ࡱ> t v Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s {"_bjbjzz.3 UBB8Ď##(###$$$oqqqqqq$d'$$''##~'"-##o'o#TZ1[0ĎC0Ë$%^d%L%$$$s*$$$Ď''''$$$$$$$$$B? :".. ", $!$/ !% 7 =0CG=>3> =0A;548O >4 @540:F859 . . 5>=BL520. . 5>=BL520 740B5;LAB2> >A:>2A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0 " 1994 , 88  47 5G0B05BAO ?> ?>AB0=>2;5=8N 540:F8>==>-8M40BQ;LA:>3> A>25B0 >A:>2A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0 5F5=75=BK: * ,  0==8:>2, 4>:B>@ ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E =0C: . . (;O3=:0, :0=4840B ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E =0C: 5>=BL52 . . 47 $8;>A>D8O ?A8E>;>388: 7 =0CG=>3> =0A;548O / >4 @54. . . 5>=BL520, . . 5>=BL520, >: 74-2> >A:. C=-B0, 1994. 228 A. ISBN 5 211 02628 4  A1>@=8: @01>B =0 =0CG=>3> 0@E820 . . 5>=BL520 2:;NG5=K B5:ABK, ?>A2OI5==K5 C7;>2K< <5B>4>;>38G5A:8< 8 B5>@5B8G5A:8< ?@>1;5<0< ?A8E>;>388. >;LH8=AB2> @01>B, 2 :;NG5 8=KE 2 A1>@=8:, =8:>340 @0=55 =5 ?C1;8:>20;8AL. >4@>1=> @0718@0NBAO ?@>1;5<K A>7=0=8O, 45OB5;L=>AB8, D8;>35=570 ?A8E8:8, A>>B=>H5=8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 8 D878>;>38G5A:>3>, ?@>1;5<0 A<KA;0. =>385 87 @0728205<KE 2 :=835 8459 A>E@0=8;8 A2>N =>287=C 8 =0CG=CN F5==>ABL 4> =0H8E 4=59. ;O ?A8E>;>3>2, D8;>A>D>2, 8AB>@8:>2 =0C:8. 0303020000 040 1 ?;  -------------------------- 19 94  88 077(02)  94 ISBN 5 211 02628 4 5>=BL52 . , 5>=BL52 . ., 1994  ! @54;0305<0O 2=8<0=8N G8B0B5;O :=830 A>AB02;5=0 87 <0B5@80;>2 =0CG=>3> 0@E820 ;5:A5O 8:>;0528G0 5>=BL520. -B>B 02B>@ 2@O4 ;8 =C6405BAO 2 A?5F80;L=>< ?@54AB02;5=88. =>385 3>4K . . 5>=BL52 1K; ?@87=0==K< 2> 2A5< <8@5 ;845@>< >B5G5AB25==>9 ?A8E>;>388, A>740B5;5< ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0CG=>9 H:>;K, 24>E=>2;5==>9 845O<8 . !. 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A>G.:  1 B. ., 1984. ". 6. !. 590. K3>BA:89 . !,  A2O78 <564C B@C4>2>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN 8 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K< @0728B85< @515=:0 // %@5AB><0B8O ?> 2>7@0AB=>9 8 ?5403>38G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388. ., 1980. !. 114 120, 14 520 > AB0=>2;5=88 G5;>25G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O G5@57 @0728B85 45OB5;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0 2 0=B@>?>35=575, 0 A=>2=K5 ?@>F5AAK,, A>45@60B ?5@2K9 70:>=G5==K9 ;0:>=8G=K9 =01@>A>: >A=>2=KE ?>;>65=89 45OB5;L=>AB=>3> ?>4E>40. B>@>9 @0745; 40==>9 :=838 >1@07CNB G5BK@5 D@03<5=B0 4>:B>@A:>9 48AA5@B0F88 . . 