ࡱ> }~#`bjbj\.\.>D>Dc||||||| dX Wh&&&&&NtQQQQQQQZXhZrQ|i&&iiQ||&&^WKKKi0@|&|&QKiQKK_Mh||M &\ @xEB8B0M'NtW0WM4[Ij4[ MM4[|N L86Kn,QQ3JWiiii         |||||| "5>@8O ?@548:0F88, ?>4;560I55, A:07C5<>5, 8=D8=8B82: A1>@=8: 2K?8A>:  TOC \o "1-3" 20=>20 .. C@;0:>20 .. >G5?F>2 ..  PAGEREF _Toc77340750 \h 2 1.6.21.1. =D8=8B82  PAGEREF _Toc77340751 \h 2 1.6.21.2. @8G0AB85 2B>@>5.  PAGEREF _Toc77340752 \h 3 1.6.21.3. @8G0AB85 ?5@2>5 8 35@C=489.  PAGEREF _Toc77340753 \h 3 1.6.21.4. @8G0AB85 ?5@2>5.  PAGEREF _Toc77340754 \h 4 1.6.21.5. 5@C=489.  PAGEREF _Toc77340755 \h 5 3.    PAGEREF _Toc77340756 \h 7 3.1.    / ()/ % " !")  PAGEREF _Toc77340757 \h 7 3.2.1.3. !B0BCA ?>4;560I53> 8 A:07C5<>3>.  PAGEREF _Toc77340758 \h 16 3.2.2.6. #A;>6=5=85 A:07C5<>3>.  PAGEREF _Toc77340759 \h 21 !<8@=8F:89 .. >@D>;>38O  PAGEREF _Toc77340760 \h 27  #  $"  PAGEREF _Toc77340761 \h 27  '!"  PAGEREF _Toc77340762 \h 28 + $ +   ",+   PAGEREF _Toc77340763 \h 28 !<8@=8F:89 .. !8=B0:A8A  PAGEREF _Toc77340764 \h 29 '!", III #'     PAGEREF _Toc77340765 \h 29   + '+  /  PAGEREF _Toc77340766 \h 29 1.  &/  PAGEREF _Toc77340767 \h 29 2.  "  !#*". !#  )  PAGEREF _Toc77340768 \h 32 K@065=85 ?@548:0F88 2 A:07C5<><  PAGEREF _Toc77340769 \h 34 K@065=85 ?>4;560I53>  PAGEREF _Toc77340770 \h 41 !2O7L <564C A>45@60=85< A:07C5<>3> 8 A>45@60=85< ?>4;560I53>  PAGEREF _Toc77340771 \h 43 ;L8H ..  PAGEREF _Toc77340772 \h 45 WORD ORDER  PAGEREF _Toc77340773 \h 45 SOME GENERAL POINTS  PAGEREF _Toc77340774 \h 45 SUBJECT AND PREDICATE4  PAGEREF _Toc77340775 \h 45 THE SUBJECT AND THE PREDICATE  PAGEREF _Toc77340776 \h 47 Types of Predicate  PAGEREF _Toc77340777 \h 48 The Participle as Predicate  PAGEREF _Toc77340778 \h 49 Other Types of Nominal Predicate  PAGEREF _Toc77340779 \h 50 Limits of the Compound Verbal Predicate  PAGEREF _Toc77340780 \h 50 The Compound Nominal Predicate  PAGEREF _Toc77340781 \h 51 TRANSITION FROM SIMPLE TO COMPOSITE SENTENCES  PAGEREF _Toc77340782 \h 53 SENTENCES WITH HOMOGENEOUS PARTS  PAGEREF _Toc77340783 \h 53 SENTENCES WITH A DEPENDENT APPENDIX  PAGEREF _Toc77340784 \h 54 SECONDARY PREDICATION  PAGEREF _Toc77340785 \h 55 THE ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTION  PAGEREF _Toc77340786 \h 56 Chapter X THE SIMPLE SENTENCE  PAGEREF _Toc77340787 \h 59 THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE SENTENCE  PAGEREF _Toc77340788 \h 59 Blokh M.Ya.  PAGEREF _Toc77340789 \h 63 CHAPTER XI NON-FINITE VERBS (VERBIDS)  PAGEREF _Toc77340790 \h 63 CHAPTER XXI SENTENCE: GENERAL  PAGEREF _Toc77340791 \h 70 CHAPTER XXII ACTUAL DIVISION OF THE SENTENCE  PAGEREF _Toc77340792 \h 73 CHAPTER XXIII COMMUNICATIVE TYPES OF SENTENCES  PAGEREF _Toc77340793 \h 77 CHAPTER XXIX SEMI-COMPLEX SENTENCE  PAGEREF _Toc77340794 \h 85 ;>E ./.  PAGEREF _Toc77340795 \h 92 '!", III  "'! #'     PAGEREF _Toc77340796 \h 92  1    & !)/  PAGEREF _Toc77340797 \h 92  %!/ -./.  PAGEREF _Toc77340798 \h 96 CHAPTER XI GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PREDICATIVE UNITS  PAGEREF _Toc77340799 \h 96 PREDICATIVE WORDS  PAGEREF _Toc77340800 \h 97 PREDICATIVE WORD-GROUPS  PAGEREF _Toc77340801 \h 98  20=>20 .. C@;0:>20 .. >G5?F>2 .. 20=>20 .. C@;0:>20 .. >G5?F>2 .. "5>@5B8G5A:0O 3@0<<0B8:0 A>2@5<5==>3> 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0. .: KAH. H:., 1981.  288 A. washed, => I hurt =5 >7=0G05B I hurt myself, I amuse =5 @02=> I amuse myself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write. To be writing. To be written. To have been To have written. To have been written, writing. 80 @88=D8=8B82=0O G0AB8F0 to O2;O5BAO D>@<0;L=K< <0@:5@>< 8=D8=8B820, >B;8G0NI8< 53> >B ><>=8<8G=KE 5<C ;8G=KE D>@<, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: D>@<0;L=K< ?>:070B5;5< ;8G=>9 D>@<K O2;O5BAO ;N1>9 B8? A>>B=5A5==>3> A =59 ?>4;560I53>, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 8=D8=8B820. A;8 8=D8=8B82 =0E>48BAO 2 A>AB025 <>40;L=>3> 3;03>;L=>3> A:07C5<>3>, 8, A;54>20B5;L=>, 5<C ?@54H5AB2C5B <>40;L=K9 3;03>;, ?>A;54=89 A0< O2;O5BAO ?>:070B5;5< 8=D8=8B820, B0: :0: <>40;L=K9 3;03>; 157 ?>A;54CNI53> 8=D8=8B820 <>65B C?>B@51;OBLAO B>;L:> ?@8 AB@C:BC@=>9 @5?@575=B0F88; => B0:>5 C?>B@51;5=85 2A5340 0=0D>@8G=>, 8, A;54>20B5;L=>, 2 ?@54K4CI59 G0AB8 B5:AB0 70 <>40;L=K< 3;03>;>< A;54>20; 8=D8=8B82: 'I can't be bothered now to wrap anything up.'  'Neither can I, old boy.' (Waine) A:;NG5=85 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>N <>40;L=>5 C?>B@51;5=85 have to, be to, ought to ?;NA 8=D8=8B82; 2 MB8E A;CG0OE >1O70B5;L=0 G0AB8F0 to: By this time it ought to have been over. (Christie) =D8=8B82 <>65B 8<5BL A8=B0:A8G5A:CN DC=:F8N 0) ?>4;560I53>, 1) 8<5==>9 G0AB8 A>AB02=>3> 8<5==>3> A:07C5<>3>, 2) 4>?>;=5=8O, 3) >?@545;5=8O, 4) >1AB>OB5;LAB20: 0) "> have asked questions here would have attracted attention. (Stewart) 1) To see is to believe, 2) I wanted to tell them before they discovered. (Holt) r) There was no one to read the words that were being traced. (Christie) 4) 5 was a good workman; too good a workman t > b e s 0 A k e d. (Braine) =D8=8B82 A?>A>15= ?@8=8<0BL ;N1>9 B8? 4>?>;=5=8O 8 >?@545;OBLAO =0@5G85<. -B0 :><18=0B>@8:0 O2;O5BAO 53> 3;03>;L=>9 G5@B>9: If Godmanchester cared publicly to break the lease with the S>Aiety, let him do. (Wilson) =>340 =0@5G85 <>65B 70=8<0BL ?>78F8N <564C G0AB8F59 to 8 8=D8=8B82><; MB>  B0: =07K205<K9 @0AI5?;5==K9 8=D8=8B82 (split Infinitive). !B@>385 AB8;8ABK >B=>AOBAO : =5<C >B@8F0B5;L=>, >4=0:> 4;O M<D07K A>45@60=8O =0@5G8O >= C?>B@51;O5BAO 8=>340 4065 2 >D8F80;L=>< AB8;5: I wish to specially stress the fact... =D8=8B82 >A=>2=>3> @07@O40 >1>7=0G05B >4=>2@5<5==>ABL 459AB28O A 459AB285< 3;03>;0-A:07C5<>3>; 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B :>=B5:AB0 >= <>65B >1>7=0G0BL 8 459AB285, :>B>@><C =04;568B A>25@H8BLAO 2 1C4CI5< ?> >B=>H5=8N : 459AB28N A:07C5<>3>: I am sure the Dean never intended to suggest anything else. (Snow) When I told Rose that I wished to transfer Gilbert Cooke, I had an awkward time. (Snow) 5@D5:B >1>7=0G05B 459AB285, 8<52H55 <5AB> @0=55 459AB28O 3;03>;0-A:07C5<>3>: It was like her also not to have asked a single question about what I had been doing. (Snow) 81 KABC?0O 2 DC=:F88 ?>4;560I53>, 8=D8=8B82 ?5@5405B =081>;55 >1>1I5==>5 7=0G5=85 459AB28O, =5 A>>B=5A5==>3> ?8 A :0:8< AC1J5:B><: "> reach the escarpment top meant another spelt among the trees. (Sillitoe)  >AB0;L=KE A;CG0OE 459AB285 8=D8=8B820 A>>B=5A5=> A A5<0=B8G5A:8< AC1J5:B><, >1>7=0G5==K< ?>4;560I8<: . Then she would force herself to attend to Margaret and to me. (Snow) 'I have no wish to listen to anybody's private conversation.'' (Christie) 4=0:>, =0E>4OAL 2 A>AB025 3@C??K 4>?>;=5=8O, 8=D8=8B82 A>>B=5A5= A A5<0=B8G5A:8< AC1J5:B><, >1>7=0G5==K< 4>?>;=5=85<: I'B telling you not to worry. (Snow) A>15==> O@:> MB0 A>>B=5A5==>ABL ?@>A;568205BAO 2 A;>6=>< 4>?>;=5=88: Everyone watched him g >. (Snow) As her gaze returned to Ralph, I saw her recognise him. (Stewart) =D8=8B82 8<55B A>1AB25==CN-AC1J5:B=CN >B=5AQ==>ABL 2 ?@548:0B82=>9 :>=AB@C:F88 A for, 2AB@5G0NI59AO 4>2>;L=> @54:>, 0 B0:65 2 B5E A;CG0OE, :>340 2 A>AB025 8<5==>9 G0AB8 A:07C5<>3>, >= CB>G=O5B 7=0G5=85 ?@548:0B820-?@8;030B5;L=>3>: It's extremely funny for me to be consoling you. (Snow) Office affairs are easy to start and difficult to finish, particularly in a small town. (Braine) 1.6.21.2. @8G0AB85 2B>@>5. @8G0AB85 2B>@>5 =5 8<55B A>1AB25==>9 ?0@0483<K; >=> 8<55B B>;L:> >4=C D>@<C, 8 MB0 D>@<0, 5A;8 >=0 =5 2E>48B 2 A>AB02 0=0;8B8G5A:>9 D>@<K 3;03>;0  ?5@D5:B0 8;8 ?0AA820, >1;0405B, 2 >A=>2=><, 8<5==K<8, 0 8<5==> 04J5:B82=K<8 G5@B0<8. @8G0AB85 2B>@>5 C?>B@51;O5BAO 0B@81CB82=> 8 2 A>AB025 8<5==>3> A>AB02=>3> A:07C5<>3>, 0 B0:65 2 A>AB025 >1>A>1;5==KE :>=AB@C:F89: As he passed a darkened shop doorway, a hand reached out. (Waine) An artistically arranged bowl of flowers stood on... an oak chest. (Holt) I am not qualified to express an. opinion. (Snow) 'It's all so safe, and civilised and cosy,' she went on. (Braine) But there are nights when Jago sat silently in hall, his face white, ravaged. (Snow)  A>AB025 8<5==>3> A:07C5<>3> ?@8G0AB85 2B>@>5 <>65B ?@81;860BLAO : :><?>=5=BC AB@040B5;L=>3> 70;>30 (A<. 1.6.20.3): I am interested to hear what you think. (Snow) '5B:CN 3@0=L <564C =8<8 <>6=> ?@>25AB8 B>;L:> B>340, :>340 ?@8G0AB85 O2;O5BAO >4=>@>4=K< G;5=>< A 4@C38< ?@548:0B82><,  ?@8;030B5;L=K< 8;8 ?@8G0AB85< ?5@2K<: Reporting this to me, she was as embarrassed and vulnerable as when she had confessed... (Snow)  MB>< ?@54;>65=88 2>7<>6=0 ?5@5AB0=>2:0: as vulnerable and embarrassed. -B> 405B >A=>20=85 AG8B0BL, GB> 745AL A>AB02=>5 A:07C5<>5. 82 @8G0AB85 2B>@>5 <>65B B0:65 C?>B@51;OBLAO 2 A>AB025 01A>;NB=>9 :>=AB@C:F88; 2 MB8E A;CG0OE >=> 8<55B A2>9 A>1AB25==K9 A5<0=B8G5A:89 AC1J5:B 8, A;54>20B5;L=>, @50;87C5B A2>8 3;03>;L=K5 G5@BK: Supper finished, they hung mosquito nets from overhanging branches. (Sillitoe) 1.6.21.3. @8G0AB85 ?5@2>5 8 35@C=489. @8G0AB85 ?5@2>5 8 35@C=489 8<5NB ?>;=>ABLN ><>=8<8G=K5 <>@D>;>38G5A:85 D>@<K. -B> >1AB>OB5;LAB2> 70AB02;O5B <=>38E ;8=328AB>2 AG8B0BL 8E >4=>9 D>@<>9, @07;8G0NI59AO B>;L:> DC=:F8>=0;L=>. "0:>3> 273;O40, =0?@8<5@, ?@845@6820NBAO . @5978=30, . /. ;>B:8=, . !. 0@EC40@>2. 59AB28B5;L=>, ?0@0483<0B8G5A:>5 B>645AB2> MB8E 25@10;89 405B ?>;=>5 >A=>20=85 @0AA<0B@820BL 8E :0: 548=CN D>@<C. . . ;L8H, AG8B0O MB>B 2>?@>A B@C4=> @07@5H8<K<, ?@54?>;030; 2>7<>6=>ABL >1>8E A?>A>1>2 >?8A0=8O MB8E D>@<. . . !<8@=8F:89 8 . !B@M=3 @07;8G0NB 35@C=489 8 ?@8G0AB85 ?5@2>5. >-2848<><C, 459AB28B5;L=> <>6=> >?8A0BL 35@C=489 8 ?@8G0AB85 ?5@2>5 :0: -ing-D>@<C, 2KABC?0NICN B> A AC1AB0=B82=K< (35@C=489), B> A 04J5:B82=K< (?@8G0AB85) 3@0<<0B8G5A:8< 7=0G5=85<. >7<>6=K5 4;O =8E A8=B0:A8G5A:85 ?>78F88 >?@545;ONBAO 8<5==> MB8<8 8E A2>9AB20<8, B>340 :0: 3;03>;L=K5 G5@BK  =0;8G85 D>@< 2840 8 70;>30 8 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@8=8<0BL 4>?>;=5=85 ?5@2>5 (?@O<>5)  A2>9AB25==K >158< D>@<0<. 4=0:> 5ABL ?>78F8O, n :>B>@>9 >=8 G5B:> ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=K,  ?>78F8O ?@5?>78B82=>3> >?@545;5=8O. ! 4@C3>9, AB>@>=K, ACI5AB2C5B 2B>@8G=>-?@548:0B82=0O :>=AB@C:F8O, 345 25AL<0 A;>6=> >?@545;8BL, G5< O2;O5BAO CG0AB2CNI0O 2 =59 -ing-D>@<0.  =0H5< >?8A0=88 <K 1C45< ?>;L7>20BLAO B5@<8=0<8 35@C=489 8 ?@8G0AB85 ?5@2>5; MB> B5@<8=>;>38G5A:8 C4>1=55 8 :><?0:B=55, G5<, A:065<, AC1AB0=B82=0O 8 04J5:B82=0O -ing-D>@<0. 45=B8G=>ABL D>@< =5A><=5==0; A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, =5A><=5==> 8 B>, GB> :><18=0B>@8:0 8E @07;8G=0. K 1C45< ?@845@6820BLAO 2 A2>5< >?8A0=88 B5@<8=>;>38G5A:>3> @07;8G5=8O ?@8G0AB8O 8 35@C=48O, C:07K20O =0 <><5=BK AE>4AB20 8 @07;8G8O. 0@0483<0, :0: C:070=> 2KH5, >48=0:>20 4;O 35@C=48O 8 ?@8G0AB8O ?5@2>3>: A=>2=>9 @07@O45@D5:B59AB28B5;L=K9 70;>3 0AA82asking being askedhaving asked having been askedA=>2=>9 @07@O4 >158E D>@< ?5@5405B >4=>2@5<5==>ABL A 459AB285<, 2K@0605<K< 3;03>;><-A:07C5<K<; ?5@D5:B ?5@5405B ?@54H5AB2>20=85 459AB28N 3;03>;0-A:07C5<>3>. 83 1.6.21.4. @8G0AB85 ?5@2>5. @8G0AB85 ?5@2>5  =5;8G=0O 3;03>;L=0O D>@<0, 1;87:0O ?> 7=0G5=8N ?@8;030B5;L=><C 8 =0@5G8N. =0 ?5@5405B ?@87=0: ?@54<5B0 8;8 459AB28O, 2>7=8:0NI89 2 A8;C ?@>872>48<>3> 8;8 ?@>872545==>3> 459AB28O. @8G0AB85 ?5@2>5 DC=:F8>=8@C5B 2 42CE A8=B0:A8G5A:8E ?>78F8OE  0B@81CB82=>9 8 0425@180;L=>9; 2B>@0O A>>B25BAB2C5B @CAA:><C 455?@8G0AB8N. B@81CB82=>5 ?@8G0AB85 459AB28B5;L=>3> 70;>30 >A=>2=>3> @07@O40 <>65B C?>B@51;OBLAO ?@5?>78B82=>, 5A;8 >=> =5 8<55B 7028AOI59 >B =53> 3@C??K (?@8G0AB=>9 :>=AB@C:F88). !