=V2 <V6 ?A8EVG=>N =>@<>N B0 ?0B>;>3VTN. >7:@89B5 270T<>72 O7>: :C;LBC@8 B0 ?A8E>?0B>;>3VW. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C ?A8E>?0B>;>3VG=8E AB0=V2 >:@5<8E :C;LBC@. >=F5?FVO 4>3>2>@C O: CO2;5==O ?@> =>@<C B0 ?0B>;>3VN. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C V=B@0?A8EVG=>W B5@0?VW. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C A>FV0;L=>W B5@0?VW. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C ?>254V=:>2>W B5@0?VW. /:V T ?V4E>48 4> ;V:C20==O ?A8EVG=8E @>7;04V2? @0:B8G=5 70=OBBO A8E>;>3VO 74>@>2 O B0 ?A8E>B5@0?VO !CG0A=V <>45;V ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O. V4E>48 4> ?>:07=8:V2 ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O. C;LBC@0 V ?A8EVG=5 74>@>2 O. >=F5?FVO 4>3>2>@C O: CO2;5==O ?@> =>@<C B0 ?0B>;>3VN. A8E>B5@0?VO. =B@0?A8EVG=0 B5@0?VO. !>FV0;L=0 B0 ?>254V=:>20 B5@0?VO. @07>: B5ABC A8EVG=5 74>@>2 O @>73;O40NBL <>45;V: 0) 3><5>AB0B8G=0; 1) >A>18ABVA=>W A0<>@50;V70FVW; 2) 040?B0FV9=0; 3) 48=0<VG=0; 4) A>FV>;>3VG=0. . !. !5<8G>2 284V;82 B0:V AB0=8 ?A8EVG=>3> 74>@>2 O 0) V450;L=0 =>@<0; 1) A5@54=L>AB0B8AB8G=0 =>@<0; 2) :>=AB8BCFV9=0 =>@<0; 3) 0:F5=BC0FVO E0@0:B5@C; 4) ?5@54?0B>;>3VO; 5) ?5@54E2>@>10. 5@5EV4=8<8 AB0=0<8 <V6 ?A8EVG=>N =>@<>N B0 ?0B>;>3VTN T: 0) ?A8E>?0B8G=V AB0=8; 1) @50:B82=V 4VW; 2) 0=><0;L=V @50:FVW; 3) 0=><0;L=V AB0=8; 4) 0=><0;L=89 @>728B>:. <>: >7=0G0T: 0) =5:>=B@>;L>20=C 03@5AVN; 1) V=AB@C<5=B0;L=C 03@5AVN; 2) 3@C?>2C 03@5AVN; 3) <0A>289 0;LB@CW7<; 4) 3C<0=V7<.  420 ?V4E>48 4> ;V:C20==O ?A8EVG=8E @>7;04V2: 0) 4VO;L=VA=89, 5:A?5@8<5=B0;L=89; 1) ?>254V=:>289, V=482V4C0;L=89; 2) <548:0<5=B>7=89, ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G=89; 3) <548:0<5=B>7=89, 4VO;L=VAB=89; 4) ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G=89, ?>254V=:>289. !?8A>: ;VB5@0BC@8 @>AA-:C;LBC@=0 ?A8E>;>38O. AA;54>20=8O 8 ?@8<5=5=85/ . 5@@8, . C@B8=30, . !830;;, . 0A5=. - %0@L:>2: 74-2> C<0=8B0@=K9 F5=B@, 2007.  560A. 0A8;L520 .!. A8E>;>38O 74>@>2LO G5;>25:0: MB0;>=K, ?@54AB02;5=8O, CAB0=>2:8: CG51. ?>A>185 4;O ABC4. 2KAH. CG51. 702545=89/ .!. 0A8;L520, $. . $8;0B>2.  .: 740B5;LA:89 F5=B@ :045<8O, 2001.  352 A. 0FC<>B> . A8E>;>38O 8 :C;LBC@0.  !1.: @09<- , 2002.  720 A. 5=45;528G .. ;8=8G5A:0O 8 <548F8=A:0O ?A8E>;>38O: CG51=>5 ?>A>185.  5-5 874.  .: ?@5AA-8=D>@<, 2005.  592 A. A8E>;>38O 74>@>2LO: CG51=8: 4;O 2C7>2 / ?>4 @54. . !. 8:8D>@>20.  !1.: 8B5@, 2003.  608 A. !5<8G>2 !. . @541>;57=5==K5 ?A8E8G5A:85 @0AAB@>9AB20.  .: 548F8=0, 1987.  182 A. #H0:>2 .. >3@0=8G=K5 =5@2=>-?A8E8G5A:85 @0AAB@>9AB20.  2-5 874., ?5@5@01. 8 4>?.  .: 548F8=0, 1987.  304 A. !>F80;L=0O 0=B@>?>;>38O / . . /@A:0O - !<8@=>20, .. ><0=>2.  >AB>2 =/: $5=8:A, 2004.  604 A. 15. A8EVG=89 @>728B>: ;N48=8 15.1. $0:B>@8 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. =482V4C0;L=V >A>1;82>ABV @>728B:C. 15.2. !>FV0;L=0 A8BC0FVO, @CHV9=V A8;8 B0 ?>:07=8:8 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. 15.3. A8EVG=89 @>728B>: ;N48=8 C 48BOG><C 2VFV. 15.4. A8EVG=89 @>728B>: C ?V4;VB:>2><C 2VFV. 15.5. A8EVG=89 @>728B>: C ?5@V>4 @0==L>W N=>ABV. 15.1. $0:B>@8 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. =482V4C0;L=V >A>1;82>ABV @>728B:C A8EVG=89 @>728B>:, O: <8 265 707=0G0;8, ?@8B0<0==89 ?A8EVFV ;N48=8, 0465 2>=0 7<V=NTBLAO ?@>BO3>< CAL>3> 68BBO. 8 @>73;O=C;8 ACB=VABL, >A>1;82>ABV B0 ?5@V>4870FVN ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C ;N48=8. A8EVG=89 @>728B>: O: A:;04=89 ?@>F5A >1C<>2;NTBLAO A8AB5<>N D0:B>@V2. 5@H 70 2A5 A;V4 2V47=0G8B8, I> ;N48=0 O: 1V>;>3VG=0 VAB>B0 6825 V @>72820TBLAO C ACA?V;LAB2V, C A8AB5<V 270T<>4VW 7 V=H8<8 ;N4L<8. AL G><C ACB=VABL >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 28O2;OTBLAO ;8H5 C ACA?V;LAB2V. A8EVG=V >A>1;82>ABV >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 T ?@868BBT28<8, >=B>35=5B8G=8<8 CB2>@5==O<8, ?@>2V4=C @>;L C D>@<C20==V O:8E 2V4V3@0NBL A>FV0;L=V C<>28 68BBO B0 4VO;L=>ABV, =02G0==O B0 28E>20==O. @>F5A D>@<C20==O >A>18AB>ABV T =VG8< V=H8< O: ?@>F5A>< ?@82;0A=5==O ACA?V;L=> - VAB>@8G=>3> 4>A2V4C ;N4AB20. &59 ?@>F5A <0T 1030B> A?V;L=>3> 4;O 2AVE ;N459, 0;5 2V4@V7=OTBLAO 2V4 V=H8E ?@>F5AV2 >1 T:B82=>W 4V9A=>ABV A2>W<8 >A>1;82>ABO<8. 5@H0. N48=0 0:B82=0, 4VO;L=0 VAB>B0. "><C 7>2=VH=V C<>28 68BBO 287=0G0NBL ?A8EV:C ;N48=8 =5 ?@O<>, =5 157?>A5@54=L>, 0 G5@57 ?@>F5A 270T<>4VW ;N48=8 7 >B>GCNG8< A>FV0;L=8< A5@54>28I5<, G5@57 ?@54<5B=C 4VO;L=VABL C FL><C A5@54>28IV.  >B65, ?@028;L=VH5 1C45 3>2>@8B8 =5 ?@> 2?;82 A5@54>28I0, 0 ?@> ?@>F5A 0:B82=>W 270T<>4VW ;N48=8 7 >B>GCNG8< A>FV0;L=8< V ?@54<5B=8< A2VB><. @C30. >728B>: ?A8EV:8 >1C<>2;NTBLAO 7>2=VH=V<8 A>FV0;L=8<8 C<>20<8, V ?5@H 70 2A5 A8AB5<>N A>FV0;L=8E 2V4=>A8=. ;5 ?A8EVG=89 @>728B>: ;N48=8 =5 <>6=0 157?>A5@54=L> 282>48B8 V7 7>2=VH=VE C<>2. &V C<>28 702648 ?5@5;><;NNBLAO G5@57 68BBT289 4>A2V4 ;N48=8, 9>3> >A>18ABVABL, ?>B@518, <>B828, V=B5@5A8 V B. V=. # FL><C 2V4=>H5==V 7>2=VH=V 2?;828 >?>A5@54:>2CNBLAO, ?5@5;><;NNBLAO 2=CB@VH=V< A2VB>< >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8. "@5BO. N48=0 O: 0:B82=0 V 4VO;L=0 VAB>B0 <>65 A0<>ABV9=>, A2V4><> 7<V=N20B8 A2V9 2=CB@VH=V9 A2VB, A2>N >A>18ABVABL, B>1B> 709<0B8AO A0<>28E>20==O< B0 A0<>>A2VB>N. ;5 ?@>F5A8 A0<>28E>20==O V A0<>>A2VB8 =5 <>6CBL 74V9A=N20B8AO 2V4V@20=> 2V4 A>FV0;L=>3> A5@54>28I0. !5@54>28I5< 2>=8 <>B82CNBLAO V 74V9A=NNBLAO O: ?@>F5A8 0:B82=>W 270T<>4VW V7 A>FV0;L=8< A5@54>28I5<. >73;O=CBV =0<8 >A>1;82>ABV ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C ;N48=8 40NBL =0< ?@02> AB25@46C20B8, I> >4=V V BV 6 7>2=VH=V A>FV0;L=V C<>28, >48= V B>9 A0<89 ?@54<5B=89 V A>FV0;L=89 A2VB ?>-@V7=><C 2?;820NBL =0 @V7=8E 4VB59, ?V4;VB:V2, N=0:V2. AL G><C ;N48, 682CG8 2 >4=8E V B8E A0<8E C<>20E, B0: 2V4@V7=ONBLAO 70 A2>W<8 ?A8EVG=8<8 O:>ABO<8. N48=0, O: <8 707=0G0;8, T A>FV0;L=>N VAB>B>N. ;5 >4=>G0A=> 2>=0 T 1V>;>3VG=8< 284>< Homo sapiens, ;N48=>N @>7C<=>N. @8@>4=V >A>1;82>ABV ;N48=8 @>7C<=>W O: 1V>;>3VG=>3> 284C T ?5@54C<>20<8 4;O D>@<C20==O V @>728B:C A>FV0;L=8E O:>AB59 >A>18AB>ABV. A>1;82>ABV 0=0B><VG=>W 1C4>28, DV7V>;>3VG=8E DC=:FV9 (1V>;>3VG=0 >1C<>2;5=VABL) A:;040NBL ;8H5 ?5@54C<>28 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. >=8 =5 <>6CBL 1CB8 @CHV9=8<8 A8;0<8, 1> 2>=8 T ;8H5 ?5@54C<>20<8. 4=VTN 7 B0:8E ?5@54C<>2 T =0;56=VABL 4> 284C Homo sapiens, ;N48=8 @>7C<=>W, B>1B> =5>1EV4=>, I>1 >@30=V7< ;N48=8 1C2 A0<5 ;N4AL:8< 7 WW >A>1;82>ABO<8 =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8.  3>;>2=5, I>1 FO =5@2>20 A8AB5<0 1C;0 =5 BV;L:8 ;N4AL:>N, 0;5 9 74>@>2>N, B>1B> A?@><>6=>N A?@89<0B8 V A?@89=OB8 (?@82;0A=8B8) 2AV 2?;828 A2VBC A>FV0;L=>3>. B65, :@V< 2?;82C A>FV0;L=>3> A2VBC =0 AB0=>2;5==O >A>18AB>ABV G8 ?A8EVG=89 @>728B>: >A>18AB>ABV, ACBBT289 2?;82 <0T V D0:B>@ 1V>;>3VG=89, 01> ?@8@>4=89. @8@>4=V >A>1;82>ABV >@30=V7<C ;N48=8 287=0G0NBL B0:V <><5=B8 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C ;N48=8. 5@H5. V>;>3VG=0 =0;56=VABL ;N48=8 4> 284C ;N48=8 @>7C<=>W >1C<>2;NT H;OE8 V A?>A>18 @>728B:C ?A8EVG=8E >A>1;82>AB59. !0<V A>1>N 2;0AB82>ABV =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8 ;N48=8 =5 287=0G0NBL ?A8EVG=8E 2;0AB82>AB59 ;N48=8. >4=0 =>@<0;L=0 ;N48=0 =5 =0@>46CTBLAO ?@8@>4=> AE8;L=>N 1CB8 A<V;82>N G8 1>O7;82>N, =0?>;53;82>N G8 1572V;L=>N, ?@0F5;N1=>N G8 ;V=82>N V B. V=. 0 ?V4@C=BV 1C4L - O:>3> B8?C 28I>W =5@2>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV <>6CBL 1CB8 28E>20=V 2AV ACA?V;L=> - FV==V @8A8 >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8. 0?@8:;04, 28B@8<:C =5>1EV4=> V ?>B@V1=> D>@<C20B8 C ;N459 E>;5@8G=>3> V D;53<0B8G=>3> B5<?5@0<5=BC. "V;L:8 C ?5@H>3> F5 1C45 206G5 7@>18B8, =V6 C 4@C3>3>. @V< B>3>, H;OE8 B0 A?>A>18 FL>3> D>@<C20==O 1C4CBL @V7=8<8. @C35. @8@>4=V >A>1;82>ABV <>6CBL 2?;820B8 =0 @V25=L 4>AO3=5=L ;N48=8 C ?52=V9 30;C7V 4VO;L=>ABV. 0?@8:;04, ;N48 2V4@V7=ONBLAO ?@8@>465=8<8 V=482V4C0;L=8<8 2V4<V==>ABO<8 C 7040B:0E. N48=0, O:0 <0T ?52=V ?5@52038 ?5@54 V=H8<8 I>4> >2>;>4V==O >4=VTN 4VO;L=VABN, >4=>G0A=> <>65 ?>ABC?0B8AL C <>6;82>ABOE >2>;>4V==O V=H>N 4VO;L=VABN. /:I> 48B8=0 <0T 4>1@V 7040B:8 4;O @>728B:C <C78G=8E 74V1=>AB59, B> ?@8 ?@0:B8G=> B>B>6=8E C<>20E 2>=0 1C45 @>72820B8AL C <C78G=><C 2V4=>H5==V H284H5 V 5D5:B82=VH5, =V6 4VB8, O:V =5 <0NBL B0:8E 7040B:V2. =0;V7 A>FV0;L=8E V 1V>;>3VG=8E D0:B>@V2 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C 4>72>;OT =0< AB25@46C20B8 CA?04:C20==O 1V>;>3VG=8E ?5@54C<>2 (7040B:V2) 4;O @>728B:C ?A8EVG=8E 2;0AB82>AB59 >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8, 0 B0:>6 CA?04:C20==O B>3> A>FV0;L=>3> A5@54>28I0, B8E A>FV0;L=8E C<>2 68BBO, O:V 70157?5GCNBL =091V;LH A?@8OB;82V C<>28 4;O D>@<C20==O V @>728B:C B8E ?A8EVG=8E O:>AB59, O:V 70:;045=V C 1V>;>3VG=8E 7040B:0E. A:V;L:8 ?A8EVG=89 @>728B>: ;N48=8 >1C<>2;NTBLAO A8AB5<>N A>FV0;L=8E 270T<>2V4=>A8=, B> 48B8=0 <0T 68B8 V 270T<>4VOB8 C A8AB5<V A>FV0;L=8E 2V4=>A8=. @>F5A 270T<>4VW 7 A>FVC<>< <>6;8289 7024O:8 0:B82=>ABV 48B8=8. 8B8=0 >2>;>4V20T A8AB5<>N ACA?V;L=>-VAB>@8G=>3> 4>A2V4C: 7=0==O<8, 70:>=0<8, =>@<0<8 V ?@028;0<8 ?>254V=:8, FV==>ABO<8. # A2>T<C 68BBV 2>=0 <0T 2@0E>2C20B8 WE, >@VT=BC20B8AO =0 =8E C A2>W9 ?>254V=FV V 4VO;L=>ABV. 2>;>4V==O 4>A2V4>< 4>@>A;8E >4=>G0A=> T ?@>F5A>< =0:>?8G5==O 48B8=>N 2;0A=>3> V=482V4C0;L=>3> 4>A2V4C. !0<5 C 0:B82=V9 4VO;L=>ABV 2V41C20TBLAO D>@<C20==O >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8. VO;L=VABL 48B8=8 <0T 420 1>:8: 7>2=VH=V9 V 2=CB@VH=V9. >2=VH=O 4VO;L=VABL 74V9A=NTBLAO C 7>2=VH=L><C, ?@54<5B=><C A2VBV. 2>;>4V20NG8 =>2>N 4VO;L=VABN, 48B8=0 >2>;>4V20T A8AB5<>N =5>1EV4=8E 4V9 C 7>2=VH=V9 D>@<V. @54<5B=V 4VW V7 7>2=VH=L>W D>@<8 C ?@>F5AV V=B5@V>@870FVW ?5@5B2>@NNBLAO C 2=CB@VH=V. !0<5 F59 ?@>F5A V 70157?5GCT 7<V=8 C 2=CB@VH=L><C, ?A8EVG=><C A2VBV ;N48=8. "0:8< G8=><, ?@>2V4=0 @>;L C D>@<C20==V >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 =0;568BL 0:B82=V9 4VO;L=>ABV A0<>W ;N48=8. 030B><0=VB=VABL V=482V4C0;L=8E ?@>O2V2 @V7=><0=VB=8E ?V4AB@C:BC@ >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 28:;8:0NBL V=482V4C0;L=V >A>1;82>ABV ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. > V=482V4C0;L=8E >A>1;82>AB59 @>728B:C 2V4=>AOBL 0:A5;5@0FVN B0 @5B0@40FVN. :A5;5@0FVTN =07820TBLAO ?@8A:>@5==O B5<?V2 DV78G=>3> V ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C B0 AB0B52>3> 4>7@V20==O. &5 O28I5 A?>AB5@V30TBLAO C 68BBV 75<;O= 1V;LH5 100 @>:V2. >=> ?@8201;NT 4> A515 7 42>E ?>78FV9: <548:> - 3V3VT=VG=>W B0 ?5403>3VG=>W. > - ?5@H5, ?@>F5A 0:A5;5@0FVW ?@>BO3>< %% AB. AB0=>282 ?@81;87=> 2 @>:8. > - 4@C35, C ?V4;VB:>2><C 2VFV A?>AB5@V30TBLAO @>7H0@C20==O 70 H284:VABN ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C 4> 4 @>:V2. # B0:><C 28?04:C 703>AB@NTBLAO ?@>1;5<0 ?@> A?V22V4=>H5==O E@>=>;>3VG=>3> B0 ?A8EVG=>3> 2V:C ;N48=8. 0 60;L, 0:A5;5@0FVO 2;0AB820 =5 2AV< 4VBO<. =H0 G0AB8=0 4VB59 E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO @5B0@40FVTN ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C (70B@8<:0<8). :A5;5@0FVO V @5B0@40FVO ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C AB2>@NNBL 4;O ?@0:B8G=>3> ?5403>30 A8AB5<C B@C4=>IV2. @30=V70FVO =02G0;L=>-28E>2=>3> ?@>F5AC 28<030T >@VT=B0FVW =0 2V:>2V >A>1;82>ABV. @8 FL><C =5>1EV4=> ?0< OB0B8, I> 2 >4=><C :;0AV, ?@8 >4=><C V B><C 6 E@>=>;>3VG=><C 2VFV <>6CBL 1CB8 ?@8ACB=V CG=V 7 @V7=8F5N ?A8EVG=>3> V DV78G=>3> @>728B:C C 4 @>:8. @V< B>3>, A;V4 ?0< OB0B8, I> AL>3>4=VH=V9 H:>;O@ 4>@>A;VHV9 2V4 A2>3> >4=>;VB:0 %% AB. =0 2 @>:8. =482V4C0;L=8<8 >A>1;82>ABO<8 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C T >A>1;82>ABV @>7C<>2>3> @>728B:C. VB8, O:V 28?5@5460NBL >4=>;VB:V2 C @>7C<>2><C @>728B:C (2C=45@:V=48), ACBBT2> 2V4@V7=ONBLAO 2V4 @5B0@40=BV2. AB0==V 2V4AB0NBL C @>7C<>2><C @>728B:C. VB8 7 70B@8<:0<8 ?A8EVG=>3> (@>7C<>2>3>) @>728B:C 2V4@V7=ONBLAO 2V4 >4=>;VB:V2 =5<>6;82VABN 28:>=C20B8 =5>1EV4=C 4VO;L=VABL. &5 >1C<>2;NTBLAO =54>AB0B=L>N ?@0F5740B=VABN =5@2>2>W A8AB5<8, A;01:>N :>=F5=B@0FVTN C2038, H284:8< 28A=065==O< =5@2>2>W 5=5@3VW B0 H284:>N 7<>@N20=VABN. /: =0A;V4>:, C =8E =5 28=8:0T V=B5@5A 4> 7<VABC 4VO;L=>ABV, W< =C4=>, 2>=8 =5 E>GCBL V =5 <>6CBL 28:>=C20B8 70240==O CG8B5;O, 2>=8 =5 E>GCBL =V 4C<0B8, =V 70?0< OB>2C20B8.  72V4A8  C =8E =5 28=8:0NBL ?V7=020;L=V B0 =02G0;L=V ?@>1;5<8. "><C B0:V 4VB8 1030B> ?>@CHCNBL 48AF8?;V=C, =5 4>B@8<CNBLAO =>@< V ?@028; ?>254V=:8, =5 ?V4:>@ONBLAO 2:07V2:0< CG8B5;V2 V 28E>20B5;V2, 702060NBL ?@0FN20B8 V=H8< >4=>;VB:0<. 15.2. !>FV0;L=0 A8BC0FVO, @CHV9=V A8;8 B0 ?>:07=8:8 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C N48=0 O: A>FV0;L=0 VAB>B0 6825 V @>72820TBLAO C ACA?V;LAB2V. >728B>: >A>18AB>ABV ;N48=8 E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO ?5@V>48G=VABN. >65= ?5@V>4 E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO A2>T@V4=VABN 270T<>2V4=>A8= ;N48=8 V A>FVC<C. &O A2>T@V4=VABL A:;040T ?V4@C=BO A>FV0;L=>W A8BC0FVW ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. !>FV0;L=>N A8BC0FVTN ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C =07820NBL A8AB5<C AB02;5==O 48B8=8 4> A>FV0;L=>W 4V9A=>ABV. "0:V 2V4=>A8=8 @50;V7CNBLAO C ;N4AL:V9 4VO;L=>ABV. A:V;L:8 A>FV0;L=0 A8BC0FVO ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C @50;V7CTBLAO C 4VO;L=>ABV, B> B5@<V= A>FV0;L=0 A8BC0FVO ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C V ?@>2V4=89 B8? 4VO;L=>ABV <>6CBL 28:>@8AB>2C20B8AO O: A8=>=V<8. > ?>G0B:C :>6=>3> 2V:>2>3> ?5@V>4C ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C D>@<CNBLAO A2>T@V4=V 2V4=>A8=8 ;N48=8 V >1 T:B82=>W A>FV0;L=>W 4V9A=>ABV. !0<5 FV 2V4=>A8=8 V =07820NBL A>FV0;L=>N A8BC0FVTN ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C C 40=><C 2VFV. !>FV0;L=0 A8BC0FVO ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C T 28EV4=8< <><5=B>< 4;O ?A8E>;>3VG=8E =>2>CB2>@5=L ?A8EV:8 C F59 ?5@V>4. >=0 287=0G0T H;OE8, D>@<8 V <5B>48 D>@<C20==O =>28E 2;0AB82>AB59 >A>18AB>ABV. # ?@>F5AV ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C 2V41C20TBLAO 70:>=><V@=0 7<V=0 A>FV0;L=8E A8BC0FV9 V 7<V=0 <VAFO C A8AB5<V ACA?V;L=8E 2V4=>A8=. !0<5 7<V=0 <VAFO C A8AB5<V ACA?V;L=8E 2V4=>A8= 287=0G0T @CHV9=V A8;8 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. CHV9=8<8 A8;0<8 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C T 28=8:=5==O V @>72 O70==O 4V0;5:B8G=8E AC?5@5G=>AB59 <V6 =>28< V AB0@8<. > B0:8E AC?5@5G=>AB59 2V4=>AOBL =0?@8:;04, AC?5@5G=VABL <V6 =>28<8 ?>B@510<8 V @50;L=8<8 <>6;82>ABO<8 WE 704>2>;5==O, <V6 =>28<8 <>6;82>ABO<8 V AB0@8<8 D>@<0<8 B0 2840<8 4VO;L=>ABV, <V6 7@>AB0NG8<8 28<>30<8 7 1>:C ACA?V;LAB20 V @50;L=8< @V2=5< ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. !C?5@5G=>ABV 2;0AB82V 2AV< 2V:>28< ?5@V>40< 68BBO ;N48=8, 0;5 C :>6=><C 2VFV 2>=8 <0NBL A2>N A?5F8DV:C. 0?@8:;04, C <>;>4H>3> H:>;O@0 <0T <VAF5 AC?5@5G=VABL <V6 3>B>2=VABN 4> A0<>ABV9=>W 2>;L>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV V 70;56=VABN 2V4 157?>A5@54=L>W A8BC0FVW ?5@56820=L; C ?V4;VB:0  AC?5@5G=VABL <V6 A0<>>FV=:>N B0 @V2=5< 4><030=L, 7 >4=>3> 1>:C, V ?5@56820==O< A2>3> 2;0A=>3> ?>;>65==O C :>;5:B82V  7 V=H>3>; AC?5@5G=VABL <V6 ?>B@51>N V ?@03=5==O< 1@0B8 CG0ABL C 68BBV 4>@>A;8E V =54>AB0B=VABN ?A8EVG=8E B0 V=H8E <>6;82>AB59 4;O FL>3>. >72 O70==O AC?5@5G=>AB59 2V41C20TBLAO H;OE>< D>@<C20==O V=H8E B8?V2 4VO;L=>ABV C ?@>F5AV >2>;>4V==O 2V4?>2V4=8<8 4VO<8. 2>;>4V==O =>28<8 4VO<8 T =V G8< V=H8< O: ?A8EVG=8< @>728B:><, I> ?V4=V<0T 48B8=C =0 1V;LH 28A>:89 @V25=L ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. 04>2>;5==O =>2>W ?>B@518, @>72 O70==O AC?5@5G=>ABV 28:;8:0T 4> 68BBO V=HV ?>B@518 V AC?5@5G=>ABV. "0:8< G8=><, >4=0 AC?5@5G=VABL 7<V=NTBLAO V=H>N, I> A:;040T ?V4@C=BO 157?5@5@2=>3> ?@>F5AC ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. 87=0G5==O @V2=O ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C ;N48=8 T 4>A8BL A:;04=8< 70240==O<. ;O 704>2V;L=>3> 9>3> @>72 O70==O =5>1EV4=> 284V;8B8 ?>:07=8:8 >FV=:8 FL>3> @>728B:C. > B0:8E ?>:07=8:V2 2V4=>AOBL: @>728B>: ?V7=0==O V ?V7=020;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV, @V25=L A8AB5<8 >A>18ABVA=8E 2V4=>A8=, @V25=L >2>;>4V==O A8AB5<>N ?