5>=BL520, 70I8I5==>9 2 1940 3. 025@H5==0O @01>B0 1K;0 87;>65=0 2 B@5E B><0E. 5@2K9 B>< 1K; F5;8:>< ?>A2OI5= 38?>B575 > 2>7=8:=>25=88 >ICI5=8O 2 ?@>F5AA5 M2>;NF88 <0B5@88 8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=><C 8AA;54>20=8N ?> ?@>25@:5 MB>9 38?>B57K. "5:AB ?5@2>3> B><0 1K; ?@0:B8G5A:8 F5;8:><, ;8HL A <8=8<0;L=K<8 @540:B>@A:8<8 87<5=5=8O<8, 2:;NG5= .-. 5>=BL52K< 2> 2A5 8740=8O 53> :=838 @>1;5<K @0728B8O ?A8E8:8 (., 1959; 1965; 1972; 1981). -B> 8AA;54>20=85 E>@>H> 8725AB=> 8 =0 =5< =570G5< 745AL >AB0=02;820BLAO. 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Ontogeny of embryonic behavior in apes/III. The structural and environmental factors in embryonic behavior // The Journ of Compar. Psychology, 1932, XIII p. 245; IV, The Influence oF Embryonic Movements upon the Behavior after // IbrdL VoJ. XIV. P. 109: Minkowski M. L'elabortion dv systcme nerveux // Encyciopedie Franchise. T. VIIL La vie mentale. 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"0:, 87CG0O D>@<8@>20=85 =02K:>2 C 601, >9B5=459: (1930) 2 >4=>9 87 A5@89 A2>8E M:A?5@8<5=B>2 4020; MB8< 682>B=K< B0:8E =0A5:><KE, :>B>@K5 2K7K20;8 C =8E @57:> >B@8F0B5;L=CN @50:F8N. >AB0B>G=> 1K;> >4=>3> 548=AB25==>3> >?KB0, GB>1K 6010 2 B5G5=85 <=>38E G0A>2 ?>A;5 MB>3> >B:07K20;0AL >B ?>?KB>: AJ5ABL <C@02LO 8;8 4065 4@C3>5 =0A5:><>5, =0?><8=0NI55 53> A2>8< 284><.  4@C38E 65 M:A?5@8<5=B0E >= >B3>@06820; >B 601K 4>1KGC (4>6452>3> G5@2O) AB5:;><; ?@8 MB8E CA;>28OE, =5A<>B@O =0 B>> GB> >=0 2AO:89 @07 =0B0;:8205BAO =0 AB5:;>, 6010, =0>1>@>B, >1=0@C68205B 1>;LH>5 C?>@AB2>: >=0 45;05B <=>65AB2> ?>?KB>:, ?@5645 G5< 55 @50:F8O 70B>@<>78BAO. 065 CA8;5=85 <><5=B0 =0:070=8O =5 2K7K205B ?@5:@0I5=8O 42865=89.  >?KB0E 11> (Abbott) ;O3CH:0 ?@>4>;60;0 =01@0AK20BLAO =0 4>1KGC, >:@C65==CN 83;0<8, 2 ?@>4>;65=85 72 G0A>2, ?>:0 :>60 55 25@E=59 G5;NAB8 =5 1K;0 ?>;=>ABLN 87>4@0=0. 8>;>38G5A:>5 7=0G5=85 @07;8G8O 2 A:>@>AB8 >1@07>20=8O A2O759 B>3> 8 4@C3>3> @>40 A>25@H5==> ?>=OB=>, 5A;8 ?@8=OBL 2> 2=8<0=85 CA;>28O 687=8 2840: <:A;8> 3>2>@8B >9B5=459:, 6010 2> 2@5<O A2>59 25G5@=59 >E>BK ?@81;878BAO : <C@0259=8:C 8 AE20B8B <C@02LO, B> 1KAB@>5 >1@07>20=85 A2O78 ?@54>E@0=8B 55 >B ?>3;>I5=8O 4@C38E B0:8E 65 =0A5:><KE, 2@54=KE 1;03>40@O :8A;>B5, :>B>@>9 >=8 >1;040NB. 0>1>@>B, :>340 6010 ?KB05BAO AE20B8BL 4>6452>3> G5@2O, => MB> 59 =5 C405BAO, B> ?>2B>@5=85 ?>?KB>: 2 >1KG=KE CA;>28OE <>65B ?><>GL 59 2A5 65 702;045BL ?8I599. * Buytendijk F. J. Psychologie des animaux, 1928. 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oronica incerta) =0CG0NBAO ?