>2<5I0O 2 A515 3;03>;L=K5 8 8<5==K5 (04J5:B82=K5) G5@BK, >=> <>65B 2 ?@5?>78F88 ?@81;860BLAO : ?@8;030B5;L=><C: They must have seen the retreating trio. (Stewart) A loving mother. @8 =0;8G88 7028A8<>9 3@C??K, ?@8G0AB=0O :>=AB@C:F8O 2A5340 AB>8B 2 ?>AB?>78F88: There were stone steps leading to a terrace. (Holt) He sat down self-assuredly with a party consisting entirely of Jago's supporters. (Snow) =0;8B8G5A:85 D>@<K ?@8G0AB8O 2A5340 =0E>4OBAO 2 ?>AB?>78F88, ?@8G5< 0B@81CB82=0O DC=:F8O 8< <0;> A2>9AB25==0; 87@54:0 2 MB>9 DC=:F88 ?5@D5:B=0O 8 ?0AA82=K5 D>@<K 2AB@5G0NBAO 2 =0CG=>9 ;8B5@0BC@5. <5==>9 G5@B>9 ?@8G0AB8O ?5@2>3> O2;O5BAO B0:65 53> A?>A>1=>ABL 70=8<0BL ?>78F8N 8<5==>3> G;5=0 A>AB02=>3> A:07C5<>3>: The realisation was rather disconcerting. (Braine) He can be 0B8sing and he's a scholar. (Snow) !CI5AB2C5B <=5=85, GB> ?@8G0AB85 ?5@2>5 <>65B ?>;=>ABLN ?@52@0I0BLAO 2 ?@8;030B5;L=>5 (a loving mother; it is surprising). !5<0=B8G5A:8, ?@8G0AB85 2 MB8E A;CG0OE 459AB28B5;L=> @50;87C5B A2>8 04J5:B82=K5 G5@BK; MB> =5 >7=0G05B, >4=0:>, ?5@5E>40 2 ?@8;030B5;L=>5, 8=0G5 <K 4>;6=K ?@87=0BL A5<0=B8G5A:89 ?@87=0: @5H0NI8< 2 3@0<<0B8G5A:>9 :;0AA8D8:0F88 (A@. 1.1.1.). 07 ACI5AB2C5B >4=>:>@=52>9 3;03>; (2 40==>< A;CG05  to love, to surprise), 0=0;878@C5<0O D>@<0 O2;O5BAO ?@8G0AB85<. @8;030B5;L=K<8 O2;ONBAO D>@<K =0 -ing, =5 ?@>872545==K5 >B 3;03>;0; B0:, heartbreaking  ?@8;030B5;L=>5, 0 =5 ?@8G0AB85, B0: :0: =5B 3;03>;0 to heartbreak. @8G0AB85 ?5@2>5 <>65B DC=:F8>=8@>20BL :0: >1AB>OB5;LAB2>. A5 D>@<K 40==>9 2KH5 ?0@0483<K A2>1>4=> C?>B@51;ONBAO 2 MB>9 DC=:F88. @8G0AB85 <>65B >1>7=0G0BL >4=>2@5<5==>ABL >1>7=0G05<>3> 8< 459AB28O A 459AB285< 3;03>;0-A:07C5<>3>: Roy was standing at his upright desk, reading a manuscript. (Snow) Hurrstall entered bearing the coffee-tray. (Christie) 5@D5:B=0O D>@<0 2K@0605B ?@54H5AB2>20=85: Having ushered Battle into a small room, ... Miss Amphrey withdrew. (Christie) 84 !;54C5B 70<5B8BL, GB> 3;03>;K A A5<0=B8:>9 <3=>25==>3> 459AB28O C?>B@51;ONBAO 2 D>@<5 >A=>2=>3> @07@O40, 5A;8 >1>7=0G05<>5 8<8 459AB285 =5?>A@54AB25==> ?@54H5AB2C5B 459AB28N 3;03>;0-A:07C5<>3>: Then, catching the other's quizzical eye, he said... (Christie) 425@180;L=>5 ?@8G0AB85 >1KG=> A>>B=>A8BAO A A5<0=B8G5A:8< AC1J5:B><, >1>7=0G05<K< ?>4;560I8<; >4=0:> ACI5AB2C5B B0: =07K205<0O 01A>;NB=0O :>=AB@C:F8O, 2 :>B>@>9 ?@8G0AB85 8<55B A2>9 A>1AB25==K9 A5<0=B8G5A:89 AC1J5:B; MB8 :>=AB@C:F88 >1>7=0G0NB A>?CBAB2CNI55 459AB285 8;8 ?@8G8==>5 7=0G5=85: 5 went out of sight, Mrs. Thompson walking sedately beside him. (Braine) Then, his temper boiling over, he made a tactical mistake. (Snow)  A>AB025 A;>6=>3> 4>?>;=5=8O ?@8G0AB85 A>>B=5A5=> A ?5@2K< :><?>=5=B>< 4>?>;=5=8O :0: A> A2>8< A5<0=B8G5A:8< AC1J5:B><: It harassed me to see this proud man humiliating himself. (Snow) 1.6.21.5. 5@C=489. 5@C=489  =081>;55 A2>5>1@07=0O =5;8G=0O D>@<0 2 A8AB5<5 0=3;89A:>3> 3;03>;0.  B> 2@5<O :0: 8=D8=8B82 8 ?@8G0AB8O  D>@<K, A2>9AB25==K5 2A5< A>2@5<5==K< 52@>?59A:8< O7K:0<, 35@C=489 8<55B ?0@0;;5;L B>;L:> 2 8A?0=A:>< O7K:5; 35@<0=A:8< O7K:0<, :@><5 0=3;89A:>3>, MB0 D>@<0 =5 A2>9AB25==0. =0 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>N A>548=5=85 3;03>;L=KE 8 AC1AB0=B82=KE G5@B. 1;040O ?0@0483<>9, A>45@60I59 3;03>;L=K5 G5@BK, 8 A?>A>1=>ABLN ?@8=8<0BL 4>?>;=5=85 ?5@2>5 (?@O<>5), 35@C=489 70=8<05B 2 ?@54;>65=88 B>;L:> AC1AB0=B82=K5 ?>78F88. -B8 ?@>B82>@5G82K5 A2>9AB20 @0AH8@ONB 2>7<>6=>AB8 ?@>AB>3> ?@54;>65=8O: 35@C=489 G0AB> O2;O5BAO A>:@0I5==K< A?>A>1>< 2K@078BL >B=>H5=8O, ?5@540NI85AO 2 4@C38E O7K:0E ?@840B>G=K<8 ?@54;>65=8O<8.  ?>78F88 ?>4;560I53> 35@C=489 <>65B 2KABC?0BL 2 ;N1>9 87 A2>8E D>@<. "> 65 A0<>5 >B=>A8BAO : ?>78F88 ?@O<>3> 8;8 ?@54;>6=>3> 4>?>;=5=8O: Being angry wouldn't help. (Braine) There was cheering still for Arthur and the King's choice. (Stewart) She needs taking care of. (Spark) Hildegaarde had taken to studying the subject. (Spark) I hadn't any fears of having said too much. (Braine)  ?>78F88 ?@5?>78B82=>3> >?@545;5=8O 35@C=489 DC=:F8>=8@C5B B>;L:> 2 D>@<5 459AB28B5;L=>3> 70;>30 >A=>2=>3> @07@O40, :0: 8 ?@8G0AB85 ?5@2>5.  MB>9 ?>78F88 35@C=489 G5B:> ?@>B82>?>AB02;5= ?@8G0AB8N; >= ?5@5405B 459AB285, ?@54AB02;5==>5 ?@54<5B=>, B. 5. A>>B=>A8BAO A >?@545;O5<K< :0: ;N1>5 ACI5AB28B5;L=>5 2 ?>78F88 ?@5?>78B82=>3> >?@545;5=8O; ?@8G0AB85 65, :0: C:070=> 2KH5, ?5@5405B 7=0G5=85 ?@87=0:0, A2>9AB20, 2>7=8:0NI53> ?@8 A>25@H5=88 459AB28O 8;8 2 @57C;LB0B5 A>25@H5=8O 459AB28O: 85 There was a greyhound racing track. (Waine) Racing track  '153>20O 4>@>6:0', '4>@>6:0 4;O 153>2', 0 =5 '153CI0O 4>@>6:0'. @82545< B0:85 >1I58725AB=K5 ?@8<5@K 4;O A@02=5=8O, :0: a dancing hall '70; 4;O B0=F52' 8 a dancing girl 'B0=FCNI0O 452CH:0'; a swimming match 'A>ABO70=85 ?> ?;020=8N' 8 a swimming man '?;K2CI89 G5;>25:'; a sleeping draught 'A=>B2>@=>5 A@54AB2>' (= A@54AB2> 4;O A=0) 8 a sleeping boy 'A?OI89 <0;LG8:'.  40==>9 ?>78F88 O@G5 2A53> ?@>O2;ONBAO 8<5==K5 A2>9AB20 ?@8G0AB8O 8 35@C=48O; >4=0:> A;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> 40;5:> =5 2A5 -ing-D>@<K <>3CB 1KBL ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=K 2 MB>9 ?>78F88. "0:, 2@O4 ;8 2>7<>65= 35@C=489 2 ?>78F88 ?@5?>78B82=>3> >?@545;5=8O 2 A>G5B0=88 the coming storm 8;8 ?@5?>78B82=>5 ?@8G0AB85 2 A>G5B0=88 B8?0 hearing-aid. -B8 >3@0=8G5=8O 7028AOB, 2848<>, >B ;5:A8G5A:>3> 7=0G5=8O A>>B25BAB2CNI8E D>@< 8 >B O7K:>2>9 B@048F88. ;03>;L=>5 A2>9AB2> 35@C=48O  A?>A>1=>ABL ?@8=8<0BL ?@O<>5 4>?>;=5=85  8<55B ?0@0;;5;L 2 B0:>< 65 A2>9AB25 ?@8G0AB8O (A<. 2KH5): Each driver was always responsible for removing these plates. (Waine) Brian became strong in carrying sacks and mixing paste. (Sillitoe) !CI5AB2C5B 2B>@8G=>-?@548:0B82=0O :>=AB@C:F8O, 345 >?@545;8BL -ing-D>@<C :0: 35@C=489 8;8 ?@8G0AB85 25AL<0 70B@C4=8B5;L=>: If there any chance of the Chief deciding not to proceed? (Spark)... Whereas the Civil Servants ...spoke with the democratic air of everyone having his say... (Snow) I hope you don't mind me consulting you like this? (Spark) B;8G85 >B 2B>@8G=>-?@548:0B82=>9 :>=AB@C:F88 A ?@8G0AB85< ?5@2K< A2>48BAO 745AL : B><C, GB> A5<0=B8G5A:89 AC1J5:B -ing-D>@<K O2;O5BAO ?@54;>6=K< 8;8 ?@O<K< (A<. ?>A;54=89 ?@8<5@) 4>?>;=5=85<. > >B=>H5=85 ?@548:0B82=>AB8 >B MB>3> =5 <5=O5BAO, 8 ?>MB><C 2@O4 ;8 <>6=> C1548B5;L=> 4>:070BL, GB> 745AL <K 8<55< 45;> A 35@C=485< 8;8, =0>1>@>B, A ?@8G0AB85<. 5 A;CG09=> ?> MB><C 2>?@>AC ACI5AB2C5B <=>3> @07=>3;0A89: AB>@>==8:8 35@C=48O AG8B0;8, GB> 2 MB>9 :>=AB@C:F88 8<55BAO ?>;C35@C=489 (Half-Gerund); AB>@>==8:8 ?@8G0AB8O =07K20;8 MBC D>@<C A?;02;5==K< ?@8G0AB85< (Fused Participle). 848<>, A;54C5B ?@87=0BL, GB> ?> A2>8< 8<5==K< A2>9AB20< ?@8G0AB85 8 35@C=489 @07;8G0NBAO 2 A8;C @07;8G=KE A8=B0:A8G5A:8E ?>78F89, :>B>@K5 >=8 70=8<0NB 2 ?@54;>65=88; ?> A2>8< 3;03>;L=K< A2>9AB20< >=8 =5 @07;8G0NBAO. 48=AB25==0O ?>78F8O, 345 >=8 ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=K, MB> ?>78F8O ?@5?>78B82=>3> >?@545;5=8O; 2 MB>9 ?>78F88 A5<0=B8G5A:>5 @07;8G85 ?@>A;568205BAO G5B:>. 0@0483<K ?@8G0AB8O ?5@2>3> 8 35@C=48O =5 8<5NB D>@<0;L=KE @07;8G89. @54AB02;O5BAO ?>MB><C, GB> 35@C=489 8 ?@8G0AB85  G8AB> DC=:F8>=0;L=K9 A?>A>1 @07;8G5=8O 20@80=B>2 >4=>9 8 B>9 65 D>@<K 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 70=8<05<KE 8<8 A8=B0:A8G5A:8E ?>78F89. 86 @>B82>?>AB02;5=85 2 ?>78F88 ?@5?>78B82=>3> >?@545;5=8O =5 >E20BK205B 2A53> ;5:A8G5A:>3> A>AB020 3;03>;>2 8 2@O4 ;8 <>65B ?@5?OBAB2>20BL >1J548=5=8N -ing-D>@<K. <5AB5 A B5< ?@54AB02;O5BAO, GB> ?@02 . !. 0@EC40@>2, AG8B0NI89, GB> A>E@0=5=85 B5@<8=>2 35@C=489 8 ?@8G0AB85 2?>;=5 4>?CAB8<>; MB8 B5@<8=K C4>1=K 1;03>40@O A2>59 :><?0:B=>AB8.  35@C=489, 8 ?@8G0AB85 <>3CB 2E>48BL 2 A;>6=K5 >1@07>20=8O, 8 B>340 8E 8<5==K5 A2>9AB20 >:07K20NBAO 254CI8<8, 8 >1@07>20=8O MB8 O2;ONBAO A;>6=K<8 ACI5AB28B5;L=K<8 8;8 ?@8;030B5;L=K<8: hay-making, sightseeing, daydreaming  ACI5AB28B5;L=K5; heartbreaking, nerveracking, well-wish-ing  ?@8;030B5;L=K5. 5@C=489 A?>A>15= A>25@H5==> >B>9B8 >B 3;03>;L=>9 A8AB5<K 8 ?@52@0B8BLAO 2 G8AB>5 ACI5AB28B5;L=>5. >:070B5;5< MB>3> O2;O5BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@8102;5=8O D;5:A88 <=>65AB25==>3> G8A;0: building-s. $;5:A88 2 0=3;89A:>< =5 =0A;0820NBAO, 8 -ing ?@52@0I05BAO 2 A;>2>>1@07>20B5;L=K9 D>@<0=B: I am in a strong position to know of her d>ings. (Powell) 1.7.  ' 0@5G8O >B=>A8B5;L=> ?>74=> ?>;CG8;8 2 3@0<<0B8G5A:>9 B5>@88 A0<>AB>OB5;L=K9 AB0BCA 7=0<5=0B5;L=>9 G0AB8 @5G8. 0==85 3@0<<0B8ABK (=0?@8<5@ . !C8B) 2=>A8;8 8E 2 =5@0AG;5=5==K9 @07@O4 G0AB8F, :C40 2E>48;8 2A5 =587<5=O5<K5 G0AB8 @5G8. . A?5@A5= B0:65 2:;NG05B =0@5G8O 2 >1ICN 3@C??C G0AB8F, ?@O<> C:07K20O, GB> up, immediately, and. ?@8=04;560B : >4=>9 3@C??5, 81> >=8 =5 ?@8=04;560B : ACI5AB28B5;L=K<, 3;03>;0<, ?@8;030B5;L=K< 8 <5AB>8<5=8O<. 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"'5.i::-;:":^^.:^c, ^ar.'Xi Xwi-i -!K ncto^l A;>9 <>40;L=KE 7=0G5=88 2 A<KA;>2>9 AB@C:BC@5 2KA:07K20=8O, B0: :0: >=8 =0:;04K20NBAO =0 3@0<<0B8G5A:CN >A=>2C ?@54;>65=8O, C65 8<5NI53> <>40;L=>5 7=0G5=85. !;54C5B ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> 2:;NG5=85< 2 A>45@60=85 ?@54;>65=8O <>40;L=KE 7=0G5=89 2B>@>3> A;>O 2 <>40;L=CN A5<0=B8:C ?@54;>65=8O 2=>A8BAO AC1J5:B82=0O AB@CO. 1I89 <>40;L=K9 ?;0= ?@54AB02;O5BAO :0: ?@>H54H89 G5@57 ?@87<C 53> >F5=:8 02B>@>< ?@54;>65=8O. 1I55 <>40;L=>5 7=0G5=85, ?5@540205<>5 =0:;>=5=85< 3;03>;0, <>65B ?>4:@5?;OBLAO, CA8;820BLAO 8;8, =0>1>@>B, >A;01;OBLAO <>40;L=K<8 7=0G5=8O<8 2B>@>3> ?>@O4:0: 1 You certainly know how to do yourself well, Poirot.' (A. Chri s-tie) 'Perhaps you have seen her portrait in the papers.1 (A. C. Doyle) *M 0 C b e, with luck and economy, I can make a living as a writer?' (A. J. Cronin) Miller's not a very good driver really. (S. 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B>, GB> ?>-0=3;89A:8 =07K205BAO clause).  :0G5AB25 =86=53> ?@545;0 =0 ?5@2K9 273;O4 <>65B ?@54AB02;OBLAO A;>2>. (>7<>6=>, B0:>5 @5H5=85 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 ?>4A:07K205BAO =0H59 ?@58<CI5AB25==>9 >@85=B8@>20==>ABLN ?0 3@0D8G5A:89 >1@07 ?@54;>65=8O 8 B5:AB0, G5B:> G;5=8<KE =0 A;>20). 4=0:> MB> =5 B0:. >?CAB8<K5 ?@5>1@07>20=8O 2 ;8=59=>9 >@30=870F88 A>AB020 ?@54;>65=8O (I shall never forget the killing of Lord Edgware'  'Never shall I forget the killing of Lord Edgware.' (A. Christie), E0@0:B5@ 2>7<>6=KE AC1AB8BCF89 B8?0 at the seaside <-> there, shall forget  forgot 8 B. ?., A>>B=>A8B5;L=>ABL A>AB02;ONI8E M;5<5=B0@=KE A5<0=B8G5A:8E :>=D83C@0F89 ?@54;>65=8O A G;5=0<8 ?@54;>65=8O  MB8 8 =5:>B>@K5 4@C385 <><5=BK A2845B5;LAB2CNB > B><, GB> M;5<5=B0@=>9 A8=B0:A8G5A:>9 548=8F59 O2;O5BAO G;5= ?@54;>65=8O. ';5= ?@54;>65=8O A>AB02;O5B =86=89 ?@545; G;5=5=8O ?@54;>65=8O. 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sN1 ... William's ambition [went no farther] (H. E. Bates) Numcar N1 p N2 ... seven men besides William {had pictured themselves as Dukes.] (H. E. Bates) 185 Prnposs N D A and A Her voice, very low and soft, [...] (H. E. Bates). =>3>>1@0785 A8=B0:A8G5A:8E 8 A5<0=B8G5A:8E :>=D83C@0F89 A8=B0:A8G5A:8E 3@C?? 15A?@545;L=>. @0<<0B8:0 <>65B >?8A0BL ;8HL 4>?CAB8<K5 A>548=5=8O :;0AA>2 A;>2 8 =081>;55 @0A?@>AB@0=5==K5 :>=D83C@0F88. 50;L=0O 65 8E :><18=0B>@8:0 2> 2A5< 55 <=>3>>1@0788  ?@8=04;56=>ABL @5G5B2>@G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0. 3.2.1.2. !8AB5<0 G;5=>2 ?@54;>65=8O. 7 :0:8E M;5<5=B>2 A:;04K205BAO A0<0 A8AB5<0 G;5=>2 ?@54;>65=8O? E =><5=:;0BC@0 >1I5?@8=OB0 8 ?>B><C 2@O4 ;8 =C6405BAO 2 >1>A=>20=88. -B>  ?>4;560I55, A:07C5<>5, 4>?