@0:B8G=8E V @>7C<>28E 4V9. >728B>: ?V7=0==O V ?V7=020;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV 48B8=8 E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO 71V;LH5==O< >1AO3C 7=0=L ?@> =02:>;8H=N 4V9A=VABL, 0 B0:>6 7<V=0<8 C A0<><C ?V7=0==V: ?>A8;5==O< CA2V4><;5=>ABV, A8AB5<=>ABV, >1@C=B>20=>ABV. >728B>: ?V7=0==O ?>2 O70=89 7 C4>A:>=0;5==O< A?>A>1V2 2V4>1@065==O 4V9A=>ABV. 8B8=0 2G8BLAO A?>AB5@V30B8, 281V@:>2> 70?0< OB>2C20B8, 284V;OB8 ACBBT25, 4>2V;L=> 2V4B2>@N20B8 A0<5 =5>1EV4=89 7<VAB, @>18B8 28A=>2:8. V25=L A8AB5<8 >A>18ABVA=8E 2V4=>A8= 4> >1 T:B82=>W 4V9A=>ABV V 4> A0<>3> A515 ?>T4=CT 2V4>1@065==O 4V9A=>ABV B0 AB02;5==O 4> =L>3> V A0<>3> A515.  2V:>< A?@><>6=VABL 4> B0:>3> 2V4>1@065==O V AB02;5==O 24>A:>=0;NNBLAO: 2>=8 AB0NBL 1V;LH >1 T:B82=8<8. >@O4 V7 =8<8 D>@<CNBLAO >FV=:8 B0 ?>3;O48. V25=L AB02;5==O =5<>2;OB8 4> >1 T:B82=>3> A2VBC 28O2;OTBLAO C ?5@28==8E ?>GCBBOE 704>2>;5==O B0 =5704>2>;5==O. >=8 >1C<>2;NNBLAO 704>2>;5==O< G8 =5704>2>;5==O< ?@>ABVH8E 68BBT28E ?>B@51. >;>4, 1V;L 28:;8:0NBL =5704>2>;5==O (=530B82=V ?5@56820==O). "5?;>, =0A8G5=VABL 28:;8:0NBL 704>2>;5==O (?>78B82=V ?5@56820==O). V25=L >2>;>4V==O A8AB5<>N ?@0:B8G=8E V @>7C<>28E 4V9 70157?5GCT @V25=L 28:>=0==O ?@>4C:B82=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. >728B>: 48B8=8 2V41C20TBLAO C ?@>F5AV 7<V=8 9>3> 4VO;L=>ABV, I> A:;040TBLAO 7 4V9. <V=NNBLAO 7<VAB, AB@C:BC@0, A?@O<>20=VABL 4VO;L=>ABV. "0:, =02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL ABC45=B0 ACBBT2> 2V4@V7=OTBLAO 2V4 =02G0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV ?5@H>:;0A=8:0 V =5 BV;L:8 7<VAB>< =0C:>28E ?>=OBL, 0 =0O2=8< @V2=5< @>7C<>2>W (?A8EVG=>W) 4VO;L=>ABV. A>18ABVABL ;N48=8 28O2;OTBLAO C WW ?>254V=FV, 2G8=:0E, B>1B> C B0:8E 4VOE, I> 2V4>1@060NBL 9>3> AB02;5==O 4> >1 T:B82=>W 4V9A=>ABV V A0<>W A515. "0:, C ?5@V>4 @0==L>3> 48B8=AB20 FV;V V <>B828 <0NBL AC1 T:B82=89, 28?04:>289, 53>WAB8G=89 E0@0:B5@; C ?5@V>4 @0==L>W N=>ABV 2>=8 <0NBL ACA?V;L=> 7=0GCI89 E0@0:B5@. >73;O=CBV ?>:07=8:8 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C ;N48=8 A2V4G0BL ?@> B5, I> C ?@>F5AV ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C ;N48=0 D>@<CTBLAO O: 4VOG, 3@><04O=8=, <8A;8B5;L. 15.3. A8EVG=89 @>728B>: ;N48=8 C 48BOG><C 2VFV 8BOG89 2V: ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C ;N48=8 T C<>2=8<, C7030;L=5=8< ?>=OBBO<, I> ?>T4=CT =87:C =0C:>2> 284V;5=8E 2V:>28E ?5@V>4V2 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. @0 48B8=AB20 >1 T4=CT B0:V 2V:>2V ?5@V>48: :@87C =>2>=0@>465=>ABV, ?5@V>48 =5<>2;OB8, @0==L>3> 48B8=AB20, 4>H:V;L=>3> 48B8=AB20, <>;>4H>3> H:V;L=>3> 2V:C. >73;O=5<> >A>1;82>ABV @>728B:C ;N48=8 C FV 2V:>2V ?5@V>48. @870 =>2>=0@>465=>ABV. 0@>465==O 48B8=8  F5 :@870. 8B8=0 ?>B@0?;OT C =>2V C<>28 68BBO V ?5@5E>48BL =0 V=HV C<>28 >1<V=C @5G>28=. >25 A5@54>28I5 1V;LH A2VB;5, ?@>E>;>4=5. <V=0 A5@54>28I0 28<030T ?@8AB>AC20==O 4> =L>3>, ?@> F5 A2V4G8BL 2B@0B0 2038 48B8=>N C ?5@HV 4=V 68BBO. 8B8=0 =0@>46CTBLAO 7 >1<565=>N :V;L:VABN 157C<>2=8E @5D;5:AV2 B0 D>@< ?>254V=:8. &5 @5D;5:A8: A<>:B0;L=89, 70E8A=89, >@VT=BC20;L=89, @CE>289, E0?0;L=89, 2V4HB>2EC20==O. 5@2>20 A8AB5<0 =5 7025@H8;0 A2V9 @>728B>:: =5@2>2V 2>;>:=0 =5 <0NBL <VT;V=>2>W >1>;>=:8, I> 70157?5GCT ?5@540GC 71C465==O =0 2AN =5@2>2C A8AB5<C. C4L-O:5 71C465==O 28:;8:0T 3;>10;L=V, =548D5@5=FV9>20=V @CE8 2AL>3> BV;0, >A>1;82> @C: V =V3. >2>=0@>465=89 <0965 157?5@5@2=> A?8BL. /:I> 9><C =57@CG=>, G8 2V= 3>;>4=89  B>=5=L:> ?;0G5. !>= 48B8=8 I5 =5 <0T :>=F5=B@0FVW =0 =VG, B><C 206;82> 4>B@8<C20B8AO @568<C. >2>=0@>465=0 48B8=0 Homo sapiens <0T B0: 720=V 0B02VAB8G=V @5D;5:A8: E0?0;L=89, 2V4HB>2EC20==O, ?;020==O. /:I> >4=>  42>B86=52V9 48B8=V C @C:C 2:;0AB8 1C4L - O:89 ?@54<5B G8 ?0;5FL, B> 48B8=0 <VF=> AB8A:0T 9>3> V <>65 7028A=CB8. &59 E0?0;L=89 @5D;5:A 2V4V3@0T 206;82C @>;L C 48B8=8 =0H8E @>48GV2  <02?. 8B8=G0 <VF=> E0?0TBLAO 70 2>;>AO=89 ?>:@82 V <VF=> B@8<0TBLAO ?V4 G0A @CEC <02?8. @C389 @5D;5:A  2V4HB>2EC20==O =V6:0<8 2V4 >?>@8, 0 O:I> 48B8=0 ?>B@0?;OT C 2>4C, B> 74V9A=NT ?;020;L=V @CE8. &V B@8 @5D;5:A8 T 0B02VAB8G=8<8, B>1B> 28O2;ONBLAO C =>2>=0@>465=>3> O: A?04>: 2V4 B20@8=. >2>=0@>465=89 =091V;LH 70;56=89 2V4 4>@>A;8E. 5>1EV4=>N C<>2>N =>@<0;L=>3> DC=:FV>=C20==O V @>728B:C 48B8=8 T 0:B82=5 DC=:FV>=C20==O 0=0;V70B>@V2 V A8AB5<0B8G=5 >45@60==O =5>1EV4=>W A5=A>@=>W V=D>@<0FVW. VO;L=VABL 0=0;V70B>@V2 D>@<CTBLAO H284H5, =V6 BV;5A=V @CE8. A>1;82> H284:> D>@<CTBLAO 4VO;L=VABL A;CE>2>3> B0 7>@>2>3> 0=0;V70B>@V2. "><C <0<0< <>6=0 ?>@048B8 @>7<>2;OB8 7 48B8=>N, O:I> 2>=0 =5 A?8BL. !0<5 @>728B>: F8E 0=0;V70B>@V2 A:;040T ?V4@C=BO D>@<C20==O C<>2=8E @5D;5:AV2. 5@28==>N D>@<>N 270T<>4VW 48B8=8 7 4>@>A;8<8 T ?>O20 ?>A<VH:8 C 48B8=8, :>;8 2>=0 10G8BL >1;8GGO 4>@>A;>3>. >A<VH:0 48B8=8 7=0<5=CT 70:V=G5==O :@878 =>2>=0@>465=>ABV. >40;LH89 @>728B>: 48B8=8 >1C<>2;5=89 @>728B:>< 70A>1V2 A?V;:C20==O. >O2C ?>A<VH:8 C 48B8=8 =07820NBL :><?;5:A>< ?>6202;5==O. 0 4C<:C @04O=AL:>3> ?A8E>;>30 .. VAV=>W, :><?;5:A ?>6202;5==O T ?5@H8< 0:B>< A?V;:C20==O 7 4>@>A;8<. 8B8=0 =5 ?@>AB> ?>A<VE0TBLAO, 0 5<>FV9=> 270T<>4VT 7 4>@>A;8<8. ><?;5:A ?>6202;5==O T @57C;LB0B>< ?52=>3> ?5@V>4C @>728B:C V <0T B0:V =0A;V4:8: - 48B8=0 <>65 7>A5@546C20B8 A2>N C203C =0 4>@>A;><C; - 48B8=0 <>65 71C46C20B8AO ?@8 28=8:=5==V :>=B0:BC; - 48B8=0 <>65 B> A;CE0B8, B> 2V4?>2V40B8 =0 725@B0==O; - 48B8=0 A?@><>6=0 2@0E>2C20B8 <><5=B, :>;8 2V4 =5W G5:0NBL A;CE0==O, :>;8 2V4?>2V4V. >O20 :><?;5:AC ?>6202;5==O >7=0G0T ?>G0B>: ?5@V>4C =5<>2;OB8. 5@V>4 =5<>2;OB8. 5@V>4 =5<>2;OB8 (2 <VA.  1 @V:) E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO ?@8ACB=VABN 4>@>A;>3>.  B><C 2840B=89 @04O=AL:89 ?A8E>;>3 .!. 83>BAL:89 (1896  1934 @@.) =07202 =5<>2;O =091V;LH A>FV0;L=>N VAB>B>N. 8BBO =5<>2;OB8 ?>2=VABN 70;568BL 2V4 4>@>A;>3>. !0<5 C FL><C V T ACB=VABL A>FV0;L=>W A8BC0FVW ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. >@>A;89 704>2>;L=OT 1V>;>3VG=V (W60, B5?;>, G8AB>B0) B0 ?A8E>;>3VG=V (?>:07CT ?@54<5B8, V3@0H:8, @>7<>2;OT, A<VTBLAO) ?>B@518. >@>A;89 C B0:><C 28?04:C T ?>A5@54=8:>< C 270T<>4VW =5<>2;OB8 7 =02:>;8H=V< ?@54<5B=8< A2VB><. @>2V4=8< B8?>< 4VO;L=>ABV =5<>2;OB8 T 157?>A5@54=L>  5<>FV9=5 A?V;:C20==O 7 4>@>A;8<8. > A?V;:C20==O 7 4>@>A;8<8 A?>=C:0NBL ?>B@518, C2030 B0 V=B5@5A 4> 4>@>A;>3>, 5<>FV9=V ?@>O28 =0 04@5AC 4>@>A;>3>, V=VFV0B82=VABL 4V9 48B8=8 4;O A?>=C:0==O C2038 4>@>A;>3>, GCBBT2VABL 48B8=8 I>4> 4>@>A;>3>. #AV FV ?>B@518 48B8=8 C A?V;:C20==V 7 4>@>A;8<8 28=8:0NBL =0 ?V4@C=BV 704>2>;5==O 1V>;>3VG=8E ?>B@51. !0<5 WE 704>2>;5==O V 28:;8:0T C 48B8=8 284V;5==O 4>@>A;>3> V7 2AL>3> =02:>;8H=L>3> A2VBC. 8@VH0;L=8< C FL><C A?V;:C20==V T ?>254V=:0 4>@>A;>3>. V= AB028BLAO 4> 48B8=8 O: 4> AC1 T:B0: A0< 7 =5N A?V;:CTBLAO, 3>2>@8BL, A<VTBLAO, 3@0T 70 =5W, B>1B> 28:>=CT 70 =5W BV 4VW, O:V 48B8=0 28:>=0B8 =5 <>65. 57?>A5@54=L>  5<>FV9=5 A?V;:C20==O =5<>2;OB8 7 4>@>A;8< A:;040T ?V4@C=BO 28=8:=5==O =>2>CB2>@5=L. > =8E =0;560BL: 28=8:=5==O 65ABC, 28=8:=5==O E>4V==O, 02B>=><=0 <>20. @>BO3>< ?5@H>3> @>:C 68BBO 48B8=0 >2>;>4V20T @CE0<8 2;0A=>3> BV;0. &5 284=> =0 ?@8:;04V @CEC @C:8. !?>G0B:C ?@>ABO30==O @C:8 4> ?@54<5B0, 40;V 70E>?;5==O V <0=V?C;N20==O =8<. 8<>2V;L=V, @5D;5:B>@=V 4VW ?>ABC?>2> ?5@5B2>@NNBLAO C 4>2V;L=V. ;5 F5 AB>ACTBLAO ;8H5 @CEV2, 0 =5 4V9. 8B8=0 C FL><C 2VFV I5 =5 AB028BL ?5@54 A>1>N CA2V4><;5=>W <5B8. >=0 BO3=5BLAO 4> V3@0H:8 ;8H5 B><C, I> 2>=0 ?@8201;NT WW. /:I> 48B8=0 =5 <>65 4>BO3=CB8AO 4> V3@0H:8 V =5 <>65 WW 27OB8, B> F5 4>1@5 @>7C<VT <0<0. >=0 7@>7C<V;0 ?@03=5==O 48B8=8 V ?>40;0 W9 V3@0H:C. 030B>@07>25 ?>2B>@5==O FL>3>, B>1B> @CEC C =0?@O<:C V3@0H:8, I> T =54>AO6=>N (65AB 4> A515), ?>ABC?>2> ?@82>48BL 4> ?5@5B2>@5==O @CEC C 2:07V2=89 65AB (65AB 4;O V=H8E). "0: D>@<CTBLAO A?@><>6=VABL C?@02;OB8 ?>254V=:>N V=H8E 70 4>?><>3>N 65ABC. @870 ?5@H>3> @>:C 68BBO ?>2 O70=0 7 >2>;>4V==O< 48B8=>N E>4V==O<. !0<5 2>=> @>7@820T T4=VABL 48B8=8 7 4>@>A;8<8. "5?5@ 48B8=0 <0B8<5 <>6;82VABL 7=09><8B8AO (A?@89<0B8) 7 B8<8 ?@54<5B0<8, I> WW FV:02;OBL, 0 =5 7 B8<8, I> ?@>?>=CNBL 4>@>A;V. 025@H5==O ?5@H>3> @>:C 68BBO =5 ?>2 O70=5 7 >2>;>4V==O< @V4=>N <>2>N. 8B8=0 <>65 28<>2;OB8 45:V;L:0 A;V2, 0;5 A;>20 2V4>1@060NBL 1V;LH5 72C:>2C 1C4>2C, =V6 72CG0==O C @50;L=>ABV. "0: 28=8:0NBL ?>4V1=V 70 72CG0==O< 4> @50;L=8E A;>20, 0 V=>4V V 7>2AV< W< =5 2V4?>2V40NBL. "0:V A;>20 @>7C<VT ;8H5 <0<0. "0: 28=8:0T 02B>=><=0 <>20, 7@>7C<V;0 ;8H5 <0B5@V B0 48B8=V. 0?@8:;04: 1C:>  O1;C:>, ?;T:0  E;V1 (2V4 @>A. E;51) V B. V=. @V< B>3>, ?@>BO3>< ?5@H>3> @>:C 68BBO C 48B8=8 @>72820TBLAO 2AO ?V7=020;L=0 AD5@0: C2030 B0 ?V7=020;L=V ?@>F5A8. >20 C F59 ?5@V>4 A?@89<0TBLAO C T4=>ABV 7 A8BC0FVTN 270T<>4VW 7 4>@>A;8<8, 0 ?>GCBBO ?>2 O70=V A?>G0B:C 7 A8BC0FVTN 704>2>;5==O 1V>;>3VG=8E ?>B@51. 70T<>4VO 7 4>@>A;8<8 (V3@0H:8, 4VW 7 ?@54<5B0<8) 28:;8:0NBL ?>78B82=V ?>GCBBO. # F59 ?5@V>4 28=8:0T ?>GCBBO 7482C20==O, I> 7=0<5=CT 28=8:=5==O ?V7=020;L=>3> AB02;5==O 4> 4V9A=>ABV. 5@V>4 @0==L>3> 48B8=AB20. 5@V>4 @0==L>3> 48B8=AB20 2V4 1 4> 3 @>:V2 E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO A>FV0;L=>N A8BC0FVTN, I> ?5@5410G0T =0O2=VABL 4>@>A;>3>. >@>A;89 28:>=CT DC=:FVN A?>=C:0==O 4> 0:B82=>ABV. =0G5==O 4>@>A;>3> C 68BBV 48B8=8 25;8G57=5, 0;5 C FL><C 2VFV 7<V=NTBLAO E0@0:B5@ 270T<>2V4=>A8=. # FL><C 2VFV 48B8=0 ?>B@51CT, I>1 4>@>A;89 A?V2?@0FN202 7 =5N, >@30=V7>2C202 4VO;L=VABL, 4>?><0302 C 206:C E28;8=C, B>1B> @>182 B5, I> @>18BL 48B8=0. .. ;L:>=V= 22060T, I> @>728B>: 48B8=8 74V9A=NTBLAO =5 ?@>AB> C A8AB5<V 270T<>4VW 7 ?@54<5B0<8, 0 C A8AB5<V 48B8=0 - ACA?V;LAB2>. 8B8=0 270T<>4VT 7 ?@54<5B0<8, I> <0NBL ?52=5 ACA?V;L=5 7=0G5==O B0 7 4>@>A;8<8. # FV9 A8AB5<V 270T<>2V4=>A8= 284V;ONBL 42V ?V4A8AB5<8: 48B8=0  ?@54<5B  4>@>A;89 B0 48B8=0  4>@>A;89  ?@54<5B. # ?5@HV9 270T<>2V4=>A8=8 48B8=8 7 4>@>A;8< >?>A5@54:>2CNBLAO ?@54<5B><, 0 C 4@C3V9  270T<>2V4=>A8=8 48B8=8 7 ?@54<5B>< >?>A5@54:>2CNBLAO 4>@>A;8<. 0O2=VABL 42>E F8E ?V4A8AB5< 270T<>2V4=>A8= A:;040T ?V4@C=BO B>3>, I> C 4VOE >4=VTW ;N48=8 702648 ?@8ACB=O V=H0. N48=0, - AB25@46CT .. ;L:>=V=, - 702648 42V ;N48=8. !>FV0;L=0 A8BC0FVO C @0==L><C 48B8=AB2V @>7H8@NTBLAO A?V;:C20==O< 7 >4=>;VB:0<8. # FL><C 2VFV 48B8=0 ;N18BL 25AL A2VB, @04VT CA?VE0< V=H8E, A0<>ABV9=> HC:0T D>@<8 270T<>2V4=>A8= 7 >4=>;VB:0<8. @>2V4=89 B8? 4VO;L=>ABV  ?@54<5B=> - <0=V?C;OB82=0. !?>G0B:C 48B8=0 >4=><0=VB=> <0=V?C;NT ?@54<5B0<8, I> ?>B@0?;ONBL 4> WW @C:. >;>2=8< C 270T<>4VW 48B8=8 7 4>@>A;8< T A?V;L=0 A?@020  ?@0:B8G=0 A?V2?@0FO. >B82>< A?V;:C20==O T 4V;>289 <>B82. 06;82>N T =5 ?@>AB0 ?@8ACB=VABL 4>@>A;>3>, 0 I>1 2V= <02 2V4=>H5==O 4> B>3>, G8< 709<0TBLAO 48B8=0, A?V2?@0FN202 7 =5N. >ABC?>2> <0=V?C;OB82=0 4VO;L=VABL 70<V=NTBLAO ?@54<5B=>N, B>1B> 48B8=0 ?>G8=0T 4VOB8 7 ?@54<5B0<8 C 2V4?>2V4=> 4> WE A>FV0;L=>3> ?@87=0G5==O. CG:>N - ?8HCBL, >;V2F5< - <0;NNBL, ;>6:>N  W4OBL, V7 A:;O=:8  ? NBL V B. V=. 8B8=0 ?>G8=0T 70A2>N20B8 A>FV0;L=5 ?@87=0G5==O ?@54<5BV2 V >2>;>4V20T 2V4?>2V4=8<8 4VO<8. AL G><C 206;82> C ?5@V>4 @0==L>3> 48B8=AB20 =02G8B8 48B8=C :>@8ABC20B8AO ;>6:>N, G0H:>N, @CG:>N, >;V2F5<. 5@V>4 @0==L>3> 48B8=AB20 T A5=78B82=8< 4;O >2>;>4V==O ?@54<5B=8<8 4VO<8. AV ?@54<5B8 4;O ;N48=8 <0NBL DV:A>20=5 7=0G5==O. @VT=B0FVW C FL><C 7=0G5==V 48B8=C =02G0T 4>@>A;89 C ?@0:B8G=V9 A?V2?@0FV. $C=:FV>=0;L=V 2;0AB82>ABV ?@54<5BV2 70A2>NNBLAO 48B8=>N CA?VH=VH5 C ?@>F5AV =02G0==O V 28E>20==O. > ?@54<5B=8E 4V9 =5>1EV4=> 4>40B8 A?V22V4=>A=V 4VW. &5 4VW 7 @V7=><0=VB=8<8 ?V@0<V4:0<8, :>@>1:0<8 V B. V=. !C:C?=VABL 2AVE 4V9 287=0G0NBL ?A8EVG=89 @>728B>: 48B8=8 C FL><C 2VFV. !0<>ABV9=5 ?5@5<VI5==O 48B8=8 C ?@>AB>@V 70157?5GCT 4>ABC?=VABL W9 2AVE ?@54<5BV2. > B>3> 6 C F59 ?5@V>4 48B8=0 0:B82=> >2>;>4V20T @V4=>N <>2>N. A5 F5 AB2>@NT A?@8OB;82V C<>28 4;O @>728B:C 2AVE AD5@ ?A8EV:8 ;N48=8. A8EVG=89 @>728B>: ;N48=8 E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO B8<, I> C >4=0:>2V G0A>2V ?@><V6:8 ?A8EV:0 ?@>E>48BL @V7=V ?@><V6:8. /:I> AB0=>2;5==O ?A8EV:8 4>@>A;>W ;N48=8 2V41C20TBLAO ?@>BO3>< 20 @>:V2, B> ?>;>28=0 FL>3> @>728B:C 2V41C20TBLAO ?@>BO3>< ?5@H8E 3 @>:V2. # ?5@V>4 @0==L>3> 48B8=AB20 D>@<CNBLAO B0:V 4>AO3=5==O @>728B:C : - >2>;>4V20T ?@O<>E>4V==O<; - >2>;>4V20T @V4=>N <>2>N; - A?@><>6=0 4> A0<>>1A;C3>2C20==O; - A?@><>6=0 2AB0=>2;N20B8 270T<>2V4=>A8=8 7 >B>G5==O<; - 2>;>4VT 5;5<5=B0@=8<8 =>@<0<8 ?>254V=:8; - 28A>:89 @V25=L 0:B82=>ABV V A0<>ABV9=>ABV; - >2>;>4V20T ?@>AB>@>28<8 A?V22V4=>H5==O<8 ?@54<5BV2; - >2>;>4V20T ?@54<5B=8<8 V A?V22V4=>A=8<8 4VO<8; - 24>A:>=0;NNBLAO ?A8EVG=V ?@>F5A8. !C:C?=VABL 4>AO3=5=L ?@82>48BL 4> CA2V4><;5==O A515 O: A0<>ABV9=>W 4V9>2>W >A>18AB>ABV. @V< B>3>, 48B8=0 1030B> I> 2<VT @>18B8 A0<0. 2>;>4V==O <>2>N A?@8OT >2>;>4V==N >A>1>28< 709<5==8:>< /. @>BO3>< @0==L>3> 48B8=AB20 48B8=0 =07820T A515 ?> V<5=V, O: V 4>@>A;V. 0 B@5BL><C @>FV 68BBO 48B8=0 ?>G8=0T =07820B8 A515 709<5==8:>< /. V4 FL>3> <><5=BC 48B8=0 CA2V4><;NT, I> <>65 1V;LH5, E>G5 1CB8 A0<>ABV9=>N B0 4>@>A;>N. V41C20TBLAO 7<V=0 270T<>2V4=>A8= 7 4>@>A;8<8. 8=8:0T ?@>B8AB02;5==O 4>@>A;><C, I> 28@060TBLAO C 28A;>2;5==V O A0<. >=> 2V4>1@060T ?@03=5==O 48B8=8 1CB8 4>@>A;>N 70@07, 4> A0<>ABV9=>ABV. "0: 28=8:0T :@870 3 @>:V2. !;V4 ?0< OB0B8, I> ?@03=5==O 48B8=8 4> A0<>ABV9=>ABV =5>1EV4=> 704>2>;L=OB8. ;5 4><030==O 48B8=8 70=04B> 25;8:V. @8 =5>1EV4=>ABV 48B8=0 725@B0TBLAO 4> 4>@>A;>3> 70 4>?><>3>N. &N 4>?><>3C =5>1EV4=> =04020B8. @870 B@L>E @>:V2 7=0E>48BL A2>T 28@VH5==O C =>2><C B8?V ?@>2V4=>W 4VO;L=>ABV  V3@>2V9.  F5 265 =>289 2V:>289 ?5@V>4 @>728B:C. >2>CB2>@5==O ?5@V>4C @0==L>3> 48B8=AB20: 2V4>:@5<;5==O A515 2V4 >B>G5==O; 2V4>:@5<;5==O 2;0A=8E 4V9 2V4 A515; ?>@V2=O==O A515 7 V=H8<8; A0<>A2V4><VABL; A8AB5<0 /; ?>GCBBO 4>@>A;>ABV. >H:V;L=89 2V:. >H:V;L=5 48B8=AB2> 2V4 3 4> 7 @>:V2 70157?5GCT >2>;>4V==O A8AB5<>N A>FV0;L=8E 270T<>2V4=>A8= 4>@>A;8E, 0;5 C 4>ABC?=V9 4;O 48B8=8 V3@>2V9 D>@<V. !>FV0;L=0 A8BC0FVO @>728B:C 4>H:V;L=8:V2 ?>;O30T C 7<V=V 270T<>2V4=>A8= V7 4>@>A;8<8. !?V;L=V 4VW 7 4>@>A;8< ?5@V>4C @0==L>3> 48B8=AB20 70<V=NNBLAO A0<>ABV9=8< 28:>=0==O< 2:07V2>: 4>@>A;>3>. &5 ?5@H5. @C30 >A>1;82VABL A>FV0;L=>W A8BC0FVW 4>H:V;L=8:V2 ?>;O30T C 28=8:=5==V 270T<>2V4=>A8= V7 >4=>;VB:0<8 V 28=8:=5==O >A>1;82>3> 48BOG>3> ACA?V;LAB20. 091V;LH GVB:> F5 28O2;OTBLAO C ACA?V;L=V9 A8AB5<V 4>H:V;L=>3> 28E>20==O. "@5BO >A>1;82VABL  >A>1;82VABL 4VO;L=>ABV. @03=5==O 1CB8 B0:8<, O: 4>@>A;89, V >4=>G0A=0 2V4ACB=VABL =5>1EV4=8E 7=0=L V =028G>: ?@82>4OBL 4> B>3>, I> 48B8=0 @50;V7CT F5 ?@03=5==O C V3@>2V9 4VO;L=>ABV. 3@>20 4VO;L=VABL T ?@>2V4=>N C 4>H:V;L=><C 2VFV, 1> A0<5 C =V9 D>@<CNBLAO =>2>CB2>@5==O B0 =>20 ?@>2V4=0 4VO;L=VABL  =02G0;L=0. A=CT 25;8:0 :V;L:VABL V3>@: @CE><V, 7 ?@028;0<8, :>=AB@C:B82=V, 4840:B8G=V, @>;L>2V. !0<5 @>;L>2C 3@C 22060NBL ?@>2V4=>N C FL><C 2VFV. 3@>20 4VO;L=VABL 4VB59 4>H:V;L=>3> 2V:C T A?@026=L>N ;N4AL:>N 4VO;L=VABN. >;L>20 3@0 4VB59 <0T =87:C >A>1;82>AB59. @0 T D>@<>N 0:B82=>3> 2V4>1@065==O 48B8=>N 68BBO ;N459. V4@C=BO< WW T ?@54<5B=> - <0=V?C;OB82=0 4VO;L=VABL V =0A;V4C20=VABL 4V9. "0:, =0A;V4CNG8 4VW 4>@>A;>3>, 48B8=0 <8T ?>AC4, 3>4CT ;O;L:C, W748BL =0 B@0=A?>@BV V B. V=. @0 74V9A=NTBLAO :><?;5:A=8<8 4VO<8, 4> O:8E 2:;NG0TBLAO <>20. !B0@HV 4>H:V;L=8:8 >13>2>@NNBL AN65B 3@8, 4V9>28E >AV1, EB> WE 1C45 28:>=C20B8. @0 <0T ACA?V;L=89 E0@0:B5@ V 7<V=NTBLAO @07>< V7 VAB>@8G=8<8 C<>20<8. # 3@V 48B8=0 2V4:@820T 4;O A515 270T<>2V4=>A8=8 ;N459. @0 ?5@5410G0T 28:>=0==O >1>2 O7:V2 V 40T ?@020. 8:>=0==O @>;V C 3@V ?5@5410G0T 28:>=0==O >1>2 O7:V2 V 74V9A=5==O ?@02 I>4> V=H8E CG0A=8:V2 3@8. 50;L=89 AN65B 3@8 4>72>;OT >7=09><8B8AO 7 4VO;L=VABN V 270T<>2V4=>A8=0<8 4>@>A;8E, 0 @50;L=V 270T<>2V4=>A8=8 4VB59 D>@<CNBL C 4VB59 C<V==O 25AB8 A515 C @V7=8E A8BC0FVOE. # @50;L=8E 270T<>2V4=>A8=0E 4>H:V;L=8:0 7 4>@>A;8< 48B8=0 <>65 =5 BV;L:8 =5N 1CB8, 0;5 <>65 V 3@0B8 @>;L 48B8=8, I>1 4>AO3B8 1060=>3>. "0: 2>=0 <>65 AB0B8 F5=B@>< C2038. 8BOG0 A;01:VABL ?5@5B2>@NTBLAO =0 4VT2C A8;C, I> 28:>@8AB>2CTBLAO 48B8=>N C 2;0A=8E V=B5@5A0E. 4. @0 T D>@<>N B2>@G>3> 2V4>1@065==O 4V9A=>ABV. # 3@V =5 ?@>AB> 2V4B2>@NNBLAO 270T<>2V4=>A8=8 4>@>A;8E, 0 4>40TBLAO 48BOG0 D0=B07VO. 04V> V B5;510G5==O, :>A<>A V 1C4V2=8FB2>, 2V9=0 V ;V:0@=O, AV< O V @8=>:, :@0<=8FO V 70;V7=8FO  F5 B5<8 48BOG8E V3>@. >=8 157:V=5G=V, O: 68BBO ;N48=8 V D0=B07VO 48B8=8. 