@>E>48BL A;>6=K9 ;018@8=B A 7 2>7<>6=>ABO<8 2K1>@0 (BC?8:8) ?>A;5 30 >?KB>2 (Schneirlat 1933); 1>;55 65 ;53:>, A>3;0A=> <=5=8N N;5@0, >1CG05<K5 @K1K (7>;>B>9 :0@?) ?@8<5@=> 2 B5E 65 CA;>28OE  2 ;018@8=B5 5@:A0  =5 A=860NB >H81>: 4065 ?>A;5 360 >?KB>2 (0H:0@>2, 1928). 0:>>1@07=K5 {Cambarus affinis) 2 ;018@8=B5 A >4=>9 2>7<>6=>ABLN 2K1>@0 =0CG0NBAO ?>A;5 60 >?KB>2 (Yerkes and Guggins, 1903), 4;O =0CG5=8O 65 0<D8189 (;O3CH:0) 2 ;018@8=B5, ?@54AB02;ONI5< B0:65 2A53> >4=C 2>7<>6=>ABL 2K1>@0, B@51C* 5BAO 100 120 >?KB>2, B> 5ABL ?@>F5AA 845B C =8E ?>GB8 2 420 @070 <54;5==55. 0 >A=>20=88 A@02=5=8O 40==KE M:A?5@8<5=B0 A @K10<8, 0<D818O<8 8 ?B8F0<8 >9B5=459: ?@8E>48B : A;54CNI5<C ?0@04>:A0;L=><C 2K2>4C: 2>?@5:8 >1KG=><C <=5=8N, 2 D8;>35=5B8G5A:>< @O4C ?>ABC?5==>3> @0728B8O A?>A>1=>AB8 =0CG5=8O =5 ACI5AB2C5B14. ' (53 . Die. geistige Erttwickiung/Zweite Auflage, 192L S. 5. lA Buhter  #:07. A>G. !. 6. < >:;04 =0 3-< 3>48G=>< A>1@0=88 =845@;0=4A:8E D878>;>3>2, <AB5@ 40<, 1917 // Arch. Neerl., I920. P. 149. 80 !> AB>;L :@09=8< 2K2>4>< A>3;0A8BLAO, @07C<55BAO, =52>7<>6=>. 5;> =5 2 B><, GB> A?>A>1=>ABL =0CG5=8O 2 ?@>F5AA5 18>;>38G5A:>3> @0728B8O =5 ?@>3@5AA8@C5B, => 2 B><, GB> ?@8 A>?>AB02;5=88 <564C A>1>9 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE 40==KE, ?>;CG5==KE C =K=5 ACI5AB2CNI8E 682>B=KE, <K A@02=8205< <564C A>1>9 :>=5G=K5 G;5=K M2>;NF8>==KE @O4>2, M2>;NF8>=8@>202H85 =57028A8<> 4@C3 >B 4@C30, 0 =5 ?>A;54>20B5;L=K5 G;5=K >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 D8;>35=5B8G5A:>3> @O40 (. *, !525@F52) 8 >B2;5:05<AO >B 70AB>9=>AB8, E0@0:B5@=>9 8<5==> 4;O :>=5G=KE G;5=>2 M2>;NF8815. -B>3>, :>=5G=>, =5 <>65B =5 CG8BK20BL >9B5=459:, 8 ?>MB><C <K A:;>==K >B=5AB8 2K2>4, : :>B>@><C >= ?@8E>48B, 3;02=K< >1@07><, 70 AG5B 53> >1I5B5>@5B8G5A:8E ?>78F89, @5H8B5;L=> GC64KE B5< 845O<, :>B>@K5 ;560B 2 >A=>25 =0H59 @01>BK. @8 G8AB> D878G5A:>< ?>4E>45 : =0CG5=8N 8<5NI89AO 745AL 459AB28B5;L=K9 ?@>3@5AA 5AB5AB25==> <0A:8@C5BAO. >MB><C M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 40==K5, A>1@0==K5 2 1>;LH>< :>;8G5AB25 ?@54AB028B5;O<8 D878>;>38G5A:>3> =0?@02;5=8O 2 7>>?A8E>;>388, ?>:07K20NB, =0>1>@>B, GB> =0 1>;55 2KA>:8E ABC?5=OE M2>;NF88 <56284>2>5 A@02=5=85 ?@>B5:0=8O ?@>F5AA0 =0CG5=8O =5 405B ?>GB8 =8:0:8E D>@<0;L=KE @07;8G89: :@82K5, ?>;CG5==K5 2 A>>B25BAB25==> C@02=5==KE CA;>28OE, 4065 C 25AL<0 @07;8G=KE 284>2 ;53:> =0;030NBAO >4=0 =0 4@C3CN.  @57C;LB0B5 =5:>B>@K5 02B>@K ?@8H;8 : 8455 2708<=>3> A2545=8O :@82KE =0CG5=8O, ?