>;=5=85, >1AB>OB5;LAB2> 8 >?@545;5=85.  :0:>9-B> <5@5 MB0 A8AB5<0 A>>B=>A8B5;L=0 A A8AB5<>9 G0AB59 @5G8, ?> ;8HL 2 :0:>9-B> <5@5 (4065, :070;>AL 1K, A8=B0:A8G5A:8 <>=>DC=:F8>=0;L=>5 =0@5G85 4>?CA:05B 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@88<5==>3> C?>B@51;5=8O: the then government, essentially a bachelor). >;=K9 ?0@0;;5;87< <564C B>9 8 4@C3>9 A8AB5<0<8 =5 B>;L:> =565;0B5;5= A B>G:8 7@5=8O A>45@60B5;L=KE 7040G 8 2>7<>6=>AB59 O7K:0, => 8 2 ?@8=F8?5 =52>7<>65=, C65 E>BO 1K ?>B><C, GB> 2 A0<>9 AB@C:BC@=>-A5<0=B8G5A:>9 ?@8@>45 =5:>B>@KE G0AB59 @5G8 70;>65=0 8E A8=B0:A8G5A:0O ?>;8DC=:F8>=0;L=>ABL. "0:, ACI5AB28B5;L=>5 :0: 2K@078B5;L 7=0G5=8O ?@54<5B0 <>65B 1KBL ?>4;560I8<, 4>?>;=5=85<, >1AB>OB5;LAB2><, ?@88<5==K< >?@545;5=85<, 8<5==>9 G0ABLN A:07C5<>3>. "@048F8>==> G;5=K ?@54;>65=8O 45;OBAO =0 3;02=K5 8 2B>@>AB5?5==K5. @8=8<0O 40==K5 >1>7=0G5=8O :0: CA;>2=K5 (B0: =07K205<K5 2B>@>AB5?5==K5 G;5=K, :0: 8 3;02=K5, <>3CB ?@8=04;560BL : AB@C:BC@=><C <8=8<C<C ?@54;>65=8O; 4>?>;=5=85 A>>B=>A8B5;L=> A ?>4;560I8<), A;54C5B ?@87=0BL, GB> CAB0=>2;5==>5 B@048F859 45;5=85 >B@0605B 206=>5 48DD5@5=F80;L=>5 A2>9AB2> G;5=>2 ?@54;>65=8O, 0 8<5==> 8E CG0AB85/=5CG0AB85 2 D>@<8@>20=88 ?@548:0B82=>3> O4@0 ?@54;>65=8O, 2 2K@065=88 :0B53>@88 ?@548:0B82=>AB8. @0:B8G5A:>5 C4>1AB2> : ?@58<CI5AB2> B0:>3> 45;5=8O 70:;NG05BAO 2 53> >4=>7=0G=>AB8: ?>4;560I55 8 A:07C5<>5  2A5340 3;02=K5, >AB0;L=>9 A>AB02 ?@54;>65=8O  2A5340 2B>@>AB5?5==K5 G;5=K ?@54;>65=8O. A;8 65 8AE>48BL 87 B>9 @>;8, :0:CN G;5=K ?@54;>65=8O 83@0NB 2 D>@<8@>20=88 AB@C:BC@=>-A5<0=B8G5A:>3> <8=8<C<0 ?@54;>65=8O, B> >:065BAO, GB> 1>;LH8=AB2> 4>?>;=5=89 8 =5:>B>@K5 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 (2 7028A8<>AB8 >B A8=B03<0B8G5A:>3> :;0AA0 3;03>;0-A:07C5<>3> AB>;L 65 206=K 8 =5>1E>48<K, A:>;L ?>4;560I55 8 A:07C5<>5. #AB@0=5=85 4>?>;=5=8O 8 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 2 ?@82>48<KE =865 ?@54;>65=8OE 45;05B 8E 3@0<<0B8G5A:8 8 A5<0=B8G5A:8 =5>B<5G5==K<8 She closed her eyes. (D. Lessing) She was there. (I. Murdoch) 0A?@545;5=85 G;5=>2 ?@54;>65=8O 2 A8AB5<5 1C45B 8=K<, 5A;8 8E @0AA<0B@820BL 8AE>4O 87 8E @>;8 2 0:BC0;L=>< G;5=5=88 ?@54;>65=8O (>1 MB>< O2;5=88 A<. 3.3.0). 45AL >:065BAO, GB> 8<5==> 2B>@>AB5?5==K5 G;5=K ?@54;>65=8O 70G0ABCN O2;ONBAO :><<C=8- 186 :0B82=> ACI5AB25==K<8 (@5<0B8G=K<8), B>340 :0: ?>4;560I55 8 (2 <5=LH59 AB5?5=8) A:07C5<>5 A>AB02;ONB 8AE>4=CN G0ABL 2KA:07K20=8O (B5<0B8G=K).  ?@54;>65=88 But she cries always 2 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 ?@54;>65=89 'She doesn't move for hours at a time. But she cries always.' (S. Maugham) >1AB>OB5;LAB2> always A>AB02;O5B 1>;55 206=CN G0ABL A>>1I5=8O, ?5@540205<>3> MB8< ?@54;>65=85<, G5< ?>4;560I55. "0:8< >1@07><, M;5<5=BK >4=>9 8 B>= 65 A8AB5<K ?>-@07=><C >@30=87CNBAO, 5A;8 8E @0AA<0B@820BL 2 0A?5:B5 @07=KE ?@8ACI8E 8< A2>9AB2. 848<>, 1C45B ?@028;L=K< ?@8 CAB0=>2;5=88 A8AB5<K G;5=>2 ?@54;>65=8O 8AE>48BL 87 @>;8 G;5=>2 ?@54;>65=8O 2 >1@07>20=88 ?@54;>65=8O 8 87 E0@0:B5@0 8E 2708<=KE >B=>H5=89.  MB>< A;CG05 <>6=> 2K45;8BL B@8 >A=>2=K5 3@C??8@>2:8 G;5=>2 ?@54;>65=8O. 5@2CN A>AB02OB ?>4;560I55 8 A:07C5<>5. !B0BCA ?>4;560I53> 8 A:07C5<>3> >A>15==K9 A@02=8B5;L=> A 4@C38<8 G;5=0<8 ?@54;>65=8O. 8HL ?>4;560I55 8 A:07C5<>5 2708<=> A2O70=K 4@C3 A 4@C3>< 8 =57028A8<K ?> >B=>H5=8N : ;N1><C 4@C3><C G;5=C ?@54;>65=8O, B>340 :0: 2A5 4@C385 <>3CB 1KBL 2>72545=K =0 >A=>25 A2O759 7028A8<>AB8 : ?>4;560I5<C 8 A:07C5<><C :0: 3;025=AB2CNI8< M;5<5=B0<. -B0 85@0@E8O 7028A8<>AB59 E>@>H> 284=0 ?@8 ?>AB@>5=88 AE5<K 7028A8<>AB59. 5@E=89 O@CA 2 =59 =587<5==> 70=8<0NB ?>4;560I55 8 A:07C5<>5. !<. AE5<C 7028A8<>AB59 4;O ?@54;>65=8O Small white crests were appearing on the blue sea (2 =59 2708<>7028A8<K5 M;5<5=BK A>548=5=K >1>N4>=0?@02;5==>9 AB@5;:>9, 3;025=AB2CNI85 8 7028A8<K5 M;5<5=BK  >4=>=0?@02;5==>9 AB@5;:>9 >B 7028A8<>3> : 3;025=AB2CNI5<C M;5<5=BC):  >4;560I55 8 A:07C5<>5 (?@8 A>>B25BAB2CNI5< ;5:A8G5A:>< 70?>;=5=88 ?>78F89 MB8E G;5=>2 ?@54;>65=8O) <>3CB 1KBL 4>AB0B>G=K<8 4;O >1@07>20=8O ?@54;>65=8O: Ben smiled. (J. Aldridge) B>@CN 3@C??C A>AB02OB 4>?>;=5=8O 8 >1AB>OB5;LAB20. >?>;=5=8O 8 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 O2;ONBAO =587<5==> 7028A8<K<8 G;5=0<8 ?@54;>65=8O. =8 <>3CB 1KBL (8 4065 ?@58<CI5AB25==> O2;ONBAO) 3;03>;L=>->@85=B8@>20==K<8, B. 5. A8=B0:A8G5A:8 >1KG=> 7028AOB >B 3;03>;0. (>?>;=5=85 <>65B 7028A5BL 8 >B ?@8;030B5;L=>3>, => >?OBL-B0:8 (E0@0:B5@=>!) >B ?@8;030B5;L=>3> 2 ?@548:0B82=>9 ?>78F88: I am very bad at refusing people who ask me for money. (I. Murdoch) >?>;=5=8O 8 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 <>3CB 187 1KBL ":><?;5B820<8, B. 5. M;5<5=B0<8, =5>1E>48<K<8 4;O AB@C:BC@=>-A5<0=B8G5A:>9 7025@H5==>AB8 M;5<5=B0@=>3> ?@54;>65=8O. !@. =52>7<>6=>ABL >?CI5=8O >1>8E MB8E G;5=>2 ?@54;>65=8O 2 ?@54;>65=88 She treated Daddy like a child, [...] (A. Wilson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i. !;>6=K< O2;O5BAO 2>?@>A >1 >A=>20=8OE 48DD5@5=F80F88 G;5=>2 ?@54;>65=8O. B=>A8B5;L=> ;53:> >= @5H05BAO ?@8 @073@0=8G5=88 3;02=KE 8 2B>@>AB5?5==KE G;5=>2. 8HL G5@57 ?5@2K5 2K@0605BAO :0B53>@8O ?@548:0B82=>AB8, B>340 :0: 2B>@K5 =5 CG0AB2CNB 2 55 2K@065=88. 0;55 =0G8=0NBAO A;>6=>AB8. @8 3;03>;L=>< A:07C5<>< 48DD5@5=F80F8O ?>4;560I53> 8 A:07C5<>3> >ACI5AB2;O5BAO =0 >A=>25 ?@87=0:0 <>@D>;>38G5A:>9 ?@8@>4K A;>2: 8<O  ?>4;560I55, 3;03>;  A:07C5<>5.  B>< A;CG05, :>340 A:07C5<>5 8<5==>5, A ACI5AB28B5;L=K< 2 :0G5AB25 8<5==>9 G0AB8, @5H8BL 2>?@>A > B><, GB> 5ABL GB>, 2 >B45;L=KE A;CG0OE >:07K205BAO =5?@>AB>. 54L 2>7<>6=> 8 8=25@A82=>5 @0A?>;>65=85 ?>4;560I53> 8 A:07C5<>3>. <5==> B0:85 A;CG08 70A;C6820NB >A>1>3> 2=8<0=8O, B0: :0: ?>72>;ONB CB>G=8BL :@8B5@88 @073@0=8G5=8O ?>4;560I53> 8 8<5==>9 G0AB8 A:07C5<>3>. 'B> ?>4;560I55 8 GB> A:07C5<>5 2 ?@54;>65=88 Gossip wasn't what I meant? 708<=>5 87<5=5=85 ?>;>65=8O G;5=>2 ?@54;>65=8O (What I meant wasn't gossip) A:>;L:>-=81C4L ACI5AB25==K< >1@07>< =5 <5=O5B A>45@60=8O ?@54;>65=8O. "@C4=> ?5@2>5 8;8 2B>@>5 ?>AB@>5=85, 8 B>;L:> 53>, :20;8D8F8@>20BL :0: 8=25@A82=>5, GB> <>3;> 1K ?><>GL 2 @07@5H5=88 2>?@>A0. ;O >?@545;5=8O A8=B0:A8G5A:>9 ?@8@>4K :064>3> 87 42CE A>AB02>2 ?@54;>65=8O 2@O4 ;8 <>6=> 8A?>;L7>20BL 8 :>;8G5AB25==K5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8. %>BO 1 !B@C:BC@=0O 8 A5<0=B8G5A:0O =5>1E>48<>ABL >?@545;5=8O, =52>7<>6=>ABL 53> >?CI5=8O 2 =5:>B>@KE ?>AB@>5=8OE, =0?@8<5@, 2 She had blue eyes, >?@545;ONBAO =5 O7K:>2K<8 A2>9AB20<8 A>AB02;ONI8E ?@54;>65=85 548=8F O7K:0. =8 A2O70=K A >A>15==>ABO<8 >B=>H5=8O, ACI5AB2CNI53> <564C 2=5O7K:>2K<8 45=>B0B0<8 A;>2 she 8 eyes, 0 8<5==>: ?@54<5B, >1>7=0G5==K9 ACI5AB28B5;L=K< eyes,  =5>BGC6405<0O ?@8=04;56=>ABL :064>3> G5;>25:0, A;54>20B5;L=>, 8 ;8F0, =0720==>3> 745AL she. =0=85 =>A8B5;59 O7K:0 > <8@5 45;05B 15AA>45@60B5;L=K<8 8 :><<C=8:0B82=> ?CABK<8 2KA:07K20=8O 2@>45 She had eyes. <5==>" ?>MB><C ?@8;030B5;L=>5 blue 2 ?@82545==>< ?@8<5@5 =5 <>65B 1KBL >?CI5=>. =>, >4=0:>, =5 2E>48B 2 AB@C:BC@=CN AE5<C ?@54;>65=8O, :>B>@0O 4;O 40==>3> ?@54;>65=8O, :0: 8, A:065<, 4;O She had an umbrella, >AB05BAO ?>4;560I55  A:07C5<>5-3;03>; 15A?@54;>6=>->1J5:B=>9 =0?@02;5==>AB8 (459AB28B5;L=K9 70;>3)  ?@O<>5 4>?>;=5=85 >1J5:B0. 188 >B<5G0;>AL, GB> 3@C??0 A:07C5<>3> >1KG=> ?> >1J5<C (B. 5. :>;8G5AB2C A;>2) 2 420-G5BK@5 @070 1>;LH5 3@C??K ?>4;560I53>, ?> MB> =5 1>;55 G5< B5=45=F8O, A@54=55 0@8D<5B8G5A:>5, 0 =5 AB@C:BC@=0O 70:>=><5@=>ABL 8 ?>B><C =5 <>65B A;C68BL :@8B5@85< @073@0=8G5=8O 2 :>=:@5B=KE A;CG0OE. @82;5:H8 ?@54B5:AB ('How do you do, Miss Preyscott? Christine said. 'I've heard of you.' Marsha had glanced appraisingly from Peter to Christine. She answered coolly, 'I expect, working in a hotel, you hear all kind of gossip, Miss Francis. You do work here, don't you?' 'Gossip wasn't what I meant Christine acknowledged. (A. Hailey) 8 B5< A0<K< 2>AAB0=>282 A 1>;LH59 ?>;=>B>9 @5G52CN A8BC0F8N, <>65< CAB0=>28BL C A8=B0:A8G5A:8E M;5<5=B>2 gossip 8 what I meant A2>9AB20, ?>72>;ONI85 >4=>7=0G=> 845=B8D8F8@>20BL 8E A8=B0:A8G5A:>5 A>45@60=85. !CI5AB28B5;L=>5 gossip  =5@5D5@5=B=> (> @5D5@5=F88 A<. 3.3.5), 53> 7=0G5=85 >B;8G05B ?@87=0:>2>5 A>45@60=85. A5 MB> A2>9AB20, E0@0:B5@=K5 4;O ACI5AB28B5;L=KE 2 ?>78F88 8<5==>9 G0AB8 A:07C5<>3>. 0;55, ?@54<5B>< A>>1I5=8O (0 2 A8=B0:A8G5A:>< ?;0=5 MB> >1KG=> ?>4;560I55) O2;O5BAO, GB> 8<5;0 2 284C @8AB8=0, ?@>87=>AO @0=55 D@07C 4've heard of you'. -B><C >1J5:BC ?@548F8@C5BAO ?@87=0: =5-A?;5B=8. "0:8< >1@07><, ?@54;>65=85 Gossip wasn't what I meant 8=25@A82=>. !>>B25BAB2CNI59 :>=AB@C:F859 A ?@O<K< ?>@O4:>< A;>2 O2;O5BAO What I meant wasn't gossip. >72@0I0OAL : ?@54;>65=8N Gossip wasn't what I meant, 2848<, GB> gossip, 459AB28B5;L=>, ;>38G5A:8 2K45;5=>. "0:>5 2K45;5=85 =5E0@0:B5@=> 4;O ?>4;560I53> 2 A2>59 ?>78F88 2 =0G0;5 ?@54;>65=8O. (;O 2K45;5=8O ?>4;560I53> A8=B0:A8G5A:8<8 A@54AB20<8 ?@54;>65=85 4>;6=> 1KBL ?5@5AB@>5=> ?> <>45;8 ?@54;>65=89 B>645AB20 B8?0 It is N who/that ...). -B> 5I5 >48= 0@3C<5=B 2 ?>;L7C 8=B5@?@5B0F88 gossip :0: 8<5==>9 G0AB8 A:07C5<>3>, a what I meant :0: ?>4;560I53>. 4=8< 87 =5@5H5==KE 2>?@>A>2 B5>@88 G;5=>2 ?@54;>65=8O O2;O5BAO 2>?@>A > 2>7<>6=KE 8, 3;02=>5, =5>1E>48<KE ?@545;0E 2=CB@5==59 48DD5@5=F80F88 G;5=>2 ?@54;>65=8O. >;6=K ;8 <K 2 45;5=88 4>?>;=5=89 >3@0=8G8BLAO =5<=>38<8 B@048F8>==K<8 B8?0<8 8;8 84B8 40;LH5? 025@H05BAO ;8 45;5=85 >1AB>OB5;LAB2 CAB0=>2;5=85< A@548 =8E >1AB>OB5;LAB20 <5AB0 8;8 A;54C5B 5I5 2K45;OBL >1AB>OB5;LAB20 A>1AB25==> <5AB0 8 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 =0?@02;5=8O, 0, 2>7<>6=>, ?@>2>48BL 45;5=85 8 40;55? 54L, =0?@8<5@, A@548 >1AB>OB5;LAB2 =0?@02;5=8O <>6=> 2K45;8BL ?@545;L=K5 8 =5?@545;L=K5: A@. toward the house n westward. A;8 40, B> :0:>2K >A=>20=8O B0:>9 1>;55 45B0;L=>9 :;0AA8D8:0F88, 8 :0: 4>;6=K (8 4>;6=K ;8) A>>B=>A8BLAO <564C A>1>9 ?>4B8?K n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across the carriage floor 2 ?@54;>65=88 William [...1 stretched his legs across the carriage floor. (K.Mansfield)  >1AB>OB5;LAB2>< <5AB0? >1AB>OB5;LAB2>< >1@070 459AB28O? 4>?>;=5=85<? 1AB>OB5;LAB2>< >1@070 459AB28O 8;8 4>?>;=5=85< O2;O5BAO 2K45;5==0O 3@C??0 2 ?@54;>65=88 The meeting ended with anonymous vote of confidence by the strikers in the I r officers and the hunger strikers. (Morning Star)? -B8 8 ?>4>1=K5 A;CG08 ?>:07K20NB, GB> 3@0=8F0 <564C G;5=0<8 ?@54;>65=8O, 2K45;5==K<8 2> 2B>@CN 3@C??C (4>?>;=5=8O 8 >1AB>OB5;LAB20), 2 >B45;L=KE A;CG0OE <>65B 1KBL 7K1:>9 8 4065 CA;>2=>9, GB> >B45;L=K5 @50;870F88 G;5=>2 ?@54;>65=8O <>3CB 1KBL [A8=:@5B8G=K<8, >1J548=OO 2 A515 A2>9AB20 @07=KE G;5=>2 ?@54;>65=8O. 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A>G5B0=88 ?>4;560I53> 8 A:07C5<>3> =5B 3;025=AB2CNI53> 8 7028A8<>3> M;5<5=B>2. >4;560I55 8 A:07C5<>5 =0E>4OBAO 2 >B=>H5=8OE 2708<=>9 7028A8<>AB8, 8;8 8=B5@45?5=45=F88.  B> 65 2@5<O 2A5 >AB0;L=K5 G;5=K ?@54;>65=8O ?@O<> 8;8 >?>A@54>20==> A2O70=K A ?>4;560I8< 8 A:07C5<K< A2O7LN 7028A8<>AB8. <5==> ?>MB><C ?5@2>5 8 >A=>2=>5 G;5=5=85 ?@54;>65=8O ?> =5?>A@54AB25==> A>AB02;ONI8<, CG8BK20NI55 :0: @07 >B=>H5=8O A8=B0:A8G5A:>9 7028A8<>AB8, MB> G;5=5=85 =0 A>AB02 ?>4;560I53> 8 A>AB02 A:07C5<>3> (?>4@C3>9 B5@<8=>;>388, 3@C??0 ACI5AB28B5;L=>3> 8 3@C??0 3;03>;0). >4;560I55 8 A:07C5<>5  548=AB25==K5 A@548 G;5=>2 ?@54;>65=8O A8=B0:A8G5A:85 548=8FK, :>B>@K5 =587<5==> 2E>4OB 2 AB@C:BC@=>-A5<0=B8G5A:89 <8=8<C< ?@54;>65=8O.  0=3;89A:>< O7K:5 2>7<>6=K 3;03>;L=K5 ?@54;>65=8O ;8HL 42CA>AB02=>3> B8?0.  ?>1C48B5;L=KE ?@54;>65=8OE ?>4;560I55 >1KG=> =5 =07K205BAO, => >=> 40=> 2 8<?;8:0F88. -B> <5AB>8<5=85 you. 3> @50;L=>ABL ?>4B25@6405BAO ?