50;L=VABL V D0=B07VO BVA=> ?5@5?;VB0NBLAO C 3@V. 8B8=0 ?>G8=0T @>7C<VB8 <>6;82VABL 70<V=8 @50;L=>3> ?@54<5B0 V3@0H:>N 01> 28?04:>28< ?@54<5B><. "0: 3@0 =01C20T A8<2>;VG=>3> E0@0:B5@C. /:I> ?0;8FO ?5@5B2>@NTBLAO =0 @CH=8FN, B> 7 =5W AB@V;ONBL, O:I> =0 :>=O, B> =0 =L><C W74OBL, O:I> =0 ?0@>?;02, B> 2V= <0T ?;020B8. "0: D>@<CTBLAO A8<2>;VG=0 D>@<0 A2V4><>ABV. 5. @0 ?5@5410G0T 28:>@8AB0==O 7=0=L, C?@02;V==O A2>W<8 5<>FVO<8. !0<5 C 3@V 0:B82=> @>72820NBLAO ?V7=020;L=V B0 5<>FV9=> - 2>;L>2V ?@>F5A8. 6. @0 T :>;5:B82=>N D>@<>N 4VO;L=>ABV. AV CG0A=8:8 3@8 A?V2?@0FNNBL. >;L>20 3@0 >1 T4=CT CG0A=8:V2 T48=8< AN65B><. 70T<>2V4=>A8=8 >4=>;VB:V2 D>@<CNBL ?>B@51C C 287=0==V B0 4>AO30==V 7=0GCI>3> <VAFO C 3@C?V >4=>;VB:V2. !0<5 C 3@V D>@<CNBLAO A>FV0;L=V D>@<8 ?>254V=:8 V WW <>6=0 @>73;O40B8 O: H:>;C A>FV0;L=8E 2V4=>A8=. # 3@V 4VB8 =02G0NBLAO A?V2?@0FV B0 A?V2?5@56820==N. 7. @0 @>72820T 4VB59 V A0<0 @>72820TBLAO. @V< V3@>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV, 4>H:V;L=8:8 709<0NBLAO ?@>4C:B82=>N (<0;N20==O, 0?;V:0FVW, :>=AB@CN20==O) B0 B@C4>2>N (28:>=CT 4>@CG5==O 4>@>A;>3>) 4VO;L=VABN. # 2AVE 2840E 4VO;L=>ABV ?>ABC?>2> 28=8:0NBL 5;5<5=B8 =02G0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. ;5 A8AB5<0B8G=>W =02G0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV I5 =5<0T. 091V;LH GVB:> >A>1;82>ABV =02G0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV 4>H:V;L=8:V2 28O2;ONBLAO C 4VB59 6 - @VG=>3> 2V:C. (5AB8@VG:8 E>GCBL AB0B8 H:>;O@0<8, 0;5 F5 ;8H5 ?@03=5==O 7<V=8B8 A2V9 A>FV0;L=89 AB0BCA. &5 ?@03=5==O =5 28:;8:0T ?>B@518 7<V=8B8 A?>AV1 68BBO V 4VO;L=>ABV. >=8 E>GCBL ?5@5=5AB8 4> H:>;8 :>;8H=V9 A?>AV1 68BBO. &5 28O2;OTBLAO C 281>@V H:>;8 7 ?52=8< @>7:;04>< 70=OBL. (5AB8@VG=V 4VB8 2V440NBL ?5@5203C H:>;V 7 4>H:V;L=8< @>7:;04>< 70=OBL. @C35. VB8 H5AB8@VG=>3> 2V:C =54>AB0B=L> >@VT=BCNBLAO =0 ACA?V;L=> 28@>1;5=V D>@<8 ?>254V=:8 C H:>;V B0 >FV=:8 @57C;LB0BV2 4VO;L=>ABV. >=8 7 704>2>;5==O< A?@89<0NBL B0:C H:>;C, C O:V9 <>6=0 ?>2>48B8 A515 O: 70E>G5BLAO. /: 28=03>@>4C 70 CA?VE8 2>=8 E>GCBL >45@6C20B8 V3@0H:8, A>;>4>IV, ?>40@C=:8. #A5 F5 A2V4G8BL ?@> B5, I> D>@<8 B0 <5B>48 @>1>B8 7 4VBL<8 H:V;L=>3> 2V:C =5 <>6CBL 28:>@8AB>2C20B8AO ?@8 @>1>BV 7 4>H:V;L=8:0<8, C B><C G8A;V 9 7 H5AB8@VG:0<8. @03=5==O 4VB59 4>H:V;L=>3> 2V:C 4> A0<>ABV9=>ABV A?@8OT D>@<C20==N 4>2V;L=>ABV ?A8EVG=8E ?@>F5AV2 V AC?V4@O4=>ABV <>B82V2 B0 A0<>>FV=:8. >2V;L=VABL ?A8EVG=8E ?@>F5AV2 ?5@5410G0T ?>AB0=>2:C <5B8 V 2>;L>2V 7CA8;;O 4;O WW @50;V70FVW. >H:V;L=8:8, >A>1;82> AB0@HV, <>6CBL 4>2V;L=> 70?0< OB>2C20B8, A?>AB5@V30B8, ?>@V2=N20B8 B>I>. /:I> 48B8=0 <>65 I>AL @>18B8 4>2V;L=>, B> 2>=0 <0T C F59 <><5=B 2V4<>28B8AO 2V4 G>3>AL ?@8201;82VH>3>. "0: 28=8:0T AC?V4@O4=VABL <>B82V2. >H:V;L=8:V2 A?>=C:0T 4> 4VO;L=>ABV A8AB5<0 <>B82V2, V C :>6=89 <><5=B ?52=89 <>B82 28E>48BL =0 ?5@H5 <VAF5. /:I> 48B8=0 <>65 2V4<>28B8AO, =0?@8:;04, 2V4 <C;LBDV;L<C, =0 :>@8ABL G8B0==O, B> F5 3>2>@8BL ?@> =0O2=VABL AC?V4@O4=>ABV <>B82V2. !0<>>FV=:0 =091V;LH A:;04=89 5;5<5=B @>728B:C >A>18AB>ABV 4>H:V;L=8:0. VB8 A?V;:CNBLAO 7 4>@>A;8<8 7 ?@82>4C A2>WE 7>2=VH=VE 4V9 B0 2=CB@VH=VE AB0=V2 V ?5@56820=L. !0<>>FV=:0 28=8:0T ?V4 2?;82>< BVTW >FV=:8, I> 40NBL 4>@>A;V 2G8=:0< 48B8=8.  FVTW >FV=:8 4VB8 2G0BLAO 48D5@5=FVN20B8 B5, I> 4>1@5 V I> ?>30=>. !?>G0B:C 4VB8 2G0BLAO >FV=N20B8 2G8=:8 V=H8E V G5@57 >FV=:C V=H8E 48B8=0 2G8BLAO >FV=N20B8 2;0A=V 2G8=:8 B0 2;0A=C >A>18ABVABL. # 4VB59 4>H:V;L=>3> 2V:C ?@028;L=>W, 045:20B=>W A0<>>FV=:8 =5<0T. "5=45=FVO 4> ?@028;L=>W A0<>>FV=:8 D>@<CTBLAO ;8H5 4> :V=FO 4>H:V;L=>3> 2V:C. >H:V;L=5 48B8=AB2> 70157?5GCT 28=8:=5==O B0:8E =>2>CB2>@5=L : 4>2V;L=VABL ?A8EVG=8E ?@>F5AV2; A8<2>;VG=0 D>@<0 A2V4><>ABV; AC?V4@O4=VABL <>B82V2; A0<>A2V4><VABL V A0<>>FV=:0; A0<>ABV9=VABL; :>;5:B82=VABL 270T<>2V4=>A8=. V7=020;L=5 2V4=>H5==O 4> 4V9A=>ABV D>@<CTBLAO =0 ?V4@C=BV @>728B:C ?V7=020;L=>W AD5@8. V7=0==O >B>GCNG>W 4V9A=>ABV ?>2 O70=5 7 =02G0;L=>N 4VO;L=VABN, 5;5<5=B>< O:>W T =02G0;L=0 4VO. 2>;>4V==O =02G0;L=>N 4VTN 28<030T 284V;5==O =02G0;L=>3> 70240==O. >7C<V==O A<8A;C =02G0;L=8E 70240=L =5>1EV4=5 4;O B>3>, I>1 48B8=0 725@B0;0 C203C =0 A?>A>18 4VW V =0<030;0AO >2>;>4VB8 =8<8. @>O2>< C2038 4> A?>A>1C 4VW T 725@B0==O 4> 4>@>A;>3> 7 ?@82>4C >FV=:8 ?@028;L=>ABV 28:>=0==O 70240==O. "0: D>@<CTBLAO =02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL  ?@>2V4=89 B8? 4VO;L=>ABV <>;>4H>3> H:>;O@0. >;>4H89 H:V;L=89 2V:. !>FV0;L=0 A8BC0FVO ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C <>;>4H>3> H:>;O@0 (7 - 10, 11 @>:V2) E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO 7<V=0<8 A8AB5<8 2V4=>A8= 4>@>A;>3> 4> H:V;L=>3> B@C40@O, 48B8=8 4> A0<>W A515, A2>3> <VAFO C A8AB5<V >4=>;VB:V2 V 4>@>A;8E. >G0B>: =02G0==O C H:>;V 7<V=NT 2AN A8AB5<C 68BBO 48B8=8, WW ?>;>65==O C AV< W. > B>3> 6, 48B8=0 2E>48BL C =>289 :;0A=89 :>;5:B82. # FL><C :>;5:B82V 48B8=0 1C45 68B8, =02G0B8AL, @>72820B8AL, 4>@>A;VH0B8 ?@>BO3>< =091;86G8E 11 @>:V2. ;0A=89 :>;5:B82  F5 =5 ?@>AB> 3@C?0 >4=>;VB:V2. >;5:B82 ?5@5410G0T C<V==O ;N48=8 68B8 9>3> V=B5@5A0<8, ?V4:>@OB8 2;0A=V 1060==O 7030;L=8<, :>;5:B82=8< ?@03=5==O< V 4><030==O<, ?5@5410G0T 270T<=C 28<>3;82VABL, 270T<>4>?><>3C, :>;5:B82=C 2V4?>2V40;L=VABL, 28A>:89 @V25=L >@30=V7>20=>ABV. A5 F5 E0@0:B5@87CT >A>18ABVABL ;N48=8 O: :>;5:B82VAB0. @>2V4=8< B8?>< 4VO;L=>ABV AB0T =02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL. &5 ACA?V;L=> 7=0G8<0 V ACA?V;L=> >FV=N20=0 4VO;L=VABL. 02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL  F5 206:0 ?@0FO, I> 28<030T ?52=>W >@30=V7>20=>ABV, 48AF8?;V=8, 2>;L>28E 7CA8;L. 8B8=V 1V;LH5 4>2>48BLAO @>18B8 =5 B5, I> E>G5BLAO, 0 B5, I> =5>1EV4=> =0 40=89 <><5=B. 5B>N V @57C;LB0B>< =02G0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV T 70A2>T==O =0C:>28E, B5>@5B8G=8E ?>=OBL B0 A?>A>1V2 4VW 7 =8<8. 02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL <0T A2>N AB@C:BC@C. >=0 A:;040TBLAO 7 B0:8E 5;5<5=BV2: =02G0;L=0 A8BC0FVO (70240==O), =02G0;L=V 4VW, :>=B@>;L B0 >FV=:0. >65= 5;5<5=B <0T A2>W >A>1;82>ABV. 02G0;L=0 A8BC0FVO <0T 42V >A>1;82>ABV : CG5=L >2>;>4V20T 7030;L=8<8 A?>A>10<8 284V;5==O 2;0AB82>AB59 ?>=OBL G8 7030;L=8<8 A?>A>10<8 @>72 O7C20==O<8 :>=:@5B=8E 70240=L; 3>;>2=>N <5B>N =02G0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV T 2V4B2>@5==O 7@07:V2 70A2>T=8E A?>A>1V2 4VW. >=:@5B=V ?@0:B8G=V 70240==O <0NBL :>=:@5B=5 68BBT25 7=0G5==O, 0 WE @>72 O70==O 40T B0:V 6 :>=:@5B=V @57C;LB0B8. > B0:8E 70240=L =0;568BL ?8AL<>, @>72 O70==O B5:AB>28E <0B5<0B8G=8E 7040G. ;O CA?VH=>3> 28:>=0==O B0:8E 70240=L =5>1EV4=> 2>;>4VB8 7030;L=8<8 A?>A>10<8 28:>=0==O 4V9, I> <>6CBL 1CB8 284V;5=V ?V4 :5@V2=8FB2>< CG8B5;O. @C389 5B0?  F5 2V4B2>@5==O 7030;L=>3> A?>A>1C 4VW, I> 70157?5GCT >2>;>4V==O =8<. 02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL A:;040TBLAO 7 =02G0;L=8E 4V9. >A;V465==O<8 .. 0@:>2>W 2AB0=>2;5=0 A8AB5<0 =02G0;L=8E 4V9 ?@8 282G5=V 3@0<0B8:8. &5 B0:V 4VW: 1) 7<V=8B8 28EV4=5 A;>2>, 2) ?>@V2=OB8 70 7=0G5==O< V D>@<>N 28EV4=5 A;>2> V 284V;8B8 =>2C <>@D5<C, 3) 7 OAC20B8 DC=:FV>=0;L=5 7=0G5==O <>@D5<. @8 282G5==V ?@8@>4>7=02AB20 =02G0;L=V 4VW 1V;LH A:;04=V V WE 7=0G=> 1V;LH5. >A;V465==O< .. C4>O@0 2AB0=>2;5=V B0:V 4VW: 1) >?8A0B8 2;0AB82>ABV BV; ?@8@>48, 2) ?>@V2=OB8 2;0AB82>ABV BV;, 3) 284V;8B8 2;0AB82VABL, I> 287=0G0T =0;56=VABL 4> ?52=>W 3@C?8, 4) 287=0G8B8 ?@>F5A ?@8@>48, 5) 287=0G8B8 C<>28 VA=C20==O BV; V C<>28 ?@>F5AV2, 6) 287=0G8B8 2=CB@VH=N AB@C:BC@C BV;0 ?@8@>48. 0240==O< CG8B5;O T >@30=V70FVO B0:>W 4VO;L=>ABV, I>1 CG5=L =5 28E>482 70 <56V =02G0;L=8E A8BC0FV9, B>1B> I>1 2V= =5 =0<0302AO ?@>AB> 70?0< OB0B8, 0 70A2>N20B8 7<VAB H;OE>< 28:>=0==O =02G0;L=8E 4V9 C 2V4?>2V4=>ABV 7 WE ?>A;V4>2=VABN. #A?VH=0 =02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL ?5@5410G0T :>=B@>;L. 8B8=0 <0T ?>@V2=N20B8 A2>W 4VW B0 WE @57C;LB0B8 V7 7@07:0<8 4V9, ?>2 O7C20B8 O:VABL @57C;LB0BV2 7 ?>2=>B>N 28:>=0==O =02G0;L=8E 4V9. # =02G0;L=V9 4VO;L=>ABV 284V;ONBL 420 2848 :>=B@>;N. 5@H89 =0 ?V4@C=BV 0=0;V7C >45@60=8E @57C;LB0BV2 D0:B8G=> 28:>=0=8E =02G0;L=8E 4V9. @C389 =0 ?V4@C=BV ?5@5410GC20=8E @57C;LB0BV2 =02G0;L=8E 4V9, I> 28:>=CNBLAO C @>7C<>2><C ?;0=V. VO;L=VABL CG8B5;O <0T 1CB8 A?@O<>20=0 =0 D>@<C20==O 2 CG=V2 C<V==O @>74V;OB8 A2>N 4VO;L=VABL =0 >:@5<V 4VW V ?>@V2=N20B8 WE V7 7@07:><. >=B@>;L C AB@C:BC@V =02G0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV ?>2'O70=89 7 >FV=:>N. "@510 @>7@V7=OB8 ?5403>3VG=C >FV=:C B0 ?A8E>;>3VG=C. 5403>3VG=0 >FV=:0 <0T 12 @0=3>28E 7=0G5=L. A8E>;>3VG=0 >FV=:0 C AB@C:BC@V =02G0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV <0T 420 7=0G5==O: ?>78B82=5 9 =530B82=5. >78B82=5 7=0G5==O A2V4G8BL ?@> B5, I> =02G0;L=0 A8BC0FVO (70240==O) A515 28G5@?0;0 V =5>1EV4=> ?5@5E>48B8 4> V=H>W. 530B82=5 7=0G5==O A2V4G8BL ?@> =5>1EV4=VABL ?>2B>@5==O =02G0;L=8E 4V9 C BV9 65 =02G0;L=V9 A8BC0FVW. FV=:C A?>G0B:C 40T CG8B5;L, V ?>ABC?>2> D>@<CT 2 CG=V2 C<V==O >FV=N20B8 2;0A=V =02G0;L=V 4VW. 02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL O: ?@>2V4=89 B8? 4VO;L=>ABV 2=>A8BL ACBBT2V 7<V=8 C DC=:FV>=C20==O 2AVTW :>3=VB82=>W B0 5<>FV9=> - 2>;L>2>W AD5@8. @>4>26CT @>72820B8AO 4>2V;L=VABL ?A8EVG=8E ?@>F5AV2, 2>=8 AB0NBL 1V;LH CA2V4><;5=8<8 V :5@>20=8<8. A8EVG=89 @>728B>: 48B8=8 <>;>4H>3> H:V;L=>3> 2V:C 287=0G0T =02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL. !0<5 2>=0 70157?5GCT D>@<C20==O O: ?A8EVG=8E =>2>CB2>@5=L, B0: V =>2>3> ?@>2V4=>3> B8?C 4VO;L=>ABV  >A>18ABVA=>3> A?V;:C20==O. > =>2>CB2>@5=L <>;>4H>3> H:V;L=>3> 2V:C 2V4=>AOBL: 0=0;V7, 2=CB@VH=V9 ?;0= 4V9 B0 @5D;5:AVN. =0;V7 T <8A;8B5;L=>N >?5@0FVTN. 84V;ONBL 420 2848 0=0;V7C: 5<?V@8G=89 B0 B5>@5B8G=89. <?V@8G=89 0=0;V7 ?5@5410G0T @>7:;040==O FV;>3> =0 5;5<5=B8. 030;L=V, ?>4V1=V G8 2V4<V==V 2;0AB82>ABV 284V;ONBLAO =0 ?V4@C=BV ?>@V2=O==O. "5>@5B8G=89 0=0;V7 ?>2 O70=89 7 284V;5==O< C ?52=><C FV;><C 9>3> A:;04>28E. 0 9>3> 4>?><>3>N ;N48=0 2V4:@820T 2=CB@VH=N T4=VABL 7>2=V @V7=8E O28I, 2AB0=>2;NT 70:>=><V@=>ABV. $>@<C20==O B5>@5B8G=>3> 0=0;V7C <>;>4H8E H:>;O@V2 <>6;82> ;8H5 70 C<>28, :>;8 CG=V =5 28E>4OBL 70 <56V =02G0;L=>W A8BC0FVW. >A;V465==O<8 2840B=>3> @04O=AL:>3> ?A8E>;>30 .. 0284>20 2AB0=>2;5=>, I> :V;L:VABL CG=V2, O:V <0NBL B5>@5B8G=89 0=0;V7 7@>AB0T 2V4 ?5@H>3> 4> B@5BL>3> :;0AC. =CB@VH=V9 ?;0= 4V9 (?;0=C20==O) 4>72>;OT 48B8=V :@0I5 >@VT=BC20B8AL 2 C<>2V 70240==O. 84V;5=V 2V4=>H5==O 40=8E ?>7=0G0NBLAO @V7=8<8 A8<2>;0<8. &5 70157?5GCT <>6;82VABL ?;0=C20==O 28:>=0==O 70240=L. # 2=CB@VH=L><C ?;0=V 48B8=0 CB@8<CT <>6;82V ?@><V6=V @57C;LB0B8 V <>65 WE ?>@V2=N20B8 7 ?V4AC<:>28<8 @57C;LB0B0<8. '8< 1V;LH5 >?5@0FV9 G8 :@>:V2 A2>WE 4V9 48B8=0 <>65 ?5@5410G8B8 (?;0=C20B8), B8< CA?VH=VH5 2>=0 <>65 ?>@V2=OB8 2V4><V A?>A>18 4V9, 281@0B8 =091V;LH 5D5:B82=V. # B0:><C 28?04:C 4VO;L=VABL CG=O 1V;LH @0FV>=0;L=0, :>=B@>;L 70 4VO;L=VABN 1V;LH 4>FV;L=89. D5:B82=89 :>=B@>;L V A0<>:>=B@>;L <0T 72>@>B=89 2?;82 =0 D>@<C20==O 74V1=>ABV 4> 2=CB@VH=L>3> ?;0=C20==O V 28:>=0==O 4VO;L=>ABV. 5D;5:AVO  F5 ?A8E>;>3VG=0 O:VABL, I> 4>72>;OT @0FV>=0;L=> V >1 T:B82=> 0=0;V7C20B8 A2>W 4VW V 2G8=:8 7 B>G:8 7>@C WE 2V4?>2V4=>ABV C<>20< V 7<VABC 4VO;L=>ABV. 02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL 28<030T >1@C=BC20=L 2V@=>ABV A2>WE 4V9. @07:8 B0:8E >1@C=BC20=L 40T A?>G0B:C 2G8B5;L. @VT=BC20==O =0 7@07:8 V ?>@V2=O==O WE 7 2;0A=8<8 A?@>10<8 >1@C=BC20==O D>@<CT C <>;>4H8E H:>;O@V2 A?@><>6=VABL =V18 7V AB>@>=8 @>73;O40B8 V >FV=N20B8 2;0A=V 4VW. &O A?@><>6=VABL A:;040T ?V4@C=BO D>@<C20==O @5D;5:AVW. >@O4 7 ?A8E>;>3VG=8<8 =>2>CB2>@5==O<8 D>@<CTBLAO V @>72820TBLAO >A>18ABVA=5 A?V;:C20==O. >=> T ?@>2V4=8< C ?V4;VB:>2><C 2VFV. !C:C?=VABL 7<V= C ?A8EVFV <>;>4H>3> H:>;O@0 AB2>@NNBL ?5@54C<>28 4;O =>@<0;L=>3> ?5@5E>4C =0  ABC?V=L =02G0==O V ?A8EVG=89 @>728B>: C ?V4;VB:>2><C 2VFV. 15. 4. A8EVG=89 @>728B>: C ?V4;VB:>2><C 2VFV A8EVG=89 @>728B>: ;N48=8 C ?V4;VB:>2><C 2VFV (10,11  14,15 @>:V2) 287=0G0T >A>18ABVA=5 A?V;:C20==O, O: ?@>2V4=89 B8? 4VO;L=>ABV. V4;VB:>289 2V: =07820NBL ?5@5EV4=8<, 206:8<, :@8B8G=8<. # FL><C 7=09H;8 2V4>1@065==O 206;82VABL V A:;04=VABL ?@>F5AV2 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. >=8 ?>2 O70=V 7 ?5@5E>4>< 4> =>2>W 5?>E8 @>728B:C  4> 4>@>A;>ABV. # F59 ?5@V>4 7 O2;ONBLAO 5;5<5=B8 4>@>A;>ABV, O: V 2;0A=5 WE 2V4GCBBO  ?>GCBBO 4>@>A;>ABV. # >@30=V7<V ?V4;VB:V2 2V41C20NBLAO ACBBT2V 7<V=8 0=0B><> - DV7V>;>3VG=>3> B0 ?A8EVG=>3> E0@0:B5@C. <V=NTBLAO A8AB5<0 270T<>2V4=>A8= 7 4>@>A;8<8 V >4=>;VB:0<8, A2V4><VABL V A0<>A2V4><VABL, A?>A>18 A>FV0;L=>W 270T<>4VW, V=B5@5A8, ?V7=020;L=0 V =02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL, <>@0;L=VABL V 5B8G=VABL. !0<5 C FL><C ACB=VABL A>FV0;L=>W A8BC0FVW ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C ?V4;VB:0. # FV9 A8BC0FVW 284V;ONBL 42V 3@C?8 D0:B>@V2. 5@H5. &5 D0:B>@8, I> 30;L<CNBL @>728B>: 4>@>A;>ABV ?V4;VB:V2. !N48 =0;568BL =02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL ?@8 2V4ACB=>ABV ?>ABV9=8E >1>2 O7:V2, ?@03=5==O 10BL:V2 72V;L=8B8 A2>WE 4VB59 (?V4;VB:V2) 2V4 ?>1CB>2>W ?@0FV, ?@>1;5<, BC@1>B, =5?@8T<=>AB59. @C30. &5 D0:B>@8, I> ?@8A:>@NNBL @>728B>: 4>@>A;>ABV. !N48 2E>48BL 25;8G57=89 ?>BV: @V7=><0=VB=>W 70 7<VAB>< V=D>@<0FVW, 709=OBVABL 10BL:V2 C ?52=V9 AD5@V (V 4>1@5, O:I> =5 =0 70@>1VB:0E 70 :>@4>=><), @0==O A0<>ABV9=VABL ?V4;VB:V2, 0:B82=89 @>728B>: A?V;:C20==O 7 >4=>;VB:0<8, 0:A5;5@0FVO DV78G=>3> @>728B:C V AB0B52>3> 4>7@V20==O. V4;VB:>289 2V: 22060NBL 206:8<. &5 >1C<>2;NTBLAO, ?> - ?5@H5, O:VA=8<8 7<V=0<8, I> =>AOBL E0@0:B5@ 4>:>@V==>W 7<V=8 ?>?5@54=VE >A>1;82>AB59, V=B5@5AV2, 2V4=>A8=. A5 F5 =040T @>728B:C 1C@E;8289 E0@0:B5@. > - 4@C35, 7<V=8, I> 2V41C20NBLAO C ?A8EVFV ?V4;VB:0 4C65 G0AB> AC?@>2>46CNBLAO ?5@56820==O<8 AC1 T:B82=8E B@C4=>IV2 V B@C4=>IV2 28E>20==O. V4;VB:8 206:> ?V440NBLAO ?5403>3VG=8< 2?;820< 4>@>A;8E.  O2;ONBLAO @V7=><0=VB=V D>@<8 ?@>B5ABC (2?5@BVABL, 3@C1VABL, =530B82V7<, 70<:=5=VABL, A:@8B=VABL V B. V=.). @>2V4=8< B8?>< 4VO;L=>ABV C ?V4;VB:V2 T >A>18ABVA=5 A?V;:C20==O. > ?V4;VB:>2>3> 2V:C AB2>@NNBLAO >A>1;82V C<>28 C 42>E A8AB5<0E A?V;:C20==O: 7 4>@>A;8<8 B0 7 >4=>;VB:0<8. # A8AB5<V A?V;:C20==O 7 4>@>A;8<8 ?V4;VB>: 709<0T =5@V2=>?@02=5 ?>;>65==O. >=> ?>2 O70=5 7 <>@0;;N A;CE=O=>ABV 4;O 4VB59. # A?V;:C20==V 7 >4=>;VB:0<8 <0T <VAF5 ?@8=F8?>20 @V2=VABL, I> 2V4?>2V40T A8AB5<V 270T<>2V4=>A8= C A2VBV 4>@>A;8E. V2=VABL 270T<>2V4=>A8= 7 >4=>;VB:0<8 A:;040T ?V4@C=BO A?V2?@0FV >4=>;VB:V2 C @V7=8E 2840E 4VO;L=>ABV. "0:0 A8BC0FVO 270T<>2V4=>A8= 7 4>@>A;8<8 B0 ?V4;VB:0<8 T ?0@04>:A0;L=>N. 70T<>2V4=>A8=8 ?V4;VB:0 7 >4=>;VB:0<8 D>@<CNBLAO =0 =>@<0E <>@0;V 4>@>A;8E (@V2=>ABV), 0 7 4>@>A;8<8  =0 =>@<0E <>@0;V 4VB59 ( A;CE=O=VABL). &O A8BC0FVO <0T B0:V =0A;V4:8: A?V2?@0FO V=B5=A82=VH5 @>72820TBLAO C A8AB5<V 270T<>2V4=>A8= V7 >4=>;VB:0<8; A?V;:C20==O 7 >4=>;VB:0<8, 0 =5 7 4>@>A;8<8 70157?5GCT 1V;LH5 704>2>;5==O V @>728B>: A>FV0;L=> -<>@0;L=>W 4>@>A;>ABV; 70A2>T==O ?V4;VB:0<8 =>@< <>@0;V 4>@>A;8E <>65 2ABC?8B8 C AC?5@5G=VABL 7 =>@<0<8 <>@0;V A;CE=O=>ABV B0 >45@60B8 ?5@5<>3C B><C, I> 48BOG0 <>@0;L A;CE=O=>ABV 28G5@?0;0 A515.  >B65, >A>18ABVA=5 A?V;:C20==O 7 >4=>;VB:0<8 V T ?@>2V4=8< B8?>< 4VO;L=>ABV C FL><C 2VFV. V2=>?@02=VABL C 270T<>2V4=>A8=0E 7 >4=>;VB:0<8 ?@8201;NT ?V4;VB:V2, 1> F5 2V4?>2V40T 5B8G=><C 7<VABC ?>GCBBO 4>@>A;>ABV, I> 0:B82=> D>@<CTBLAO. 70T<>2V4=>A8=8 7 >4=>;VB:0<8 A:;04=VHV, 1030B><0=VB=VHV, 7<VAB>2=VHV, =V6 C <>;>4H>3> H:>;O@0. @V< B>3>, 2V41C20TBLAO VT@0@EV70FVO F8E 2V4=>A8=: ?@>AB> B>20@8HV, 1;87L:V B>20@8HV, >A>18AB89 4@C3. !?V;:C20==O 28E>48BL 70 <56V H:>;8 V =02G0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV, 28>:@5<;NTBLAO C A0<>ABV9=C AD5@C 68BBO 28A>:>3> @V2=O FV==>ABV, I> 70<VICT =02G0;L=C 4VO;L=VABL B0 A?V;:C20==O 7 10BL:0<8 =0 4@C389 ?;0=. 70T<>2V4=>A8=8 7 >4=>;VB:0<8 C ?V4;VB:0 284V;ONBLAO C AD5@C >A>18ABVA=8E 2V4=>A8=, C O:8E 2V= 4VT A0<>ABV9=>. V= 22060T, I> <0T ?@02> =0 F5, 70E8I0T A2>T ?@02>. 5B0:B>2=5 2B@CG0==O 4>@>A;8E C A8AB5<C 270T<>2V4=>A8= ?V4;VB:V2 28:;8:0T >1@07C V @V7=><0=VB=V D>@<8 ?@>B5ABC. V4;VB>: ?@03=5 <0B8 1;87L:8E B>20@8HV2, 1CB8 287=0=8<, ?@89=OB8< B>20@8H5<. 5?