>;CG5==KE =5 B>;L:> C 2KAH8E 682>B=KE, => B0:65 C 682>B=KE 8 G5;>25:016. -B>, :>=5G=>, A>25@H5==> 8A:CAAB25==K5 ?>?KB:8. =8, >4=0:>, E0@0:B5@=K 4;O B>9 ;8=88 87CG5=8O =02K:>2, :>B>@0O 4> ?>A;54=53> 2@5<5=8 3>A?>4AB2>20;0 2 7>>?A8E>;>388. 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"0:8<, >1@07><, ?@>1;5<0 =02K:0 ?@52@0I0;0AL 2A5 1>;55 2 ?@>1;5<C ;01>@0B>@=>9 0=0;8B8G5A:>9 D878>;>388, 2 ?@>1;5<C <5E0=87<>2, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: B0 18>;>38G5A:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL, :>B>@0O >ACI5AB2;O5BAO MB8<8 <5E0=87<0<8, 5AB5AB25==>, >AB020;0AL 2 B5=8. -B> ?@82>48;> : 42>O:><C @57C;LB0BC: A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, : =>2><C 8A:CAAB25==><C ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=8N =0CG5=8O B0: =07. 2KAH8< ?@>F5AA0<, B> 5ABL 8=B5;;5:BC, 0 2<5AB5 A B5<  A>25@H5==> ?0@04>:A0;L=>  : ?>GB8 1573@0=8G=><C @0AH8@5=8N ?>=OB8O =02K:0.  ?>A;54=5<C <K 4>;6=K 1C45< 5I5 2>72@0B8BLAO; ?>MB><C A59G0A <K ?>4G5@:=5< B>;L:> ?5@2K9 <><5=B, ?>A;C682H89 >4=8< 87 >A=>20=89 4;O 2K45;5=8O B@5BL59 ABC?5=8 2 @0728B88 ?>2545=8O 682>B=KE  ABC?5=8 8=B5;;5:B0. @>1;5<0 8=B5;;5:B0 :0: >?@545;5==>9 ABC?5=8 @0728B8O 15 !525@F52  , -2>;NF8O 8 ?A8E8:0, 1922. 16 Hicks , !033 . Human Reaction in a Maze // Journ. of Animal Behavior, 1920. &8B. ?>: (>3 J.  A survey of Science of Psychology, 1933. 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"> 65 A0<>5 8 A B@0=A?>78F859; 2A5 @07;8G85 70:;NG05BAO ;8HL 2 3@0=8F0E ?5@5=>A0 8 2 AB5?5=8 2>7<>6=>9 040?B0F88 ?>2545=8O ?@8 ?5@5E>40E : =>2K< A8BC0F8O<. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, 1>;55 ?@8AB0;L=>5 @0AA<>B@5=85 D0:B>2 ?>2545=8O =87H8E <;5:>?8B0NI8E, 87CG5==KE 18E528>@8AB0<8, 21 !<.; t/obhause L. Mind in evolution, 1915; Yerkes . The mind of a gorilla, P. II // Psychol. Monographs, 1927. II, 2. P. 443; Q;5@ . AA;54>20= =5 8 :B>. 15:B0 G5;>25:>?>4>1=KE >157LO=, @CAA :, ?5@. 1#30. !. 89 8 A;54. i= Buytendyk F. Consideration de psychologic comparee a propos d'experfences faites-avec le singe cercopithecus // Arch. NeerL T. V. 1920. P. 64. 87 ?>:07K205B, GB> 8 A MB>9 AB>@>=K >AB@>B0 ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=8O =02K:>2 8=B5;;5:BC 2A5 1>;55 A3;06820;0AL, {-.) 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inet u Passy. !<.; Menning N. Geruchsversuche am Hund // Zeitschnft fir Biologie/ B. 70. S, I 8; BtiyiendLjk F. L'odorat du chien // Arch. NeerL de Physiologie, 1921. 