>AB@>5=8O<8 ?>1C48B5;L=>3> B8?0 A M:A?;8F8B=K< ?>4;560I8<, =0?@8<5@: You stay at home!, 0 B0:65 4>:07K205BAO B@0=AD>@<0F8>==K< 0=0;87>< ?>1C48B5;L=KE ?@54;>65=89 A 2>72@0B=K<8 D>@<0<8 3;03>;0: Wash yourself! 3.2.1.4. >4;560I55. >4;560I55 O2;O5BAO A8=B0:A8G5A:8< ?@>B?2>G;5=>< 8 >4=>2@5<5==> ?0@B=5@>< A:07C5<>3>. >4;560I55 2K?>;=O5B 2 ?@54;>65=88 425 AB@C:BC@=K5 DC=:F88: :0B53>@80;L=CN-8 @5;OB82=CN. 0B53>@80;L=0O DC=:F8O ?>4;560I53> 70:;NG05BAO 2 >1>7=0G5=88 =>A8B5;O ?@548:0B82=>3> ?@87=0:0, ?5@540205<>3> A:07C5<K<. 1O70B5;L=0O 42CA>AB02=>ABL 0=3;89A:>3> 3;03>;L=>3> ?@54;>65=8O 45;05B ?>4;560I55 ACI5AB25==K< :>=AB8BC5=B=K< M;5<5=B>< ?@54;>65=8O. 5;OB82=0O DC=:F8O ?>4;560I53> A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> >=> O2;O5BAO 8AE>4=K< M;5<5=B>< 2 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>< A8=B03<0B8G5A:>< @0725@BK20=88 ?@54;>65=8O, A>AB02;OO ;52>AB>@>==55 >:@C65=85 3;03>;0-A:07C5<>3>, :>B>@>5 ?@>B82>AB>8B 53> ?@02>AB>@>==5<C >:@C65=8N, ?@5645 2A53> 4>?>;=5=8N 8;8 4>?>;=5=8O<. 0: G;5= ?@54;>65=8O sui generis ?>4;560I55 D>@<8@C5BAO ;8HL ?@8 =0;8G88 A:07C5<>3>.  >BACBAB285 ?>A;54=53> A;>2>D>@<0 8<5=8B5;L=>3> ?04560 ;8G=>3> <5AB>8<5=8O 8;8 >1I53> ?04560 ACI5AB28B5;L=>3> =54>AB0B>G=0 4;O ?@8?8AK20=8O A>>B25BAB2CNI8< A;>20< AB0BCA0 ?>4;560I53>. (!>AB02;ONI85 =><8=0B82=KE ?@54;>65=89, =0?@8<5@ 'Niglit 8;8 5, =5 ?>4;560I55, 0 M;5<5=B, A>G5B0NI89 A2>9AB20 ?>4;560I53> 8 A:07C5<>3>). 191. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, :>;8G5AB25==>5 7=0G5=85 ACI5AB28B5;L=>3>-?>4;560I53> (=5 AN D>@<0!) >?@545;O5B D>@<C 3;03>;0 :0: A:07C5<>3> ?;8 53> 87<5=O5<>9 G0AB8 2 >B=>H5=88 G8A;0. @8 D>@<5 548=AB25==>N G8A;0 (=> 7=0G5=88 @0AG;5=5==>3> <=>65AB20) ?>4;560I53> A:07C5<>5 AB>8B 2> <=>65AB25==>< G8A;5. 0>1>@>B, ?@8 D>@<5 <=>65AB25==>3> G8A;0 (?> 7=0G5=88 =5@0AG;5=5==>3> <=>65AB20) 8;8 <=>65AB25==>AB8 A2O70==KE A>G8=8B5;L=>9 A2O7LN ACI5AB28B5;L=KE 2 3@C??5 ?>4;560I53>, B@0:BC5<KE O7K:>2K< A>7=0=85< :0: 548=K9 @5D5@5=B, A:07C5<>5 AB>8B 2 548=AB25==>< G8A;5. !@.: The staff were very sympathetic about it. (A. J. Cronin) 8 The bread and cheese was presently brought in and distributed [...] (C. Bronte). I5 >4=8< ?>:070B5;5< ?5@2>AB5?5==>9, 206=>AB8 @50;L=>3>, 0 =5 D>@<0;L=> >1>7=0G5==>3> A>45@60=8O -?>4;560I53> (2 A0<>< ?>4;560I5<) <>65B A;C68BL 2K1>@ A?>A>10 A>3;0A>20=8O <564C ?>4;560I8< 8 A:07C5<K< 2 ;8F5 2 A;CG0OE, :>340 ;8F> C ?>4;560I53> =5 8<55B 48DD5@5=F8@>20==>3> 2K@065=8O: 'Then it's not your wife who left you\ it's you who've left your wife.' (S. Maugham) : 3.2.1.5. !:07C5<>5. 0B53>@80;L=0O ACI=>ABL A:07C5<>3> >?@545;O5BAO 53> >B=>H5=85< A ?>4;560I8<. !:07C5<>5 2K@0605B ?@548:0B82=K9 ?@87=0:, =>A8B5;5< :>B>@>3> O2;O5BAO ?@54<5B, ?5@540205<K9 ?>4;560I8<.  2K@065=88 B0:>3> ?@87=0:0 70:;NG05BAO :0B53>@80;L=0O DC=:F8O A:07C5<>3>. - 0@O4C A :0B53>@80;L=>9, B. 5. ?@548:0B82=>9, 8;8 A:07C5<>AB=>9, DC=:F859, A:07C5<>5 2K?>;=O5B @5;OB82=CN A2O7K20NICN DC=:F8N, 2KABC?0O 2 :0G5AB25 >?>A@54AB2CNI53> 725=0 <564C ?>4;560I8< 8 M;5<5=B0<8 ?@02>AB>@>==53> 3;03>;L=>3> >:@C65=8O  4>?>;=5=85< 8 >1AB>OB5;LAB2><. "0:, 2 >B=>H5=8OE <564C ?@54;>65=85< 2 459AB28B5;L=>< 8 ?@54;>65=85< 2 AB@040B5;L=>< 70;>35 3;03>;-A:07C5<>5 >1@07C5B A2>5>1@07=CN >AL, 2>:@C3 :>B>@>9 2@0I0NBAO ?>4;560I55 8 4>?>;=5=85, <5=ONI85AO A2>8<8 <5AB0<8 2 ?@54;>65=8OE 0:B820 8 ?0AA820. !@.: Four doctors arc looking after them.  They arc being looked after by four doctors. (Morning Star) 5;OB82=0O DC=:F8O A:07C5<>3> :0: 8<5=8 >B=>H5=8O <564C ?>4;560I8< 8 >1AB>OB5;LAB2>< <5=55 >G5284=0, => >=0 2K?>;=O5BAO 8 2 MB>< A;CG05. 192 <5==> 2 A8;C 2K?>;=5=8O A:07C5<K< MB>9 DC=:F88 2>7<>6=K ?@54;>65=8O A >1AB>OB5;LAB20<8, 2K@065==K<8 :0G5AB25==K<8 =0@5G8O<8, ?5@540NI8<8 25AL<0 CA;>2=K9 2 A<KA;5 @50;L=>AB8 ACI5AB2>20=8O ?@87=0: 459AB28O, :0: 2 ?@54;>65=88 The washing flapped whitelC on the lines over patches of garden. (D. Lessing) $>@<0;L=> whitely  ?@87=0: 459AB28O, @50;L=> 65  AC1AB0=F88. "0:85 ?@54;>65=8O A >A>1>9 ;53:>ABLN ?@5>1@07CNBAO 2 ?>AB@>5=8O A A>>B25BAB2CNI8< ?@8;030B5;L=K< 2 :0G5AB25 8<5==>9 G0AB8 A:07C5<>3> "(The washing was white) 8;8 >?@545;5=8O (The white washing flapped). !:07C5<>5 2K@0605B 425 @07=>284=>AB8 AB@C:BC@=KE 7=0G5=89: :0B53>@80;L=>5 7=0G5=85, B. 5. 7=0G5=85, ?@8ACI55 A:07C5<><C :0: >?@545;5==><C G;5=C ?@54;>65=8O (= 7=0G5=85 ?@548:0B82=>3> ?@87=0:0), 8 7=0G5=8O, A2O70==K5 A 3@0<<0B8G5A:8<8 :0B53>@8O<8 ;8G=>9 D>@<K 3;03>;0 (7=0G5=8O =0:;>=5=8O 8 2@5<5=8, 70;>30, ;8F0 8 G8A;0). !>2<5AB=>5 2K@065=85 42CE C:070==KE @07=>284=>AB59 7=0G5=89 2 >4=>< A;>25 2>7<>6=> ;8HL 2 ?@>AB>< 3;03>;L=>< A:07C5<><: 5 paused. (H. G. Wells) %>BO 2 3@0<<0B8G5A:8E->?8A0=8OE 3;03>;L=>5 8 8<5==>5 A:07C5<K5 ?@54AB02;ONBAO :0: 87>;8@>20==K5, =5 A2O70==K5 4@C3 A 4@C3><, 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 >=8 A2O70=K A>>B=>A8B5;L=>9 A2O7LN. E A>>B=>A8B5;L=>ABL AB0=>28BAO >G5284=>9 ?@8 A>?>AB02;5=88 :>=AB@C:F89, 2 :>B>@KE MB8 420 B8?0 A:07C5<KE 8<5NB >1ICN ;5:A8:>-A5<0=B8G5A:CN 107C: 3;03>; (2 3;03>;L=>< A:07C5<><) 8 8<5==0O G0ABL (2 8<5==>< A:07C5<><) A2O70=K A;>2>>1@07>20B5;L=K<8 >B=>H5=8O<8: Andrew reddened. (A. J. Cronin)  Andrew we.at I grew red.  42CE A>?>AB02;O5<KE A:07C5<KE >1I55 ?>=OB89=>5 A>45@60=85 ?@548F8@C5<>3> ?@87=0:0, >4=8 8 B5 65 AB@C:BC@=K5 7=0G5=8O, => ?>A;54=85 ?>-@07=><C @0A?@545;5=K 2 :064>< 87 42CE B8?>2 A:07C5<>3>. "0:8< >1@07><, 420 >A=>2=KE B8?0 A:07C5<>3>  MB> 3;03>;L=>5 8 8<5==>5. =8 M;5<5=B0@=K 2 B>< A<KA;5, GB> =5 <>3CB 1KBL ?@5>1@07>20=K 2 1>;55 ?@>ABK5, A>45@60B5;L=> 8 D>@<0;L=>, AB@C:BC@K.  =0720==K< 42C< B8?0< ?@8<K:05B B@5B89  D@075>;>38G5A:>5 A:07C5<>5. $@075>;>38G5A:>5 A:07C5<>5 2K@0605BAO D@075<>9, A>45@60I59 ACI5AB28B5;L=>5 A> 7=0G5=85< 459AB28O 8 ?5@5E>4=K9 3;03>;: 5 gave a gasp. (S. Maugham)  A2O78 A ?>A;54=8< B8?>< ?@02><5@=> 2>7=8:05B 2>?@>A, =0A:>;L:> >1>A=>20==K< O2;O5BAO 53> 2K45;5=85. 54L ?>AB@>5=8O D@075>;>38G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0 5ABL 8 A@548 8<5==KE A:07C5<KE (A@., =0?@8<5@, C?>B@51;5=85 >1@07>20=89 to be under fire, to be at a loss, to be under age 8 <=. 4@. 2 :0G5AB25 A:07C5<KE). >7<>6=>, MB8 8 <=>385 ?>4>1=K5 8< >1@07>20=8O B>65 A;54C5B 2K45;8BL 2 >B45;L=K9 B8? 8;8 2:;NG8BL 2 :0G5AB25 ?>4B8?0 2 >B<5G5==>5 D@075>;>38G5A:>5 A:07C5<>5? "0:, 2>7<>6=>, 8 A;54>20;> 1K ?>ABC?8BL, 5A;8 1K =081>;55 ACI5AB25==K< ?@87=0:>< A:07C5<KE B8?0 to give a glance O2;O;0AL 8E D@075>;>38G=>ABL.  40==>< A;CG05 <K 8<55< 45;> A =5C40G=K< =08<5=>20=85<, >@85=B8@>20==K< =0 =5ACI5AB25==K9 8;8, B>G=55, =5 A0<K9 ACI5AB25==K9 ?@87=0: O2;5=8O. 193 A=>20=85< 4;O 8E 2K45;5=8O O2;O5BAO, ?@5645 2A53>, B> 8E A2>9AB2>, :>B>@>5 1K;> =0720=> 3@0<<0B8G5A:>9 =0?@02;5==>ABLN =5:>B>@KE CAB>9G82KE A;>2>A>G5B0=89. # B0:8E A;>2>A>G5B0=89, :0: to have a bath, to take hold, to give a smile 8 B. ?., 8A?>;L7C5<KE 2 :0G5AB25 A:07C5<>3>, =5 B>;L:> G5B:0O A5<0=B8G5A:0O A>>B=>A8B5;L=>ABL A 3;03>;><, >A=>2K20NI0OAO =0 45@820F8>==KE >A>15==>ABOE 8E 8<5==>3> :><?>=5=B0 1, =>  8 MB> 3;02=>5  <>45;8@>20==>ABL >B=>H5=89 AB@C:BC@K 8 A>45@60=8O, >?@545;ONI0O 8 ?@>4C:B82=>ABL :>=AB@C:F88, 8 <=>65AB25==>ABL A>>B25BAB2CNI8E 548=8F, 8 ?@54A:07C5<>ABL 7=0G5=8O :064>9 =>2>9 548=8FK <=>65AB20, 2 B>< G8A;5 =>2>>1@07>20=89: ?@8 AB@C:BC@5 VNsg >=8 25A 2K@060NB >4=>:@0B=>5 459AB285. 0<OBCO >1 C:070==KE 2KH5 <><5=B0E, A>E@0=8< =08<5=>20=85 D@075>;>38G5A:>5 A:07C5<>5 70 =58<5=85< ;CGH53>. >AB@>5=8O B8=0 to give a glance >1=0@C6820NB B5=45=F8N :> 2A5 1>;55 H8@>:><C C?>B@51;5=8N, : >E20BC :>@@5;OB82=>9 A>>B=5A5==>ABLN 2A5 1>;55 H8@>:>3> :@C30 3;03>;L=KE ;5:A5<. @8G8=C MB>3> 6. 5@< A:;>=5= 2845BL 2 1>;LH59 :>=:@5B=>AB8 ACI5AB28B5;L=>3>, :>B>@>9 =0@>4=K< A>7=0=85< >B405BAO ?@54?>GB5=85 A@02=8B5;L=> A 01AB@0:B=>ABLN 3;03>;0. >7<>6=>, MB> 8 B0:. 5 <5=55 206=>, >4=0:>, 4@C3>5. > A2>59 3@0<<0B8G5A:>9 A5<0=B8:5 :>=AB@C:F88 B8?0 to give a glance :><?;5<5=B0@=K ?> >B=>H5=8N : A8AB5<5 0=3;89A:>3> 3;03>;0: 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 >=8 ?5@540NB 7=0G5=85 >4=>:@0B=>3> 459AB28O, 4;O 2K@065=8O :>B>@>3> C 3;03>;0 =5B 3@0<<0B8:0;87>20==KE A@54AB2.  @0728B88 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=88 :>=AB@C:F89 @0AA<0B@8205<>3> B8?0 =0E>48B ?@>O2;5=85 8 >1I0O B5=45=F8O : 0=0;8B87<C, ?@8ACI0O 0=3;89A:><C O7K:C. @>1;5<0B8G5= 8 AB0BCA >1@07>20=89 B8?0 (The moon) rose red. >A:>;L:C 3@C??0 3;03>;L=KE A2O7>: =5 8AG5@?K205BAO 3;03>;>< be, 0 2:;NG05B H8@>:89 :@C3 3;03>;>2 4>AB0B>G=> @07=>>1@07=>9 ;5:A8G5A:>9 8=48284C0;L=>AB8 (to become, to remain, to taste 8 <=. 4@.), B>, :070;>AL 1K, rose red <>65B 1KBL ?>AB02;5=> 2 >48= @O4 A became tired. "0: 8 ?>ABC?0NB =5:>B>@K5 8AA;54>20B5;8, :20;8D8F8@CO B0:>9 B8? A:07C5<>3> :0: 3;03>;L=>-8<5==>5. A;8 AB0BL =0 G8AB> D>@<0;L=CN ?>G2C, B> B0:>5 >1J548=5=85 ?@02><5@=>.  A0<>< 45;5, 8 2 B>< 8 2 4@C3>< A;CG05 A:07C5<>5 A>AB>8B 87 3;03>;0 8 8<5=8. 4=0:> G8AB> D>@<0;L=K9 ?@8=F8? :;0AA8D8:0F88 ?@8 0=0;875 G;5=>2 ?@54;>65=8O =5?@85<;5<, ?>A:>;L:C 2 MB>< A;CG05 =5 CG8BK20NBAO >G5284=K5 8 ACI5AB25==K5 A>45@60B5;L=K5 @07;8G8O (A@., =0?@8<5@: gave a blow 8 is a blow O2;ONBAO >48=0:>2> 3;03>;L=>-8<5==K<8, E>BO ?> A>45@60=8N 1 !5<0=B8G5A:0O 8 45@820F8>==0O A>>B=>A8B5;L=>ABL @0AA<0B@8205<KE >1@07>20=89 A 3;03>;>< ?>A;C68;0 4;O =5:>B>@KE 8AA;54>20B5;59 >A=>20=85< 4;O 2:;NG5=8O 8E 2 3;03>;L=>5 A:07C5<>5. ! B0:8< ?>=8<0=85< 8E AB0BCA0 B@C4=> A>3;0A8BLAO. <";0N;1 ?A5 A:07C5<>5 2K45;O5BAO ?> A?>A>1C 2K@065=8O.  MB>< >B=>H5=88 A:07C5<K5 B8?0 (he) gave a glance =8:0: =5 <>3CB 1KBL ?>AB02;5=K 2: >48= @O4 A> A:07C5<K<8 B8?0 (he) glanced, 194 >=8 ACI5AB25==> @07=OBAO). <5NBAO, 2?@>G5<, 8 AB@C:BC@=K5 @07;8G8O, A2O70==K5 A @07;8G85< B@0=AD>@<0F8>==KE ?>B5=F80;>2, GB> 1C45B ?>:070=> =865. !;54C5B, >G5284=>, 48DD5@5=F8@>20BL 3;03>;L=K5 A2O7:8, B. 5. @073@0=8G820BL B0:85 3;03>;K, :>B>@K5 :0: A2O7:8 A>AB02;ONB ?@8=04;56=>ABL A>>B25BAB2CNI59 >1;0AB8 A8AB5<K O7K:0 (to be, to become, to grow, to seem, to taste 8 B. ?.), 8 8=K5, =5A2O7>G?K5 3;03>;K, :>B>@K5 >::078>=0;L=> <>3CB C?>B@51;OBLAO :0: A2O7:8 2 @5G8. =0G5 3>2>@O, =5>1E>48<> @07;8G0BL A2O7>G=>ABL :0: =5>BJ5<;5<K9 ?@87=0: 3;03>;0, D>@<8@CNI89 53> (3;03>;0) AB@C:BC@=CN ACI=>ABL, 8 A2O7>G=>ABL :0: >::078>=0;L=>5 DC=:F8>=0;L=>5 A2>9AB2> 3;03>;0. B3@0=8G8BL ?5@2K5 >B 2B>@KE ?>72>;O5B ?@5>1@07>20=85 B8?0 The moon rose red >- The moon was red when/while it rose, 2 :>B>@>< 8AB8==K5 A2O7:8 =5 A?>A>1=K CG0AB2>20BL, A@. 5 grew old -> *He was old when he grew 8;8 The milk tastes sour-*- *The milk is sour when it tastes. 7 A:070==>3> <>6=> A45;0BL 2K2>4, GB> 2 ?>AB@>5=88 (The moon) row red A:07C5<>5  =5 M;5<5=B0@=>3> B8?0, :0:8<8 O2;ONBAO 3;03>;L=>5 8 8<5==>5 A:07C5<K5. 59AB28B5;L=>, B0:>5 ?>AB@>5=85 O2;O5BAO @57C;LB0B>< A8=B0:A8G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0 :>=B0<8=0F88 (A<. A. 227).  @57C;LB0B5 4@C3>3> A8=B0:A8G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0  CA;>6=5=8O (A<. 3.2.2.6.)  2>7=8:05B CA;>6=5==>5 3;03>;L=>5, 8<5==>5 8 D@075>;>38G5A:>5 A:07C5<K5. "0NH >1@07><, ?>;>682 2 >A=>2C 45;5=8O E0@0:B5@ AB@C:BC@K ?;0=0 A>45@60=8O, :>@@5;8@CNI89 A> AB@C:BC@>9 ?;0=0 2K@065=8O, ?>;CG05< 2 :0G5AB25 =081>;55 >1I59 :;0AA8D8:0F88 A:07C5<KE 8E 45;5=85 =0 ?@>ABK5 8 CA;>6=5==K5. 0: ?@>ABK5, B0: 8 CA;>6=5==K5 A:07C5<K5, 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B A?>A>10 2K@065=8O, <>3CB 1KBL 3;03>;L=K<8, 8<5==K<8, D@075>;>38G5A:8<8 8 3;0-3>;L=>-8<5==K<?, 8;8 :>=B0<8=8@>20==K<8: \> A?>A>1C;03>;L=>-2K@065=8O;03>;L=>5<5==>5$@075>;>38G5A:>58<5==>5, 8;8 :>=B0<8=8-> AB@C:BC@5^.@>20==>5A>45@60=8O ^\^@>AB>5++++#A;>6=5==>5+t++><18=0F88 MB8E ?