@8T<=>N A8BC0FVTN 4;O ?V4;VB:0 T I8@5 70AC465==O :>;5:B82C B>20@8HV2, 0 =09206G8< ?>:0@0==O<  V7>;OFVO. 5704>2V;L=V 270T<>2V4=>A8=8 7 >4=>;VB:0<8 HB>2E0NBL ?V4;VB:0 =0 ?>HC:8 B>20@8HV2 70 <560<8 :;0AC V H:>;8. /: ?@028;>, 2>=8 WE 7=0E>4OBL, 0;5 =5 702648 4>AB0B=L> <>@0;L=8<8 V A>FV0;L=> >@VT=B>20=8<8. 0A;V4:8 B0:8E 270T<>2V4=>A8=, =0 60;L, 4>A8BL =5?@8201;82V. 70T<>2V4=>A8=8 ?V4;VB:V2 D>@<CNBLAO =570;56=> 2V4 1060==O 4>@>A;8E, V =02VBL 2AC?5@5G W<. 0 ?5@H89 ?;0= ?@8 >FV=FV >4=>;VB:0 O: B>20@8H0 28ABC?0NBL B0:V O:>ABV, O: :<VB;82VABL, 7=0==O (0 =5 CA?VH=VABL C =02G0==V), A<V;82VABL, G5A=VABL, C<V==O 2>;>4VB8 A>1>N. )>1 1CB8 ?@89=OB8<, ?V4;VB>: <0T 1CB8 4>1@8< B>20@8H5<. "><C C ?V4;VB:>2><C 2VFV 2V41C20TBLAO 7<V=0 02B>@8B5BV2. >@<8 :>45:AC B>20@8AL:>W 4@C618: >A>18ABVA=0 3V4=VABL, @V2=VABL, 270T<>4>?><>30, G5A=VABL C A5@54>28IV ?V4;VB:V2 >FV=NNBLAO 4>A8BL 28A>:>. A:V;L:8 FV =>@<8 71V30NBLAO 7 2V4?>2V4=8<8 =>@<0<8 C 4>@>A;8E, B> ?@>F5A A?V;:C20==O 7 >4=>;VB:0<8 T A2>T@V4=8< 28E>2=8< 70:;04>< D>@<C20==O V @>728B:C A>FV0;L=> - <>@0;L=>W 4>@>A;>ABV ?V4;VB:V2. "0: 720=V =5?>?C;O@=V ?V4;VB:8 <>6CBL <0B8 1C4L - O:V =530B82=V @8A8, 0;5 2AV< W< 2;0AB820 >4=0 2040  2V4ACB=VABL O:>AB59 4>1@>3> B>20@8H0. &O 2040 =VG8< =5 :><?5=ACTBLAO, 0 B><C =02VBL 2V4<V==8: <>65 28O28B8AO V7>;L>20=8<. V4;VB:8 E>GCBL <0B8 1;87L:>3>, >A>18AB>3> 4@C30. @8201;N20B8 ?V4;VB:V2 <>6CBL @V7=><0=VB=V O:>ABV: B>20@8AL:V O:>ABV, 7=0==O, C<V==O, A?>@B82=V 4>AO3=5==O, 7>2=VH=VABL, 2848<0 4>@>A;VABL, <0=5@8 ?>254V=:8, 4>A2V4 2V4=>A8= @><0=B8G=>3> E0@0:B5@C, A0<>ABV9=VABL V =570;56=VABL C 270T<>2V4=>A8=0E 7 4>@>A;8<8. C65 G0AB> 28=8:0NBL 4>A8BL 1;87L:V, 0;5 B8<G0A>2V 2V4=>A8=8. !?@026=O 4@C610 28=8:0T 4C65 @V4:>. 0728G09 W9 ?5@54CT A8AB5<0 B8<G0A>28E 2V4=>A8=, C O:V9 :>65= <0T 4>B@8<C20B8AO =>@< :>45:AC 4@C618 9 28<>3 4> 4@C618. &5 V T =09A:;04=VH8<, 1> ?V4;VB:8 AB02;OBL 28A>:V 28<>38 4> 4@C30, 0;5 =5 4> A515. 54>;V:8 B>20@8HV2 G8 4@C7V2 10G0BL, 0 C A515  =5 2V4@07C V =5 2 CAL><C. 2V4A8  >1@078, :>=D;V:B8, @>7@82 2V4=>A8=. V4;VB:8 28A>:> FV=OBL 4@C61C, 0;5 ?@8 FL><C =04728G09=> 28<>3;82V 9 >1@07;82V. "0:5 A?V;:C20==O O: ?@>2V4=89 B8? 4VO;L=>ABV ?V4;VB:0 T >A>1;82>N 4VO;L=VABN. @54<5B>< C FV9 4VO;L=>ABV T ;N48=0, 0 7<VAB 4VO;L=>ABV  2AB0=>2;5==O 270T<>2V4=>A8= 7 ;N4L<8. # ?@>F5AV FVTW 4VO;L=>ABV 74V9A=NTBLAO ?V7=0==O V=H>W ;N48=8 V A0<>W A515, D>@<CNBLAO V @>72820NBLAO 70A>18 B0:>3> ?V7=0==O (0=0;V7, ?>@V2=O==O, C7030;L=5==O). V4;VB:8 ?@03=CBL 28?@028B8 2;0A=V =54>;V:8 B0 =54>;V:8 B>20@8H0 B0 4@C30. !?5F8DVG=>N >A>1;82VABN >A>18ABVA=>3> A?V;:C20==O O: 4VO;L=>ABV T B5, I> ?V4;VB:8 C ?>2=><C 7=0G5==V A;>20 28E>2CNBL >48= >4=>3>. >65= V7 ?V4;VB:V2 AB028BL 4> V=H>3> FV;C A8AB5<C ?52=8E 28<>3 B0 A;V4:CT 70 WE 28:>=0==O<. /:I> F8E 28<>3 =5 4>B@8<CNBLAO, B> =09A8;L=VH8< 70A>1>< ?>:0@0==O T 2V4<>20 2V4 A?V;:C20==O B0 V7>;OFVO. &O 4VO;L=VABL T ?@0:B8:>N >2>;>4V==O =>@<0<8 >A>1;82>3> B8?C 270T<>2V4=>A8=  >A>18ABVA=8<8. 2>;>4V==O =>@<0<8 4@C618 T 206;828< =0410==O< ?V4;VB:>2>3> 2V:C ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C ;N48=8. A>1;82VABN :>6=>3> 2V:>2>3> ?5@V>4C T AB0=>2;5==O ?A8E>;>3VG=8E =>2>CB2>@5=L. V4;VB:>289 2V: E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO B0:8<8 =>2>CB2>@5==O<8: ?>GCBBO 4>@>A;>ABV; ?@03=5==O 4> A0<>AB25@465==O; D>@<C20==O <>@0;L=8E ?>3;O4V2 V ?>=OBL; ?5@51C4>20 2V4=>A8= 7 4>@>A;8<8; ?>40;LH89 @>728B>: A0<>>FV=:8 V A0<>A2V4><>ABV; @>728B>: V=B5@5AC 4> V=H>W AB0BV. &5=B@0;L=8< =>2>CB2>@5==O< ?V4;VB:>2>3> 2V:C T ?>GCBBO 4>@>A;>ABV. &5 AB0=>2;5==O 3>B>2=>ABV 4> 68BBO C A2VBV 4>@>A;8E, 0 2>=0 ?5@5410G0T @>728B>: >1 T:B82=>W V AC1 T:B82=>W 3>B>2=>ABV 4> 70A2>T==O ACA?V;L=8E 28<>3 4> 68BBO V 4VO;L=>ABV C A2VBV 4>@>A;8E. 5@HV ?@>O28 4>@>A;>ABV 2V4@V7=ONBLAO 2V4 WW @>728=5=8E D>@< V 28O2;ONBLAO C =5?@8T<=8E 4;O 4>@>A;8E D>@<0E ?>254V=:8. &5 V T B5 =>25, I> >@VT=B>20=5 C <091CB=T, V 9>3> =5>1EV4=> 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 C 28E>20==V ?V4;VB:V2. V4@C=BO< ?>GCBBO 4>@>A;>ABV T CO2;5==O ?V4;VB:0 ?@> A515 O: =5 ?@> 48B8=C, 0 O: ?@> 4>@>A;>3>. V4;VB>: ?@03=5 1CB8 V 22060B8AO 4>@>A;8<. !2>T@V4=VABN FVTW >A>1;82>ABV T B5, I> C ?V4;VB:0 I5 2V4ACB=T ?>GCBBO ?>2=>W 4>@>A;>ABV, 0;5 T ?>B@510 C WW 287=0==V 7 1>:C >B>G5==O. >GCBBO 4>@>A;>ABV >1C<>2;NNBL 42V 3@C?8 O28I. 5@H0. # ?V4;VB:V2 A?>AB5@V30NBLAO 7=0G=V 7<V=8 C DV78G=><C @>728B:C V AB0B52><C 4>7@V20==V. >=8 >1 T:B82=> @>1;OBL ?V4;VB:0 4>@>A;VH8< B0 D>@<CNBL AC1 T:B82=5 CO2;5==O ?@> A2>N 4>@>A;VABL. @C30. !8AB5<0 A>FV0;L=8E 2V4=>A8= V7 4>@>A;8<8 E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO <>@0;;N 48B8=8 (A;CE=O=VABN), I> =5 A?@89<0TBLAO ?V4;VB:0<8. >@>A;V 28<030NBL 2V4 ?V4;VB:V2 1V;LH>W CG0ABV C ?@0FV V 04@5ACNBL W< 1V;LH5 >1>2 O7:V2. >GCBBO 4>@>A;>ABV T A?5F8DVG=8< =>2>CB2>@5==O< A0<>A2V4><>ABV. >=> 2V4>1@060T =>2C 68BBT2C ?>78FVN ?V4;VB:0 C AB02;5==V 4> A515, ;N459, A2VBC. !?5F8DVG=0 A>FV0;L=0 0:B82=VABL ?V4;VB:0 ?>;O30T C A5=78B82=>ABV 4> 70A2>T==O =>@<, FV==>AB59, A?>A>1V2 ?>254V=:8 V 4VO;L=>ABV, I> VA=CNBL C A2VBV 4>@>A;8E V WE 270T<>2V4=>A8=0E. 15.5. A8EVG=89 @>728B>: C ?5@V>4 @0==L>W N=>ABV 5@V>4 @0==L>W N=>ABV  F5 ?5@V>4 @>728B:C 2V4 ?>G0B:C AB0B52>3> 4>7@V20==O 4> 9>3> 7025@H5==O V 4>AO3=5==O ;N48=>N 4>@>A;>ABV (14,15  17,18 @>:V2). &5 ?5@V>4 7025@H5==O DV78G=>3> @>728B:C V =01CBBO A>FV0;L=>3> AB0BCAC 4>@>A;>W ;N48=8. 0==O N=VABL ?>2 O70=0 7 =02G0==O< ;N48=8 =0  ABC?5=V =02G0==O C H:>;V, ?@>D5AV9=> - B5E=VG=8E CG8;8I0E G8 28I8E =02G0;L=8E 70:;040E  @V2=O 0:@548B0FVW. @>F5A @>728B:C C FL><C 2VFV 74V9A=NTBLAO C 0=0B><>  DV7V>;>3VG=><C, ?A8E>;>3VG=><C B0 A>FV0;L=><C =0?@O<:0E. /:I> C ?5@H><C <0T <VAF5 0:A5;5@0FVO, B> 2 >AB0==L><C <0T <VAF5 @5B0@40FVO. /:I> C A5@548=V <8=C;>3> AB>;VBBO ?5@5206=0 G0AB8=0 N=0FB20 ?>G8=0;0 B@C4>25 68BBO, B> AL>3>4=V - ?@>4>26CNBL =02G0==O V ?5@51C20NBL =0 CB@8<0==V 10BL:V2. 2V4A8 V ?A8E>;>3VG=V >A>1;82>ABV  A?>6820FL:0 ?>78FVO N=0:V2 V 4V2G0B. >4>265==O B5@<V=C =02G0==O N=0FB20 28:;8:0T =5?V43>B>2;5=VABL 4> A0<>ABV9=>3> B@C4>2>3> 68BBO. @03=5==O 4> ?@>4>265==O >A2VB8 4C65 G0AB> ?>2 O70=5 =5 ABV;L:8 7 1060==O< >45@60B8 ?52=C ?@>D5AVN, A:V;L:8 7 ?@03=5==O< O: <>6=0 4>2H5 715@53B8 =02G0;L=C ?>78FVN. .=VABL  F5 ?5@V>4 ?5@5E>4C 4> A0<>ABV9=>ABV, CA:;04=5==O A8AB5<8 2V4=>A8=, @>7H8@5==O :>;0 >AV1, 7 O:8<8 =5>1EV4=> C73>46C20B8 A2>N ?>254V=:C. A5 F5 0:B82V7CT A0<>?V7=0==O, A0<>>FV=:C V AB0=>2;5==O A0<>A2V4><>ABV. # FV;><C 6 A>FV0;L=0 A8BC0FVO ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C C ?5@V>4 @0==L>W N=>ABV <0965 B0:0, I> C ?V4;VB:>2><C 2VFV. &5 A8BC0FVO V AB0=>28I5 CG=O, I> 715@V30T C<>28 4;O B@C4=>IV2 270T<>2V4=>A8= V :>=D;V:BV2. @>2V4=8< B8?>< 4VO;L=>ABV C ?5@V>4 @0==L>W N=>ABV T =02G0;L=> - ?@>D5AV9=0 4VO;L=VABL. >=0 157?>A5@54=L> ?>2 O70=0 7 ?@>D5AV9=8< A0<>287=0G5==O<. .=0:8 V 4V2G0B0 C A2>W9 1V;LH>ABV 7=0G=C G0AB8=C G0AC ?@8A2OGCNBL 282G5==N B8E =02G0;L=8E ?@54<5BV2, O:V =091V;LH 206;82V 4;O >45@60==O <091CB=L>W ?@>D5AVW G8 4;O 2ABC?C 4> C=V25@A8B5BC. 2V4A8 ?@8E8;L=VABL N=0FB20 4> A?5FV0;V70FVW =02G0==O =0 DV78:V2 B0 ;V@8:V2. >65= CG5=L 2V4?>2V4=> 4> A2>WE V=B5@5AV2 <>65 281@0B8 =5>1EV4=V 9><C ?@54<5B8, I> 70157?5GCNBL CA?VH=C ?V43>B>2:C 4> <091CB=L>3> 68BBO. 50;VW AL>3>45==O B0:V, I> C 7030;L=>>A2VB=VE 70:;040E, 3V<=07VOE B0 ;VF5OE T 7030;L=>>A2VB=V, 1V>;>3> - EV<VG=V, DV78:> - <0B5<0B8G=V B0 3C<0=VB0@=V :;0A8. 5@V>4 @0==L>W N=>ABV, O: V V=HV ?5@V>48 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C, E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO A2>W<8 =>2>CB2>@5==O<8: A0<>287=0G5==O< B0 A2VB>3;O4><. .. C1@>28=0 AB25@46CT, I> C F59 ?5@V>4 70@0=> 3>2>@8B8 ?@> A0<>287=0G5==O. &5 H284H5 3>B>2=VABL 4> A0<>287=0G5==O, I> ?>T4=CT C A>1V AB@C:BC@8, O:V 0:B82=> D>@<CNBLAO B0 2V4:@8BV 4;O ?>40;LH>3> @>728B:C. A8E>;>3VG=0 3>B>2=VABL 4> A0<>287=0G5==O ?5@5410G0T D>@<C20==O C N=0FB20 ?52=8E ?A8E>;>3VG=8E <5E0=V7<V2, I> 70157?5G0BL C <091CB=L><C A2V4><5, 0:B82=5, B2>@G5 V I0A;825 68BBO. !0<>287=0G5==O 74V9A=NTBLAO C A8AB5<V ACA?V;L=8E 2V4=>A8=, C A2VBV ?@>D5AV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV B0 >A>18ABVA=>3> A0<>287=0G5==O. @>F5A A0<>287=0G5==O 4C65 A:;04=89 V <>65 74V9A=N20B8AO 70 @V7=8<8 =0?@O<:0<8. 5@H89  F5 040?B0FVO ;N48=8 4> 28<>3 ACA?V;LAB20. 40?B0FVO ?>;53HCT 68BBO ;N48=8, 1> =5<0T =5>1EV4=>ABV A0<>ABV9=> ?@89<0B8 @VH5==O. 4=>G0A=> 2>=0 >1<56CT ;N48=C, 0465 2A5 287=0G5=5 402=> V =5 28<030T 6>4=>W B2>@G>ABV. @C389 ?5@5410G0T B5>@5B8G=5 ?@82;0A=5==O VA=CNG>W C ACA?V;LAB2V AC:C?=>ABV ?>3;O4V2, >FV=>:, ?>78FV9, =>@< B0 WE @50;V70FVW C ?@0:B8G=V9 4VO;L=>ABV. &59 H;OE ?5@5410G0T 0:B82=C ?>78FVN ;N48=8, =5>1EV4=VABL A2V4><>3> V >1@C=B>20=>3> ?@89=OBBO @VH5=L. @C389 =0?@O<>: AB0=>2;5==O A0<>287=0G5==O AB2>@NT C<>28 4;O D>@<C20==O A2VB>3;O4C O: =>2>CB2>@5==O 2V:C. V4 A2VB>3;O4>< @>7C<VNBL A8AB5<C ?>3;O4V2 =0 >1 T:B82=89 A2VB, ACA?V;LAB2> B0 A0<>3> A515. >7H8@5==O AD5@8 V=B5@5AV2 ?5@5:;NG0T N=VABL 7 >:@5<8E, G0AB:>28E ?8B0=L =0 3;>10;L=V ?8B0==O 2A5A2VBC, A<8A;C 68BBO V ACA?V;L=8E 2V4=>A8=. 54>AB0B=VABL 68BBT2>3> 4>A2V4C G0AB> ?@82>48BL 4> V@@0FV>=0;L=8E C7030;L=5=L, I> A:;040T ?V4@C=BO N=0FL:>3> <0:A8<0;V7<C.  V=H>3> 1>:C  4> =5@50;VAB8G=>3> <8A;5==O V :@8B8:0=AB20 157 :>=:@5B=8E ?@>?>78FV9 I>4> 7<V=8 A8BC0FVW. "0: 28=8:0T 3V?5@:@8B8F87<. .=0FL:89 <0:A8<0;V7< B0 3V?5@:@8B87< <>6CBL 1CB8 ?5@51>@5=V ;8H5 C ?@>F5AV 0:B82=>3> ?5@5B2>@5==O 4V9A=>ABV, C ?@>F5AV 0:B82=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. V25=L ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C N=0FB20 ?>@CHCT ?@>1;5<C =0?>2=5==O 2;0A=>3> 68BBO ACA?V;L=> 7=0G8<8< 7<VAB><. ;O 1V;LH>ABV N=0:V2 V 4V2G0B F5 =02G0==O 7 ?>2=8< 72V;L=5==O< 2V4 <0B5@V0;L=8E B0 ?>1CB>28E BC@1>B. V;L=89 2V4 =02G0==O G0A ?@8A2OGCTBLAO ?>HC:C FV:02>3> 70=OBBO. ;5 N=VABL =5 725@B0T C2038 =0 B>9 D0:B, I> V=B5@5A8 28=8:0NBL =0 ?V4@C=BV 4>A:>=0;>3> 2>;>4V==O ?52=>N A?@02>N G8 AC:C?=VABN 7=0=L, 0 =5 C <><5=B8 1577<VAB>2=>3> ?@>2>465==O G0AC. 81V@ ?@>D5AVW T A:;04>2>N G0AB8=>N A0<>287=0G5==O >A>18AB>ABV. V= ?5@5410G0T >FV=:C 2;0A=>W 2V4?>2V4=>ABV 28<>30< ?@>D5AVW, 287=0G5==O =0?@O<:V2 4VO;L=>ABV 7 A0<>28E>20==O B0 A0<>24>A:>=0;5==O, @>728B:C C A515 O:>AB59 A?5FV0;VAB0 B0 3@><04O=8=0. 0 60;L, AL>3>45==O E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO =54>AB0B=VABN 0:B82=>ABV C ACA?V;L=V9, :C;LBC@=V9 B0 B@C4>2V9 AD5@V. 54>AB0B=VABL CG0ABV C B@C4>2><C 68BBV 30;L<CT ?@>D5AV9=5 AB0=>2;5==O >A>18AB>ABV, ACA?V;L=5 V ?@>D5AV9=5 A0<>287=0G5==O. :B82=0 CG0ABL C ACA?V;L=V9 B0 >A>18ABVA=>-7=0GCIV9 4VO;L=>ABV 70157?5GCT D>@<C20==O A0<>287=0G5==O, A2VB>3;O4C, FV==VA=8E >@VT=B0FV9 V, O: =0A;V4>:, AB0=>2;5==O 0:B82=>3>, 74V1=>3>, 28A>:><>@0;L=>3> 3@><04O=8=0. 0?8B0==O 4;O A0<>:>=B@>;N A>1;82>ABV 7>?>78G5==O ACA?V;L=> - VAB>@8G=>3> 4>A2V4C. '8< >1C<>2;NNBLAO V=482V4C0;L=> - ?A8E>;>3VG=V 2V4<V==>ABV ;N459? )> 287=0G0NBL C ?A8EVG=><C @>728B:C ;N48=8 1V>;>3VG=V >A>1;82>ABV? 2>;>4V==O ACA?V;L=> - VAB>@8G=8< 4>A2V4>< B0 V=482V4C0;L=89 4>A2V4 >A>18AB>ABV. >;L 0:B82=>W 4VO;L=>ABV 48B8=8 C ?A8EVG=><C @>728B:C. =0G5==O 0:A5;5@0FVW B0 @5B0@40FVW 4;O ?@0:B8:8 D>@<C20==O >A>18AB>ABV. A>1;82>ABV 4VB59 V7 70B@8<:0<8 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. )> @>7C<VNBL ?V4 A>FV0;L=>N A8BC0FVTN @>728B:C? >:07=8:8 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C ;N48=8. /:V ?5@V>48 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C 2V4=>AOBL 4> 48B8=AB20? 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C :><?;5:AC ?>6202;5==O. 5@5;VGVBL 4>AO3=5==O 48B8=8 ?@>BO3>< ?5@H8E 42>E <VAOFV2 68BBO. A>1;82>ABV ?@>2V4=>3> B8?C 4VO;L=>ABV C ?5@V>4 =5<>2;OB8. >2>CB2>@5==O ?5@V>4C =5<>2;OB8. !CB=VABL <0=V?C;OB82=>W B0 ?@54<5B=>W 4VO;L=>ABV 48B8=8. >AO3=5==O @>728B:C C ?5@V>4 @0==L>3> 48B8=AB20. @870 B@L>E @>:V2. A>1;82>ABV V3@>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV 4>H:V;L=8:V2. A>1;82>ABV H:>;O@V2 H5AB8@VG=>3> 2V:C. >2V;L=VABL ?A8EVG=8E ?@>F5AV2 V A0<>>FV=:0 4>H:V;L=8:V2. !C?V4@O4=VABL <>B82V2 V 3>B>2=VABL 4> =02G0==O C H:>;V. 02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL  ?@>2V4=89 B8? 4VO;L=>ABV <>;>4H>3> H:>;O@0. A>1;82>ABV ?A8E>;>3VG=>W >FV=:8 C =02G0;L=V9 4VO;L=>ABV. >2>CB2>@5==O <>;>4H>3> H:V;L=>3> 2V:C. $0:B>@8, I> 30;L<CNBL V ?@8A:>@NNBL AB0=>2;5==O 4>@>A;>ABV ?V4;VB:V2. A>1;82>ABV >A>18ABVA=>3> A?V;:C20==O O: ?@>2V4=>3> B8?C 4VO;L=>ABV ?V4;VB:V2. '><C ?V4;VB:8 28E>2CNBL >48= >4=>3>? A>1;82>ABV A>FV0;L=>W A8BC0FVW @>728B:C C ?5@V>4 @0==L>W N=>ABV. 02G0;L=> - ?@>D5AV9=0 4VO;L=VABL O: ?@>2V4=89 B8? 4VO;L=>ABV C ?5@V>4 @0==L>W N=>ABV. 02G0;L=0 ?>78FVO V <>6;82>ABV WW ?@>4>265==O. !0<>287=0G5==O B0 A2VB>3;O4 O: =>2>CB2>@5==O @0==L>W N=>ABV. 81V@ ?@>D5AVW V 287=0G5==O 68BBT2>3> H;OEC. @0:B8G=5 70=OBBO =B>35=57 ?A8EV:8 ;N48=8 $0:B>@8 ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. >;L 1V>;>3VG=>3> V A>FV0;L=>3> D0:B>@V2. :B82=VABL 48B8=8 V ?A8EVG=89 @>728B>:. =482V4C0;L=V >A>1;82>ABV @>728B:C: 0:A5;5@0FVO V @5B0@40FVO. >728B>: 48B8=8 2V4 =0@>465==O 4> H5AB8 @>:V2. A8E>;>3VG=V >A>1;82>ABV H5AB8@VG>: B0 <>;>4H8E H:>;O@V2. V4;VB:>289 ?5@V>4 B0 @0==O N=VABL O: ?5@5EV4 4> 4>@>A;>ABV. @07>: B5ABC 1. V>;>3VG=V >A>1;82>ABV ;N48=8 A:;040NBL: 0) @V25=L @>728B:C; 1) @V25=L =01CBBO 7=0=L; 2) ?5@54C<>28 @>728B:C; 3) C<>28 282G5==O <>28; 4) C<>28 B@C4>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV. 2. @8A:>@5==O B5<?V2 DV78G=>3> V ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C B0 AB0B52>3> 4>7@V20==O =07820NBL: 0) V=B53@0FVTN; 1) 4>7@V20==O<; 2) @5B0@40FVTN; 3) 3V?5@1>;V70FVTN; 4) 0:A5;5@0FVTN. 3. /:V @5D;5:A8 <0T =>2>=0@>465=0 48B8=0: 0) A<>:B0;L=89; 1) 70E8A=89; 2) @CE;8289; 3) E0?0;L=89; 4) 2V4HB>2EC20==O? 4. >2>CB2>@5==O<8 <>;>4H>3> H:V;L=>3> 2V:C T: 0) 0=0;V7; 1) 2=CB@VH=V9 ?;0= 4V9; 2) @5D;5:AVO; 3) 01AB@03C20==O; 4) :0B53>@870FVO. 5. !0<>287=0G5==O C ?5@V>4 @0==L>W N=>ABV 74V9A=NTBLAO: 0) C A8AB5<V ACA?V;L=8E 2V4=>A8=; 1) C A2VBV ?@>D5AV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV; 2) C >A>18ABVA=><C A0<>287=0G5==V; 3) C V=B5;5:BC0;L=><C @>728B:C; 4) C A8AB5<V <0B5@V0;L=8E 2V4=>A8=. !?8A>: ;VB5@0BC@8 02K4>2 .. @>1;5<K @072820NI53> >1CG5=8O.  .: 5403>38:0, 1986.  240 A. >= .!. A8E>;>38O @0==59 N=>AB8.  .: @>A25I5=85, 1989.  256 A. C;038=0 ... >7@0AB=0O ?A8E>;>38O / ... C;038=0, .. >;NF:89.  .: !D5@0, 2003.  464 A. 5>=BL52 .. @>1;5<K @0728B8O ?A8E8:8.  .: #, 1981.  584 A. 8A8=0 .. @>1;5<K >=B>35=570 >1I5=8O.  .: 5403>38:0, 1986.  144 A. N1;8=A:0O .. 5BA:0O ?A8E>;>38O.  .: @>A25I5=85, 1971.  416 A. A8E>;>38O A>2@5<5==>3> ?>4@>AB:0 /?>4 @54. .. $5;L4HB59=0.  .: 5403>38:0, 1987.  240 A. (03@0520 .. 5BA:0O ?A8E>;>38O.  .: !, 2001.  368 A. -;L:>=8= .. 71@0==K5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 B@C4K.  .: 5403>38:0, 1989.  560 A. .AC?>2 .. A8E>;>38O 2708<>?>=8<0=8O.  070=L: "0B0@A:>5 :=. 874-2>, 1991.  192 A. 16. .@848G=0 ?A8E>;>3VO 16. 1. @54<5B B0 70240==O N@848G=>W ?A8E>;>3VW. 16. 2. @8<V=0;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO. 16. 3. @>D5AV9=0 A?@O<>20=VABL N@8AB0. 16.1. @54<5B B0 70240==O N@848G=>W ?A8E>;>3VW .@848G=0 ?A8E>;>3VO 282G0T ?A8E>;>3VG=V 0A?5:B8 ?@020, ?@02>2>3> @53C;N20==O B0 N@848G=>W 4VO;L=>ABV, ?A8E>;>3VG=V ?@>1;5<8 ?V428I5==O 5D5:B82=>ABV ?@02>B2>@G>ABV, ?@02>>E>@>==>W B0 ?5=VF8B0@=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. 0240==O N@848G=>W ?A8E>;>3VW: 1 0157?5G8B8 =0C:>289 A8=B57 ?A8E>;>3VG=8E B0 N@848G=8E 7=0=L. 2 >7:@8B8 ?A8E>;>3> - N@848G=C ACB=VABL 107>28E ?@02>28E :0B53>@V9. 3 0157?5G8B8 3;81>:5 @>7C<V==O N@8AB0<8 ?>254V=:8 ;N48=8 O: AC1 T:B0 ?@02>28E 2V4=>A8=. 4 >7:@8B8 >A>1;82>ABV ?A8E>;>3VG=>W 4VO;L=>ABV @V7=8E AC1 T:BV2 ?@02>28E 2V4=>A8=, WE ?A8E>;>3VG=8E AB0=V2 C @V7=><0=VB=8E A8BC0FVOE ?@02>28:>@8AB0==O B0 ?@02>>E>@>=8. 5 >7@>18B8 @5:><5=40FVW AB>A>2=> C4>A:>=0;5==O ?@02>2>3> @53C;N20==O ACA?V;L=>3> 68BBO. .@848G=0 ?A8E>;>3VO =040T <>6;82VABL 7@>7C<VB8 70:>=><V@=>ABV 270T<>4VW ;N48=8 7 A5@54>28I5<, >A>1;82>ABV B0 C<>28 D>@<C20==O A>FV0;L=> 040?B>20=>W B0 452V0=B=>W >A>18AB>ABV, ?A8E>;>3VG=V D0:B>@8 :@8<V=0;V70FVW V=482V40. .