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uyer R. Le paradoxe de 03H,5 // Journal de psychologic, 1938. P. 472; Crow #. The Protista as the Primitive Forms of Life//Scientia, 1933. V, LIV. 114 @07@K20 <564C 45OB5;L=>ABLN 8 55 0=0B><8G5A:>9 >A=>2>9 8 745AL =5B, ?>B><C GB> 2=CB@8 40==>3> ?@>AB59H53> >1I53> <>@D>;>38G5A:>3> B8?0 <K =01;N405< >3@><=>5, E>BO 8 25AL<0 A2>5>1@07=>5, CA;>6=5=85 0=0B><8G5A:>3> AB@>5=8O. ! :064K< =>2K< H03>< s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'B>1K A45;0BL MB> >G5284=K<, 4>AB0B>G=> C:070BL, =0?@8<5@, =0 B8? 3C1>:, C :>B>@KE, :AB0B8 3>2>@O, OA=> 2K@065=0 8 3;02=0O >A>15==>ABL ?@8<8B82=>3> B8?0 45OB5;L=>AB8 =87H8E <=>3>:;5B>G=KE, 0 8<5==>  ?>4G5@:=CB0O 702B>=><8:0 >B45;L=KE @50:F892. K ?>4@>1=> >AB0=>28;8AL =0 MB>< A;>6=>< A>>B=>H5=88, B0: :0: <K 2AB@5G05<AO A =8< =0 2A5< ?@>BO65=88 @0728B8O, ?@8G5< 53> 83=>@8@>20=85 =587156=> 2545B : >H81>G=K< C<>70:;NG5=8O<. >=5G=>, <K =5 A<>65< 2>2A5 >B:070BLAO >B A1;865=89, 2KE>4OI8E 70 ?@545;K @50;L=>9 35=5B8G5A:>9 ?@55<AB25==>AB8 284>2, E>BO 1K C65 ?>B><C, GB> 2 87CG5=88 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?0;5>=B>;>38G5A:89 <5B>4 2>2A5 =5 ?@8<5=8< 8 <K 4>;6=K 1C45< 2 McNair G. ". Motor Reactions of the Fresh-water Sponge Ephydatia fli-Viatilis // +. Bulletin, 1923, 44. 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KH5 <K ?KB0;8AL ?>:070BL MB> M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=> CAB0=>2;5==K<8 D0:B0<8 87<5=G82>AB8, ?@8A?>A>1;O5<>AB8 45OB5;L=>AB8 682>B=KE, ?@8=04;560I8E : 40==><C 7>>;>38G5A:><C B8?C. "5?5@L <K <>65< ?@8A>548=8BL : MB><C =5:>B>@K5 D878>;>38G5A:85 >A=>20=8O. "0:, . ;L<B54>< (1922) 8 * 525BF>2K< (1936) 1K;> ?>:070=>, GB> C G5@259 ACI5AB2C5B A;>6=0O 85@0@E870F8O 42830B5;L=KE @50:F895. >A;54=89 87 C:070==KE 02B>@>2 >?8AK205B C ;5=B>?;0== 8 4@C38E 4 ?KBK ?,?'0, ?>: Hempetrnann. Tierpsychologie, 1926r. S, 146. 1 Ottntead . . The Role of the Nervous System in the Locomotion of certain Marine PoJychads // Journal of Experimental Zoology, 1922, V. 36, P, 57; wn Levalzow K. G. Beirrage zur Reiiphysiologie der Polychaden Strudewarmer // Zeitschrift Jiir verglekhende Physiologic XXIU, 5, 1936, S, 721, 120 Poiychadae B@8 C@>2=O 42865=89: C@>25=L F8;80@:KE 42865=89 (Bewegung durch alien), ?@O<> =5 7028AOI8E >B :0:8E 1K B> =8 1K;> F5=B@>2 8==5@20F88, 40;55  C@>25=L 42865=89 <CA:C;L=KE, .8==5@28@C5<KE =5@2=K<8 C7;0<8, 8, =0:>=5F, C@>25=L 42865=89, :>B>@K5 02B>@ =07K205B @85=B8@>20==K<8, ?>;O@87>20==K<8 8 A?>=B0==K<8 (orientiert, polarisiert, spontan); ?