@87=0:>2 40NB: ?@>AB>5 3;03>;L=>5Jack spoke. (W. Golding)?@>AB>5 8<5==>5'She is asleep (A. Bennett)?@>AB>5 $@075>;>38G5A:>5Mrs. Davidson gave a gasp, [...] (S. Maugham)" ?@>AB>5 :>=B0<8=8@>20=- IIOGThe screams were still rising 8nabated from the swimming pool. (I. Murdoch)195 3.2.2.3. 708<=K5 >B=>H5=8O M;5<5=B0@=>3> ?@54;>65=8O 8 ?@54;>65=8O, A>AB02 :>B>@>3> 2KE>48B 70 ?@545;K M;5<5=B0@=>3> <>65B 1KBL ?@54AB02;5=K :0: @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 M;5<5=B0@=>3> ?@54;>65=8O 2 ?>;=>5. 0A?@>AB@0=5=85 M;5<5=B0@=>3> ?@54;>65=8O 4>AB8305BAO 2 @57C;LB0B5 459AB28O A8=B0:A8G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2. 213 3.2.2.4 A=>2=K5 A8=B0:A8G5A:85 ?@>F5AAK A;54CNI85: @0AH8@5=85, CA;>6=5=85, A>2<5I5=85, @072Q@BK20=85, ?@8A>548=5=85, 2:;NG5=85. 3.2.2.5. #A;>6=5=85. 07=K5 ?> A2>5<C :><?>=5=B=><C A>AB02C M;5<5=B0@=K5 ?@54;>65=85 A>>B=>AOBAO 4@C3 A 4@C3>< =5 B>;L:> 2 A8;C >1I=>AB8, A8=B0:A8G5A:>9 DC=:F88. 214 B45;L=K5 @07=>284=>AB8 >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 G;5=0 ?@54;>65=8O <>3CB 1KBL A2O70=K 5I5 >B=>H5=8O<8 A8=B0:A8G5A:>9 45@820F88.  MB>< A;CG05 >4=0 AB@C:BC@0 @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: 8AE>4=0O, 4@C385  :0: ?@>872>4=K5 >B =55. "0:8<8 >B=>H5=8O<8 A2O70=K, =0?@8<5@, A:07C5<K5 laughed 8 began to laugh 2 Clare laughed (J. Galsworthy) 8 She began to laugh (D. du Maurier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began :0: G0ABL A:07C5<>3> >?@545;O5B >1O70B5;L=>ABL D>@<K 8=D8=8B820 8;8 35@C=48O >A=>2=>9 G0AB8 A:07C5<>3>), ;81> A0< 4>;65= 8<5BL >?@545;5==CN D>@<C (B0:, 7040==>9 O2;O5BAO D>@<0 CA;>6=ONI53> M;5<5=B0 2 A;>6=>< 4>?>;=5=88). "0:8< >1@07><, CA;>6=5=85 5ABL A8=B0:A8G5A:89 ?@>F5AA 87<5=5=8O AB@C:BC@K A8=B0:A8G5A:>9 548=8FK, ACI=>ABL :>B>@>3> 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> AB@C:BC@0 87 ?@>AB>9 ?@52@0I05BAO 2 A;>6=CN. !;>6=>ABL AB@C:BC@K >7=0G05B A8=B0:A8G5A:CN 2708<=CN 7028A8<>ABL A>AB02;ONI8E 548=8FC M;5<5=B>2. 5>1E>48<K< CA;>285< ?@87=0=8O 70 A>G5B0=85< 42CE 8;8 1>;55 ?>;=>7=0G=KE 3;03>;>2 AB0BCA0 CA;>6=5==>3>, 8;8 A;>6=>3>, G;5=0 ?@54;>65=8O O2;O5BAO >1I0O A>>B=5A5==>ABL A =5:>B>@K< M;5<5=B>< ?@54;>65=8O :0: 548=K< 4;O =8E AC1J5:B><. >A:>;L:C 4;O ;8G=>9 D>@<K B0:0O >B=5AQ==>ABL : ?>4;560I5<C O2;O5BAO 548=AB25==> 2>7<>6=>9, CA;>285 MB>, 1C4CG8 1>;55 :>=:@5B=> AD>@<C;8@>20=> 4;O ?>AB@>5=89 B8?0 (She) began to laugh, 70:;NG05BAO 2 >1O70B5;L=>AB8 AC1J5:B=>-?@>F5AA=KE >B=>H5=89 <564C AC1J5:B>< ;8G=>9 D>@<K 3;03>;0 8 =5;8G=>9 D>@<>9. ! MB>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O like to sing (2 I like to sing)  CA;>6=5==K9 G;5= ?@54;>65=8O. >A;54>20B5;L=>ABL 65 A;>2 like singing (2 I like singing) A8=B0:A8G5A:8 42C7=0G=0. -B> <>65B 1KBL ;81> A;>6=>5 A:07C5<>5 (2 MB>< A;CG05 :>=AB@C:F8O 8<55B B> 65 7=0G5=85, GB> 8 ?>AB@>5=85 like to sing, 8 =0E>48BAO A =8< 2 >B=>H5=8OE AB@C:BC@=>3> 20@L8@>20=8O), ;81> 3;03>;-A:07C5<>5 A 4>?>;=5=85< (5A;8 7=0G5=85 MB>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 A;>2  (7) like someone's singing 8;8 (I) like singing in general). !>G5B0=85< 3;03>;0-A:07C5<>3> 8 4>?>;=5=8O O2;O5BAO 8 like my (his 8 B. 4.) singing 2 I like my (his 8 B. 4.) singing, 745AL  2 A8;C 7=0G5=8O ?@54<5B=>AB8  BC (his 8 B. 4.) singing. 216 07;8G85 <564C ?@>AB>9 8 CA;>6=5==>9 AB@C:BC@>9 G;5=0 ?@54;>65=8O <>6=> ?@>8;;NAB@8@>20BL A:07C5<K<8, ?@54AB02;5==K<8 :>=AB@C:F8O<8 2 0) 8 1): They drive in the 1) They can drive in the park at five park at five. must drive may drive kept driving began driving are said to drive are due to drive are glad to drive 8 B. 4. #A;>6=5=85 A:07C5<>3> >ACI5AB2;O5BAO ?CB5< 2:;NG5=8O 2 53> AB@C:BC@C M;5<5=B0, :>B>@K9 >B;8G05BAO =5?>;=>B>9 ?@548:0F88. C4CG8 ?><5I5==K< ?5@54 B>9 G0ABLN A:07C5<>3>, :>B>@0O A?>A>1=0 : A0<>AB>OB5;L=><C C?>B@51;5=8N 2 8=KE CA;>28OE, B. 5. 157 CA;>6=5=8O, CA;>6=ONI89 M;5<5=B 15@5B =0 A51O DC=:F8N 2K@065=8O A8=B0:A8G5A:>9 A2O78 A ?>4;560I8<, 0 B0:65 7=0G5=89, G5@57 :>B>@K5 @50;87C5BAO :0B53>@8O ?@548:0B82=>AB8. B>@0O 65 G0ABL A:07C5<>3> ?@8>1@5B05B AB0BCA =5?@548:0B82=>9, B. 5. =5;8G=>9, D>@<K. 3.2.2.6. #A;>6=5=85 A:07C5<>3>. A;8 ?@8=OBL BC B>G:C 7@5=8O, GB> ;N1>5 A>G5B0=85 A>AB020 =5;8G=0O D>@<0 3;03>;0, >@85=B8@>20==0O =0 ?>4;560I55 2 :0G5AB25 A2>53> AC1J5:B0 459AB28O + ?@54H5AB2CNI89 =5;8G=>9 D>@<5 M;5<5=B, 2K?>;=ONI89 DC=:F8N >?>A@54>20=8O A2O78 <564C ?>4;560I8< 8 B0:>9 D>@<>9, >1@07C5B 548=K9 G;5= ?@54;>65=8O (0 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL 2 ?@8=F8?0E >?8A0=8O O7K:>2KE O2;5=89 B@51C5B MB>3>), B> : A;>6=K< A:07C5<K< A;54C5B >B=5AB8 8 @O4 :>=AB@C:F89, :>B>@K5 =5 2A5340 ?@87=0NBAO B0:>2K<8 1.  7028A8<>AB8 >B <>@D>;>38G5A:>9 ?@8@>4K CA;>6=ONI53> M;5<5=B0 <>6=> 2K45;8BL B@8 B8?0 CA;>6=5=8O: 1) 0:B82=>-3;03>;L=>5 CA;>6=5=85, 2) ?0AA82=>-3;03>;L=>5 CA;>6=5=85 8 3) 04J5:B82=>5 CA;>6=5=85.  ?5@2KE 42CE B8?0E CA;>6=ONI8< M;5<5=B>< O2;O5BAO 3;03>; A>>B25BAB25==> 2 D>@<5 459AB28B5;L=>3> 8 AB@040B5;L=>3> 70;>30, 2 B@5BL5<  ?@8;030B5;L=>5 (B0:65 ?@8G0AB85, A;>2> :0B53>@88 A>AB>O=8O) A 3;03>;><-A2O7:>9. !B@C:BC@=> @07;8G=K5, CA;>6=5=8O B@5E B8?>2 >1=0@C6820NB A5<0=B8G5A:89 ?0@0;;5;87<, A@.: 5 may A>B5. 5 is expected to come.  He is likely to come. 1 @8<5=8B5;L=> :> 2A5< A;>6=K< A:07C5<K< <>6=>, 25@>OB=>, 3>2>@8BL > =0;8G88 2 8E A>AB025 A2O7:8 2 H8@>:>< A<KA;5 A;>20. "@048F8>==>9 B5@<8=>;>3859 =0720=85 A2O7:8 70:@5?;5=> 70 3;03>;>< to be 8 3;03>;0<8 B8?0 to seem, to look 8 B. ?., :>B>@K5 2KABC?0NB 2 :0G5AB25 >?>A@54CNI53> 725=0 <564C ?>4;560I8< 8 8<5==>9 G0ABLN A:07C5<>3>, 2K@060NI59 ?@87=0:, ?@548F8@C5<K9 ?>4;560I5<C. > AE>4=CN DC=:F8N 2K?>;=ONB, A:065<, 8 <>40;L=K5 3;03>;K 2 A>AB025 A;>6=>3> A:07C5<>3>, CAB0=02;820O A2O7L <564C ?>4;560I8< 8 ?@87=0:>< (745AL >= 8<55B ?@8@>4C 459AB28O), 2K@065==K< =5;8G=>9 D>@<>9, 217 ! CG5B>< @07;8G89 2 A5<0=B8:5 CA;>6=8B5;O, B. 5. CA;>6=ONI53> M;5<5=B0, <>6=> 2K45;8BL =5A:>;L:> 284>2 0:B82=>-3;03>;L=>3> CA;>6=5=8O (=07>25< 8E ?> A>45@60=8N CA;>6=8B5;O): 1. >40;L=0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 A2O78 459AB28O A AC1J5:B>< !:07C5<K5 40==>3> 2840 2:;NG0NB <>40;L=K9 3;03>; (can, may, mast 8 4@.) 8;8 3;03>; A <>40;L=K< 7=0G5=85< (=0?@8<5@, to be, to have) 2 :0G5AB25 CA;>6=8B5;O ?;NA 8=D8=8B82: '5 can swim like a fish.' (D. Lessing) 'He must come back.1 (D. C. Doyle) 'It has to be right.' (H. E. Bates) 2. 84>20O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 459AB28O #A;>6=ONI89 M;5<5=B >7=0G05B AB048N @0728B8O 459AB28O (=0G0;>, ?@>4>;65=85, :>=5F), 53> @53C;O@=>ABL: to begin, to proceed, to quit, to keep on 8 B. 4.: 'She started to walk along the shingle.1 (I. Murdoch) 'His heart stopped beating.' (J. Galsworthy) 3. 068<>ABL 459AB28O '8A;> 3;03>;>2 A> 7=0G5=85< :068<>AB8, 2848<>AB8 459AB28O 25AL<0 >3@0=8G5=> (to seem, to appear). 0?@8<5@: 'He seemed to have lost all power of will [...]' (S. Maugham) 'They didn't appear to be B>ving.' (I. Murdoch) 4. 68405<>ABL 459AB28O  @57C;LB0B5 2:;NG5=8O 2 A>AB02 A:07C5<>3> A>>B25BAB2CNI53> M;5<5=B0 CA;>6=5=8O 459AB285, >1>7=0G05<>5 >A=>2=K< A<KA;>2K< M;5<5=B>< A:07C5<>3>, ?@54AB02;O5BAO :0: A;CG09=>5, =>@<0;L=> =5 >68405<>5 8 ?>B><C =5>6840==>5 8;8, =0>1>@>B, :0: >68402H55AO, :0: 5AB5AB25==K9 ?@87=0: ?@54<5B0. #A;>6=8B5;O<8 O2;ONBAO 3;03>;K B8?0 to happen 8 to prove. 0?@8<5@: 'But my memory happened to have tricked me.' (C. P. Snow) 'It turned out to be Sam.9 (P. Abrahams) 5. B=>H5=85 AC1J5:B0 : 459AB28N #A;>6=ONI85 A:07C5<>5 M;5<5=BK >1>7=0G0NB 65;0=85/=565;0=85, =0<5@5=85 (to want, to wish, to intend 8 B. ?.)' I d>n't wish to leave my mother.' (O. Wilde)  I should hate to hurt him she said.' (I. Murdoch) >A:>;L:C 381@84=0O, 3;03>;L=>-8<5==0O, ?@8@>40 8=D8=8B820 >1CA;>2;8205B 2>7<>6=>ABL 53> 8A?>;L7>20=8O, A@548 ?@>G8E 8<5==KE DC=:F89, 8 2 DC=:F88 4>?>;=5=8O, 0 3;03>;K B8?0 to want <>3CB 1KBL ?@O<>-?5@5E>4=K<8 >4=>>1J5:B=K<=, 2>7=8:05B =5>1E>48<>ABL >1>A=>20BL 40==CN 2KH5 8=B5@?@5B0F8N A>G5B0=89 B8?0 to want/to wish + 8=D8=8B82 :0: A;>6=>3> A:07C5<>3>, 0 =5 A>G5B0=8O 3;03>;0-A:07C5<>3> A 4>?>;=5=85<. 0AA<>B@5=85 to write (2 want to write) 2 :0G5AB25 4>?>;=5=8O =5 <>65B 1KBL 8A:;NG5=> :0: =5GB> 70254><> =5?@028;L=>5. 218 "0:0O B@0:B>2:0 DC=:F88 8=D8=8B820 ?@8=F8?80;L=> 2>7<>6=0.  =0CG=>< 0=0;875 O2;5=89 O7K:0 2>7<>6=K 8 4065 70:>=><5@=K @07;8G=K5 8=B5@?@5B0F88 >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 O2;5=8O. 0AE>645=8O B0:>3> @>40 >1JOA=ONBAO @07;8G85< 8AE>4=KE B5>@5B8G5A:8E ?>AK;>:, D0:B>< >?8A0=8O O7K:0 2 :>=B5:AB5 @07=KE A8AB5<, 2>7<>6=>ABLN @07=KE ?@>F54C@ 0=0;87 8 A?>A>1>2 >?8A0=8O O2;5=8O. =>3>>1@0785 ?>4E>4>2 ?>72>;8B 1>;55 ?>;=> 8 2A5AB>@>==5 87CG8BL O2;5=85 8 >B@078BL 53> A2>9AB20 2 =0CG=KE ?>AB@>5=8OE. 5B 8 =8:>340 =5 1C45B 548=AB25==>3>  ?@028;L=>3>" >?8A0=8O 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0,  A?@0254;82> ?8A0; 6. !;544. >7<>6=>ABL @07;8G=KE ?>4E>4>2 45;05B >A>15==> =0AB>OB5;L=K< 548=AB2> <5B>40 2 @0<:0E 871@0==>9 A8AB5<K >?8A0=8O. -:;5:B87< <5B>4>2 8, A;54>20B5;L=>, :@8B5@852 405B 2 @57C;LB0B5 8A:065==CN :0@B8=C AB@C:BC@K O7K:0, 2 :>B>@>9 =0@CH5=> ACI5AB2CNI55 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 @0A?@545;5=85 O2;5=89 2 55 A8AB5<0E. "0:>3> @>40 A<5I5=85 O2;5=8O 87 A8AB5<K, : :>B>@>9 >=> ?@8=04;568B ?> A2>59 ?@8@>45, 2 A8AB5<C, GC64CN 5<C, ?@8ACI5 B@0:B>2:5 A>G5B0=89 B8?0 (7) wanllwish to write :0: A>G5B0=8O 3;03>;0-A:07C5<>3> A 4>?>;=5=85< 2 B5E A8AB5<0E >?8A0=8O 3@0<<0B8G5A:>3> AB@>O 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0, 2 :>B>@KE >1@07>20=8O B8?0 (7) A0? write 8 B. ?. @0AA<0B@820NBAO (A ?>;=K< =0 B> >A=>20=85<) :0: A:07C5<>5. "0:>5 8E ?>=8<0=85 O2;O5BAO >1I5?@8=OBK< 8 ?>B><C =5 B@51C5B 4>:070B5;LAB20. !:07C5<>AB=K9 AB0BCA can write >?@545;O5BAO D0:B>< A>>B=5A5=8O 459AB28O, 2K@0605<>3> 8=D8=8B82><, A AC1J5:B><, ?5@540205<K< 2 AB@C:BC@5 ?@54;>65=8O ?>4;560I8<, 8E AC1J5:B=>-?@>F5AA=K<8 >B=>H5=8O<8. !2O7L MB0 CAB0=02;8205BAO G5@57 3;03>; 2 ;8G=>9 D>@<5. >;L 3;03>;0 2 ;8G=>9 D>@<5 =5 A2>48BAO : 2K@065=8N 3@0<<0B8G5A:8E 7=0G5=89 8 >B=>H5=89. !0? 8 4@C385 CA;>6=8B5;8 O2;ONBAO 8 =>A8B5;O<8 25I5AB25==>3> 7=0G5=8O. "0:>5 65 ?>;>65=85 70=8<05B 8 3;03>; want. 07=8F0 <564C A0? 2 (7) can write 8 want 2 (7) want to write ;568B 2 >1;0AB8 A>45@60=8O 8 70:;NG05BAO 2 ?@8=04;56=>AB8 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E 7=0G5=89 : @07=K< ?>=OB89=K< AD5@0<.  ?;0=5 65 A8=B0:A8G5A:>< @>;L MB8E 3;03>;>2 >48=0:>20.  @50;870F8OE 3;03>;0 (7) want to write 8 (7) want a book 8<55BAO 420 @07=KE 7=0G5=8O, A2O70==KE A @07;8G8O<8 A8=B0:A8G5A:>3> >:@C65=8O. ;03>;C want 2 (I) want a book ?@8ACI0 =0?@02;5==>ABL =0 >1J5:B, 8<5NI89 ?@54<5B=K9 E0@0:B5@, want 2 (I) want to write  3;03>;L=0O =0?@02;5==>ABL. -B> @07;8G85 1>;55 =03;O4=> ?@>O2;O5BAO, 5A;8 A>?>AB028BL 3;03>; want (a book) A 4@C38<, A5<0=B8G5A:8 1;87:8< 5<C 3;03>;>< (2 B>9 @50;870F88, :>B>@0O ?@82>48BAO =865), =0?@8<5@, burn. !@.: 'They burned to tell everybody, to describe, to  well  to boast their doll's house before the school bell rang.' (K. Mansfield). @O4 ;8 :B>- -; ;81> AB0=5B CB25@640BL =0;8G85 2 MB>< A;CG05 (burn to tell) 3;03>;0 8 4>?>;=5=8O. Want to tell >B;8G05BAO >B burn to tell ;8HL ;5:A8G5A:8, 2 G0AB=>AB8, AB5?5=LN 8=B5=A82=>AB8 2K@0605<>3> ?@87=0:0. !8=B0:A8G5A:8 65, B. 5. ?> E0@0:B5@C 2708<=KE >B=>H5=89 3;03>;>2 219 8 E0@0:B5@C 8E A2O78 A ?>4;560I8<, want to tell 8 burn to tell 845=B8G=K. @>4>;68< ?5@5G5=L 284>2 0:B82=>-3;03>;L=>3> CA;>6=5=8O. 6. 