@848G=0 ?A8E>;>3VO A:;040TBLAO 7 ?V4@>74V;V2, :>65= V7 O:8E <0T 2;0A=C AB@C:BC@C. 5B>4>;>3VG=5 ?V4@C=BO N@848G=>W ?A8E>;>3VW: @54<5B, <5B>48, 70240==O N@848G=>W ?A8E>;>3VW. !B@C:BC@0 N@848G=>W ?A8E>;>3VW. AB>@8G=89 @>728B>: N@848G=>W ?A8E>;>3VW. @02>20 ?A8E>;>3VO: @02> O: D0:B>@ A>FV0;L=>W @53C;OFVW ?>254V=:8, ?A8E>;>3VG=V 0A?5:B8 5D5:B82=>W ?@02>B2>@G>ABV. @02>20 A>FV0;V70FVO >A>18AB>ABV, >A>1;82>ABV ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> 2V4>1@065==O O28I ?@020, ?A8E>;>3VO ?@02>@>7C<V==O B0 ?@02>A2V4><>ABV. A8E>;>3VO ?@02>28:>=0==O. @8<V=0;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO: 82G5==O @>;V ?A8E>;>3VG=8E D0:B>@V2, I> 45B5@<V=CNBL :@8<V=0;L=C ?>254V=:C. >=OBBO >A>18AB>ABV 7;>G8=FO, ?A8E>;>3VG=V B8?8 7;>G8=FV2. A8E>;>3VO 74V9A=5==O 7;>G8==>W 4VW. A8E>;>3VO @5F8482=>W B0 ?V4;VB:>2>W 7;>G8==>ABV. A8E>;>3VO 3@C?>2>W B0 >@30=V7>20=>W 7;>G8==>ABV. A8E>;>3VO 28=8 B0 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV. A8E>;>3VO :@8<V=0;L=>3> AC4>G8=AB20: A8E>;>3VO A;V4G>W 4VO;L=>ABV. !C4>2> - <548G=0 5:A?5@B870. A8E>;>3VG=V >A=>28 AC4>2>W 4VO;L=>ABV. A8E>;>3VO 4VO;L=>ABV ?@>:C@>@0. A8E>;>3VO 4VO;L=>ABV 042>:0B0. A8E>;>3VO ?V4AC4=>3>. A8E>;>3VO ?@89=OBBO AC4>28E @VH5=L. A8E>;>3VO 3@><04O=AL:>3> ?@02>2>3> @53C;N20==O: A8E>;>3VO 3@><04O=AL:8E ?@02>2V4=>A8=. A8E>;>3VG=V 0A?5:B8 @>1>B8 7 ?>7>20<8 3@><04O=. A8E>;>3VO 4VO;L=>ABV ?@>:C@>@0 B0 042>:0B0 C 3@><04O=AL:><C AC4V. A8E>;>3VG=V 0A?5:B8 >@30=V70FVW 4VO;L=>ABV N@848G=8E CAB0=>2. 16.2. @8<V=0;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO @8<V=0;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO  F5 G0AB8=0 N@848G=>W ?A8E>;>3VW, I> 282G0T ?A8E>;>3VN ?@02>?>@CH=8:V2, ?A8E>;>3VG=V <5E0=V7<8 74V9A=5==O 7;>G8=V2, ?A8E>;>3VG=V 0A?5:B8 28=8 B0 N@848G=>W 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV. A8E>;>3VO >A>18AB>ABV ?@02>?>@CH=8:0  F5 AC:C?=VABL =530B82=8E O:>AB59 V=482V40, I> 2?;820NBL =0 74V9A=5==O 7;>G8==>W 4VW ?52=8E B8?C B0 284C. ;>G8==V 4VW >1C<>2;5=V A8AB5<>N FV==VA=8E >@VT=B0FV9 >A>18AB>ABV, I> A?@8ONBL 28:@82;5=><C A?@89<0==N 4V9A=>ABV. ;O 7;>G8=FV2, O: ?@028;>, T E0@0:B5@=8< @>7C<V==O 2;0A=>W 4VW O: A>FV0;L=> =5?@028;L=>W.  V=H>3> 1>:C, ?@02>?>@CH=8:8 28:>@8AB>2CNBL A8AB5<C ?>OA=5=L, I> 28?@024>2CNBL A:>T==O =8<8 7;>G8=C. "0:8< G8=><, E0@0:B5@=8< 4;O ?@02>?>@CH=8:V2 T 7=OBBO 7 A515 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV. @8G8=8 2;0A=8E ?@02>?>@CH5=L 7;>G8=5FL 210G0T C 7>2=VH=L><C A5@54>28IV. ;O A0<>28?@0240==O 7;>G8=FV 28:>@8AB>2CNBL A8AB5<C ?>OA=5=L: 71V;LH5==O 28=8 65@B28; 7=5FV=5==O A>FV0;L=8E =>@< B0 ?@>B8AB02;5==O =8< =>@< 0A>FV0;L=8E B0 :@8<V=0;L=8E; ?5@5=5A5==O 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV =0 V=H8E ;N459, ?>OA=5==O 7;>G8==>W ?>254V=:8 >1AB028=0<8. ;O 7;>G8=FV2 E0@0:B5@=>N T =0O2=VABL :@8<V=0;L=8E <>B82V2, I> ?>@>46CNBLAO :@8<V=0;L=8<8 ?>B@510<8. @8<V=0;L=0 ?>B@510  F5 ?>BO3 4> 74V9A=5==O ?52=>3> 284C A>FV0;L=> =5157?5G=>W 4VW. @8<V=0;L=0 ?>B@510 <>65 VA=C20B8 C 283;O4V 728G:8 4> A8AB5<0B8G=>3> 74V9A=5==O ?52=8E 7;>G8==8E 4V9 01> 28=8:=CB8 2=0A;V4>: V=H>3> ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> <5E0=V7<C. # 1C4L - O:><C 28?04:C @50;V70FVO :@8<V=0;L=>W ?>B@518 70157?5GCT AB0= 704>2>;5==O, @>7@O4:C 2=CB@VH=L>W =0?@C65=>ABV. 84V;ONBL =87:C :@8<V=>35==> 7=0GCI8E <>B82V2. 1. >B828, ?>@>465=V 3V?5@B@>D>20=8<8 0<>@0;L=8<8 1060==O<8 (0;:>3>;V7<, =0@:><0=VO, ?@8AB@0ABL 4> 3@8 =0 3@>HV, A5:AC0;L=V 2V4E8;5==O B>I>). "0:V >A>1;82>ABV <>6CBL 1CB8 ?>2 O70=V 7 ?A8EVG=8<8 0=><0;VO<8 01> ?0B>;>3VO<8 <>B820FV9=>W AD5@8. 2. >B828, ?>@>465=V 3V?5@B@>D>20=8<8 ?>B@510<8, B>1B> ?>B@510<8, @V25=L O:8E T ?V428I5=8<, 01> =5 2V4>1@060T V=482V4C0;L=V <>6;82>ABV 4;O WE 704>2>;5==O. > FVTW 3@C?8 2E>4OBL B0:V ?>B@518: =5045:20B=> 7028I5=V 1060==O <0B5@V0;L=>3> E0@0:B5@C; 3V?5@B@>D>20=0 ?>B@510 2?;820B8 =0 V=H8E ;N459; ?V428I5=5 1060==O >45@60B8 28A>:89 AB0BCA C 3@C?V. 3. >B828, ?>2 O70=V 7 ?>B@51>N @>7@O48B8AO 2V4 =530B82=8E V<?C;LAV2. >=8 AC?@>2>46CNBLAO ?5@56820==O< @V7=><0=VB=8E =5?@8T<=8E 5<>FV9=8E AB0=V2: 03@5AVO, 3=V2, 7074@VABL, 2V4GC645=VABL, B@82>30, =5?>2=>FV==VABL B>I>. 4.>B828, ?>2 O70=V 7 3>AB@8< ?5@56820==O< =530B82=8E ?>GCBBV2 I>4> A>FV0;L=8E >1 T:BV2 01> AC1 T:BV2 (?52=8E ;N459, A>FV0;L=8E 3@C?, >@30=V70FV9 B>I>). @02>?>@CH=8:8 2?52=5=V C =530B82=8E O:>ABOE 40=8E >1 T:BV2 01> AC1 T:BV2, 0;5 =5 <>6CBL 045:20B=> B0 @0FV>=0;L=> ?>OA=8B8, C G><C A0<5 ?>;O30T WE =530B82=VABL. 5. >B828, ?>2 O70=V 7 ?>B@510<8 C A>FV0;L=> -2V4GC465=><C A?>A>1V 68BBO, 1060==O< ?@8T4=0B8AL 4> 3@C?8 ?@>B8?@02=>W A?@O<>20=>ABV. "0:V <>B828 <>6CBL 28=8:0B8 C ;N48=8, I> =5 <0T =028G>: A>FV0;L=> - 040?B82=>3> 68BBO 2=0A;V4>: 28E>20==O 01> 4>23>3> ?@>6820==O C :@8<V=0;L=><C A5@54>28IV. 6. >B828, ?>2 O70=V 7 =5?@028;L=>N >FV=:>N A8BC0FVW, 7>2=VH=VE >1AB028=. 84V;ONBL B0:V 2848 >FV=>:: ?V428I5=> =530B82=0 >FV=:0 V=H8E ;N459, I> A?>=C:0T 4> ?@>O2C 03@5A82=> - 70E8A=>W ?>254V=:8; A?>B2>@5=0 >FV=:0 7>2=VH=VE C<>2, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> ;N48=0 D>@<CT =0<V@8, I> T =5045:20B=8<8 A8BC0FVW; =5045:20B=0 =530B82=0 >FV=:0 2;0A=8E <>6;82>AB59, I> =5 4>72>;ONBL, =0 4C<:C ?@02>?>@CH=8:0, 704>2>;L=8B8 ?52=V 68BBT2V ?>B@518 A>FV0;L=> - ?@89=OB=8< H;OE><; =5045:20B=> ?V428I5=0 >FV=:0 2;0A=8E <>6;82>AB59, I> D>@<CT 4C<:C ?@> B5, I> ?@02>?>@CH=8: <>65 C=8:=CB8 ?>:0@0==O 70 7;>G8==V 2G8=:8; A?>B2>@5=5 CO2;5==O ?@> @>7?>2AN465=VABL ?52=8E 284V2 ?@>B8?@02=8E 4V9. ;O E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 >A>18AB>ABV 7;>G8=FO 28:>@8AB>2CNBL ?>=OBBO ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> B8?C 7;>G8=FO. 84V;ONBL :V;L:0 B8?V2 ?@02>?>@CH=8:V2. @02>?>@CH=8: V7 =0A8;L=8FL:>N >@VT=B0FVTN. %0@0:B5@=8<8 >7=0:0<8 ?A8E>;>3VG=>W AB@C:BC@8 T 45D>@<0FVO 107>28E A>FV0;L=8E FV==>AB59, =5?@028;L=0 A>FV0;L=0 V45=B8DV:0FVO, =5@>728=5=VABL 5<>FV9=>W AD5@8, V<?C;LA82=VABL B0 03@5A82=VABL. @V< B>3>, 7;>G8=FV 40=>W 3@C?8 2V4@V7=ONBLAO 53>F5=B@87<><, F8=V7<><, ?@8<VB82=VABN ?>B@51, >@VT=B>20=V =0 <8BBT25 704>2>;5==O 1060=L. =0A;V4>: =5?@028;L=>W A>FV0;V70FVW C 48B8=AB2V 2>=8 =5 <0NBL CO2;5==O ?@> 045:20B=V A?>A>18 28@VH5==O ?@>1;5<. 0A8;;O =8<8 @>73;O40TBLAO O: T48=0 D>@<0 4>AO3=5==O @V7=><0=VB=8E FV;59. >=8 AE8;L=V 4> A:>T==O 2182AB2, 720;BC20=L, BV;5A=8E ?>H:>465=L. @02>?>@CH=8: V7 :>@8A;82>N >@VT=B0FVTN. 06;82>N E0@0:B5@8AB8:>N FL>3> B8?C 7;>G8=FO T 45D>@<0FVO AD5@8 ?>B@51 B0 <>B82V2  CB8;VB0@=V ?>B@518 1;>:CNBL 28IV ?>B@518. @8 FL><C :>@8A;82V ?>B@518 ?@02>?>@CH=8: =5 <>65 704>2>;L=8B8 A>FV0;L=> - ?>78B82=8<8 A?>A>10<8. ;>G8=5FL - ?@>D5AV>=0;. A8E>;>3VG=>N >A>1;82VABN B0:>3> B8?C 7;>G8=FO T A?@89=OBBO 7;>G8==>3> A?>A>1C 68BBO O: =>@<0;L=>3>. =0G=0 G0AB8=0 @5F8482VABV2 <0T ?A8EVG=V @>7;048 B0 0=><0;VW. @V< B>3>, 4C65 G0AB> FV @>7;048 =02<8A=> ?V4:@5A;NNBLAO, ?>A8;NNBLAO. >254V=:0 7;>G8=FV2 FL>3> B8?C ?V4:@5A;5=> 2>@>60, @>715I5=0, 7=5206;820. 028G:8 A>FV0;L=> - ?>78B82=>W ?>254V=:8 ?@0:B8G=> 2V4ACB=V. @8G8=8 ?>;O30NBL, ?> - ?5@H5, C =5045:20B=V9 A>FV0;V70FVW, =54>;V:0E 28E>20==O (:@8<V=0;L=0 01> 0A>FV0;L=0 AV< O), 2=0A;V4>: G>3> 48B8=0 =5 =01C20T =028G>: ?@028;L=>W ?>254V=:8. > - 4@C35, ;N48 FL>3> B8?C 4C65 1030B> G0AC ?@>2>4OBL C <VAFOE ?>:0@0==O, B><C :@0I5 ?@8AB>A>20=V 4> :@8<V=0;L=>3> A5@54>28I0. A=>2=8<8 ?A8E>;>3VG=8<8 E0@0:B5@8AB8:0<8 7;>G8=FO - ?@>D5AV>=0;0 T 0A>FV0;L=V FV==VA=V >@VT=B0FVW, 45D5:B8 A0<>@53C;OFVW, 70;56=VABL ?>254V=:8 2V4 2?;82C A8BC0FVW B0 A5@54>28I0. >254V=:0 B0:>W ;N48=8 4C65 G0AB> 7=0E>48BLAO C AC?5@5G=>ABV 7V 74>@>28< 3;C74>< B0 2;0A=8<8 V=B5@5A0<8. '0AB> <5B0 =5 71V30TBLAO V7 70A>10<8 4>AO3=5==O. V4ACB=O A?@><>6=VABL ?@>3=>7C20B8 @57C;LB0B8 2;0A=8E 2G8=:V2. 5>15@56=V 7;>G8=FV. > =5>15@56=8E 7;>G8==8E 4VO=L <>6=0 2V4=5AB8 =5?@028;L=C 5:A?;C0B0FVO B5E=VG=8E 70A>1V2, =528:>=0==O V=AB@C:FV9, =5=02<8A=V 2182AB20 B>I>. ;>G8=8 7 =5>15@56=>ABV 74V9A=NNBLAO >A>10<8 7 45D5:B0<8 ?@>3=>7C20==O @57C;LB0BV2 2;0A=>W ?>254V=:8, 7=865=>N A0<>:@8B8G=VABN, A;01:8< 30;L<C20==O< =51060=>W ?>254V=:8. >B828 =5>15@56=>W ?>254V=:8 =5 <0NBL 7;>G8==8E =0<V@V2, @07>< V7 F8< 2>=8 <VABOBL 5;5<5=B8 =530B82=>3> AB02;5==O ;N48=8 4> VA=CNG8E A>FV0;L=8E =>@< B0 ?@028; ?>254V=:8 C ACA?V;LAB2V. 16.3. @>D5AV9=0 A?@O<>20=VABL N@8AB0 @>D5AV9=0 A?@O<>20=VABL N@8AB0  F5 >A>1;820 A8AB5<0 <>B82V2, I> A?@8OT 28:>@8AB0==N 2;0A=8E A8; B0 74V1=>AB59 4;O C:@V?;5==O 70:>=C C :@0W=V. >=0 <VAB8BL B0:V :><?>=5=B8: AB02;5==O 4> 70:>=C O: 4> 28I>W FV==>ABV; A?@89<0==O 7<VF=5==O ?@02>?>@O4:C O: 2;0A=>3> ?>:;8:0==O; CAB0=>2;5==O =0 28:>@8AB0==O 70:>==8E B0 F82V;V7>20=8E A?>A>1V2 28@VH5==O ?@>D5AV9=8E 7040G; 72065=5 AB02;5==O 4> B@C4=>IV2 C ?@>D5AV9=V9 4VO;L=>ABV. .@848G=0 4VO;L=VABL 2:;NG0T ?52=V 28<>38 O: 4> ?@>D5AV9=8E, B0: V 4> <>@0;L=> - 5B8G=8E >A>1;82>AB59 N@848G=8E ?@>D5AV9. ;5<5=B8 ?@>D5AV9=>W A?@O<>20=>ABV. !>FV0;L=5 A2VB>A?@89=OBBO. .@848G=0 @>1>B0 ?>2 O70=0 7 28@VH5==O< 70240=L 2=CB@VH=L>?>;VB8G=>3> ?;0=C (70E8AB ?@02 B0 A2>1>4, 70:>=C, >A>18AB>ABV 3@><04O=). !0<5 B><C 1C4L-O:89 A?V2@>1VB=8: ?@02>>E>@>==8E >@30=V2 <>65 4>1@5 28:>=C20B8 @>1>BC 70 C<>28 @>7C<V==O ACA?V;L=>3> 68BBO. @>D5AV9=V O:>ABV: AC:C?=VABL ?@>D5AV9=8E 7=0=L, C<V=L B0 =028G>:; AC:C?=VABL ?@>D5AV9=8E ?>3;O4V2 B0 ?5@5:>=0=L; @>7C<V==O 2;0A=8E ?@02, >1>2 O7:V2 B0 70A>1V2 WE @50;V70FVW; @>7C<V==O :>;5:B82C, 2 O:><C A?V2@>1VB=8: ?@02>>E>@>==8E >@30=V2 ?@0FNT. @>D5AV9=0 <>B820FVO: FV:02VABL 4> B>=:>IV2 ?@>D5AV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV; ?>ABV9=5 ?@>D5AV9=5 7@>AB0==O; 74>@>25 1060==O :0@ T@=>3> 7@>AB0==O; ?@>D5AV9=5 A0<>28@065==O B0 7@>AB0==O. >@0;L=0 ABV9:VABL: >@VT=B0FVO =0 3@><04O=AL:V B0 ?@>D5AV9=V >1>2 O7:8; 7=0==O <>@0;L=8E =>@< B0 28:>@8AB0==O WE C ?>2AO:45==><C B0 ?@>D5AV9=><C 68BBV; @>7C<V==O FV==>ABV ;N48=8, WW ?@02 B0 A2>1>4; 740B=VABL 28AB>OB8 ?5@54 A?>:CA0<8, B0:8<8, =0?@8:;04, O: ?V4:C?; =528:>@8AB0==O ?5@5203 B0 ?@>D5AV9=8E <>6;82>AB59 4;O 70240==O H:>48 :;VT=B0<. VO;L=VABL N@8AB0 =5<>6;820 157 ?52=8E A?5FV0;L=>-N@848G=8E 74V1=>AB59  >A>1;828E O:>AB59, I> =5>1EV4=V 4;O >2>;>4V==O A0<5 40=>N ?@>D5AVTN. "CB 284V;ONBL 7030;L=V B0 A?5FV0;L=V 74V1=>ABV. 030;L=V 74V1=>ABV: ?>GCBBO >1>2 O7:C B0 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV; ?>GCBBO A?@0254;82>ABV B0 =5B5@?8<>ABV 4> ?>@CH5==O 70:>=C; @>728=5=89 V=B5;5:B, 28=0EV4;82VABL, :<VB;82VABL; <>2=V 74V1=>ABV, C<V==O B>G=> B0 ;>3VG=> 28@078B8 2;0A=C 4C<:C; A?>AB5@56;82VABL, 30@=0 A8BC0B82=0 @50:FVO; 4>1@0 ?0< OBL =0 >1;8GGO, ?@V728I0, A;>20, D0:B8, F8D@8; @>728=5=V 2>;L>2V O:>ABV: FV;5A?@O<>20=VABL, >@30=V7>20=VABL, =0?>;53;82VABL, 5<>FV9=0 AB01V;L=VABL; >@30=V70B>@AL:V 74V1=>ABV; @>728=5=0 CO20, 740B=VABL 4> <>45;N20==O A8BC0FVW B0 ?5@5410G5==O =0A;V4:V2 2;0A=8E 4V9 B0 4V9 V=H8E ;N459; 2<V==O ?@0FN20B8 7 ;N4L<8, @>7C<VB8 ?>254V=:C, ?@028;L=> WW >FV=N20B8; :><C=V:0B82=V 74V1=>ABV, 740B=VABL 28:;8:0B8 4>2V@C, 2<V==O A;CE0B8; B5@?;OGVABL, C@V2=>2065=VABL, AB@8<0=VABL. > A?5FV0;L=8E 74V1=>AB59 2V4=>AOBL >A>1;82>ABV, =5>1EV4=V ?@54AB02=8:0< >:@5<8E A?5FV0;L=>AB59. >:@5<0, >?5@0B82=8< ?@0FV2=8:0< =5>1EV4=5 C<V==O ?5@52BV;N20B8AL, 0@B8AB8G=VABL; A;V4G8<  :@50B82=VABL; ?@0FV2=8:0< ?@>DV;0:B8G=8E ?V4@>74V;V2  ?5403>3VG=V 74V1=>ABV. 06;828< C 4VO;L=>ABV N@8AB0 T 9>3> ?@>D5AV9=>-?A8E>;>3VG=0 ?V43>B>2;5=VABL, B>1B> 740B=VABL @>7C<VB8 B0 28:>@8AB>2C20B8 ?A8E>;>3VG=V 0A?5:B8 ?@8 74V9A=5==V ?@>D5AV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. !B@C:BC@0 ?@>D5AV9=> - ?5403>3VG=>W ?V43>B>2;5=>ABV <0T :V;L:0 ?V4AB@C:BC@. @>D5AV9=>-?A8E>;>3VG=V 7=0==O. >=8 ?>T4=CNBL V=D>@<>20=VABL N@8AB0 I>4> ?A8E>;>3VW V=482V40 B0 A>FV0;L=8E 3@C?. @V< B>3>, 206;82> <0B8 CO2;5==O ?@> <548G=C ?A8E>;>3VN, ?A8E>;>3VG=V B0 A>FV0;L=V D0:B>@8 7;>G8==>W ?>254V=:8, ?@> ?A8E>;>3VG=5 AC?@>2>465==O C A8AB5<V ?@02>>E>@>==8E 4V9. @>D5AV9=>-?A8E>;>3VG=V C<V==O  F5 A?>A>18 ?@0:B8G=>3> 28:>@8AB0==O ?A8E>;>3VG=8E 7=0=L C ?@>D5AV9=V9 ?@0:B8FV. >=8 <VABOBL B@8 3@C?8. =0;VB8:> - ?A8E>;>3VG=V C<V==O  A?@><>6=VABL ?>10G8B8 ?A8E>;>3VG=89 0A?5:B C ?@>D5AV9=V9 4VO;L=>ABV, >FV=8B8 9>3> @>;L B0 2?;82 =0 ?>254V=:C V ?@028;L=> 9>3> 28:>@8AB0B8. "0:B8:> - ?A8E>;>3VG=V C<V==O  :>=:@5B=V 70A>18 ?A8E>;>3VG=8E 4V9, I> <>6=0 28:>@8AB0B8 C :>=:@5B=8E D>@<0E 4VO;L=>ABV (A?>AB5@565==O, 4>?8B, >3;O4 B>I>). > FVTW 3@C?8, 7>:@5<0, 2V4=>AOBL C<V==O AB2>@8B8 ?A8E>;>3VG=89 ?>@B@5B 7;>G8=FO, ?@028;L=> ?@>2>48B8 A?>AB5@565==O, ?A8E>;>3VG=> 0=0;V7C20B8 ?>254V=:C ;N459 B0 A8BC0FVN C FV;><C, 740B=VABL ?A8E>;>3VG=> 0=0;V7C20B8 ;8AB8 B0 70O28 3@><04O= B>I>. "5E=V:> - ?A8E>;>3VG=V C<V==O  F5 2>;>4V==O 25@10;L=8<8, =525@10;L=8<8 B0 ?>254V=:>28<8 70A>10<8 A?V;:C20==O. @>D5AV>=0; <0T AB2>@8B8 =5>1EV4=89 >1@07 4;O 4>AO3=5==O ?>AB02;5=>W <5B8. 0?@8:;04, 2 >4=V9 A8BC0FVW ?>B@V1=> ?V4:@5A;8B8 2;0A=C I8@VABL, 2 V=HV9  6>@AB:VABL, C =0ABC?=V9  =0?>;53;82VABL. @>D5AV9=> - ?A8E>;>3VG=V =028G:8  F5 AC:C?=VABL ?A8E>;>3VG=8E O:>AB59, I> <0NBL 25;8:5 7=0G5==O 4;O 74V9A=5==O ?@>D5AV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. > =091V;LH 206;828E 2V4=>AOBL: ?@>D5AV9=5 2V4GCBBO B0 A?@89<0==O (@>728=5=VABL ?5@8D5@V9=>3> 7>@C, GCB;82VABL =VG=>3> 7>@C, 740B=VABL >FV=8B8 B5<?5@0BC@C BV;0 218B>W ;N48=8, 740B=VABL @>7@V7=OB8 ?52=V 70?0E8 B>I>); ?@>D5AV9=0 A?>AB5@56;82VABL, C2030, ?0< OBL (740B=VABL 4> 70?0< OB>2C20==O >1;8G, ?@V728I, =><5@V2 <0H8=, A;>25A=8E B0 V=H8E ?>@B@5BV2, 45B0;59 A8BC0FVW, <0B5@V0;V2 A;V4AB20 B>I>); ?@>D5AV9=0 CO20  740B=VABL CO28B8 ?;0= <VAB0 01> =5>1EV4=>W <VAF52>ABV, <>45;N20B8 A8BC0FVN 70B@8<0==O, ?@>3=>7C20B8 ?>254V=:C ?@02>?>@CH=8:0 B>I>; ?@>D5AV9=89 0@B8AB87<  740B=VABL 4> ?5@52BV;5==O, ?@8AB>AC20==O 4> ?>254V=:8 V=H>W ;N48=8. @>D5AV9=> - ?A8E>;>3VG=0 ABV9:VABL  F5 740B=VABL ?@>B8AB>OB8 AB@5A>35==8< C<>20< ?@>D5AV9=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. @02>>E>@>==0 4VO;L=VABL <0T ?V428I5=89 @V25=L AB@5AC, B>1B> C<>2 B0 A8BC0FV9, I> ?>B@51CNBL ?V428I5=8E 7CA8;L 4;O WE 28@VH5==O. #<>2>N ?@>D5AV9=> - ?A8E>;>3VG=>W ABV9:>ABV T B0:V D0:B>@8: 7030;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VG=0 ABV9:VABL ;N48=8; >7=09><;5==O 7 @V7=><0=VB=8<8 ?A8E>35==8<8 D0:B>@0<8, 2=0A;V4>: G>3> 7=86CTBLAO D0:B>@ =5A?>4V20=:8; 4>A2V4 28@VH5==O ?@>D5AV9=8E 70240=L; @>728=5=89 A0<>:>=B@>;L B0 A0<>2?;82, C<V==O @53C;N20B8 2;0A=89 ?A8EVG=89 AB0=. 0?8B0==O 4;O A0<>:>=B@>;N )> 282G0T N@848G=0 ?A8E>;>3VO? 072VBL 70240==O N@848G=>W ?A8E>;>3VW. /:V ?V4@>74V;8 <0T N@848G=0 ?A8E>;>3VO? /:V ?>OA=5==O 28:>@8AB>2CNBL 7;>G8=FV 4;O A0<>28?@0240==O? 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C :@8<V=0;L=8E <>B82V2. 09B5 ?A8E>;>3VG=C E0@0:B5@8AB8:C 7;>G8=FO. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C ?@>D5AV9=>W A?@O<>20=>ABV N@8AB0. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C A?5FV0;L=> - N@848G=8E 74V1=>AB59. )> ?>T4=CNBL ?@>D5AV9=> - ?A8E>;>3VG=V 7=0==O N@8AB0? 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C ?@>D5AV9=> - ?A8E>;>3VG=8E C<V=L. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C ?@>D5AV9=> - ?A8E>;>3VG=8E =028G>:. 09B5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:C ?@>D5AV9=> - ?A8E>;>3VG=>W ABV9:>ABV N@8AB0. )> 282G0T ?A8E>;>3VO AC4>G8=AB20? )> 282G0T ?@02>20 ?A8E>;>3VO? @0:B8G=5 70=OBBO .@848G=0 ?A8E>;>3VO B0 ?A8E>;>3VO 4VO;L=>ABV N@8AB0 @54<5B, 70240==O B0 AB@C:BC@0 N@848G=>W ?A8E>;>3VW. @8<V=0;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO. A8E>;>3VO >A>18AB>ABV 7;>G8=FO. "8?>;>3VO 7;>G8=FV2. @>D5AV9=0 A?@O<>20=VABL N@8AB0. @07>: B5ABC A8E>;>3VG=V 0A?5:B8 ?@020, ?@02>2>3> @53C;N20==O B0 N@848G=>W 4VO;L=>ABV 282G0T: 0) 7030;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO; 1) 45>=B>;>3VO; 2) <548G=0 ?A8E>;>3VO: 3) N@8A?@C45=FVO. 4) N@848G=0 ?A8E>;>3VO. 2. .@848G=0 ?A8E>;>3VO <0T ?V4@>74V;8: 0) <5B>4>;>3VN; 1) ?@02>2C ?A8E>;>3VN; 2) :@8<V=0;L=C ?A8E>;>3VN; 3) ?A8E>;>3VN :@8<V=0;L=>3> AC4>G8=AB20; 4) ?A8E>;>3VN 3@><04O=AL:>3> ?@02>2>3> @53C;N20==O; 5) ?A8E>;>3VN 4VO;L=>ABV N@848G=8E CAB0=>2. 3. >BO3 4> 74V9A=5==O ?52=>3> 284C A>FV0;L=> =5157?5G=>W 4VO;L=>ABV =07820TBLAO: 0) :@8<V=0;L=>N ?>B@51>N; 1) :@8<V=0;L=>N ?>254V=:>N; 2) =>@<0;L=>N ?>254V=:>N; 3) 0<>@0;L=>N ?>B@51>N; 4) 452V0=B=>N ?>254V=:>N. 4. # :@8<V=0;L=V9 ?A8E>;>3VW 284V;ONBL B0:V B8?8 7;>G8=FV2: 0) 7 =0A8;L=8FL:>N >@VT=B0FVTN; 1) 7 :>@8A;82>N >@VT=B0FVTN; 2) 7;>G8=5FL - ?