>A;54=85 7028AOB >B F5@51@>84=KE F5=B@>2, :>>@48=8@CNI8E ?>2545=85 2 F5;><. 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"0:, , "><0, 2>7@060O ?@>B82 B>3> <=5=8O, GB> C ?0C:>2 7@5=85 2>>1I5 =5 83@05B =8:0:>9 @>;8 (. 5=8A), C:07K205B, GB> <5AB> ?@>:CA0 65@B2K 2K18@05BAO *H8 7@8B5;L=>. 035;L ?>425@3 A><=5=8N ACI5AB2>20=85 C ?0C:>2 2:CA>2>9 GC2AB28B5;L=>AB8; >4=0:> 2 >B25B =0 MB> 8;;> 2 M:A?5@8<5=B0E A :>@<;5=85< ?0C:>2 <CE0<8, 8<?@53=8@>20==K<8 @07;8G=K<8 25I5AB20<8 (E8=8= 8 ?@>G.), ?>:070; @>;L 2:CA>2KE >ICI5=89 2 0:B5 ?>3;>I5=8O 8<8 ?8I8 8 >?8A0; A?5F80;L=K9 >@30= 2:CA0 2 2845 :;5B>: 1CBK;>G=>9 D>@<K, =0E>4OI8EAO 2 pharynx8, >-2848<><C, <=>385 87 ?>4>1=KE :06CI8EAO ?@>B82>@5G89 2 40==KE >1 >ICI5=8OE ?0C:>2 8 =0A5:><KE ;53:> @07@5H0NBAO, 5A;8 ?@8=OBL 2> 2=8<0=85 AB@>3CN A<5==>ABL B5E 2>7459AB289, :>B>@K5 >?@545;ONB 8E 25AL<0 A2>5>1@07=CN, :><?;5:A=CN, => 2<5AB5 A B5< 25AL<0 ?@>ABCN ?> A2>59 AB@C:BC@5 45OB5;L=>ABL; 254L 2AO B@C4=>ABL 0=0;870 70:;NG05BAO 745AL 8<5==> 2 B><, GB>, =0?@8<5@, 4>1KG0 A A0<>3> =0G0;0 <>65B 1KBL >1=0@C65=0 ?0C:><1- =5 B>;L:> ?>A@54AB2>< 281@0F8>==>3> GC2AB20, => 6 Thomas M. La yue et la sensibilite tactile chez- les AraigneeS// Bulletin de Society Entomologique; 1936, PXL|. .P. ,95; Mittot J. Lessens, du gout chez Les Araignees // Bulletin de la Sodete zoologique de France. LXL . 1936. P. 27. 123 8 7@8B5;L=>, >4=0:> 53> 45OB5;L=>ABL =0?@02;O5BAO B>;L:> 281@0F859, B0: GB> 7@5=8O C =53> :0: 1K =5 ACI5AB2C5B; 2 4@C3>< 725=5 53> ?>2545=8O 3;02=0O @>;L ?5@5E>48B, =0>1>@>B, : 7@8B5;L=K< >ICI5=8O< 8 B. 4. !2>5>1@07=>5 CA;>6=5=85 45OB5;L=>AB8, 1;87:>5 ?> A2>5<C B8?C : 2KH5>?8A0==><C, ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ?>2545=85 3>;>2>=>38E <>;;NA:>2. 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G5< A>1AB25==> 3>2>@OB MB8 40==K5? ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, <K " !,8?( > P. The Learning of a Me by Goldfish // Journal of animal behavior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Experiment Me Untersuchung uber das Zusammenfinden der Geschlechter bei der Trichterspmne Agelena labirintica // Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Physiologic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Werkzeuggebranch imd Werk2eugherstellung bei eihem niederen Affen // Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Physiologic, 1931. B. 13. 5, 639; Ktuver H. Behavior mechanism in monkeys. Chicago, 1933; @>B>?>?>2 . . #A;>28O >1@07>20=8O <>B>@=KE =02K:>2, 1935; >38=A:89 . ! 