50;L=>ABL 459AB28O O4 CA;>6=8B5;59 AB@C:BC@K >B@8F0NB (to feign, to pretend, to fail) 8;8 CB25@640NB (to manage, to contrive) @50;L=>ABL 459AB28O, >1>7=0G05<>3> A;54CNI8< 70 B0:8< 3;03>;>< 8=D8=8B82><: 'Andrew affected to read the slip.' (A. J. Cronin) 'She managed to conceal her distress from Felicity.' (I. Murdoch) 7. ACI5AB2;O5<>5 459AB28O "0:85 3;03>;K, :0: to try, to attempt to endeavour, 8 B. ?. ('5 tried to formulate.' (W. Golding) I have sought, primarily, indeed to emphasise how much is involved in 'knowing' a language, [...]' (R. Quirk), 8<5NB B>B >1I89 :><?>=5=B 7=0G5=8O, :>B>@K9 <>6=> >1>7=0G8BL :0: >ACI5AB2;O5<>ABL 459AB28O.  A2O78 A :064K< 87 =8E @50;L=>ABL 22>48<>3> 8<8 459AB28O <>65B 1KBL = ?>;>68B5;L=>9 8 >B@8F0B5;L=>9: I tried to formulate >48=0:>2> ?@8<5=8<> : A8BC0F88 I formulated 8 : A8BC0F88 I did not formulate.  MB><, 70<5B8<, >B;8G85 >B CA;>6=8B5;59, @0AA<>B@5==KE 2 (6), 345 :064K9 87 CA;>6=8B5;59 4>?CA:05B ;8HL >4=>7=0G=CN 8=B5@?@5B0F8N 8, A>>B25BAB25==>, B@0=AD>@<0F8N ?@54;>65=8O: 7 pretended to fall over.' (W. Golding) -> I did not fall over, 'She managed to conceal her distress from Felicity.' (I. Murdoch) ->" She concealed her distress from Felicity. 8. >78F8>==0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 459AB28O !2>5>1@07=K< 284>< CA;>6=5=8O O2;O5BAO 2:;NG5=85 2 A>AB02 A:07C5<>3> 3;03>;>2, >7=0G0NI8E ?>;>65=85 8;8 42865=85 AC1J5:B0 2 ?@>AB@0=AB25 (to sit, to stand, to lie, to go). A=>2=>9 M;5<5=B 8<55B D>@<C ?@8G0AB8O. 0?@8<5@: 'Tim stood fumbling for his keys.' (I. Murdoch) 'Adele came running up again.' (C. Bronte) 5@2K9, CA;>6=ONI89 M;5<5=B >A;01;5= 2 A2>5< ;5:A8G5A:>< 7=0G5=88. 3> 8725AB=0O ;5:A8G5A:0O 45A5<0=B870F8O AB0=>28BAO >A>15==> =03;O4=>9 2 A;CG0OE A>2<5I5=8O 2 A>AB025 A:07C5<>3> B0:8E 3;03>;>2, :>B>@K5 =>@<0;L=> =5A>2<5AB8<K: 'Oh-h! Just imagine being able to go walking and swimming again.' (D. Cusack) #A;>6=5==>5 A:07C5<>5 @0AA<0B@8205<>3> B8?0 8<55B 2 AB@C:BC@5 O7K:0 ><>=8< 2 2845 A>G5B0=8O 3;03>;0-A:07C5<>3> A ?@8G0AB85< =0AB>OI53> 2@5<5=8 2 DC=:F88 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 >1@070 459AB28O. 07;8G85 :>=AB@C:F89 A83=0;878@C5BAO AC?@0A53<5=B=K<8 A@54AB20<8, 0 8<5==> B8?>< ABK:0 <564C ;8G=>9 D>@<>9 3;03>;0 8 ?@8G0AB85<: =5:>=5G=K9 ABK: <564C A>AB02;ONI8<8 A;>6=>3> A:07C5<>3> 8 :>=5G=K9  <564C :><?>=5=B0<8 A>G5B0=8O 3;03>;0-A:07C5<>3> A ?@8G0AB85<->1AB>OB5;LAB2><, A@.: 'She stood touching tier face anxiously.' (D. Lessing) 8 'Ma stood, looking up and down.9 (K. Mansfield) 220 I5 >4=8< @07;8G8B5;L=K< <><5=B>< O2;O5BAO =5A?>A>1=>ABL CA;>6=8B5;O (2 A8;C >A;01;5==>AB8 53> ;5:A8G5A:>9 A5<0=B8:8) <>48D8F8@>20BLAO >1AB>OB5;LAB20<8.  B> 65 2@5<O =0;8G85 <>48D8F8@CNI8E A;>2 =>@<0;L=> 4;O ?>;=>7=0G=>3> A0<>AB>OB5;L=>3> 3;03>;0. !@. 7 sat looking at the carpet.' (I. Murdoch) 8 She sat for some time in her bedroom, thinking hard. (I. Murdoch) >6=> ?@54?>;030BL, GB> 4;O =>A8B5;59 O7K:0 2 A;>6=>< A:07C5<>< @0AA<0B@8205<>3> B8?0 A5<0=B8G5A:8 F5=B@0;L=K< O2;O5BAO 2B>@>9 :><?>=5=B, B. 5. 2 ?@54;>65=88 5 stood fumbling for his keys >A=>2=>5 A>>1I5=85  He fumbled for his keys, 0 =5 5 stood.  3@0=8F0E 548=>3> A:07C5<>3> 2>7<>6=> >1J548=5=85 =5A:>;L:8E CA;>6=8B5;59. "0:>5 CA;>6=5=85 <>6=> =0720BL ?>A;54>20B5;L=K<: I shall have to begin to practice.9 (K. Mansfield)  In away I had been hatched there, feathered there, and wanted dearly t> g> on growing there.' (A. E. Coppard)  I can't begin to accept that as a basis for a decision.' (C. P. Snow) 5B0;L=>5 87CG5=85 :><18=0B>@8:8 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>3> 0:B82=>-3;03>;L=>3> CA;>6=5=8O ?>72>;8B CAB0=>28BL =5A><=5==> ACI5AB2CNI85 AB@C:BC@=K5 70:>=><5@=>AB8 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8. =8 ?@>O2;ONBAO, 2 G0AB=>AB8, 2 @O45 >3@0=8G5=89 A>G5B05<>AB8 CA;>6=8B5;59. "0:, 2 A8;C >BACBAB28O C <>40;L=KE 3;03>;>2 =5;8G=KE D>@<, >=8 =5 <>3CB ?><5I0BLAO 70 :0:8<-;81> CA;>6=8B5;5<, 0 <>3CB ;8HL =0G8=0BL @O4.  =5=0G0;L=>< ?>;>65=88 A>>B25BAB2CNI85 7=0G5=8O <>3CB ?5@54020BLAO ;8HL M:2820;5=B0<8 <>40;L=KE 3;03>;>2: 'We Bight hav5 to wait I said. (C. P. Snow)  4@C38E A;CG0OE A>G5B05<>ABL ?@54AB02;O5BAO <0;>@50;L=>9 ?> A5<0=B8G5A:8< <>B820<, =0?@8<5@, *affect to chance 8;8 *begin to happen (happen :0: CA;>6=8B5;L A> 7=0G5=85< >68405<>AB8 459AB28O).  ?@>3=>78@>20=88 A5<0=B8G5A:8 =52>7<>6=KE ?>AB@>5=89 =5>1E>48<0 <0:A8<0;L=0O >AB>@>6=>ABL, CG5B 8=BC8F88 =>A8B5;59 O7K:0, ?>A:>;L:C 70:>=><5@=>AB8 A>G5B05<>AB8 A<KA;>2 2> <=>3>< 845>MB=8G=K; A@. B0:85 ?>AB@>5=8O, :0: 'At that moment I A > 8 I dn't seem to remember the story, [...]' (T. Capote) 'Poor Tom used to have to prescribe for my father.' (C. P. Snow) 8 B. ?. >;8G5AB2> CA;>6=8B5;59 ?@8 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>< CA;>6=5=88 >1KG=> >3@0=8G5=> 42C<O.  F5;>< ?>A;54>20B5;L=>5 CA;>6=5=85  5I5 <0;> 87CG5==>5 O2;5=85. 0AA82=>-3;03>;L=>5 CA;>6=5=85 405B 2 @57C;LB0B5 A:07C5<>5 BI ito v \ ' BI AB@C:BC@K Kpass en |.  J, 345 Vpass  3;03>; ?0AA82=>-3;03>;L=>3> CA;>6=5=8O, =0?@8<5@: She was supposed to write a paper on the subject. The bell was heard to ring/ringing. 06=59H8< >A=>20=85< 4;O B@0:B>2:8 2K45;5==KE :>=AB@C:F89 2 :0G5AB25 548=>3> G;5=0 ?@54;>65=8O, 0 8<5==> A;>6=>3> A:07C5<>3>, O2;O5BAO 8E AB@C:BC@=0O 8 A5<0=B8G5A:0O A>>B=>A8B5;L=>ABL A> A:07C5<K<8 0:B82=>-3;03>;L=>3> CA;>6=5=8O (A@. No component of the theory is allowed to remain  No component of the theory may remain; Mr. Quiason is expected to arrive to-day  Mr. Qutason must I may arrive to-day 8 B. 4.), G59 A:07C5<>AB=K9 AB0BCA =8:>340 8 =8:5< =5 >A?0@820;AO. 221 0: 8 2 A;CG05 A:07C5<>3> 0:B82=>-3;03>;L=>3> CA;>6=5=8O, 2 A:07C5<KE ?0AA82=>-3;03>;L=>3> CA;>6=5=8O =5;8G=0O D>@<0 >1>7=0G05B 459AB285, ?@548F8@C5<>5 ?>4;560I5<C. 8G=0O 65 D>@<0 3@0<<0B8G5A:8 =5A5B DC=:F8N 2K@065=8O ?@548F8@>20=8O 8 ?@548:0B82=>AB8, 0 A5<0=B8G5A:8 2=>A8B <>48D8F8@CNI89 <><5=B 2 E0@0:B5@ A2O78 <564C 459AB285< 8 53> =>A8B5;5<. =>385 87 ?0AA82=>-CA;>6=ONI8E M;5<5=B>2 A:07C5<>3> (is saidI supposedIexpected 8 B. ?.) <>6=> >E0@0:B5@87>20BL :0: =>A8B5;59 7=0G5=8O A;01>9 <>40;L=>AB8, 5A;8 :20;8D8F8@>20BL <>40;L=>ABL <>40;L=KE 3;03>;>2 (A@. may, must 8 B. ?.) :0: A8;L=CN. >6=> CAB0=>28BL G5BK@5 >A=>2=KE AB@C:BC@=>-A5<0=B8G5A:8E 3@C??8@>2:8 ?0AA82=>-3;03>;L=KE CA;>6=8B5;59: 0) 3;03>;K, >1>7=0G0NI85 ?@>F5AAK C<AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 (to be supposed/believedIknown 8 B. 4.): They are intended to be the day schools equivalent of the residential houses at boarding schools. (R. Pedley); 1) 3;03>;K, >1>7=0G0NI85 :><<C=8:0B82=K5 ?@>F5AAK (to be reported/said 8 B.4.): 'Repentence is said to be its cure, sir.' (C. Bronte); 2) 3;03>;K, >1>7=0G0NI85 ?@>F5AAK D878G5A:>3> 2>A?@8OB8O (to be heard/seen 8 B. 4.): Distantly from the school the two fifteen bell was heard ringing. (I. Murdoch); 3) ?@>2>:0B82=K5 3;03>;K, B. 5. 3;03>;K, >1>7=0G0NI85 B0:85 459AB28O, :>B>@K5 8<5NB A;54AB285< 459AB285 AC1J5:B0-?>4;560I53> ?@54;>65=8O (to be forced I made I pressed 8 B. 4.): In order to explain these data, we have been forced to develop a number of theoretical concepts and new field procedures. (K. L. Pike) 0 A2O7CNI89, =5A0<>AB>OB5;L=K9 E0@0:B5@ @>;8 CA;>6=8B5;O <564C ?>4;560I8< 8 >A=>2=>9 G0ABLN A:07C5<>3> 8, A;54>20B5;L=>, A:07C5<>AB=K9 AB0BCA 2A53> 3;03>;L=>3> >1@07>20=8O C:07K20NB D0:BK 2>7<>6=>AB8 >?CI5=8O to be 2 A;CG0OE, :>340 >A=>2=0O G0ABL A:07C5<>3> 8<55B AB@C:BC@C be + ?@548:0B82: None of the injuries was believed serious. (Daily Worker) G- None of the injuries was believed to be serious. #A;>6=ONI8< M;5<5=B>< <>65B 1KBL, =0:>=5F, 8 ?@8;030B5;L=>5, ?@8G0AB85 8 A;>2> :0B53>@88 A>AB>O=8O (=07>25< 8E >1>1I0NI8< =08<5=>20=85< 04J5:B82K) 2 A>G5B0=88 A 3;03>;>< to be 8;8 53> M:2820;5=B><. "0:>5 CA;>6=5=85 1C45< 8<5=>20BL 04J5:B82-= K <. !@548 :>=AB@C:F89 A 04J5:B82=>-CA;>6=5==K< A:07C5<K< <>6=> 2K45;8BL @O4 @07=>284=>AB59, >B;8G0NI8EAO 4@C3 >B 4@C30 AB@C:BC@=K<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 8 A5<0=B8G5A:8: 1) !:07C5<K5 A CA;>6=8B5;5<, ?5@540NI8< <>40;L=CN >F5=:C 25@>OB=>AB8 8;8 4>AB>25@=>AB8 (2 >F5=:5 02B>@0 2KA:07K20=8O) A2O78 AC1J5:B0 8 459AB28O.  :0G5AB25 04J5:B82=>3> M;5<5=B0 745AL 8A?>;L7CNBAO B0:85 ?@8;030B5;L=K5, :0: sure, certain, likely 8 B.?.: 'Everything is sure to be there.' (E. M. Forster) Later they thought he was certain to die. (P. Abrahams) ". . nuxley s invention, 222 'agnostic', is likely to be more e n d 8 3 I n g. (J. Moore) @54;>65=8O A> A:07C5<K<8 A CA;>6=8B5;O<8 40==>3> B8?0 E0@0:B5@87CNBAO 2>7<>6=>ABLN ?@8<5=5=8O : =8< B@0=AD>@<0F88 =><8-=0;870F88 N be A to V -> Nv be A (He was certain to come ~> His coming was certain), 0 B0:65 B@0=AD>@<0F88 N be A to V -> It be A that N V (He was certain to come -> It was certain that he would come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able/unable, capable, free, welcome, bound: Then she would be able to enjoy holiday in peace. (I. Murdoch) 'This flirtation is bound to end pretty soon.' (I. Murdoch) /A=> ?@>A<0B@8205BAO A>>B=>A8B5;L=>ABL A 3@C??>9 A:07C5<KE <>40;L=>9 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 0:B82=>-3;03>;L=>3> CA;>6=5=8O. 1) =0<5=0B5;L=K9 M;5<5=B CA;>6=5=8O =07K205B ?A8E8G5A:CN E0@0:B5@8AB8:C, 2K@060NICN >B=>H5=85 AC1J5:B0 : 459AB28N: glad, sorry, ashamed 8 <=. 4@.: 'Dr. Kroil will be happy to show you the hospital itself later.' (D, Lessing) She was eager to tell me. (C. P. Snow) >3 was relieved to be with him for a moment. (I. Murdoch) 07;8G8O <>@D>;>38G5A:>9 ?@8@>4K 7=0<5=0B5;L=>3> M;5<5=B0 CA;>6=8B5;O (?@8;030B5;L=>5 8;8 ?@8G0AB85) >?@545;ONB CG0AB85 ?@54;>65=89 A A>>B25BAB2CNI8<8 A:07C5<K<8 2 A5@88 A5<0=B8G5A:8 M:2820;5=B=KE B@0=AD>@<0F89 (1) 8 (2): (1) N be A to V-^ to V make N A -- It make N A to V He was happy to come. -- To come made him happy. -- It made him happy to come. (2) N be Vl en to F2 -> to V2 Vl N-+ It V N to V2 He was amazed to see that. -- To see that amazed him. -- It amazed him to see that. 2) @8;030B5;L=>5 2 A>AB025 CA;>6=5=8O 2 40==>9 3@C??5 >1>7=0G05B =5:>B>@K9 >1J5:B82=K9 ?@87=0:, ?@8ACI89 AC1J5:BC 2 A2O78 A =07K205<K< 8=D8=8B82>< 459AB285<. 0720==K5 2KH5 (3@C??K^!, 20, 1) 7=0G5=8O ?@8;030B5;L=KE 8A:;NG0NBAO.  :0G5AB25 CA;>6=8B5;59 2KABC?0NB B0:85 ?@8;030B5;L=K5, :0: quick, slow, fit, apt, ready: He was quick to seize on this unexpected gesture of friendliness [...] (H. E. Bates) [...] I was slow to pick up the reference. (C. P. Snow) 'You weren't fit to take itI she said. (C. P. Snow) @0=8F0 <564C 3@C??8@>2:0<8 1) 8 2) =5 01A>;NB=0 8 A>>B25BAB2CNI55 @07;8G85 7=0G5=89 =5 2A5340 G5B:> ?@>O2;O5BAO. 0?@8<5@, 2 ?@54;>65=88 But only now I was prepared to listen.(D. Lessing) prepared <>65B @0AA<0B@820BLAO 8 :0: >1>7=0G0NI55 ?>78F8N, 70=OBCN AC1J5:B>< ?> >B=>H5=8N : >1>7=0G5==><C 8=D8=8B82>< 223 459AB28N, 8 :0: >1J5:B82=K9 ?@87=0: >B=>H5=8O, ACI5AB2CNI53> <564C AC1J5:B>< 8 459AB285<. 3) =0<5=0B5;L=K9 M;5<5=B CA;>6=5=8O  ?@8;030B5;L=>5, 2K@060NI55 (2 AC1J5:B82=>9 8=B5@?@5B0F88 02B>@0 2KA:07K20=8O) A2>9AB2>, ?@8ACI55 AC1J5:BC 2 A2O78 A ?@548F8@C5<K< 5<C 459AB285<: stupid, wise, mad, cruel, right, wrong, good 8 B. ?. ( A8;C AC1J5:B82=>9 >F5=:8, MB> A2>9AB2> >1J5:B82=> <>65B 1KBL 8 =5 ?@8ACI8< AC1J5:BC. => 2 MB>< A;CG05 ;8HL ?@8?8AK205BAO 5<C.): You are quite right never to read such nonsense. He had been wrong to let the boy get away. You have been cruel tome to go away. (@8<5@K 708<AB2>20=K C . A?5@A5=0.) B;8G8B5;L=>9 >A>15==>ABLN ?@8=04;560I8E : MB>9 3@C??5 :>=AB@C:F89 O2;O5BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL A;54CNI8E B@0=AD>@<0F8>==KE ?