@>D5AV>=0;; 3) =5>15@56=V 7;>G8=FV; 4) ?><V@:>20=V 7;>G8=FV. 5. !8AB5<0 <>B82V2, I> A?@8OT 28:>@8AB0==N 2;0A=8E A8; B0 74V1=>AB59 4;O 7<VF=5==O 70:>=C C :@0W=V A:;040T: 0) ?@>D5AV9=C 4VO;L=VABL N@8AB0; 1) ?@>D5AV9=C >@VT=B0FVN N@8AB0; 2) ?@>D5AV9=C A?@O<>20=VABL N@8AB0; 3) ?@>D5AV>=0;V70FVN N@8AB0; 4) 45?5@A>=0;V70FVN N@8AB0. !?8A>: ;VB5@0BC@8 1. 0A8;L52 .. .@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O.  !?1.:8B5@, 2001.  640 A. 2.=8:552 .. .@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O.  .: 74-2>  , 2001.  518 A. 3. C4@O2F52 .. !C451=0O ?A8E>;>3>-?A8E80B@8G5A:0O 5:A?5@B870.  .: .@84. 8B., 1988.  224 A. 4. 5B5;8F0 ... !C451=> - ?A8E80B@8G5A:0O 5:A?5@B870 ?>B5@?52H8E.  .: .@84. 8B., 1990.  208 A. 5. !0E=>20 ".. 0G5< AC4C ?A8E>;>3? - .: =0=85, 1990.  96 A. 17. A8E>;>3VO <0A 17.1. 0A8 V >A>18ABVABL. 17.2. 030;L=V <5E0=V7<8 <0A>2>W ?A8E>;>3VW. 17.3. !C1 T:B8 <0A>28E ?@>O2V2. 17.4. $>@<8 <0A>2>W ?>254V=:8. 17.5. C9=C20==O <0A8. 17.1. 0A8 V >A>18ABVABL 0A8 O: A>FV0;L=> - ?A8E>;>3VG=V CB2>@5==O 28=8:0NBL C 2V4?>2V4L =0 ACBBT2V 7<V=8 >1AB028= 68BBO ;N459. 8=8:=5==O 1C4L - O:8E DV78G=8E (AB8EV9=V ;8E0), A>FV0;L=8E (ACA?V;L=V 7<V=8) G8 ?>;VB8G=8E (2V9=0, ?5@52>@>B8) >1AB028= 7<5=HCT 2?;82 =0 ;N48=C :;0A8G=8E 3@C? V ?>A8;NT 2?;82 <0A8. 0A>N =07820NBL A>FV0;L=C A?V;L=VABL, I> 28=8:0T A8BC0B82=> V 35B5@>35==0 70 A:;04><. !5@54 CG5=8E =5<0T T48=>W B>G:8 7>@C 2V4=>A=> 284V;5==O 284V2 <0A. V;LHVABL ?V4E>4V2 <0NBL C<>3;O4=89 E0@0:B5@ V 715@V30NBLAO C =0CFV O: 40=8=0 VAB>@8G=><C @>728B:C. 091V;LH ?>H8@5=5 284V;5==O 3 284V2 <0A: =0B>2?C, 7V1@0=>W ?C1;V:8 B0 =57V1@0=>W ?C1;V:8. 0A0 <0T =87:C A?5F8DVG=8E O:>AB59. <>@D=VABL. 0A0 =5 72>48BLAO 4> AB@C:BC@>20=>W 3@C?8 V 2V4@V7=OTBLAO 2V4 AC1 T:BV2, O:V WW A:;040NBL. V4:@8BVABL, @>7<8BVABL <56, =5287=0G5=VABL :V;L:VA=>3> V O:VA=>3> A:;04C. !8BC0B82=VABL B0 B8<G0A>2VABL VA=C20==O. 5B5@>35==VABL A:;04C. 0A0 T =>28< FV;VA=8< CB2>@5==O<, I> =5 T AC<>N V=482V4V2, B>1B> A8AB5<0 =5 T AC<>N A:;04>28E G0AB8=. 0C:>289 0=0;V7 <0A8 B0 >A>18AB>AB59 =5 <>65 ?@>?CA:0B8 ?>70 C203>N =V =>25 CB2>@5==O (<0AC), =V 9>3> >:@5<8E A:;04>28E 7V A2>TN ?A8E>;>3VTN. &5 >7=0G0T, I> <0A0 A:;040TBLAO 7 >:@5<8E >A>18AB>AB59, 0 >A>18AB>ABV A:;040NBL <0AC. 0A0 B0 >A>18ABVABL <VF=> ?>T4=0=V. :@5<V >A>18AB>ABV CB2>@NNBL <0AC, O:0 2?;820T =0 =8E, 7<V=NT WE A2V4><VABL B0 ?>254V=:C. V0;5:B8G=89 ?V4EV4 4> 0=0;V7C <0A8 V >A>18AB>ABV ?5@5410G0T T4=VABL F8E :0B53>@V9. 5 <>6=0 7@>7C<VB8 <0AC, =5 2@0E>2CNG8 ?A8E>;>3VN >:@5<8E ;N459. 5 <>6=0 7@>7C<VB8 V >A>18ABVABL, =5 2@0E>2CNG8 WW A?@><>6=VABL AB2>@N20B8 <0A8. )5 . $@594 AB25@46C202, I> & ?@>B8AB02;5==O V=482V4C0;L=>W V & <0A>2>W ?A8E>;>3VW & 1030B> V7 A2>TW 3>AB@>B8 & 2B@0G0T. /: V G><C 28=8:0T <0A0? /: ?A8E>;>3VG=> >A>18ABVABL AB0T G;5=>< <0A8? >=0 V45 C <0AC 2V;L=> G8 70E>?;NTBLAO <0A>N? )> 2V41C20TBLAO 7 >A>18ABVABN, :>;8 2>=0 AB0T G;5=>< <0A8? # VAB>@VW ;N4AB20 =5 28=8:;0 1 6>4=0 <0A0, O:18 C >A>18AB>AB59 =5 1C;> ?>B@518 >1 T4=C20B8AL C ?>4V1=V A?V;L=>ABV. >B@518 ;N48=8 ?>@>46CNBL >A>1;8289 <>B82  >1 T4=0==O 7 A>1V ?>4V1=8<8 4;O A0<>715@565==O, 4>AO3=5==O 283>4 G8 O:>3>AL 2=CB@VH=L>3> AB0=C. V4=>A=> A0<>715@565==O 2A5 4>A8BL ?@>AB>. 8=8:=5==O =5157?5:8 28:;8:0T >1 T4=0==O B20@8= C 73@0W, ?V4;VB:V2  C 2C;8G=V 3@C?8, 0 4>@>A;8E  C <0A8. # <0AV T <>6;82VABL 4>AO3=5==O 283>4, =0 O:V >:@5<0 >A>18ABVABL =5 A?@><>6=0. 0A8 74V9A=NNBL AB@09:8, @52>;NFVW, ?5@5<030NBL C 2V9=0E. =CB@VH=V9 AB0=  F5 5<>FV9=> - 0D5:B82=89 AB0= ?>78B82=>3> G8 =530B82=>3> E0@0:B5@C. 53C;OFVO 2=CB@VH=VE AB0=V2 <>6;820 7024O:8 ?5@51C20==N ;N48=8 C <0AV. "0:0 ?>B@510 <0T =5CA2V4><;5=89 E0@0:B5@. N48=0 2:;NG0TBLAO C <0AC, A?@8OT WW 28=8:=5==N V =5 CA2V4><;NT, 4;O G>3> 2>=0 F5 @>18BL. #A5 F5 2V41C20TBLAO A0<> A>1>N, AB8EV9=>. &5 7>2=VH=V9 1V: CB2>@5==O <0A8. =CB@VH=V9 1V: ?5@5410G0T 0=0;V7 5<>FV9=8E AB0=V2. @>0=0;V7CT<> 28=8:=5==O =0B>2?C ?@8 02B><>1V;L=V9 020@VW. =VFV0B>@0<8 28=8:=5==O <0A8 T A0<V 2>4VW. E =530B82=89 5<>FV9=89 AB0= ?@8<CHCT WE ;0OB8AO, 728=C20GC20B8 >48= >4=>3>, :@8G0B8, ?@825@B0B8 C203C. &O ?>254V=:0 2>4VW2 <>B82>20=0 B@L><0 <><5=B0<8: C=8:=CB8 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV, 4>AO3B8 ?>2=>W 283>48 (EB> 1C45 ?;0B8B8 HB@0D, A?;0GC20B8 70 @5<>=B), ?>;53H8B8 A2V9 5<>FV9=89 AB0=. "0:8< G8=><, ?V4@C=BO< 28=8:=5==O <0A8 T V=482V4C0;L=V ?>B@518 2 V45=B8DV:0FVW A515 7 25;8:>N :V;L:VABN ;N459 7 <5B>N @53C;OFVW 5<>FV9=8E AB0=V2. &O ?>B@510 0:BC0;V7CTBLAO C B8E 28?04:0E, :>;8 <>20 945 ?@> A8;L=V 5<>FV9=V AB0=8, 7 O:8<8 >A>18ABVABL =5 <>65 2?>@0B8AO. ">4V >A>18AB>ABV ?>B@V1=0 >A>1;820 V45=B8DV:0FVO  =5 ?A8E>;>3VG=0, 0 DV78G=5 >1 T4=0==O 7 A>1V ?>4V1=8<8. >B@510 ;N48=8 2 V45=B8DV:0FVW A515 7 <0A>N 7 <5B>N @53C;OFVW 5<>FV9=8E AB0=V2 <0T 420 =0?@O<:8. 5@H89 >1C<>2;NTBLAO 2=CB@VH=L>N ?>B@51>N 7=865==O 01> @>7@O4:8 5<>FV9=>3> AB0=C. 0 ?>E>@>=8 70?@>HCNBL 4>AB0B=N :V;L:VABL ;N459, I>1 2>=8 @>74V;8;8 3>@5. V4><>, I> DV78G=0 =0;56=VABL 4> <0A8 70E8I0T ;N48=C, 0 V=482V4C0;L=> F5 7@>18B8 206:>. /: ?8A02 ?>5B : "@C4=> G5;>25:C, :>340 >= >48=. !B@0H=> >4=><C, >48=  =5 2>8=. >AB0B=L> 2V4><V ?>GCBBO ;V:BO, ?;5G5< 4> ?;5G0 V B. V=., I> ?>@>46CNBL 2?52=5=VABL C A2>WE A8;0E, 0 <VF=VABL <0A8 ?5@540TBLAO >:@5<V9 ;N48=V. @C389 ?>2'O70=89 7 2=CB@VH=L>N ?>B@51>N ?>A8;5==O 5<>FV9=8E AB0=V2. # B@048FVOE 1V;LH>ABV =0@>4V2 T 728G0W 2V47=0G0B8 >A>18ABV B0 AV<59=V ?>78B82=> - 5<>FV9=V ?>78FVW, (4>AO3=5==O, 25AV;;O, 4=V =0@>465==O, @VG=8FV& ) 70?@>H5==O< V=H8E ;N459, AB2>@5==O< ?52=>W <0A8. > @8BC0;V2 A2OB 2E>4OBL B0: 720=V =0@>4=V 3C;O==O. "8?>28< ?@8:;04>< WE T @5;V3V9=V A2OB0. !;V4 ?0< OB0B8, I> @5;V3V9=V <0A8 718@0NBLAO O: 4;O 7<5=H5==O 5<>FV9=8E AB0=V2, B0: V 4;O WE ?>A8;5==O. # AC:C?=>ABV F5 ?@872>48BL 4> ?>A8;5==O @5;V3V9=>W 2V@8 O: 7030;L=>3> 5<>FV9=>3> AB0=C <0A8 ;N459. "0:8< G8=><, <0AV 702648 ?5@54CT V=482V4. # ;N48=8 T ?>B@510 1CB8 C <0AV, <>B82>20=0 =5>1EV4=VABN @53C;N20==O A2>3> 5<>FV9=>3> AB0=C. 530B82=V AB0=8 C <0AV ?>A;01;NNBLAO, ?>78B82=V  ?V4A8;NNBLAO. &5 >7=0G0T, I> V=482V48 AB2>@NNBL <0A8 A2>W<8 5<>FVO<8. N48 ?5@28==V, <0A8 2B>@8==V. 0 704>2>;5==O ?>B@518 1CB8 C <0AV B0 @53C;N20B8 A2>W 5<>FVW >A>18ABVABL 28<CH5=0 @>7?;0GC20B8AO 72C65==O< @V2=O @0FV>=0;L=8E :><?>=5=BV2 ?A8EV:8, 7=865==O< :@8B8G=>ABV, B>1B> B8<G0A>2>N 45V=482V4C0;V70FVN. A8E>;>38 22060NBL, I> ;N48=V 2;0AB820 ?>B@510 1CB8 >A>18ABVABN. ;5 <8 <>65<> AB25@46C20B8 V 72>@>B=5: ;N48=V 2;0AB820 V ?@>B8;56=0 ?>B@510 @53@5A82=>3> E0@0:B5@C, 0 A0<5 ?>B@510 =5 1CB8 >A>18ABVABN, @>7G8=8B8AO C <0AV. . $@><< F5 =07202 2B5G0 2V4 A2>1>48. . $@594 ?8A02: 0A0 28:;8:0T C >:@5<>W ;N48=8 2@065==O =5>1<565=>W A8;8. !0<5 BCB V 2V41C20TBLAO 2V4><89 D@594V2AL:89 :0B0@A8A  5<>FV9=5 >G8I5==O 2V4 >4=8E 5<>FV9 H;OE>< 28=8:=5==O V=H8E. 0A0 ACBBT2> 7<V=NT V=482V4C0;L=C ?A8EV:C B0 V=482V4C0;L=C ?>254V=:C. 0A0, I> 70;CG0T 4> A515 ;N459, @C9=CT 2AV 2V4<V==>ABV <V6 =8<8, 0 B0:>6 B@0=AD>@<CT 2AN V=482V4C0;L=C ?A8EV:C B0 ?V4:>@OT V=482V4C0;L=C A2V4><VABL. 0A0 =V25;NT 2AN V=482V4C0;L=C ?A8EV:C, 7@V2=NT 2AVE 01A>;NB=> @V7=8E ;N459. . 51>= 284V;82 B0:V 2V4<V==V >7=0:8 V=482V40 C <0AV: 0=>=V<=VABL, 7<5=H5==O @V2=O A2V4><>W >A>18AB>ABV, ?5@52060==O =5A2V4><>W >A>18AB>ABV, 7=865==O V=B5;5:BC, >@VT=B0FVO <0A>N 4C<>: V ?>GCBBV2 V=482V4V2 C >4=><C =0?@O<:C, D>@<C20==O B5=45=FVW 4> =5309=>3> 74V9A=5==O =02VO=8E 4V9. . 51>= AB25@46C202: =482V4 =5 T 1V;LH5 A0<8< A>1>N, 2V= AB02 1572V;L=8< 02B><0B><. !CG0A=V 02B>@8 284V;ONBL V=HV 7<V=8, I> 2V41C20NBLAO 7 >A>18ABVABN C <0AV: ?V428I5==O 5<>FV9=>ABV A?@89<0==O, ?V428I5==O =02VN20=>ABV, 7<5=H5==O :@8B8G=>ABV AB02;5==O 4> A515, 7<5=H5==O @V2=O @0FV>=0;L=>ABV ?5@5@>1:8 V=D>@<0FVW, ?@83=VG5==O ?>GCBBO 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV 70 2;0A=C ?>254V=:C, ?>O20 ?>GCBBO A8;8 V CA2V4><;5==O 0=>=V<=>ABV. /:I> ;N48=0 2B@0G0T V=482V4C0;L=C 2V4?>2V40;L=VABL, B> =01C20T 2V4GCBBO 1572V4?>2V40;L=>ABV V <>3CB=>ABV. @8<V=0;VAB8 7=0NBL, I> C 3@C?>28E 7;>G8=0E =5 <>6=0 ?@0:B8G=> 287=0G8B8 <V@C >A>18AB>W 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV :>6=>3> V=482V40 70 A:>T=V 4VW. $0:B8 7;>G8=C T, 0;5 =5 <>6=0 287=0G8B8 :>=:@5B=8E 7;>G8=FV2. ;>G8= 74V9A=NT <0A0, V 6>45= V7 G;5=V2 <0A8 =5 <>65 73040B8, EB> :>=:@5B=> V I> @>182. . $@594 ?8A02, I> V=482V4 C <0AV 2?040T C >A>1;8289 AB0= 70G0@C20==O. !2V4><0 >A>18ABVABL ?>2=VABN 2V4:;NG0TBLAO, ?>GCBBO V 4C<:8 >@VT=B>20=V <0A>N C ?52=><C =0?@O<:C, >A>18ABVABL 1V;LH5 =5 CA2V4><;NT A2>WE 4V9, 0;5 28:>=CT =02VO=V ?52=V 4VW. ;5 <0A0 =5 BV;L:8 7018@0T I>AL C V=482V4C0;L=>W ?A8EV:8, 2>=0 I5 =040T A2>W< G;5=0< =>28E O:>AB59 . > - ?5@H5. =482V4 2V4GC20T ?>GCBBO =574>;0=>W A8;8. 0;56=VABL 4> <0A8 30@0=BCT 0=>=V<=VABL >:@5<>3> V=482V40. 0A0 =V:>;8 =5 =5A5 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV, 0 =0;56=VABL >A>18AB>ABV 4> <0A8 ?>7102;OT WW 2V4 ?5@A>=0;L=>W 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV. > - 4@C35. =482V4C0;L=0 ?A8EV:0 7<V=NTBLAO 2=0A;V4>: 25;8:>W 70@065=>ABV <0A8. # <0AV 70@07;820 :>6=0 4VO C B0:><C @V2=V, I> V=482V4 65@B2CT A2>W< 2;0A=8< V=B5@5A>< =0 :>@8ABL V=B5@5AC A?V;L=>3>, <0A>2>3>. "CB 65, =0 4C<:C . "0@40, <0T <VAF5 72>@>B=89 28;82: <0A0 70@060T V=482V40, 0 V=482V4, 70@060NG8AL, 2?;820T =0 <0AC. > - B@5BT. 06;82>N ?@8G8=>N ?>O28 >A>1;828E O:>AB59 T =02VN20=VABL. ?;82 <0A8 =0 >A>18ABVABL AC?5@5G;8289. # <0AV ;N48=0 A?@><>6=0 =0 2A5. 0A0 ;N459 <>65 74V9A=N20B8 B0:V 7;>G8=8, =0 O:V 6>4=0 >A>18ABVABL >:@5<> =5 A?@><>6=0. 0A0 A?@><>6=0 =0 2182AB2>, V 6>4=5 A;V4AB2> =5 <>65 2AB0=>28B8, EB> :>=:@5B=> 182, @V702, AB@V;O2& @V< @>73;O=CB8E >A>1;82>AB59 ?A8EV:8, 2V4><0 B0: 720=0 7<V=0 V=482V4C0;L=>W ?A8EV:8  0<=57VO, G0AB:>20 2B@0B0 ?0< OBV =0 ?>4VW. N48=0 ?@>AB> =5 <>65 ?@83040B8, I> 2>=0 @>18;0 C <0AV. <=57VO AC?@>2>46CTBLAO 70=5?04>< A8; ?VA;O A8;L=>3> 5<>FV9=>3> AB@5AC, I> 2V4?>2V40T DV7V>;>3VG=><C 0D5:BC. "0:89 AB0= 7<5=HCT ?@02>2C 2V4?>2V40;L=VABL 70 4VW, 74V9A=5=V C AB0=V @0?B>2>3> A8;L=>3> 4CH52=>3> E28;N20==O. A8E>;>38 :>=AB0BCNBL, I> C <0AV 2V41C20TBLAO 45V=482V4C0;V70FVO, 01> 2B@0B0 >A>18ABVABN A2>3> >1;8GGO. 5V=482V4C0;V70FVTN =07820TBLAO 2B@0B0 A2V4><>ABV V 1>O7=V >FV=:8, I> 28=8:0NBL C 3@C?>28E A8BC0FVOE B0 70157?5GCNBL 0=>=V<=VABL V =5 :>=F5=B@CNBL C203C =0 >:@5<><C V=482V4V. )5 '. . 0@2V= AB25@46C202, I> A8;L=V ?5@56820==O ?52=>3> 5<>FV9=>-0D5:B82=>3> AB0=C 2?;820NBL =0 < O78 >1;8GGO V 254CBL 4> =0?@C65==O >4=8E V B8E A0<8E < O7V2 C 25;8:>W :V;L:>ABV ;N459. # B0:><C AB0=V C >1;8GGOE ;N459 7 O2;ONBLAO 45O:V ?>4V1=>ABV, 7=8:0NBL 2V4<V==>ABV. =0A;V4>: FL>3> 7 O2;OTBLAO B5 C7030;L=5=5 >1;8GGO <0A8. # A>FV0;L=> - ?A8E>;>3VG=><C ?;0=V <0T<> =0 C207V 2B@0BC >A>18AB>ABV. >=OBBO >A>18AB>ABV C A>FV0;L=V9 ?A8E>;>3VW <0T 420 ?V4E>48: @0FV>=0;L=89 B0 V@@0FV>=0;L=89. 0FV>=0;L=89 ?V4EV4 @>73;O40T >A>18ABVABL O: AC:C?=VABL A2>3> / B0 A>FV0;L=8E @>;59. V4GC65==O C <0AV F59 ?V4EV4 ?>OA=NT ?@>AB>. > - ?5@H5, ?5@51C20==O C <0AV 7<5=HCT 7030;L=89 @V25=L @0FV>=0;L=>ABV ;N48=8, =0 ?5@H89 @V25=L 28E>48BL V@@0FV>=0;L=5, 5<>FV9=5 =0G0;>. > -4@C35, ?5@51C20==O C <0AV 2545 4> @C9=C20==O A>FV0;L=8E @>;59. 0 45O:89 G0A 2>=8 ?@>AB> 7=8:0NBL. # <0AV 2AV >4=0:>2V, 70 28=OB:>< 20B06:V2. > - B@5BT, <0A0 28<030T 7@5G5==O 2;0A=>3> /. &5 / @>7G8=OTBLAO C <0A>2><C 8. @@0FV>=0;L=89 ?V4EV4 @>73;O40T >A>18ABVABL O: ?>@>465==O =5A2V4><>3>, O:5 45I> ?V4G8I5=5 A>FV0;L=8<8 =>@<0<8, B>1B> F5 DC=:FVO B@L>E 7<V==8E Id, Ego, Super - ego. "0:89 ?V4EV4 ?>OA=NT 45V=482V4C0;V70FVN 7=8:=5==O< A>FV0;L=>3> :>=B@>;N C 283;O4V Super - ego B0 7<5=H5==O< @>;V Ego ?V4 2?;82>< 3;818==>3> =5CA2V4><;5=>3> Id. . $@594 @>73;O402 ?A8E>;>3VG=C <0AC V WW ?>254V=:C O: 45B5@<V=>20=C 28:;NG=> ?V4A2V4><8< Id. V= @>73;O402 42V HBCG=V <0A8: 0@<VN B0 F5@:2C. 0 9>3> 4C<:C, 2>=8 B@8<0NBLAO =0 ?V4A2V4><V9 ;N1>2V 4> >1@07C V450;L=>3> 10BL:0. # ?5@H><C 28?04:C 2V= ?@54AB02;5=89 2>T=0G0;L=8:><, O:89 T 10BL:>< @V4=8< I>4> A>;40B, 2 V=H><C  VACA>< %@8AB><  10BL:>< 2AL>3> ;N4AB20. 2V4A8  ?V4:>@5==O W< V A2>T@V4=5 @>7G8=5==O C =8E, I> V T A2>3> @>4C 45V=482V4C0;V70FVTN. 17.2. 030;L=V <5E0=V7<8 <0A>2>W ?A8E>;>3VW 030;L=8< <5E0=V7<>< 28=8:=5==O V @>728B:C <0A>2>W ?>254V=:8 T B0: 720=0 F8@:C;O@=0 @50:FVO. @8:;04>< B0:>W @50:FVW T A8BC0FVO A<VEC =04 0=5:4>B><. /:I> 4> :V<=0B8 2E>48BL ;N48=0, 45 2AV A<VNBLAO =04 0=5:4>B><, B> V 2>=0 ?>G8=0T A<VOB8AO. @8G8=>N A<VEC FVTW ;N48=8 T 5<>FV9=0 AB8<C;OFVO =0 ?V4A2V4><><C @V2=V. !<VE FVTW ;N48=8 71V30TBLAO 7V 7<5=H5==O< A<VEC ?@8ACB=VE, I>, C A2>N G5@3C, 28:;8:0T 281CE A<VEC ?@8ACB=VE. "5?5@ 2>=8 A<VNBLAO =04 =5045:20B=>N @50:FVTN B>3>, EB> ?@89H>2. AB0==V9 ?>G8=0T 7=>2C A<VOB8AO. &5 ?@>AB89 ?@8:;04 F8@:C;O@=>W @50:FVW. C4L - O:0 5<>FVO, I> ?V4E>?;NTBLAO V=H8<8 ;N4L<8, 728G09=> ?>25@B0TBLAO ?> :>;C. "0: 5<>FVO F8@:C;NT ?52=89 G0A. &5 ?5@H89 5B0? D>@<C20==O 5<>FV9=>W A?V;L=>ABV <0A8. &8@:C;OFVO <>65 ?@8?8=8B8AO, 0;5 <>65 V ?@>4>26C20B8AO. @>4>265==O <>6;825 70 C<>28 70;CG5==O 4> <0A8 =>28E ;N459. <>FVO 70 B0:8E C<>2 1C45 7=>2C 2V4B2>@N20B8AO. &5 <>6;825 B>4V, :>;8 5<>FVO 4>A8BL 7=0GCI0 4;O ;N459. "0: =0AB0T 4@C389 5B0? ?A8E>DV78G=>3> AB0=C, B0: 720=5 5<>FV9=5 :@C6;O==O. >3> ACB=VABL ?>;O30T C B><C, I> C AB8EV9=8E A?V;L=>ABOE 1C4L - O:0 5<>FVO E>48BL ?> :>;C, ?>ABV9=> ?V4A8;NT A0<0 A515. &5 5B0? 5<>FV9=>3> A0<>V=4C:BC20==O A?V;L=>ABV. "0: 28=8:0NBL AB8EV9=V 5<>FV9=V A?V;L=>ABV 70 @0EC=>: ?@>A?V2C20==O =0FV>=0;L=8E 3V<=V2, A?5FV0;L=8E A:>@><>2>: V =02VBL ;>7C=3V2 B8?C (0EB0@  G5<?V>=. &8@:C;O@=0 @50:FVO =V25;NT V=482V4C0;L=V 2V4<V==>ABV. AV A<VNBLAO 2A5 A8;L=VH5 B><C, I> A<VNBLAO. >254V=:0 >A>18AB>ABV 287=0G0TBLAO =5 @0FV>=0;L=>N >FV=:>N ?>4V9, 0 ?>254V=:>N B0 5<>FVO<8 V=H8E. V4B@8<0==O B0 @>728B>: 5<>FV9 70;560BL 2V4 ?>O28 =>28E ;N459, O:V 70@060NBLAO F8< AB0=><. @C?0 ;N459 ?5@5B2>@NTBLAO 2 >4=>@V4=C 0<>@D=C <0AC, I> =5A2V4><> @503CT =0 AB8<C;8 >4=><0=VB=>  A<VE><. "@5BV9 5B0?  ?>O20 =>2>3> >1 T:B0 C2038. /:I> A?>G0B:C 7030;L=8< >1 T:B>< C2038 1C;0 71C46C20;L=0 ?>4VO, B> B5?5@ =8< AB0T >1@07, I> AB2>@5=89 C ?@>F5AV 5<>FV9=>3> :@C6;O==O. &59 >1@07 T ?@>4C:B>< A?V;L=>W B2>@G>ABV, AB2>@NT 7030;L=C >@VT=B0FVN V T A?>=C:0;L=8< >1 T:B>< 4;O <0A>2>W ?>254V=:8. &59 AB0= =0AB0T ?@8 B0:><C @V2=V 5<>FV9=>3> AB0=C, :>;8 C ;N459 28=8:0T 3>B>2=VABL @503C20B8 =0 1C4L - O:C V=D>@<0FVN ?@8ACB=VE. @C?0 AB0T 2V4:@8B>N 4;O 5<?0BV9=>3>, =5:@8B8G=>3> A?@89<0==O 2=CB@VH=L>W V=D>@<0FVW V 70:@8B>N - 4;O 7>2=VH=L>W. "0: 28=8:0T 3;81>:0 5<>FV9=0 ?>B@510 C 7030;L=8E A?V;L=8E 4VOE. '5B25@B89 5B0?  0:B82V70FVO G;5=V2 A?V;L=>ABV 4>40B:>28< AB8<C;N20==O<. >=> 74V9A=NTBLAO ?@O<8< =02VN20==O<. >3> 74V9A=NT ;V45@ 01> 2>64L A?V;L=>ABV. V= A?>=C:0T G;5=V2 A?V;L=>ABV 4> :>=:@5B=8E, ?>B@V1=8E 9><C 4V9. 0 2V4ACB=>ABV ;V45@0 A?V;L=VABL A0<0 AB8EV9=> 7=0E>48BL >1 T:B 2;0A=8E 4V9. @8:;04>< 4VW F8E <5E0=V7<V2 T ?V4;VB:>20 @>72030 A<VE 157 ?@8G8=8, 7V1@0==O @5;V3V9=8E A5:B0=BV2, B@048FV9=V B0=FV 1>9>28:V2, ?>254V=:0 2C;8G=>3> =0B>2?C, I> 2A5 @C9=CT, V B. V=. >73;O=CBV <5E0=V7<8 4VNBL =0 @V2=V 2AVE 5<>FV9=8E ?@>O2V2. < ?V4:>@OTBLAO =5 BV;L:8 A<VE, 0;5 9 AB@0E, 3=V2. @0:B8G=> 2AV 5<>FVW. 0 @0EC=>: FL>3> 28=8:0NBL =0B>2?8 21>;V20;L=8:V2, AB@09:0@V, ?0=VG=V, 03@5A82=V B0 V=HV A?V;L=>ABV. 17.3. !C1 T:B8 <0A>28E ?@>O2V2 >A;V4=8: <0A>2>W ?>254V=:8 . 51>= AB25@46C202, I> ?@8=F8?>2>W 2V4<V==>ABV AB8EV9=>W <0A>2>W ?>254V=:8 @V7=8E AC1 T:BV2 2V4ACB=V. V= 284V;OT 3 AC1 T:B8: =0B>2?; >@30=V7>20=0 01> 7V1@0=0 ?C1;V:0; =5>@30=V7>20=0 01> =57V1@0=0 ?C1;V:0, V 2AV 72>48BL 4> >4=>3>  =0B>2?C. 0B>2?  F5 =5 BV;L:8 DV78G=5 A:C?G5==O ;N459, F5 <>6CBL 1CB8 G8B0GV C 1V1;V>B5FV. 572060NG8 =0 VA=C20==O 7030;L=8E <5E0=V7<V2 ?>254V=:8, 284V;5=V 3 AC1 T:B8 <0NBL A2>T@V4=V <5E0=V7<8 B0 ?52=V 2V4<V==>ABV. 0B>2?>< =07820TBLAO :>=B0:B=0, 7>2=V =5>@30=V7>20=0 A?V;L=VABL, I> 2V4@V7=OTBLAO 28A>:8< @V2=5< :>=D>@<V7<C WW G;5=V2, O:V 4VNBL 5<>FV9=> V >4=>AB09=>. 84V;ONBL 7030;L=V ?A8E>;>3VG=V D0:B>@8 VA=C20==O =0B>2?C. !BV9:89 ?A8E>;>3VG=89 72'O7>: <V6 ;N4L<8 =0B>2?C. 0B>2? CB2>@NTBLAO 7 ?>4V1=8E 01> V45=B8G=8E 5<>FV9, I> 28:;8:0NBLAO >4=8< AB8<C;><. # =0B>2?V 2V4ACB=V >@30=V70FV9=V G8 <>@0;L=V =>@<8. ?;82 =0B>2?C =0 ;N459 28?;820T 7 5<>FV9=> - V<?C;LA82=>3> 72 O7:C <V6 =8<8. # =0B>2?V 28O2;ONBLAO ?