1@07>20=85 =02K:>2 C =87H8E >15ML9=. "@C4K 3>A+ ;=-B0 ?> 87CG5=8N <>730 8<* . , 5EB5@520. ., 1939. ". IX, !. 1S5. 7 Ktuver . Re-examination of implement behavior in a Celus monkey after an interval of three years // Ada Psychologica / ed. by G. Revesz. Hague, 1937, P. 347, 150 A A>25@H5==>9 >G5284=>ABLN ?>:07K205B, GB> >=> =5 O2;O5BAO C MB8E 682>B=KE @57C;LB0B>< >1@07>20=8O ?@>AB>3> =02K:0, => GB> >=> D>@<8@C5BAO C =8E B0: 65, :0: C 0=B@>?>84=KE >157LO=. 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A;8 =0 ,2A5< ?@>BO65=88 682>B=>3> <8@0 B5<8 >1I8<8 70:>=0<8, :>B>@K<8 >?@545;O;8AL 70:>=K @0728B8O ?A8E8:8, 1K;8 70:>=K 18>;>38G5A:>9 M2>;NF88, B> A ?5@5E>4>< : G5;>25:C @0728B85 ?A8E8:8 =0G8=05B >?@545;OBLAO 70:>=0<8 @0728B8O >1I5AB25==>-8AB>@8G5A:>3>. !;>6=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL 2KAH8E, 682>B=KE, ?>4G8=ONI0OAO 5AB5AB25==K< 25I=K< A2O7O< 8 >B=>H5=8O<, ?@52@0I05BAO C G5;>25:0 2 45OB5;L=>ABL, ?>4G8=ONICNAO A2O7O< 8 >B=>H5=8O< 87=0G0;L=> >1I5AB25==K<. -B> 8 A>AB02;O5B BC ?@8G8=C, 1;03>40@O :>B>@>9 2>7=8:05B A?5F8D8G5A:8 G5;>25G5A:0O D>@<0 ?A8E8G5A:>3> >B@065=8O 459AB28B5;L=>AB8  A>7=0=85 G5;>25:0. 1 Yerkes R. M.. Learned 8. W. Chimpanzee Intelligence and its Vucal Expression. 1925; Buyiendijk F., Flschet W. Ober die Reaktkmen des Hundes auf menschliche Worter // Arch. Neerland. de Physiol 1934. V, XIV. S. 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('!",) 8G=>ABL 5ABL A2O7L 8 85@0@E8O 45OB5;L=>AB59, >?@545;O5<KE =5 18>;>38G5A:8, => 8AB>@8G5A:8. -B0 A2O7L 8 85@0@E8O O2;ONBAO @57C;LB0B>< ?@>F5AA0 48DD5@5=F80F88 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 8E ?5@5?>4G8=5=8O. >7=8:0NI85 A2O78 ACBL 2B>@8G=K5 8 2KAH85 (2 A<KA;5 25@E>2=K5, B. 5. 3>A?>4AB2CNI85) A2O78. ><8=8@CNI85, 254CI85 45OB5;L=>AB8 =5 >?@545;ONBAO C65 5AB5AB25==>-18>;038G5A:8, => 2K45;ONBAO 8 >?@545;ONBAO >1I5AB25==>-8AB>@8G5A:8. Contra B5>@89 >@30=8G5A:>9 8=AB8=:B82=>9 >A=>2K ;8G=>AB8, contra McDougal) 8 ?@>G. >@>G=>ABL 0=0;870 ?> B8?C A@K20=8O ;8AB>2 :0?CAB=>3> :>G0=0;  2 8B>35  :>G5@K6:0! 8G=>ABL {?A8E>;(>38G5A:8)) 5ABL A8AB5<0 A2O759 45OB5;L=>-AB59 8=482840, ?>@>645==KE =5 18>;>38G5A:8<8, => B5<8 >1I5AB25==K<8 >B=>H5=8O<8, 2 :>B>@K5 2ABC?05B 40==K9 8=48284. I =0G5: 8G=>ABL 5ABL A>2>:C?=>ABL45 A2O759 8 >B=>H5=89 45OB5;L=>AB59 G5;>25G5A:>3> 8=482840, >ACI5AB2;ONI8E 53>  >1I5AB25==K5 >B=>H5=8O : 459AB28B5;L=>AB8;*. 0@:A: ACI=>ABL ;8G=>AB8  A>2>:C?=>ABL >1I5AB25==KE >B=>H5=89 . III.   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