@5>1@07>20=89: N be A to V -> to V be A p N -*- It be A p N to V. He was mad to come. -> To come was mad of him. ->" It was mad of him to come. 4) >AB@>5=8O, >1J548=5==K5 2 40==>9 3@C??8@>2:5, 2=5H=5 A>2?040NB A B5<8, :>B>@K5 1K;8 @0AA<>B@5=K 2KH5. 0 >1I=>ABLN ?>25@E=>AB=>9 AB@C:BC@K A:@K205BAO, >4=0:>, @07;8G85 A5<0=B8G5A:8E AB@C:BC@, >BG5B;82> ?@>O2;ONI55AO =0 B@0=AD>@<0F8>==>< C@>2=5 0=0;870. !=0G0;0 ?@8<5@K: Lost dogs are dreadful to think about. (J. Galsworthy) She was good to look a t in a broad way. (P. Abrahams) ><?>=5=B0< :>=AB@C:F88 (?>4;560I5<C 8 8=D8=8B82C) 745AL ?@8ACI8 8<?;8F8B=K5 7=0G5=8O: ?5@2><C  >1J5:B0, 2B>@><C : ?0AA82=>AB8, GB> >?@545;O5B >A>15==>AB8 B@0=AD>@<0F8>==KE ?@5>1@07>20=89 :>=AB@C:F88, :>B>@K5 >B;8G=K >B >?8A0==KE 2KH5 2 A2O78 A :>=AB@C:F8O<8 3@C??K 3): to VH be A "> see his smile was pleasant. It be A to VN " I be A to V^ was pleasant to see his smile. His smile wasNv of N be A .*w**.*^&. pleasant to seeThe sight of his smile was pleasant. Nv be A to be Ven  His smile was pleasant to be seen. ;03>;L=>5 8 04J5:B82=>5 CA;>6=5=85 <>3CB A>2<5I0BLAO: Moira seemed not to be able to move- (D- Lessing) The first words may be more difficult to memorize than later ones. (K- L- Pike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to think, to consider, to remember 8 4@.)> ?@8=04;560B A5<0=B8G5A:8 8 AB@C:BC@=> 1;87:85 3;03>;K, >1>7=0G0NI85 ?@>F5AAK ?A8E8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 (to like, to wish, to want 8 B. ?.). =0G5 3>2>@O, : ?5@2>9 3@C??5 ?@8=04;560B 3;03>;K, A2O70==K5 A >1>7=0G5=85< ?@>F5AA>2, >B=>AOI8EAO : 4CE>2=>9 687=8, 2 B>< A<KA;5, 2 :>B>@>< MB0 AD5@0 45OB5;L=>AB8 <>65B 1KBL ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=0 D878G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?@54AB02;5==>9 3;03>;0<8 3@C??K 3) (to see, to hear, to feel 8 B. ?.)- C6405BAO 2 CB>G=5=88 8 ?>=OB85 ?@>2>:0B82=KE 3;03>;>2. 1>7=0G5=85 ?@>2>:0B82=K9, 2>7<>6=>5 2 A2O78 A 3;03>;0<8 B8?0 to make, =5 2?>;=5 C<5AB=> ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : 3;03>;0< B8?0 to push (He pushed the door open), ?>A:>;L:C @57C;LB0B>< 459AB28O, >1>7=0G05<>3> 3;03>;0<8 2B>@>3> B8?0, =5 O2;O5BAO 4@C3>5 459AB285. <5AB5 A B5< >G5284=0 8 8E >1I=>ABL: 459AB285 >A=>2=>3> 3;03>;0 2K7K205B 8;8 <>65B 2K720BL 2 >4=>< A;CG05 459AB285, 2 4@C3><  ?>O2;5=85 =>2>3> ?@87=0:0, ?@>872>48B5;5<I=>A8B5;5< :>B>@>3> O2;O5BAO >1J5:B-4>?>;=5=85. #G8BK20O >B<5G5==>5 @07;8G85, <>6=> ?@54;>68BL 4@C3>5, 1>;55 48DD5@5=F8@>20==>5 8 ?>B><C 1>;55 B>G=>5 =08<5=>20=85 4;O 3;03>;>2 3@C??K 2)  ?@>2>:0B82=>-:0C70B82=K5 3;03>;K.  MB>9 65 3@C??5 4>;6=K 1KBL >B=5A5=K 8 4@C385 3;03>;K, :>B>@K5 >1>7=0G0NB ?@>F5AAK, A2O70==K5 A 0:B82=K< 2>7459AB285< AC1J5:B0-?>4;560I53> =0 >1J5:B-4>?>;=5=85: to keep, to hold, to leave, to send 8 4@. @82545< ?@8<5@K. #A;>6=5=85 ?@O<>3> 4>?>;=5=8O 2 A2O78 A 3;03>;0<8, >1>7=0G0NI8<8 ?@>F5AAK C<AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8: '[...I I thought her delightful.' (J. Galsworthy) She did not consider it a break. (!. ' Sno^) 7 envy you going there.' (H. E. Bates) I wished him dead. (D. du Maurier); 2 A2O78 A 3;03>;0<8, >1>7=0G0NI8<8 :><<C=8:0B82=K5 ?@>F5AAK: Kupferman declared the resumption of bombing to be a 'great 8 . . 20=>20 8 4@. 225 !<8@=8F:89 .. >@D>;>38O !<8@=8F:89 .. >@D>;>38O 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0. .: =.O7., 1959.  A. 440.  #  $" 114. 0: C65 1K;> A:070=>, AC1AB0=B82=K9 E0@0:B5@ 2 35@C=488 2K@065= 3>@074> 1>;55 O@:>, G5< 2 8=D8=8B825. -B> ?@>O2;O5BAO ?@5645 2A53> 2 B><, GB> 35@C=489 <>65B 22>48BLAO 2 @5GL ?>A@54AB2>< ?@54;>30; A>G5B05<>ABL 65 A ?@54;>30<8, :0: 8725AB=>, O2;O5BAO E0@0:B5@=>9 >A>15==>ABLN >1@07>20=89 AC1AB0=B82=>3> E0@0:B5@0. !@., =0?@8<5@, I was surprised at his saying that / 1K; C482;5=, GB> >= A:070; MB>, A>1AB2. B0:8< 53> 70O2;5=85<, 8 I was surprised at his words / 1K; C482;5= 53> A;>20<8. =D8=8B82 65, 2 >B;8G85 >B 35@C=48O, A ?@54;>3>< A>G5B0BLAO =5 <>65B. (#?>B@51;ONI55AO A 8=D8=8B82>< to, =5:>340 1K2H55 ?@54;>3><, B5?5@L O2;O5BAO ;8HL G0AB8F59, ><>=8<8G=>9 ?@54;>3C 8 CB@0B82H59 A2>5 ?5@2>=0G0;L=>5 7=0G5=85.)  @ 8 < A G 0 n 8 A: 5:>B>@K5 02B>@K, ?@0240, (A<., =0?@8<5@, :AD>@4A:89 A;>20@L) AG8B0NB, GB> 8?D8==B88 22>48BAO ?@54;>3>< about 2 A;CG05 I was about to go there / 1K; 3>B>2 84B8 BC40 8 B. ?. 4=0:> 745AL about O2;O5BAO =5 ?@54;>3><, 0 =0@5G85< 8 A>AB02;O5B >4=> F5;>5 A 3;03>;>< be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was surprised1 at the teacher's saying that / 1K; C482;5=, GB> ?@5?>4020B5;L A:070; MB>, I was surprised at his saying that / 1K; C482;5=, GB> >= A:070; MB>.  ?@82545==KE ?@8<5@0E 35@C=489 A;C68B >?>@=K< F5=B@>< =5 B>;L:> 4;O that, => 8 4;O his 8 teacher's, GB> <>6=> 87>1@078BL A;54CNI8< >1@07><:  250  >B;8G85 >B 35@C=48O, ?@8 8=D8=8B825 45OB5;L >1>7=0G05BAO 8;8 D>@<>9 >1I53> ?04560 ACI5AB28B5;L=>3> 8;8 D>@<>9 >1J5:B=>3> ?04560 <5AB>8<5=8O: =0?@8<5@, I saw the boy run II 2845;, :0: <0;LG8:, 1560;, I heard them sing / A;KH0;, :0: >=8 ?5;8 8 B. ?.; A;>2>D>@<K b>C <0;LG8: 8 them 8E 2KABC?0NB 745AL 1>;55 A0<>AB>OB5;L=> ?> >B=>H5=8N : 8=D8=8B82C, G5< his 53> 8 teacher's ?@5?>4020B5;O ?> >B=>H5=8N : 35@C=48N 2 ?@82>482H8EAO 2KH5 ?@8<5@0E: C:070==K5 A;>2>D>@<K (@02=> :0: 8 A0< 8=D8=8B82) 7028AOB >B A:07C5<>3> 8 =0E>4OBAO A =8< 2 =5?>A@54AB25==>9 3@0<<0B8G5A:>9 A2O78, GB> <>6=> ?@54AB028BL A515 A;54CNI8< >1@07><:  =0G5 3>2>@O, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2 I was surprised at his saying that A;>2>D>@<K his 8 surprised =8:0: =5 A2O7K20NBAO 4@C3 A 4@C3><, 2 A;CG05 I saw the boy run A;>2>D>@<K (the)boy 8 saw, =0E>4OBAO 2 B5A=>9 3@0<<0B8G5A:>9 A2O78. #:070==K9 @07;8G=K9 E0@0:B5@ >1>7=0G5=8O 45OB5;O ?@8 8=D8=8B825 8 35@C=488 B0:65, 5AB5AB25==>, ?>4G5@:8205B 1>;LHCN AC1AB0=B82=>ABL 35@C=48O, ?> A@02=5=8N A 8=D8=8B82><. !C1AB0=B82=K9 E0@0:B5@ 8=D8=8B820 2KABC?05B >A>15==> OA=> ;8HL B>340, :>340 8=D8=8B82 O2;O5BAO ?>4;560I8<: =0?@8<5@, "> find him was a hard task 09B8 53> 1K;> BO65;>9 7040G59.  4@C38E A;CG0OE AC1AB0=B82=>ABL 8=D8=8B820 =5 O2;O5BAO AB>;L O@:>9.  A2O78 A MB8< A;54C5B >A>1> ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> 4065 B0<, 345 8=D8=8B82 2KABC?05B :0: 1C4B> 1K =0 ?@020E ?@O<>3> 4>?>;=5=8O, B. 5. 2 ?@54;>65=8OE B8?0 I like to go there =5 E>G5BAO ?>9B8 BC40 8 B. ?., <K 2A5 65 =5 2?@025 @0AA<0B@820BL 53> 2 :0G5AB25 ?@O<>3> 4>?>;=5=8O. 54L ?@O<>5 4>?>;=5=85  ?>=OB85, A>>B=>A8<>5 A :>A25==K< 8 ?@54;>6=K< 4>?>;=5=85<, ?>A:>;L:C ?@O<>5 4>?>;=5=85 O2;O5BAO G0AB=K< A;CG05< 4>?>;=5=8O 2>>1I5  A;CG05<, :>340 >1J5:B=K5 >B=>H5=8O 2K@060NBAO =C;5<.  B0: :0: =C;52>5 >D>@<;5=85 2K45;O5BAO ;8HL =0 D>=5 A;CG052 >D>@<;5=8O ?>;>68B5;L=K<8 251 ?>:070B5;O<8, B> ?@O<>5 4>?>;=5=85 >1O70B5;L=> 4>;6=> A>>B=>A8BLAO A :>A25==K< 8 ?@54;>6=K< 4>?>;=5=85<. 'B> :0A05BAO 8=D8=8B820, B> >= =5 <>65B A>G5B0BLAO A ?@54;>3>< 8 B5< A0<K< =5 <>65B 2K?>;=OBL DC=:F8N ?@54;>6=>3> 4>?>;=5=8O, 0 ?>MB><C, >G5284=>, 2>>1I5 2K?0405B 87 :0B53>@88 4>?>;=5=8O, ?@8A>548=OOAL : 3;03>;C =0 :0:8E-B> 8=KE ?@020E.  MB><C =04> ?@81028BL, GB> 8=D8=8B82 G0AB> 2KABC?05B 2 B0:8E ?@54;>65=8OE, 345 ?@O<>3> 4>?>;=5=8O 2>>1I5 1KBL =5 <>65B: A@., =0?@8<5@, I am glad to see you (/) @04 2845BL 20A (254L A>G5B0=8O B8?0 *I am glad you 8;8 *I am glad your sister 8 B. ?. 4;O 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0 =52>7<>6=K), GB> B0:65 A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, GB> A2O7L 8=D8=8B820 A 3;03>;L=>9 D>@<>9 =5 >1J5:B=0O, 0 8=>3> @>40. 0;55, A>?>AB02;OO B0:85 ?@54;>65=8O, :0: a) I want to go there / E>GC 84B8 BC40  5 intends to do it = =0<5@5205BAO A45;0BL MB>, 8 b) I want a book / E>GC :=83C, 5 intends his son to he a doctor = 8<55B =0<5@5=85, GB>1K 53> AK= 1K; 4>:B>@><, =5;L7O =5 70<5B8BL, GB> DC=:F8O 8=D8=8B820 2 A;CG0OE (0) >B;8G05BAO >B DC=:F88 A;>2, 2KABC?0NI8E 2 :0G5AB25 ?@O<>3> 4>?>;=5=8O 2 A;CG0OE ().  >B;8G85 >B A;CG052 (b), 8=D8=8B82 2 A;CG0OE (0) =5 >1>7=0G05B B>, =0 GB> =0?@02;5=> 459AB285, 0 @0A:@K205B ACI5AB2> ?@>F5AA0, >1>7=0G05<>3> 3;03>;><, A :>B>@K< A2O70= MB>B 8=D8=8B82, @0A:@K205B =0?>;=5=85 MB>3> ?@>F5AA0. =0G5 3>2>@O, 2 ?@54;>65=8OE B8?0 I want to go there / E>GC 84B8 BC40 8=D8=8B82 2KABC?05B =5 :0: G;5= ?@54;>65=8O, 8<5NI89 >1J5:B=>5 A>45@60=85, 0 :0: G;5= ?@54;>65=8O, @072820NI89 8 ?>OA=ONI89 A:07C5<>5, GB> <>6=> 1K;> 1K >E0@0:B5@87>20BL :0: 87JOA=5=85. =D8=8B82 @0A:@K205B, 87JOA=O5B A>45@60=85 65;0=8O (I want to go there), =0<5@5=8O (He intends to do it) 8 B. 4. <5==> ?>B><C, GB> 8=D8=8B82 =5 O2;O5BAO 2 ?@54;>65=88 4>?>;=5=85<, 0 2KABC?05B 2 1>;55 B5A=>9 A2O78 A 3;03>;><, 2>7<>6=> 53> C?>B@51;5=85 A B0:8<8 3;03>;0<8, ?@8 :>B>@KE 2>>1I5 =5 <>65B 1KBL 4>?>;=5=8O; =0?@8<5@, A <>40;L=K<8: You ought to do that K 4>;6=K 45;0BL MB>, I may say that / <>3C A:070BL MB> 8 B. 4. !:070==>5 2KH5 A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, GB> 8=D8=8B82, :0: 8 35@C=489, ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 D>@<C AC1AB0=B82=>9 @5?@575=B0F88 ?@>F5AA0 2 3;03>;5, => GB>, 2 >B;8G85 >B 35@C=48O, 53> AC1AB0=B82=K9 E0@0:B5@ 2K@065= =5 B0: O@:>. 252  '!" 115. "@5BL59 =5?@548:0B82=>9 (8<5==>9) D>@<>9 3;03>;0 O2;O5BAO ?@8G0AB85. @8G0AB85, :0: C65 3>2>@8;>AL 2KH5, 8<55B @O4 G5@B, A1;860NI8E 53> A ?@8;030B5;L=K<. >4@>1=55 > ?@8G0AB88 A<. 2 A2O78 A :0B53>@8O<8 2@5<5==>9 >B=5A5==>AB8 ( 128 147) 8 70;>30 ( 118 127). + $ +   ",+  116.  @O45 A;CG052 2 O7K:5 8<5NBAO ACI5AB28B5;L=K5 8 ?@8;030B5;L=K5, ><>=8<8G=K5 8<5==K< D>@<0< 3;03>;0. 1KG=> ACI5AB28B5;L=K5 8 ?@8;030B5;L=K5, A>2?040NI85 2 8AE>4=KE D>@<0E ?> 72CG0=8N A 35@C=485< 8 ?@8G0AB85<, A>>B25BAB25==>, @0AA<0B@820NBAO :0: >1@07>20==K5 >B A>>B25BAB2CNI8E D>@< 3;03>;0 (?@8 AC1AB0=B820F88 35@C=48O 8 8=D8=8B820 8;8 ?@8 04J5:B820F88 ?@8G0AB8O). "0:, 5A;8 27OBL ACI5AB28B5;L=>5 meeting 2AB@5G0, B> A B>G:8 7@5=8O A>2@5<5==>3> O7K:0 >=> ?@54AB02;O5BAO @57C;LB0B>< AC1AB0=B820F88 35@C=48O, GB> <>6=> 1K;> 1K 87>1@078BL B0:: 3;03>; meet-s mcet-( ) met-( ) meet-ing  >B3;03>;L=>5 ACI5AB28B5;L=>5 ineet-ing-( ) meet-ing-s 4=0:> 8AB>@8G5A:8 ?@>F5AA 1K; >1@0B=K<: ACI5AB28B5;L=K5 =0 -irig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a large room 1>;LH0O :><=0B0, to look at him A<>B@5BL =0 =53>, the doctor's arrival ?@81KB85 4>:B>@0 8;8 4065 his having come 8 his saying that, B> ;53:> C1548BLAO 2 B><, GB>, E>BO A;>20 2> 2A5E MB8E A;CG0OE A>548=5=K 4@C3 A 4@C3>< ?> >?@545;5==K< ?@028;0< 8 E>BO CAB0=02;8205<K5 MB>9 A2O7LN >B=>H5=8O ?>=OB=K, A;>2>A>G5B0=8O 2A5 65 =5 8<5NB @50;L=>3>, 8;8 0:BC0;L=>3>, A<KA;0.  =8E 2K@0605BAO =5 F5;L=0O <KA;L, 0, A:>@55, :0: 1K D@03<5=BK <KA;8 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O >BACBAB2C5B =5GB>, GB> 45;05B 40==K9 @O4 70:>=><5@=> A>548=5==KE A;>2 ?@54;>65=85<. -B> >7=0G05B, GB>, E>BO 2>?@>A > A;>2>A>G5B0=88, 8;8 70:>=><5@=>< 100 3@0<<0B8G5A:>< A>548=5=88 A;>2, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 8 2>?@>A > ?@54;>65=88, A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, O2;ONBAO B5A=> A2O70==K<8 <564C A>1>N ?@>1;5<0<8, MB> 2A5 65 425 @07=K5 ?@>1;5<K, ?@8G5< 254CI59 87 =8E O2;O5BAO ?@>1;5<0 ?>AB@>5=8O ?@54;>65=8O :0: B0:>2>3>.  A2O78 A MB8< =5>1E>48<> 5I5 @07 =0?><=8BL, GB> ?@54;>65=85 =5 2A5340 A>AB>8B 87 A>G5B0=89 @O4>2 A;>2; 2 8725AB=KE A;CG0OE 2AB@5G0NBAO 8 >4=>A;>2=K5 ?@54;>65=8O, :>B>@K5 ?@>872>4OB 2?5G0B;5=85 2?>;=5 70:>=G5==KE 2KA:07K20=89 8 459AB28B5;L=> O2;ONBAO B0:>2K<8, => B5< =5 <5=55 2>?@>A0 > A2O78 A;>2 8 > ?@028;0E A>G5B0=8O A;>2 2 =8E 2>>1I5 =5 2>7=8:05B: A@. B0:85 >4=>A;>2=K5 ?@54;>65=8O, :0: Come! >4>948B5!; Go! 48B5!; When? >340?; Why? >G5<C?; Which? >B>@K9?; Yes 0 8 <=>385 4@C385.  B> 65 2@5<O 2>?@>A > ?>AB@>5=88 ?