@8<VB82=V, 0;5 A8;L=V 5<>FVW, I> =5 AB@8<CNBLAO 6>4=8<8 5B8G=8<8 =>@<0<8. '0AB:>20 2B@0B0 V=482V4C0;L=8E @8A >A>18AB>ABV. 0 @0EC=>: FL>3> C ;N459 7@>AB0T 3>B>2=VABL 4> 70@065==O V AE8;L=VABL 4> =0A;V4C20==O. 50:FVO =0 7>2=VH=V AB8<C;8 A?@O<>2CTBLAO 5<>FV9=8< V<?C;LA>< 01> =0A;V4C20==O< ?>254V=:8 V=H8E. 5D;5:B82=VABL 7=8:0T, 7 O2;OTBLAO 45V=482V4C0;V70FVO, I> ?>A8;NT ?>GCBBO T4=>ABV 7 =0B>2?><. #A5 F5 28:;8:0T ?>A;01;5==O 2V4GCBBO 206;82>ABV 5B8G=8E B0 ?@02>28E =>@<. 07>< 7 B8< 28=8:0T A8;L=5 2V4GCBBO ?@028;L=>ABV WE 4V9. !?>A>18 4V9 =5 >FV=NNBLAO :@8B8G=>. <>FV9=0 =0?@C65=VABL C =0B>2?V 71V;LHCT 2V4GCBBO 2;0A=>ABV A8;8 V 7<5=HCT ?>GCBBO 2V4?>2V40;L=>ABV 70 2G8=:8. A>1;82>W A8;8 =0B>2?C =040T =0O2=VABL :>=:@5B=8E >?>=5=BV2. #AV FV D5=><5=8, 2;0AB82V G;5=0< =0B>2?C, 4VNBL =V18 ?V4 2?;82>< 3V?=>7C. 84V;ONBL C<>28 4VW B0:>3> 3V?=>7C. 5@H0. &5 ?>?5@54=L> AD>@<>20=V ABV9:V CAB0=>2:8 V ?5@5:>=0==O. 0?@8:;04, ;53:> 28:;8:0B8 4VNG89 =0B>2? ?@>B8 =5=028A=8E A>FV0;L=8E 3@C? G8 V=AB8BCBV2. @C30. 5@5:>=0==O, I> 2V4?>2V40NBL ;>7C=30<, ?V4 O:8<8 =0B>2? 4VT. "@5BO. >;>489 2V: G;5=V2 =0B>2?C V 2V4ACB=VABL 4>AB0B=L>3> A>FV0;L=>3> 4>A2V4C. '5B25@B0. 87L:89 @V25=L V=B5;5:BC0;L=>3> @>728B:C, 2V4ACB=VABL 728G:8 0=0;V7C20B8 A2>N ?>254V=:C, =54>AB0B=L> A8;L=0 2>;O, =5B25@4VABL A>FV0;L=> - ?>;VB8G=8E ?>3;O4V2, 2V4ACB=VABL ABV9:8E ?5@5:>=0=L. 84V;ONBL G>B8@8 2848 =0B>2?C: - 28?04:>289; - 5:A?@5A82=89; - :>=25=FV9=89; - 4VNG89. 8?04:>289 =0B>2? 28=8:0T =0 2C;8FV ?V4 G0A ". VB:=C;8AO 420 02B><>1V;V. 02:>;> ?>4VW 7C?8=ONBLAO 4>?8B;82V ?5@5E>6V. >:8 2>4VW 7 OA>2CNBL ACB=VABL ?>4VW <V6 A>1>N, 4>?8B;82V 7 OA>2CNBL 45B0;V. >;>2=>N 5<>FVTN BCB T 5;5<5=B0@=0 4>?8B;82VABL. >=0 70E>?;NT 2A5 =>28E V =>28E ?5@5E>68E. >=8 725@B0NBLAO 4> ?@8ACB=VE, CB>G=NNBL 45B0;V. &8@:C;O@=0 @50:FVO 4>?8B;82>ABV 70?CA:0TBLAO =0 ?>2=C A8;C. 57?5@5@2=> ?> :>;C ?5@5?>2V40TBLAO: EB> 72V4:8 WE02, :C48 ?>25@B02, O: 30;L<C202, EB> 28=5=. "5?5@ C65 ?5@5?>2V40NBLAO ?>4VW 2A5 =>28<8 G;5=0<8 =0B>2?C, O:V A0<V =5 10G8;8 ?>4VW. >G8=0T 5<>FV9=5 :@C6;O==O: 70E>?;NT 2A5 =>28E 4>?8B;828E, =0B>2? ?> :>;C ?5@5?>2V40T >4=C V BC A0<C 5<>FV9=C @>7?>2V4L. '0AB> 1C20T, I> 2>4VW @>7V1@0;8AO <V6 A>1>N, @>7 WE0;8AL, 0 =0B>2? 70;8H0TBLAO V =02VBL <>65 71V;LHC20B8AO. VNBL >4=V V BV A0<V 5<>FV9=V <5E0=V7<. A>1;82> B8?>2V B0:V A8BC0FVW 4;O AEV4=8E :@0W=, 45 ?5@5E>6V <5=H5 AE8;L=V 4> @0FV>=0;L=>3> 28:>@8AB0==O G0AC. >ABC?>2> 28?04:>289 =0B>2? <>65 ?5@5B2>@8B8AO 2 5:A?@5A82=89. :A?@5A82=89 =0B>2?  F5 AC:C?=VABL ;N459, O:V A?V;L=> 28A;>2;NNBL @04VABL G8 3>@5, 3=V2 G8 ?@>B5AB. &5 <>65 1CB8 3>@VA=89 =0B>2? =0 ?>E>@>=0E, @04VA=89 =0B>2? 21>;V20;L=8:V2, G8O :><0=40 283@0;0 <0BG. @09=V9 28?04>: 5:A?@5A82=>3> =0B>2?C  5:AB0B8G=89 =0B>2?. V= 28=8:0T C A?V;L=8E <>;8B>2=8E G8 @8BC0;L=8E @8B<VG=8E 4VOE. N48 4>2>4OBL A515 4> =5A0<>28B>ABV. &5 2V41C20TBLAO =0 <CAC;L<0=AL:8E A2OB0E, A5:B0=BAL:8E 71>@0E, =0 1C@E;828E :0@=020;0E. # 5:AB0B8G=89 =0B>2? G0AB> ?5@5B2>@NTBLAO <>;>4L =0 :>=F5@B0E G8 =02VBL =0 48A:>B5:0E. >=25=FV9=89 =0B>2?. "0:89 =0B>2? 718@0TBLAO 7 ?@82>4C, I> ?>?5@54=L> 1C2 >3>;>H5=89: A?>@B82=5 7<030==O, ?>;VB8G=89 <VB8=3. # B0:><C 28?04:C ;N48 A?>=C:0NBLAO ?52=8< :>=:@5B=8< V=B5@5A><. N48 3>B>2V 4VOB8 4> ?52=>3> G0AC 2V4?>2V4=> 4> ?@89=OB8E =>@<. &5 <>6CBL 1CB8 3;O40GV DCB1>;L=>3> <0BGC. >2=V C B0:>3> =0B>2?C 2AV >7=0:8 :>=25=FVW, 2AB0=>2;5=V ?@028;0<8 ?>254V=:8: :28B:8, <VAFO, 703>@>6V, =54>ABC?=V 7>=8. =CB@VH=L> 7@>7C<V;>, I> 3;O40GV =0 AB04V>=V - F5 =5 A;CE0GV :>=A5@20B>@VW. "0:89 =0B>2? 70;8H0TBLAO :>=25=FV9=8< 4> ?52=>3> <><5=BC. V= 1C45 :>=25=FV9=8<, 4>:8 28AB0G8BL A8; C <V;VFVW. ;5 2=CB@VH=V >A>1;82>ABV ?>254V=:8 21>;V20;L=8:V2, D0=0BV2 B0:V, I> 2>=8 <>6CBL 7B5@B8 V <V;VFVN. ">4V F59 =0B>2? AB0T 4VNG8<. VNG89 =0B>2?  G;5=8 =0B>2?C ?>G8=0NBL 0:B82=> 4VOB8. # 4VNG><C =0B>2?V 284V;ONBL ?V42848. 3@5A82=89 =0B>2?  25;8:0 :V;L:VABL ;N459, O:V A?>=C:0NBLAO 7;VABN B0 3=V2><, ?@03=CBL 7=8IC20B8, @C9=C20B8, 21820B8. 0=VG=89 =0B>2?. N48 A?>=C:0NBLAO ?>GCBBO< AB@0EC V ?@03=5==O< C=8:=CB8 =5157?5:8 (@50;L=>W G8 CO2=>W). 48@=8FL:89 =0B>2?. N48 >1 T4=0=V 1060==O< 74>1CB8 G8 ?>25@=CB8 A>1V ?52=V FV==>ABV. "0:89 =0B>2? @V7=>@V4=89  ?>T4=CT <0@>45@V2, 2:;04=8:V2 710=:@CBV;8E 10=:V2, @>71V9=8:V2. >;>2=0 >A>1;82VABL FL>3> =0B>2?C  F5 7030;L=0 5<>FV9=>  4VNG0 T4=VABL. N48 3;81>:> C 4CHV CA2V4><;NNBL :>=D;V:B: 2>=8 1>@OBLAO 70 FV==>ABV, O:8E =0 2AVE =5 28AB0G8BL. C=BV2=89 (?>2AB0=AL:89) =0B>2?. V4AC<:>20 =0720 70;568BL 2V4 @57C;LB0BC 4V9. /:I> 4VW CA?VH=V  B> ?>2AB0=AL:89, V =02VBL @52>;NFV9=89. /:I> ?>@07:0  B> 1C=BV2=89, V =02VBL 28?04:>289 =01@V4 G8 ?CBG8AB8. >2AB0=AL:89 =0B>2?  =5>1EV4=0 C<>20 2AVE @52>;NFV9=8E ?>4V9. "0:89 =0B>2? :;0A>2>>4=>@V4=89, G;5=8 9>3> ?>4V;ONBL FV==>ABV :;0AC. >2AB0=AL:89 =0B>2? ?5@5B2>@NT AB8EV9=89 28ABC? C A2V4><89 0:B ?>;VB8G=>W 1>@>BL18. ;5 2A5 7<V=NTBLAO V AB8EV9=89 28ABC? G0AB> 1C20T :5@>20=8<. 0B>2? E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO 25;8:>N A?@><>6=VABL 4> 48=0<VG=8E 7<V=, 4> B@0=AD>@<0FVW 2V4 28?04:>2>3> 4> @52>;NFV9=>3>. 8=0<VG=V 7<V=8 <>6CBL 74V9A=N20B8AO 70 :V;L:0 3>48= G8 :V;L:0 4=V2. 0?@8:;04, 5:A?@5A82=89 =0B>2?, I> 28A;>2;NT =530B82=5 AB02;5==O 4> ?>;VFVW, ;53:> ?5@5B2>@NTBLAO C 03@5A82=89. VA;O @C9=C20==O ?>;VFV9=>3> 2V44V;:C =0B>2? <>65 ?5@5B2>@8B8AO C 748@=8FL:89. /:I> 1C45 4>AB0B=V9 7>2=VH=V9 2?;82, B> =0B>2? ?5@5B2>@NTBLAO C 1C=BV2=89. "0:><C =0B>2?C >4=>3> 2V44V;:C <0;>, 0465 28==0 C 2AL><C  2;040. "0:89 =0B>2? 71V;LHCTBLAO C <0AV V @CE0TBLAO 4> <VAFL >@30=V2 28I>W 2;048. 0E>?82H8 WE, =0B>2? ?5@5B2>@NTBLAO =0 @52>;NFV9=89. V1@0=0 (>@30=V7>20=0) ?C1;V:0  F5 A:C?G5==O ?52=>W :V;L:>ABV ;N459, O:V G5:0NBL ?52=8E ?5@56820=L 01> FV:02;OBLAO >4=8< V B8< A0<8< ?@54<5B><. V1@0=0 ?C1;V:0 E0@0:B5@87CTBLAO B0:8<8 @8A0<8: 7030;L=0 70FV:02;5=VABL >4=8< V B8< 65 ?@54<5B>< G8 ?>4VTN; 3>B>2=VABL @503C20B8 ?>4V1=8< G8=><; ?>4V1=VABL CAB0=>2>: V >@VT=B0FV9; 3>B>2=VABL 4> 4V9. 5E0=V7< ?A8E>;>3VG=>3> >1 T4=0==O 2V41C20TBLAO B0:: DV78G=5 >1 T4=0==O 2 >4=><C ?@8<VI5==V; =0 2AVE 4VNBL >4=V V BV A0<V AB8<C;8; CB2>@NNBLAO 7030;L=V @50:FVW B0 ?5@56820==O. "0:0 ?C1;V:0 CA2V4><;NT A2>W =0AB@>W, C =V9 <>6CBL 28=8:0B8 B0:V 6 O28I0, O: C =0B>2?V, 0 A0<5: 7030;L=5 5<>FV9=5 =0?@C65==O, 2B@0B0 @5D;5:A82=>ABV, 2V4GCBBO T4=>ABV B0 A>;V40@=>ABV. V1@0==O ;N459 C ?C1;VFV =01C20T ?52=8E @8A, 2;0AB828E =0B>2?C, 7>:@5<0 A2V4><0 >A>18ABVABL 7=8:0T. A>1;825 7=0G5==O 7V1@0=>W ?C1;V:8 28O2;OTBLAO C ?5@V>48 A>FV0;L=8E E28;N20=L, @>728B:C @52>;NFV9=8E =0AB@>W2, 2V9=, AB@09:V2. C4L - O:5 7V1@0==O <>65 ?5@5B2>@8B8AO C 03@5A82=89 =0B>2?, 0 B>4V  ?>2AB0=AL:89. # 28?04:C, :>;8 =8< >2>;>4V20NBL >@30=V7>20=V 3@C?8 G8 >:@5<V 2>64V, B> 2>=8 <>6CBL A?@O<C20B8 9>3> 4VW C 1060=><C 4;O =8E =0?@O<:C. 57V1@0=0 (=5>@30=V7>20=0) ?C1;V:0  F5 G8B0GV >4=8E V B8E A0<8E 3075B, A;CE0GV >4=8E @04V>?5@540G, 3;O40GV >4=8E B5;5?@>3@0<. !L>3>4=V <>6=0 3>2>@8B8 ?@> =57V1@0=C ?C1;V:C :>@8ABC20GV2 =B5@=5BC. >2=V =57V1@0=0 ?C1;V:0  F5 25;8:0 :V;L:VABL ;N459, <8A;5==O B0 V=B5@5A8 O:8E >@VT=BCNBLAO V45=B8G=8<8 AB8<C;0<8 2 >4=><C =0?@O<:C. "><C V ?>254V=:0 C =8E ?>4V1=0. &O ?>4V1=VABL 28O2;OTBLAO O: =0 ?>1CB>2><C, B0: V 1V;LH 206;82><C A>FV0;L=><C =0?@O<:C, 0 A0<5 2 V45>;>3VW B0 ?>;VB8FV. 57V1@0=0 ?C1;V:0 <0T B0:V >A>1;82>ABV: 7>2=V =5 28O2;ONBLAO D5=><5=8, E0@0:B5@=V 4;O =0B>2?C G8 7V1@0=>W ?C1;V:8; =5 28O2;OTBLAO 5<>FV9=5 70@065==O; ?>2=VABN =5 7=8:0T @5D;5:A82=VABL; =5 @>72820TBLAO 45V=482V4C0;V70FVO. C4L - O:V 2848 =57V1@0=>W ?C1;V:8 A:;040NBL ?V4@C=BO 4;O D>@<C20==O ?>4V1=8E ?>3;O4V2, 3>B>2=>ABV =5:@8B8G=>3> A?@89<0==O V=D>@<0FVW. A5 F5 A:;040T 107C 4;O AB2>@5==O ?52=8E 4C<>: I>4> 45O:8E ?8B0=L B0 3>B>2=VABL @503C20B8 ?>4V1=8< G8=>< =0 V45=B8G=V AB8<C;8. "0:8< G8=><, =57V1@0=0 ?C1;V:0 T 107>N 4;O 28=8:=5==O 4C<>: V =0AB@>W2  <0:@>D>@< <0A>2>W A2V4><>ABV V 2V4?>2V4=>W ?>254V=:8. A>1;828< ?@8:;04>< =57V1@0=>W ?C1;V:8 T 4VW 281>@G8E :><?0=V9 B0 <0A>20 5;5:B>@0;L=0 ?>254V=:0. 5E0=V7<>< 5;5:B>@0;L=>W ?>254V=:8 70;8H0TBLAO AB8EV9=VABL. ;5:B>@0B ?>4V;OTBLAO =0 42V G0AB8=8. 5@H0, <5=H0 G0AB8=0,  F5 >@30=V7>20=89 5;5:B>@0B, 4VT =0 ?V4@C=BV V=482V4C0;L=>W G8 3@C?>2>W A2V4><>ABV V ?V4?>@O4:>2CTBLAO C?@02;V=AL:8< AB@C:BC@0<. @C30, 1V;LH0, T =5>@30=V7>20=8< 5;5:B>@0B><. 5E0=V7<>< ?>254V=:8 =57V1@0=>W ?C1;V:8 T <0A>2V =0AB@>W, I> 28=8:0NBL =0 ?V4@C=BV 2V@8 C ?V428I5=V >1VFO=:8. 0 FL><C 3@0;8 V 3@0NBL >A=>2=V ?>;VB8G=V 3@02FV  ?>;VB8G=V ?0@BVW, @CE8, 1;>:8, >:@5<V :0=4840B8. 81>@FV 28<030NBL =5<>6;82>3> V B><C >1VFONBL B5, I> 28<030NBL. 2V4A8 ?5@<0=5=B=V @5D>@<8 157 =09<5=H>3> CO2;5==O ?@> =0A;V4:8. C4L - O:0 ?0@BVO (G8 V=H0 A>FV0;L=0 A8;0), I> 1060T 2;048, 7=0T: 4>AO3B8 WW <>6=0 BV;L:8 ?5@528I5==O< >1VFO=>: AC?5@=8:V2. "0:8< G8=><, V=AB@C<5=B>< <0A>2>W 45<>:@0BVW, =0 4C<:C . 51>=0, T 2?;82 =0 <0A>2V =0AB@>W 7 <5B>N A?>=C:0==O ?52=>W ?>254V=:8 <0A. # @VH5==OE 1V;LH>ABV 281>@FV2 ?5@52060T AB8EV9=89 281V@, I> @C=BCTBLAO =0 5<>FV9=><C AB02;5==V. 17.4. $>@<8 <0A>2>W ?>254V=:8 4=VTN 7 D>@< ?>254V=:8 =0B>2?C T ?0=V:0. !;>2> ?0=V:0 ?>E>48BL 2V4 V<5=V 3@5FL:>3> 1>30 0=0, ?>:@>28B5;O ?0ABCEV2 V AB04. !2>W< 3=V2>< 2V= 28:;8:02 ?0=V:C ( 2V4 3@5F. panikon  =5A2V4><89 60E) C AB040. "20@8=8 :840;8AL C ?@V@2C 157 2848<>W ?@8G8=8. 0E, I> 28=8:0T =5=0@>:><, @>7?>2AN46CTBLAO 7 25;8G57=>N H284:VABN V ?@82>48BL 2AVE B20@8= 4> 703815;V. 0=VG=0 ?>254V=:0 2;0AB820 ;N4O< C =0B>2?V. 0=V:>N =07820TBLAO 5<>FV9=89 AB0=, I> 28=8:0T O: =0A;V4>: =54>AB0GV G8 =04;8H:C V=D>@<0FVW 2 C<>20E @50;L=>W G8 CO2=>W 703@>7;82>W A8BC0FVW. ;O 28=8:=5==O ?0=V:8 =5>1EV4=V C<>28. 1. !8BC0B82=V C<>28. <>2V@=VABL <0A>28E ?0=VG=8E =0AB@>W2 7@>AB0T C ?5@V>48 703>AB@5==O ACA?V;L=8E A8BC0FV9. >;8 ;N48 G5:0NBL ?52=8E ?>4V9, 2>=8 :@0I5 A?@89<0NBL 1C4L - O:C 703@>7;82C V=D>@<0FVN. 2. $V7V>;>3VG=V C<>28. <>@5=VABL, 3>;>4, 0;:>3>;L=5 B0 =0@:>B8G=5 A? O=V==O, =54>A8?0==O 28A=06CNBL ;N459 DV7V>;>3VG=> V ?A8EVG=>. #=0A;V4>: FL>3> 7<5=HCTBLAO A?@><>6=VABL @0FV>=0;L=> A?@89<0B8 V >FV=N20B8 A8BC0FVN, ;N48 AB0NBL 1V;LH 5<>FV9=> A?@89=OB;828<8. #A5 F5 @07>< A?@8OT 28=8:=5==N <0A>2>W ?0=V:8. 3. A8E>;>3VG=V C<>28. &5 @0?B>2V 703@>7;82V ?>4VW, A8;L=5 E28;N20==O, 7482C20==O, ?5@5;O:. 4. 45>3>;VG=V B0 ?>;VB8G=V C<>28. !N48 =0;560BL =5GVB:5 CA2V4><;5==O ;N4L<8 FV;59, =54>AB0B=L> >@30=V7>20=5 C?@02;V==O V =54>AB0B=O 73C@B>20=VABL 3@C?8. # =54>AB0B=L> A;01> 73C@B>20=8E 3@C? 70 C<>28 5:AB@5<0;L=>W A8BC0FVW H284:> @C9=CNBLAO 7030;L=V FV==>ABV V =>@<8 2 V< O V=482V4C0;L=>3> ?>@OBC=:C. 0 C<>2 28A>:>W 73C@B>20=>ABV, A?5FV0;L=>W ?V43>B>2:8, B@5=C20=L V 7030;L=8E FV==>AB59 2V9AL:>2V ?V4@>74V;8 ?V4 G0A 1>9>28E 4V9 45<>=AB@CNBL 28A>:89 @V25=L ABV9:>ABV 4> ?0=V:8. :@5<8< ?@82>4>< 4;O ?0=V:8 T GCB:8. # 1917 @>FV C >AVW 1C2 28A>:89 C@>609. 'CB:8 ?@> <>6;8289 3>;>4 28:;8:0;8 ?0=V:C. AV :@0<=8FV, :><>@8 1C;8 >G8I5=V. ;O B>3> I>1 AB8<C; 28:;8:02 ?0=V:C, 2V= <0T 1CB8: 4>A8BL V=B5=A82=8<; 4>A8BL B@820;8<; ?>2B>@N20B8AO (F5 281CE8, ?>AB@V;8, A8@5=8& ). "0:89 AB8<C; <0T ?@825@B0B8 7>A5@5465=C C203C V 28:;8:0B8 =5CA2V4><;5=89, B20@8==89 AB@0E. 8=8:=5==O ?0=V:8 ?@>E>48BL :V;L:0 5B0?V2. 5@H89. !B8<C; 28:;8:0T 715=B565==O, A?@89<0==O A8BC0FV9 O: :@87>2>W, V =02VBL 15728EV4=>W. @C389. 15=B565==O ?5@5E>48BL C ?>B@OAV==O B0 V=482V4C0;L=V =54>FV;L=V A?@>18 7@>7C<VB8 ?>4VN. 5>1EV4=VABL =5309=>3> CA2V4><;5==O 702060T ;>3VG=><C <8A;5==N V 28:;8:0T AB@0E. /:I> AB@0E =5 ;V:2V4C20B8, B> F8@:C;O@=0 @50:FVO 28:;8:0T B@5BV9 5B0?. "@5BV9. !B@0E >4=8E 2V4>1@060TBLAO V=H8<8, I> ?>A8;NT AB@0E. @>AB0NG89 AB@0E 7<5=HCT 2?52=5=VABL C A?@><>6=>ABV ?@>B8AB>OB8 A8BC0FVW V AB2>@NT ?>GCBBO ?@8@5G5=>ABV. '5B25@B89. !B@0E 28:;8:0T 4VW, I>, =0 4C<:C ;N459, T @OBV2=8<8, 0 =0A?@024V 2>=8 =5 T @OBV2=8<8 V 28:;8:0NBL ?0=VG=C 2B5GC (C ?@V@2C). /:I> 2BV:0B8 =V:C48, 28=8:0T 03@5A82=0 ?>254V=:0, 1> =5157?5G=8< AB0T =02VBL 1>O7;8289 72V@, 703=0=89 C :CB.  OB89. 0=V:0 70:V=GCTBLAO 28E>4>< >:@5<8E ;N459 7 2B5GV. <>@5=VABL ;N459 7C?8=OT 1C4L - O:V 4VW B0 5<>FV9=V ?5@56820==O. /:I> A8BC0FVO =5 @>72 O7CTBLAO, B> =0B>2? <>65 1CB8 3>B>289 4> ?>2B>@=>3> ?@>O2C ?0=V:8. FV=NNG8 F8:; ?0=VG=>W ?>254V=:8, A;V4 <0B8 =0 C207V: 1. /:I> V=B5=A82=VABL AB8<C;C 4C65 25;8:0, B> 5B0?8 =V18 73>@B0NBLAO V =0B>2? ?5@5E>48BL 4> 4V9. "8?>289 ?@8:;04: 0B><=V 1><10@4C20==O %V@>AV<8 V 030A0:V 1945 @. 0=VG=8< ?@>O2>< AB0;0 <0A>20 2B5G0. 2. !;>25A=5 ?>7=0G5==O AB8<C;C <>65 28:;8:0B8 AB@0E V ?0=V:C. !B@0E>< V ?0=V:>N @503C20;8 A>;40B8 ?V4 G0A 5@H>W A2VB>2>W 2V9=8 =0 :@8: 3078. 3. 02648 =5>1EV4=> 1@0B8 4> C2038 A>FV0;L=> - ?>;VB8G=V C<>28, E0@0:B5@ V @V25=L 703@>78, >1 T:B82=VABL V=D>@<0FVW. &5 40ABL <>6;82VABL ?>?5@548B8 01> ?@8?8=8B8 ?0=V:C. ?;82 =0 ?0=VG=C ?>254V=:C T =VG8< V=H8< O: A>FV0;L=>  ?A8E>;>3VG=8< 2?;82>< =0 <0AC. "CB 4VNBL 2AV <5E0=V7<8 =0B>2?C: 7<5=H8B8 V=B5=A82=VABL 5<>FV9=>3> 70@065==O, 2825AB8 ;N459 V7 3V?=>B8G=>3> AB0=C, @0FV>=0;V7C20B8 B0 V=482V4C0;V7C20B8 ?A8EV:C. # 28?04:C ?0=V:8 A;V4 C@0EC20B8 WW A?5F8DVG=V >A>1;82>ABV. 5@H0. %B> T 7@07:>< 4;O =0A;V4C20==O =0B>2?C. VA;O ?>O28 AB8<C;C T 45:V;L:0 A5:C=4, :>;8 =0B>2? 3>BCTBLAO 4> 4V9. "CB =0B>2?C <>6=0 V ?>B@V1=> ?V4AC=CB8 1060=89 ?@8:;04 4;O =0A;V4C20==O. %B>AL <>65 :@8:=CB8 O309, > <VAFOE. ">9, EB> 28:>=0T :><0=4C, AB0T 7@07:>< 4;O =0A;V4C20==O. >@AB:5 C?@02;V==O ;N4L<8 C ?0=VG=V <><5=B8 T A?>A>1>< 5D5:B82=>3> 7C?8=5==O ?0=V:8. @C30. A>1;820 @>;L C <0A>28E ?>254V=:0E =0;568BL @8B<C. /:I> 9>3> =5<0T, B> A;V4 225AB8 77>2=V. # 1930 @. =0 25;>4@><V C 0@86V 70:V=G82AO <VB8=3. N48 ?VH;8 4> 28E>4C. >G0;0AO 402:0, I> <>3;0 1 ?5@5@>AB8 C ?0=V:C. @C?0 4@C7V2  ?A8E>;>3V2 H284:> >FV=8;0 A8BC0FVN V ?>G0;0 @8B<VG=> :@8G0B8 5  HB>2  E09. &59 :@8: ?V4E>?8;8 V=HV. 0=V:0 7=8:;0. 8B<VG=0 E>@>20 <C78:0 V A?V28 <0NBL 25;8G57=5 7=0G5==O 4;O @53C;OFVW <0A>2>W AB8EV9=>W ?>254V=:8. 528?04:>2> AC1>B=8:8 AC?@>2>46CNBLAO <0@H>2>N <C78:>N. "0:C @>;L <0T E>@>289 A?V2 C 2V9AL:>28E =0 <0@HV. 52>;NFV9=V B0 ?0B@V>B8G=V ?VA=V <0NBL ?>4V1=C @8B<V:C. '8;V9AL:0 Venceremos, D@0=FC7L:0 0@A5;LT70, ?>;LAL:0 0@H02 O=:0, @04O=AL:0 AB0209 AB@0=0 >3@><=0O - AB0;8 70A>1>< ?@>B8AB>O==O AB@0EC B0 ?0=VFV C 3>AB@8E A8BC0FVOE. V4><V V ?@>B8;56=V 70A>18. /:I> C 20A T 1060==O 7V@20B8 <VB8=3 ?>;VB8G=8E ?@>B82=8:V2, B> ?V43>=VBL 4> <VAFO <VB8=3C @04V>DV:>20=89 02B>1CA V ?>G=VBL B@0=A;N20B8 I>AL B8?C 8 65@B2>N ?0;8& 01> V=H89 @5:2VT<. &5 28:;8G5 =530B82=V 5<>FVW V ?0=VG=V =0AB@>W. )5 1V;LH =5157?5G=>N T <0A>20 01> AB8EV9=0 03@5AVO. !B8EV9=>N 03@5AVTN =07820NBL <0A>2V 2>@>6V 4VW, A?@O<>20=V =0 A?@8G8=5==O AB@0640=L, 70240==O DV78G=>W 01> ?A8EVG=>W H:>48. C65 G0AB> 2>=0 ?5@5410G0T 7=8I5==O V=H8E ;N459 01> A?V;L=>AB59. >2=VH=O 03@5AVO AB8EV9=0, 0;5 70 =5N AB>WBL 2=CB@VH=O 03@5A82=VABL. >=0 >1C<>2;5=0 5<>FV9=8< AB0=>< C 2V4?>2V4L =0 ?5@56820==O =5?5@51>@=>ABV O:8E>AL 10@ T@V2. !B8EV9=0 03@5AVO 702648 AC?@>2>46CTBLAO 4>40B:>28<8 A8;L=8<8 5<>FVO<8 =530B82=>3> 3=V2C, 2>@>6>ABV, =5=028ABV. !;V4 ?0< OB0B8, I> 2V9=8 254CBL >@30=V7>20=V <0A8, 0 ?>2AB0==O B0 @52>;NFVW 74V9A=NNBL 03@5A82=V =0B>2?8. # FL><C ?;0=V 03@5AVN @>73;O40NBL O: <0A>2C 03@5A82=C ?>254V=:C =0B>2?C. >A;V4=8:8 284V;ONBL C<>28 28=8:=5==O B0 C<>28 @>728B:C 03@5AVW. > C<>2 28=8:=5==O 2V4=>AOBL: 1) DV7V>;>3VG=V  0;:>3>;L, =0@:>B8:8; 2) ?A8E>;>3VG=V  2V4GCBBO D@CAB@0FVW O: =5<>6;82>ABV 4>AO3=5==O <5B8; 3) A8BC0B82=V  =0O2=VABL ;V45@V2 B0 70A>1V2 ?@>O2C 03@5AVW (:0<V=L =0 4>@>7V); 4) ?@>2>:0FV9=V 4VW 2;0AB59 01> >:@5<8E WE ?@54AB02=8:V2. #<>20<8 @>728B:C 03@5AVW T: 1) :>=:@5B=89 ?@82V4, I> ?V4:@5A;NT ?A8E>;>3VG=C 157=04V9=VABL A8BC0FVW; 2) ;N48, O:V ?V4B@8<CNBL F5 CO2;5==O V 3>B>2V A?@O<C20B8 =0B>2? ?@>B8 28==8E >AV1; 3) :>=:@5B=89 >1 T:B 03@5AVW  ?@54AB02=8: 2;048 G8 ?52=89 V=AB8BCB 2;048. 84V;ONBL 45:V;L:0 20@V0=BV2 <0A>2>W 03@5A82=>W ?>254V=:8 =0B>2?C: 5:A?@5A82=0, V<?C;LA82=0, 0D5:B82=0, 2>@>60, V=AB@C<5=B0;L=0. :A?@5A82=0 03@5AVO  F5 03@5A82=0 ?>254V=:0 I> ;O:0T, <5B>N O:>W T 45<>=AB@0FVO 03@5A82=8E =0<V@V2. &5 =5>1>2 O7:>2> @C9=V2=V 4VW. ;0A8G=8< ?@8:;04>< 5:A?@5A82=>W 03@5AVW T @8BC0;L=V B0=FV, 2V9AL:>2V ?0@048, <0A>2V ?@>F5AVW. <?C;LA82=0 03@5AVO ?@>2>:CTBLAO ?52=8<8 4VO<8, V H284:> =0B>2? ?>G8=0T 4VOB8. "0:0 03@5AVO <0T D;N:BC0FV9=89 (E28;L>289) E0@0:B5@, 28O2;OTBLAO C 283;O4V ?@8?;82V2 G8 2V4?;82V2 03@5A82=>W ?>254V=:8. D5:B82=0 03@5AVO. >=0 ?>7102;5=0 4VNG>3> :><?>=5=B0, 4C65 2@060NG0, 0;5 1573;C740 03@5AVO. D5:B82=0 03@5AVO =0B>2?C G0AB> ?@872>48BL 4> 703815;V A0<>3> =0B>2?C. &5 B0:89 AB0= =0B>2?C, I> 28<030T 65@B2 V @C9=C20=L 70 1C4L - O:C FV=C. >@>60 03@5AVO ?5@5410G0T 70240==O H:>48. =AB@C<5=B0;L=0 03@5AVO  <5B0 4VW AC1 T:B0 =59B@0;L=0, 03@5AVO  T 70A>1>< WW 4>AO3=5==O. 2V >AB0==V D>@<8 03@5AVW T >@30=V7>20=8<8, 0;5 <0A:CNBLAO ?V4 AB8EV9=C ?>254V=:C =0B>2?C. 5E0=V7<8 2?;82C =0 03@5A82=89 =0B>2? ?V4?>@O4:>2CTBLAO 7030;L=8< 70:>=0<. >7102;5==O =0B>2?C 0=>=V<=>ABV 70 4>?><>3>N  H:>48BL 7@>AB0==N 9>3> 03@5A82=>ABV V A?@8OT 9>3> >@30=V7>20=>ABV. 5;8:0 @>;L ;V45@V2 C =0B>2?V O: V=VFV0B>@V2 ?>2AB0==O. ?;82 ;V45@V2 7<5=HCTBLAO 2 <V@C 71V;LH5==O =0B>2?C. V45@8 <0NBL 25;8:89 2?;82 ;8H5 4> B>3> G0AC, ?>:8 =02:>;> =8E =5 CB2>@NTBLAO =0B>2?. 0;V 2V= 4VT 70 70:>=0<8 2;0A=>W AB8EV9=>W ?>254V=:8. 17.5. C9=C20==O <0A8 0A0  F5 B8<G0A>25 CB2>@5==O. <>FV9=>  0D5:B82=V ?>B@518 >A>18AB>ABV 7=8:0NBL 01> @50;V7CNBLAO. 0A0 AB0T <5=H 5=5@3V9=>N. # WW ?>254V=FV 28=8:0T ?5@5@20. >=0 7C?8=OTBLAO, =5 @CE0TBLAO 2?5@54, 0;5 V =5 2V4E>48BL =0704. A8EV:0 >A>18AB>ABV >@VT=B>20=0 =0 AB@8<0==O ?52=>3> 10;0=AC 5<>FV9=>3> V @0FV>=0;L=>3>. 04;8H:>289 =0E8; 2 >48= 7 1>:V2 28<030T :><?5=A0FVW. >=0 4>AO30TBLAO, V B>4V ?>G8=0TBLAO =0E8; C ?@>B8;56=89 1V:. &5 >7=0:0 B>3>, I> ?A8E>;>3VG=5 VA=C20==O <0A8 7025@HCTBLAO. #A5 F5 2V41C20TBLAO ?>ABC?>2>. !?>G0B:C <0A0 @>7?040TBLAO =0 >:@5<V 25;8:V D@03<5=B8. V4 =8E 2V4>:@5<;NNBLAO ?>@V2=O=> =525;8:V G0AB8=:8. >=8 H284:> 02B><0B87CNBLAO, ?5@5B2>@NNBLAO C 3@C?:8 V=482V4V2. >GCBBO ?>2=>W T4=>ABV 7=8:0T. >6=0 >A>18ABVABL ?@8304CT ?@> A2>W V=482V4C0;L=V A?@028, ?>3;O40NG8 =0 3>48==8:. # <0AV ?>GCBBO G0AC V ?@>AB>@C 7=8:0T. N48 ?5@56820NBL A8;L=V 5<>FVW C <0AV  F5 BV I0A;82V, I> G0AC =5 A?>AB5@V30NBL. >;8 2>=8 28E>4OBL 7 <0A8, 2>=8 <0NBL ?> - =>2><C >@VT=BC20B8AL C G0AV B0 ?@>AB>@V. 0FV>=0;L=0 G0AB8=0 A2V4><>ABV ?>25@B0TBLAO ?>ABC?>2>, 206:>. A>18ABVABL 28E>48BL 7 <0A8 ?A8E>;>3VG=> 7<>@5=>N, 5<>FV9=> 157A8;>N. N48, O:V 289H;8 7 <0A8, =5 <>6CBL ?@83040B8, I> @>18;8 B0 2V4?>2VAB8, G><C 2>=8 1C;8 C <0AV. "0:8< G8=><, 2=CB@VH=O ?>B@510 C @53C;OFVW 5<>FV9=8E AB0=V2, I> ?@825;0 4> <0A8, B0: V 70;8H8;0AO =5CA2V4><;5=>N. ';5=0< 1C4L - O:>W <0A8 (C1>;V20;L=8:0<, 3;O40G0< A?5:B0:;N, B5;53;O40G0< 1>9>28:0& ) ?>B@V15= G0A 4;O ?>25@=5==O C @50;L=5 68BBO. # FL><C 7=0G5==V ?5@51C20==O C <0AV <0T =0@:>B8G=89 2?;82 =0 >A>18ABVABL. >=> 7<V=NT A2V4><VABL, 0 ?>25@=5==O 4> =>@<0;L=>3> AB0=C 28<030T A?5FV0;L=8E 7CA8;L. # >:@5<8E 28?04:0E F5 2A5 28<030T ?A8E>:>@5:FV9=>W @>1>B8. 0?8B0==O 4;O A0<>:>=B@>;N )> =07820TBLAO <0A>N? V0;5:B8G=89 E0@0:B5@ 270T<>72 O7:C <0A8 B0 >A>18AB>ABV. <V=8, I> 2V41C20NBLAO 7 >A>18ABVABN C <0AV. 4=VABL 2B@0B V =0410=L >A>18AB>ABV C <0AV. <=57VO >A>18AB>ABV 2 <0AV. 5V=482V4C0;V70FVO >A>18AB>ABV C <0AV. &8@:C;O@=0 @50:FVO B0 WW @>728B>:. $0:B>@8 VA=C20==O =0B>2?C. 848 =0B>2?C, WE E0@0:B5@8AB8:0. V1@0=0 ?C1;V:0 B0 WW @8A8. A>1;82>ABV =57V1@0=>W ?C1;V:8. #<>28 28=8:=5==O ?0=V:8 B0 WW @>728B>:. #<>28 28=8:=5==O B0 @>728B:C 03@5AVW. C9=C20==O <0A8. V4@>465==O @0FV>=0;L=>3> C ?A8EVFV ;N48=8 ?VA;O 28E>4C 7 <0A8. @0:B8G=5 70=OBBO !CB=VABL, <5E0=V7<8 B0 ?@>O28 ?A8E>;>3VW <0A 1. ?;82 <0A8 =0 >A>18ABVABL. $5=><5= 7=5>A>1;5==O. 2. 030;L=89 <5E0=V7< <0A>2>W ?A8E>;>3VW. 3. A8E>;>3VO =0B>2?C. 4. V1@0=0 B0 =57V1@0=0 ?C1;V:0. 5. 0A>20 ?>254V=:0 B0 <0A>20 03@5AVO. 6. C9=C20==O <0A8. V4=>2;5==O @0FV>=0;L=>3> C ?A8EVFV ;N48=8. @07>: B5ABC 1. <V=8 O:8E >1AB028= ?>A8;NNBL 2?;82 <0A8 =0 >A>18ABVABL ;N48=8: 0) DV78G=8E; 1) A>FV0;L=8E; 2) ?>;VB8G=8E; 3) ?A8EVG=8E; 4) V45>;>3VG=8E? 2. 0A0 <0T A?5F8DVG=V O:>ABV: 0) 0<>@D=VABL; 1) 2V4:@8BVABL; 2) =5287=0G5=VABL A:;04C; 3) A8BC0B82=VABL B0 B8<G0A>2VABL VA=C20==O; 4) 35B5@>35==VABL A:;04C. 3. >=B0:B=0, 7>2=V =5>@30=V7>20=0 A?V;L=VABL, I> 2V4@V7=OTBLAO 28A>:8< @V2=5< :>=D>@<V7<C WW G;5=V2, O:V 4VNBL 5<>FV9=> V >4=>AB09=>, =07820TBLAO: 0) 3@C?>N; 1) 1@8304>N; 2) =0B>2?><; 3) A?V;L=VABN; 4) AB8EV9=VABN. 4. 84V;ONBL B0:V 2848 =0B>2?C: 0) @0FV>=0;L=89; 1) 28?04:>289; 2) 5:A?@5A82=89; 3) :>=25=FV9=89; 4) 4VNG89. 5. &8:; ?0=VG=>W ?>254V=:8 <0T :V;L:0 5B0?V2, 0 A0<5: 0) B@8; 1) ? OBL; 2) 2VAV<; 3) 45AOBL; 4) 420=04FOBL. !?8A>: ;VB5@0BC@8 5 >= . A8E>;>38O A>F80;87<0.  %0@L:>2: -=3@0<, 1997.  470 A. 095@A . !>F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O.  !1.: 8B5@, 1999.  688 A. >A:>28G8 !. 5: B>;?.  .: &5=B@ ?A8E>;>388 8 ?A8E>B5@0?88, 1988.  480 A. 070@5BO= .. A8E>;>38O AB8E89=>3> <0AA>2>3> ?>2545=8O. 5:F88.  ., 2001.  120 A. ;LH0=AL:89 .. A8E>;>38O <0AA.  !1.: 8B5@, 2001.  368 A. @10=-5<1@8: .. !>FV0;L=0 ?A8E>;>3VO: C 42>E :=830E.  .: 81V4L, 2006.  =. 2 .  560 A. 593>;L4 . #<=0O B>;?0.  .: $ - !!, 2006. 416 A. !835;5 !. @5ABC?=0O B>;?0.  !1.: 74-2> $. 02;5=:>20, 1896.  240 A. 18. 5403>3VG=0 ?A8E>;>3VO 18.1. 5403>3VG=0 ?A8E>;>3VO O: =0C:0. 18.2. A8E>;>3VO =02G0==O. 18.2.1. <VAB =02G0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV 18.2.2. 02G0==O, CGV==O, =0CGV==O. 02G0==O V @>728B>:. 18.2.3. $>@<C20==O =028G>:. 18.3. A8E>;>3VO 28E>20==O. 18.4. A8E>;>3VO ?5403>3VG=>W 4VO;L=>ABV B0 >A>18AB>ABV ?5403>30. 18.1. 5403>3VG=0 ?A8E>;>3VO O: =0C:0 #4>A:>=0;5==O =02G0;L=> - 28E>2=>3> ?@>F5AC, D>@<C20==O 3@><04O=8=0, 3V4=>3> A2>3> G0AC V 45@6028, <>6;82> ;8H5 70 C<>28 2>;>4V==O ?5403>30<8 B0 10BL:0<8 7=0==O<8 C<>2, <5E0=V7<V2 B0 70:>=><V@=>AB59 =02G0==O B0 28E>20==O. &V 7=0==O <0T ?5403>3VG=0 ?A8E>;>3VO. 5403>3VG=0 ?A8E>;>3VO 282G0T ?A8E>;>3VG=V C<>28, <5E0=V7<8 B0 70:>=><V@=>ABV =02G0==O B0 28E>20==O CG=V2 V ?A8E>;>3VN CG8B5;O. 5403>3VG=0 ?A8E>;>3VO 282G0T ?@>1;5<8 C?@02;V==O ?@>F5A>< =02G0==O, D>@<C20==O ?V7=020;L=8E ?@>F5AV2, 287=0G0T ?>:07=8:8 @>7C<>2>3> @>728B:C, C<>28 5D5:B82=>3> @>7C<>2>3> @>728B:C, ?A8E>;>3VG=V C<>28 V 70:>=><V@=>ABV D>@<C20==O A?>A>1V2 V D>@< ?>254V=:8, B>1B> 28E>20==O, 270T<>2V4=>A8=8 <V6 CG=O<8, CG=O<8 B0 ?5403>30<8, 0 B0:>6 ?A8E>;>3VG=V >A>1;82>ABV ?5403>3VG=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. 0240==O ?5403>3VG=>W ?A8E>;>3VW 287=0G5=V 5@602=>N =0FV>=0;L=>N ?@>3@0<>N A2VB0#:@0W=0 XXl AB>;VBBO. # =V9 ?V4:@5A;NTBLAO , I> AB@0B53VG=8< 70240==O< @5D>@<C20==O >A2VB8 T & D>@<C20==O >A2VG5=>W, B2>@G>W >A>18AB>ABV AB0=>2;5==O WW DV78G=>3> V <>@0;L=>3> 74>@>2`O & [A.6], ?V4?>@O4:C20==O 7<VABC =02G0==O V 28E>20==O & D>@<C20==N FV;VA=>W B0 2A51VG=> @>728=5=>W >A>18AB>ABV [A.9]. #A?VH=5 @>72`O70==O 707=0G5=8E =0?@O<:V2 <>6;825 70 C<>2 :>=:@5B870FVW 70240=L B0 28:>@8AB0==O C 7030;L=>>A2VB=VE B0 ?@>D5AV9=8E =02G0;L=8E 70:;040E 7=0=L 70:>=><V@=>AB59 ?A8EV:8 >A>18AB>ABV, O:0 D>@<CTBLAO C =8E 70 C<>2 FV;5A?@O<>20=>3> =02G0==O V 28E>20==O. &5 40T =0< <>6;82VABL :>=:@5B87C20B8 70240==O ?5403>3VG=>W ?A8E>;>3VW. >=0 <0T ?5@H 70 2A5 =0C:>2> 4>AB>2V@=> V :>=:@5B=> 287=0G8B8, I> O2;OT A>1>N FV;VA=> B0 2A51VG=> @>728=5=0 >A>18ABVABL =0 @V7=8E 5B0?0E ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. "CB =5>1EV4=> 28O28B8 O: 7030;L=C >A>18ABVA=C ACB=VABL, B0: V 9<>2V@=V 20@V0FVW FVTW ACB=>ABV. A>18ABVABL ;N48=8 D>@<CTBLAO V 28O2;OTBLAO C 0:B82=V9 4VO;L=>ABV, B><C ?5403>3VG=0 ?A8E>;>3VO <0T 28O28B8 @50;L=89 ?A8E>;>3VG=89 @57C;LB0B 2?;82C BVTW G8 V=H>W 4VO;L=>ABV =0 D>@<C20==O >A>18AB>ABV =0 @V7=8E 5B0?0E ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C ;N48=8. 0 FV9 ?V4AB02V ?5403>3VG=0 ?A8E>;>3VO <0T @>7@>18B8 :>=:@5B=V =0C:>2> >13@C=B>20=V ?A8E>;>3VG=V @5:><5=40FVW I>4> >@30=V70FVW, 7<VABC, D>@<, B8?V2 4VO;L=>ABV, A?@O<>20=>W =0 =091V;LH89 =02G0;L=89 B0 28E>2=89 @57C;LB0B. A8E>;>3VG=V 70:>=><V@=>ABV =02G0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV CG=V2 B0 ABC45=BV2 <0NBL A:;040B8 ?V43@C=BO :>=:@5B=>W ?@0:B8G=>W 4>?><>38 ?5403>3VG=8< ?@0FV2=8:0< C A:;040==V =02G0;L=8E ?;0=V2, ?@>3@0<, ?V4@CG=8:V2, <5B>48: =02G0==O. V41C20TBLAO ?>ABC?>289 ?5@5EV4 4> =02G0==O 4VB59 7 6 - @VG=>3> 2V:C. "><C ?5403>3VG=0 ?A8E>;>3VO <0T 7 OAC20B8 ?A8E>;>3VG=V >A>1;82>ABV V 70:>=><V@=>ABV >4=>G0A=>3> DC=:FV>=C20==O 42>E ?@>2V4=8E B8?V2 4VO;L=>ABV B0 >A>1;82>ABV ?5@5E>4C 2V4 V3@>2>W 4> =02G0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV, @>7@>18B8 :>=:@5B=V @5:><5=40FVW 4> 7<VABC, D>@< B0 <5B>4V2 =02G0==O V 28E>20==O. "5E=VG=89 ?@>3@5A B0 ?@>=8:=5==O C =0H5 68BBO :><?`NB5@0 28<030T 2V4 ?5403>3VG=>W ?A8E>;>3VW 7 OAC20==O ?A8E>;>3> - ?5403>3VG=8E B0 2V:>28E 0A?5:BV2 :><? NB5@870FVW =02G0==O, ?A8E>;>3VG=> >1@C=B>20=8E ?@>3@0< B0 ?V4?@CG=8:V2, @>7@>1;5==O >?B8<0;L=8E ?A8E>;>3VG=8E C<>2 70AB>AC20==O :><? NB5@0 C =02G0;L=><C B0 28E>2=><C ?@>F5AV. !8AB5<0 ?@>D5AV9=> - B5E=VG=>3> =02G0==O ?5@5410G0T D>@<C20==O ;N48=8 O: AC1 T:B0 ?@0FV, D>@<C20==O C ;N48=8 ABV9:>W A?@O<>20=>ABV =0 0:B82=C ?@0FN, V ?5@H 70 2A5 C AD5@V <0B5@V0;L=>3> 28@>1=8FB20. "><C ?5403>3VG=0 ?A8E>;>3VO <0T 4>A;V46C20B8 >A>1;82>ABV ?@>D>@VT=B0FV9=>W @>1>B8, ?@>D5AV9=>3> =02G0==O, @>7@>1;OB8 ?A8E>;>3VG=> >13@C=B>20=V 7<VAB B0 <5B>48 =02G0==O B0 28E>20==O C ?@>D5AV9=8E 70:;040E >A2VB8 . A:V;L:8 <5B>N =02G0==O V 28E>20==O T D>@<C20==O FV;VA=>W B0 2A51VG=> @>728=5=>W >A>18AB>ABV, B> ?5403>3VG=0 ?A8E>;>3VO <0T =5 BV;L:8 4>A;V46C20B8 ?A8E>;>3VG=V >A>1;82>ABV D>@<C20==O B0:>W >A>18AB>ABV, 0;5 9 @>7@>1;OB8 :>=:@5B=V ?A8E>;>3> - ?5403>3VG=V @5:><5=40FVW I>4> D>@<C20==O <>@0;L=8E 7=0=L, ?>GCBBV2, ?5@5:>=0=L, A2VB>3;O4C, V450;V2, 0 B0:>6 =028G>: B0 D>@< 28A>:><>@0;L=>W ?>254V=:8 C WE T4=>ABV B0 270T<>>1C<>2;5=>ABV . !?5F8DVG=VABL ?5403>3VG=>W 4VO;L=>ABV >1C<>2;5=0 A?5F8DVG=8< ?@54<5B>< FVTW 4VO;L=>ABV. V@BC>7=89 <09AB5@ ?5403>3VG=>W ?@0FV .!. 0:0@5=:> =078202 WW A2VB>< >@30=V7>20=>3> B2>@5==O ;N48=8. &59 A2VB 2V= >FV=NT =5>4=>7=0G=> V AC?5@5G;82>.  >4=>3> 1>:C, FO A?@020 4>A8BL ;53:0 70 B8?>< =0?@C65==O, 0 7 V=H>3> - F5 206:0 =0?@C65=0 ?@0FO, I> 28<030T ?>ABV9=>W C2038.  >B65, ?5403>3VG=0 ?A8E>;>3VO <0T 282G0B8 ?A8E>;>3VG=V >A>1;82>ABV ?5403>3VG=>W 4VO;L=>ABV, 70157?5G8B8 AB2>@5==O A?@8OB;828E A>FV0;L=> - ?A8E>;>3VG=8E C<>2 4;O B2>@G>W ?5403>3VG=>W ?@0FV. 18.2. A8E>;>3VO =02G0==O 18.2.1. <VAB =02G0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV @54<5B=89 7<VAB =02G0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV 70157?5GCT D>@<C20==O AC1`T:B0 V=H>W 4VO;L=>ABV, 0 B0:>6 =028G>: B0 C<V=L 28:>=C20B8 4VO;L=VABL. # =02G0;L=V9 4VO;L=>ABV D>@<C20==O =028G>: B0 C<V=L T ?@O<8< ?@>4C:B><. $>@<C20==O =028G>: B0 C<V=L T =V G8< V=H8< O: =01CBBO< >A>18ABVABN 4>A2V4C. "><C =02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL  F5 B0:0 4VO;L=VABL, I> A?@O<>20=0 =0 =01CBBO 4>A2V4C >A>18ABVABN, =0 2;0A=C A0<>7<V=C. 02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL <0T A2>W >A>1;82V @8A8. V7=0==O C =02G0;L=V9 4VO;L=>ABV T 3>;>2=8< @57C;LB0B><. &8< 2>=0 2V4@V7=OTBLAO 2V4 V=H8E B8?V2 4VO;L=>ABV, C O:8E 70A2>T==O 7=0=L, C<V=L B0 =028G>: T ?>1VG=8< ?@>4C:B><. >;>2=89 @57C;LB0B =02G0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV =5 BV;L:8 T >1 T:B82=> 3>;>2=8<, 0;5 9 CA2V4><;NTBLAO >A>18ABVABN O: 3>;>2=89, V 2V= T <5B>N =02G0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. >A2V4, O:>3> =01C20T >A>18ABVABL, =5 2V4:@820TBLAO =5N, 0 >45@6CTBLAO C 3>B>2><C 283;O4V 2V4 V=H8E CG0A=8:V2 =02G0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. VW AC1 T:B0 ?V7=0==O >1<56CNBLAO 28:>=0==O< 3>;>2=>W DC=:FV>=0;L=>W A:;04>2>W, ?V43>B>2GV A:;04>2V =02G0;L=>W 4VO;L=>ABV 28:>=CT B>9, EB> >@30=V7>2CT FN 4VO;L=VABL. <VAB ?>=OBBO =02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL =5 <0T >4=>7=0G=>3> B;C<0G5==O. "0:, .. 0284>2 >1<56CT 9>3> 70A2>T==O< C7030;L=5=8E B5>@5B8G=8E 7=0=L (7<VAB>2=>W 01AB@0:FVW) B0 2V4?>2V4=8E W< A?>A>1V2 4V9. &5 @>7C<V==O 4>?>2=NT .. ;LOA>2 =01CBBO< 1C4L - O:8E 7=0=L B0 4VO;L=>AB59. &5 <>6CBL 1CB8 O: B5>@5B8G=V, B0: V 5<?V@8G=V 7=0==O. # AC:C?=><C ;N4AL:><C 4>A2V4V 5<?V@8G=89 4>A2V4 709<0T 7=0G=C G0AB8=C. .$. "0;87V=0 ?>2 O7CT =02G0;L=C 4VO;L=VABL 7 @V7=8<8 B8?0<8 CGV==O 2V4?>2V4=> 4> B5>@VW ?>5B0?=>3> D>@<C20==O @>7C<>28E 4V9. 0A2>T==O A>FV0;L=>3> 4>A2V4C C AD5@V <>@0;L=8E 2V4=>A8= T >:@5<8< 28?04:>< ?@82;0A=5==O 4>A2V4C 27030;V. "><C =02G0;L=C 4VO;L=VABL <>6=0 @>73;O40B8 O: D>@<C20==O C<V=L 28:>=C20B8 :>=:@5B=V ?@54<5B=V B8?8 ;N4AL:>W 4VO;L=>ABV B0 D>@<C20==O A>FV0;L=> 206;828E D>@< ?>254V=:8. 02G0;L=0 4VO;L=VABL O: 4VO;L=VABL CG=O T ?V7=020;L=>N. >=0 A?@O<>20=0 =0 7<V=C >A>18ABVA=>3> A>FV0;L=>3> 4>A2V4C CG=O. "><C .. ;L:>=V= @>73;O402 =02G0;L=C 4VO;L=VABL O: 4VO;L=VABL, A?@O<>20=C =0 A0<>7<V=C. @>4C:B>< B0:>W 4VO;L=>ABV T 7<V=8, I> 2V41C20NBLAO C AC1 T:BV. &V 7<V=8 28:;8:0T 28:>=0==O 4VO;L=>ABV . 18.2.2. 02G0==O, CGV==O, =0CGV==O. 02G0==O V @>728B>: &V;5A?@O<>20=0 >@30=V70FVO =0CGV==O 7 <5B>N D>@<C20==O 7=0=L, C<V=L B0 =028G>: =07820TBLAO =02G0==O<. "8?>28< ?@8:;04>< 9>3> T H:>;0. > =02G0==O C ;N48=8 =5 1C;> 6>4=8E 7=0=L, C<V=L B0 =028G>:. VA;O =02G0==O 7 O28;8AO. 2V4:8 2>=8 27O;8AO? V4 CG8B5;O.  CG8B5;O 2>=8 T. V= V ?5@5402 WE CG=O<. !0<5 F59 ?@>F5A ?5@540GV V T =02G0==O. A8E>;>3VG=89 0=0;V7 F8E B25@465=L ?>:07CT WE ?>25@E>2VABL B0 >1<565=VABL. =0==O, C<V==O, =028G:8 =5 DV78G=V @5GV, I> ;53:> <>6=0 ?5@540B8 G8 ?5@5:;0AB8 7 3>;>28 C 3>;>2C. =0==O, C<V==O B0 =028G:8 T @57C;LB0B>< ?@>F5AV2 2V4>1@065==O C ?A8EVFV ;N48=8. >=8 28=8:0NBL C 3>;>2V ;N48=8 O: =0A;V4>: 9>3> 2;0A=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. /:I> B0:>W 4VO;L=>ABV CG=O =5<0T, B> =5<0T V 7=0=L, C<V=L B0 =028G>:. "0:8< G8=><, 2V4=>H5==O CG8B5;L-CG5=L ?@8 =02G0==V =5 <>65 @>73;O40B8AO O: 2V4=>H5==O ?5@54020G-?@89<0G. # =L><C <0T 1CB8 0:B82=VABL 42>E CG0A=8:V2. "0:5 2V4=>H5==O =07820NBL 270T<>4VTN. ">4V, =02G0==O  F5 270T<>4VO <V6 CG8B5;5< V CG=5<, 2=0A;V4>: O:>W 2 CG=O D>@<CNBLAO ?52=V 7=0==O, C<V==O B0 =028G:8. &5 AB0T <>6;828< 70 C<>28, :>;8 CG8B5;L D>@<CT 2 CG=O ?52=C 4VO;L=VABL, 7024O:8 O:V9 V D>@<CNBLAO 7=0==O, C<V==O B0 =028G:8. 0240==O CG8B5;O ?>;O30T C B><C, I>1 28:;8:0B8 0:B82=VABL B0 D>@<C20B8 =02G0;L=C 4VO;L=VABL.  F5 ?5@5410G0T D>@<C20==O =02G0;L=>W <>B820FVW. 0CGV==O  F5 ?@82;0A=5==O CG=5< ?52=>W A8AB5<8 7=0=L, C<V=L B0 =028G>:. 0?@8:;04, CG5=L =5 7=02, G><C 1C20T 45=L V =VG. ><C ?>OA=8;8. V= ?>2B>@82 70 ?V4@CG=8:>< V B5?5@ 7=0T. 1> ;N48=0 =5 2<V;0 ?;020B8. >=0 ?>B@5=C20;0AO. "5?5@ C<VT. 02G8;0AO. &5 A2V4G8BL ?@> B5, I> =0CGV==O ?>2 O70=5 7V 7<V=0<8 C A0<V9 ;N48=V. "0:8< G8=><, =0CGV==O  F5 ABV9:0, 4>FV;L=0 7<V=0 DV78G=>W V ?A8EVG=>W 4VO;L=>ABV, I> 28=8:0T 7024O:8 ?>?5@54=V9 4VO;L=>ABV. $>@<C20==O C ;N48=8 7=0=L, C<V=L, =028G>:, ?>=OBL, <8A;5==O, ?>254V=:8 <>6;825 ;8H5 70 C<>28 WW 2;0A=>W ?A8EVG=>W V ?@0:B8G=>W 4VO;L=>ABV. "0:0 4VO;L=VABL T A?5F8DVG=>N V WW <5B>N T =0CGV==O. !?5F8DVG=0 4VO;L=VABL ;N48=8, <5B>N O:>W T =0CGV==O, =07820TBLAO CGV==O<. /: 2?;820T =02G0==O =0 ?A8EVG=89 @>728B>:? V4G87=O=0 ?A8E>;>3VG=0 =0C:0 @>73;O40T 2?;82 =02G0==O =0 ?A8EVG=89 @>728B>: =0 ?V4@C=BV 2G5==O .!. 83>BAL:>3> ?@> 420 @V2=V ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C. V= 284V;OT @V25=L 0:BC0;L=>3> ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C B0 7>=C =091;86G>3> @>728B:C . 02G0==O C H:>;V ?>G8=0TBLAO =0 ?V4@C=BV 9>3> @V2=O @>728B:C, I> AD>@<C202AO =0 ?>?5@54=VE 5B0?0E. V25=L ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C, I> AD>@<C202AO 2=0A;V4>: 7025@H5=8E 5B0?V2 @>728B:C, =07820TBLAO @V2=5< 0:BC0;L=>3> @>728B:C. >3> ?>:07=8:>< T A0<>ABV9=5 @>72 O7C20==O 70240=L 157 4>?><>38 4>@>A;8E. >=0 =091;86G>3> @>728B:C 287=0G0TBLAO =0 ?V4@C=BV =0A;V4C20==O 48B8=>N 4V9 4>@>A;>3>, @>72 O7C20==O 70240=L 70 4>?><>3>N 4>@>A;>3> H;OE>< 45<>=AB@0FV9 ?52=8E 4V9. 0A;V4C20==O =5 157<56=5. V7=8FO <V6 @V2=5< @>72 O7C20==O 70240=L ?V4 :5@V2=8FB2>< 4>@>A;8E V @V2=5< @>72 O7C20==O 70240=L C A0<>ABV9=V9 4VO;L=>ABV 287=0G0T 7>=C =091;86G>3> @>728B:C. #G5==O ?@> 420 @V2=V ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C 4>72>;OT ?>10G8B8 <091CB=T ?A8EVG=>3> @>728B:C.  FVTW B>G:8 7>@C BV;L:8 B5 =02G0==O T 5D5:B82=8<, I> =V18 28?5@5460T @>728B>: V 2545 9>3> 70 A>1>N. 02G0==O A?@8OT AB2>@5==N 7>=8 =091;86G>3> @>728B:C. !CBBT28< C FV9 B5>@VW, =0 4C<:C .!. 83>BAL:>3>, & T ?>;>65==O ?@> B5, I> ?@>F5A8 @>728B:C =5 71V30NBLAO 7 ?@>F5A0<8 =02G0==O, I> ?@>F5A8 @>728B:C V4CBL 70 ?@>F5A0<8 =02G0==O, I> AB2>@NNBL 7>=C =091;86G>3> @>728B:C. 18.2.3. $>@<C20==O =028G>: !CB=VABL =0CGV