@54;>65=8O 8 MB8E A;CG0OE =5 B5@O5B 8A:;NG8B5;L=>9 206=>AB8: B5< 1>;55 745AL ?>4;568B 2KOA=5=8N B>, GB> 45;05B A;>20@=K5 when, why, which 8 4@. 70:>=G5==K<8 2KA:07K20=8O<8. 'B> 65 45;05B A;>2> 8;8 @O4 A;>2 70:>=G5==K< 2KA:07K20=85<? 0:85 <><5=BK O2;ONBAO :>=AB8BC8@CNI8<8 <><5=B0<8 ?@54;>65=8O :0: B0:>2>3>? ;O B>3> GB>1K >B25B8BL =0 MB>B 2>?@>A, =5>1E>48<> ?@5645 2A53> @07>1@0BLAO 2 ACI5AB25 @07;8G8O <564C B0:8<8 A;>2>A>G5B0=8O<8 8 B0:8<8 ?@54;>65=8O<8, :>B>@K5 2:;NG0NB 2 A2>9 A>AB02 B5 65 A0<K5 (8;8 25AL<0 1;87:85 ?> 7=0G5=8N) ;5:A8G5A:85 548=8FK: =0?@8<5@, the doctor's arrival ?@81KB85 4>:B>@0 8 The doctor arrived >:B>@ ?@81K;.  >1>8E A;CG0OE A:070=> >1 >4=>< 8 B>< 65 ;8F5 (4>:B>@5) 8 >1 >4=>< 8 B>< 65 459AB288 (?@81KB88), =>, B5< =5 <5=55, <564C =8<8 8<55BAO 206=>5 8 ?@8=F8?80;L=>5 @07;8G85: 87 42CE A>G5B0=89 B>;L:> 2B>@>5 (The doctor arrived) O2;O5BAO A>>1I5=85< :0:>3>-B> @50;L=>3> D0:B0, 8<5NI53> 2?>;=5 >?@545;5==K9 0:BC0;L=K9 A<KA;.  A0<>< 45;5, 254L B>;L:> 2 MB>< A;CG05 ?@81KB85 4>:B>@0 >1>7=0G5=> :0: 459AB28B5;L=> 8<52H89 <5AB> D0:B  D0:B, >B=>AOI89AO : ?@>H;><C, 0 =5 : 1C4CI5<C 8;8 =0AB>OI5<C 8 B.?., 8, ?>MB><C, B>;L:> 2 A;CG05 The doctor arrived 2KA:07K20=85 ?@8>1@5B05B >?@545;5==K9 0:BC0;L=K9 A<KA;: CA;KH02 MB> A>>1I5=85, <K <>65< A>>B25BAB25==> @5038@>20BL =0 =53> 8 ?@54?@8=8<0BL B5 8;8 8=K5 459AB28O. 0>1>@>B, A;>2>A>G5B0=85 the doctor's arrival =5 8<55B 4;O =0A =8:0:>9 0:BC0;L=>9 F5==>AB8; >=>, :>=5G=>, ?>=OB=>, 101 8 CA;KH02H89 53> <><5=B0;L=> A2O65B MB> A;>2>A>G5B0=85 A ?@81KB85< 4>:B>@0, => ?@8 MB>< >= =5 1C45B 8<5BL =8 <0;59H53> ?@54AB02;5=8O > B><, O2;O5BAO ;8 MB> A>1KB88 @50;L=K< 8;8 B>;L:> 65;0B5;L=K<, =5>1E>48<K< 8;8 2>7<>6=K<; >B=>A8BAO ;8 >=> : =0AB>OI5<C <><5=BC 8;8 : 1C4CI5<C 8 B. ?. #:070==>5 ?@8=F8?80;L=>5 @07;8G85 <564C ?@82545==K<8 @O40<8 A;>2 =5 <>65B >A=>2K20BLAO =0 @07;8G8OE A;>20@=>3> ?>@O4:0, ?>A:>;L:C 2 ;5:A8G5A:>< ?;0=5 ACI5AB25==KE @07;8G89 <564C =8<8 =5 ACI5AB2C5B. -B> 70AB02;O5B ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> @5H5=85 40==>3> 2>?@>A0 =C6=> 8A:0BL 2 >1;0AB8 3@0<<0B8:8. 59AB28B5;L=>, 5A;8 A@02=8BL @O4K A;>2 The doctor arrived 8 the doctor's arrival, B> ;53:> C2845BL, GB> ?5@2K9 A;CG09 >B;8G05BAO >B 2B>@>3> B5<, GB> >= A>45@68B C:070=85 =0 2@5<O A>25@H5=8O 459AB28O. 0;55, C:070=85 =0 2@5<O A>25@H5=8O 459AB28O A>?@>2>6405BAO C:070=85< =0 B>, GB> A>45@60=85 40==>3> 2KA:07K20=8O <KA;8BAO :0: A>>B25BAB2CNI55 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. 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">;L:> ?@8 MB>< CA;>288 A>45@60=85 his writing a letter ?>;CG05B @50;L=K9 A<KA; 8 ?@52@0I05BAO 2 ?@54;>65=85 5 wrote a letter, GB> >7=0G05B His writing a letter took place in the past. 102 > A2>5<C ;5:A8G5A:><C A>45@60=8N His writing a letter 8 He wrote a letter M:2820;5=B=K, ?> 2> 2B>@>< 22>48BAO =>2K9 3@0<<0B8G5A:89 <><5=B - C:070=85 =0 >B=>H5=85 : 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, 8;8 ?@548:0F8O, 8 MB>B =>2K9 <><5=B >:07K205BAO @5H0NI8<. 5>1E>48<> 2 A2O78 A MB8< 70<5B8BL, GB> ?@548:0F8O <>65B 2K@060BLAO =5 B>;L:> 2 ?>;=>7=0G=>< A;>25, :0: MB> 8<55B <5AB> 2 ?@54;>65=88 5 wrote a letter, 345 ?@548:0F8O 2K@065=0 3;03>;>< write, => 8 2 A;>25, =5 8<5NI5< OA=>3> ;5:A8G5A:>3> 7=0G5=8O: A@. My brother is a doctor >9 1@0B  4>:B>@ A ?@548:0F859 2 A;C651=>< 3;03>;5 is. >6=> A:070BL 4065 1>;LH5: ?@8 2K@065=88 ?@548:0F88 3;03>;><-A2O7:>9 A A8;L=> >A;01;5==K< ;5:A8G5A:8< 7=0G5=85<  2 G0AB=>AB8 3;03>;><-A2O7:>9 is  <K 8<55< <0:A8<0;L=>5 ?@81;865=85 : =081>;55 G8AB><C 2K@065=8N ?@548:0F88.  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Does he live in Moscow? 825B ;8 >= 2 >A:25? 8 B. ?. @8 MB>< =5>1E>48<> >3>2>@8BL, GB> =57=0=85 2 F5;>< @O45 A;CG052 <>65B 1KBL =5 @50;L=K< =57=0=85<, 0 ;8HL 2848<K<; 8 5A;8 M:70<5=0B>@, ?@5:@0A=> 7=0NI89 A2>9 ?@54<5B, 70405B 2>?@>A =0 M:70<5=5 ABC45=BC, B> =07=0G5=85 MB>3> 2>?@>A0 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB>1K ?@>25@8BL 7=0=8O ABC45=B0; <><5=B =57=0=8O 2 40==>< A;CG05 1C45B 70:;NG0BLAO 2 =5C25@5==>AB8 M:70<5=0B>@0 >B=>A8B5;L=> B>3>, 2 :0:>9 AB5?5=8 ABC45=B >1=0@C68205B 7=0=8O 2 53> ?@54<5B5. 0B53>@8O CB25@645=8O->B@8F0=8O 2K45;O5BAO =0 >A=>25 ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=8O ?@>ABKE CB25@48B5;L=KE D>@< 8 A>AB02=KE >B@8F0B5;L=KE D>@< 3;03>;0: A@. The doctor arrived >:B>@ ?@81K; 8 The doctor did not arrive >:B>@ =5 ?@81K;. @8 C?>B@51;5=88 MB8E D>@< 3>2>@OI89 ;81> 135 CB25@6405B, ;81> >B@8F05B :0:>5-B> ?>;>65=85. !;54C5B ?>?CB=> 70<5B8BL, GB> CB25@48B5;L=K9 <><5=B 2 2KA:07K20=88 1K;> 1K C4>1=55 >1>7=0G8BL B5@<8=>< ?>;>68B5;L=K9 8 A>>B25BAB25==> 3>2>@8BL > ?>;>68B5;L=KE D>@<0E: 45;> 2 B><, GB> B5@<8= CB25@48B5;L=K9 O2;O5BAO 42CA<KA;5==K<, ?>A:>;L:C >= >4=>2@5<5==> ?@>B82>?>AB02;O5BAO :0: B5@<8=C >B@8F0B5;L=K9, B0: 8 B5@<8=C 2>?@>A8B5;L=K9. B@8F0=85 2 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5 2E>48B 2 A8AB5<C A?@O65=8O 3;03>;0, 2 A8AB5<C 53> A;>2>87<5=8B5;L=KE D>@<, 0 ?>MB><C 8 2K45;O5BAO 2 :0G5AB25 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>9 :0B53>@80;L=>9 D>@<K.  @CAA:>< O7K:5 <K 8<55< 8=CN :0@B8=C; >B@8F0=85 745AL 2K@0605BAO ;5:A8G5A:8: '=5' O2;O5BAO A;C651=K< A;>2>< (G0AB8F59), :>B>@0O ?@8A>548=O5BAO : ;N1>9 G0AB8 @5G8 (=0?@8<5@, '=5 AB>;', *=5 AB0@K9', '=5 745AL' 8 B. ?.).  0=3;89A:>< 65 O7K:5 >B@8F0=85 =5>B45;8<> >B 3;03>;0, >@30=8G5A:8 2E>48B 2 53> A8AB5<C, 0 2 @073>2>@=>9 @5G8 ?@54AB02;5=> >A>1K< B8?>< A;8B=KE D>@<: do not  - don't, will not  won't, shall not  shan't, am not  ain't*. 0B53>@8O ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 8;8 2@5<5==>9 >B=5A5==>AB8 2K45;O5BAO =0 >A=>25 ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=8O ?5@D5:B=KE 8 =5?5@D5:B=KE D>@< 3;03>;0: A@., =0?@8<5@, The doctor arrived 8 The doctor had arrived.  40==>< A;CG05 3>2>@OI53> 8=B5@5AC5B =5 >B=>H5=85 : <><5=BC @5G8, 0 >B=>H5=85 2> 2@5<5=8 : :0:><C-;81> 4@C3><C D0:BC 8;8 A>1KB8N: =0?@8<5@, I have lost my key and I cannot open the door / ?>B5@O; A2>9 :;NG 8 =5 <>3C >B:@KBL 425@L; ?>B5@O :;NG0 @0AA<0B@8205BAO 745AL ?> >B=>H5=8N : B><C, GB> O =5 <>3C >B:@KBL 425@L. 0B53>@8O 2840 2K45;O5BAO =0 >A=>25 ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=8O ?@>ABKE D>@< >1I53> 2840 8 A>AB02=KE D>@< 4;8B5;L=>3> 2840: A@. 5 read a book = G8B0;/?@>G8B0; :=83C 8 5 was reading a book = G8B0; :=83C. 1I89 284 :>=AB0B8@C5B =0;8G85 >?@545;5==>3> 459AB28O 2 =0AB>OI5<, ?@>H54H5< 8;8 1C4CI5<, 0 4;8B5;L=K9 284, ?><8<> C:070==>9 :>=AB0B0F88, 4>?>;=8B5;L=> E0@0:B5@87C5B 459AB285 2 A0<>< ?@>F5AA5 53> @0728B8O; A@. I speak English.  I am speaking English. I spoke English.  I was speaking English. I shall speak English.  I shall be speaking English. * >A;54=OO B8?>D>@<0 ACI5AB2C5B B>;L:> 2 @073>2>@=>9 @5G8. 136 0B53>@88 ;8F0 8 G8A;0 8<5NB A2>5>1@07=>5 =07=0G5=85. -B8 :0B53>@88 8725AB=K< >1@07>< A?;5B0NBAO A 2K@065=85< ?@548:0F88, => >A=>2=>5 8E =07=0G5=85 4@C3>5  C:070=85 =0 AC1J5:B (A<. 72). @><5 B>3>, 2 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5 <>6=> 2K45;8BL 5I5 >4=C 1>;55 >1ICN :0B53>@8N, ACI5AB2CNICN 2 ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=88 42CE 87 ?5@5G8A;5==KE :0B53>@89, 0 8<5==>  :0B53>@8N 2KA:07K20=8O, ?@>O2;ONICNAO 2 ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=88 :0B53>@88 70O2;5=8O-2>?@>A0 8 :0B53>@88 CB25@645=8O->B@8F0=8O. @8<5G0=85 1. A5 C:070==K5 745AL :0B53>@88 1C4CB ?>4@>1=55 @07>1@0=K 2 >@D>;>388 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0; 745AL 65 206=> >B<5B8BL A0<> =0;8G85 MB8E :0B53>@89 8 2 A2O78 A MB8< 40BL ?@54AB02;5=85 > B><, =0A:>;L:> A;>6=K< 8 <=>3>3@0==K< O2;O5BAO 2K@065=85 ?@548:0F88. @8<5G0=85 2. > A8E ?>@ 1K;8 @07>1@0=K B>;L:> B@8 87 2K45;5==KE 2 74 2>?@>A>2. 'B> :0A05BAO ?>A;54=53> (G5B25@B>3>) ?>?@>A8 -2>?@>A0 >1 >B=>H5=88 A:07C5<>3> : ?>4;560I5<C 8 > A@54AB20E, :>B>@K5 8A?>;L7CNBAO 4;O C:070=8O =0 A2O7L ?>4;560I53> A> A:07C5<K<,  B> >= 1C45B @07>1@0= =865 2 A2O78 A E0@0:B5@8AB8:>9 ?>4;560I53> (A<. 82). 4. ) 81. !>3;0A=> 40==><C 2 72 >?@545;5=8N, ?>4;560I55 5ABL A;>2> (8;8 3@C??0 A;>2), :>B>@K< >1>7=0G05BAO AC1J5:B. >A:>;L:C 65 AC1J5:B 1K; >?@545;5= 2KH5 :0: B>B ?@54<5B <KA;8, ?> >B=>H5=8N : :>B>@><C <KA;8BAO ?@548:0B, ?>4;560I55 >4=>2@5<5==> O2;O5BAO G;5=>< ?@54;>65=8O, C:07K20NI8< =0 B>, : G5<C >B=>A8BAO 70O2;5=85, A45;0==>5 2 A:07C5<><. >MB><C, E>BO ?@548:0F8O 2 ?>4;560I5< 8 =5 2K@0605BAO, >=>, =0@O4C A> A:07C5<K<, O2;O5BAO 3;02=K< G;5=>< ?@54;>65=8O. >;55 B>3>, ?>A:>;L:C ?>4;560I55 C:07K205B =0 B>, : G5<C >B=>A8BAO ?@548:0B 8 ?@548:0F8O, 2K@065==0O 2 A:07C5<><, A0<> A:07C5<>5 >:07K205BAO ?>4G8=5==K< ?>4;560I5<C. >4;560I55 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9, B0:8< >1@07><, AB@C:BC@=K9 F5=B@ ?@54;>65=8O, :>B>@K9 3@0<<0B8G5A:8 8 AB@C:BC@=> 4><8=8@C5B =04 A:07C5<K<.  B> 2@5<O :0: A:07C5<>5 7028A8B >B ?>4;560I53> 8 D>@<0;L=> 5<C ?>4G8=5=>, ?>4;560I55 =5 7028A8B =8 >B A:07C5<>3>, =8 >B :0:>3>-;81> 4@C3>3> G;5=0 ?@54;>65=8O. "0:, =0?@8<5@, 2 ?@54;>65=88 I see a man in the street / 286C 137 :0:>3>-B> G5;>25:0 =0 C;8F5 2A5 A;>20, :@><5 I, 7028AOB >B A:07C5<>3> see; => see, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, ?>4G8=5=> ?>4;560I5<C I. -B> AB0=>28BAO OA=K<, 5A;8 70<5=8BL <5AB>8<5=85 I :0:8<-=81C4L <5AB>8<5=85< B@5BL53> ;8F0 548=AB25==>3> G8A;0; 2 MB>< A;CG05 87<5=8BAO 8 D>@<0 A:07C5<>3>: 5 sees a man in the street. To 65 A0<>5, 5AB5AB25==>, <>6=> =01;N40BL 8 2 B0:8E ?@54;>65=8OE, :0: 5 speaks English; 5 is speaking English; He has lost his key 8 B. ?.  MB><C =04> ?@81028BL, GB> =0 F5=B@0;L=CN @>;L ?>4;560I53> 2 ?@54;>65=88 C:07K205B 2 40==>< A;CG05 53> >D>@<;5=85 8<5=8B5;L=K< ?0456><, :>B>@K9 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 =081>;55 =57028A8<>5 >1>7=0G5=85 ;8F0 8;8 ?@54<5B0 (>B :0:>3>-;=1> 4@C3>3> ;8F0, ?@54<5B0 8;8 459AB28O); 2 MB>< >B=>H5=88 ?@54AB02;ONB 8=B5@5A A;CG08 AC1AB0=B820F88, 8;8 >?@54<5G820=8O, ;8G=KE <5AB>8<5=89, ?@8 :>B>@>9 87 42CE D>@< <5AB>8<5=8O 2K18@05BAO 8<5==> D>@<0 8<5=8B5;L=>3> ?04560: Is it a he or a she? AE>4O 87 C:070==>3> 2KH5 ?>=8<0=8O ?>4;560I53>, :0: 3@0<<0B8G5A:>3> F5=B@0 ?@54;>65=8O, ?>4G8=ONI53> A515 A:07C5<>5, <>6=> 1K;> 1K :0: 1C4B> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> 157 ?>4;560I53> =5 <>65B ACI5AB2>20BL 8 ?@54;>65=85. 4=0:> ?@0:B8:0 C156405B =0A, GB> ?@54;>65=8O 157 ?>4;560I53> B0:65 2>7<>6=K: A@. @CAA:. '!048B5AL!', 0=3;. Sit down! 8 B. ?. '5< 65 >1JOA=O5BAO MB> ?@>B82>@5G85? 5;> 2 B><, GB> ?>4;560I55, :0: C65 3>2>@8;>AL 2KH5, 8<55B C:070B5;L=K9 E0@0:B5@, C:07K20O, : G5<C >B=>A8BAO A:07C5<>5. >MB><C, 5A;8 MB> C:070=85 8<55BAO 2 D>@<5 A:07C5<>3> 8;8 405BAO :>< B5:AB><, B> ?>4;560I53> 2 ?@54;>65=88 <>65B 8 =5 1L? L. ""5<" ire <5=55, ?@54;>65=85 2 B0:>< A;CG05 >:07K205BAO 4>AB0B>G=> ?>;=K< 8 157 ?>4;560I53>. "0:, =0?@8<5@, 2 ;0B8=A:>< O7K:5 >BACBAB285 ?>4;560I53> O2;O5BAO ?>GB8 =>@<>9 2 1->< 8 2->< ;8F5 548=AB25==>3> G8A;0: dico, dicis. >4;560I55 G0AB> <>65B >BACBAB2>20BL 8 2 4@C38E O7K:0E, =0?@8<5@ 2 @CAA:><, 2 ?@54;>65=8OE B8?0 '=0N'; '848HL, GB> A;CG8;>AL' 8 4@. I* 0=0;>38G=KE ?@54;>65=8OE A0<0 D>@<0 3;03>;0, >1>7=0G0NI0O A:07C5<>5, A>45@68B G5B:>5 C:070=85 =0 AC1J5:B. 0: C65 C:07K20;>AL, >BACBAB285 ?>4;560I53> O2;O5BAO =>@<>9 2 ?>25;8B5;L=>< =0:;>=5=88 :0: 2 0=3;89A:><, B0: 8 2 @CAA:>< O7K:0E: =0?@8<5@, @CAA:. 'AB0=LB5!' 8;8 '!O4LB5!' 8;8 0=3;. Sit down!; Get up!; Come! #:070=85 =0 AC1J5:B 138 405BAO 745AL :0: D>@<>9 3;03>;0, B0: 8 A0<>9 A8BC0F859.  0=3;89A:>< O7K:5 2 D>@<5 3;03>;0 2 ?>25;8B5;L=>< =0:;>=5=88 C:070=85 =0 AC1J5:B 405BAO =54>AB0B>G=> G5B:>. 2CG0=85 [ka m] <>65B 8<5BL @07;8G=K5 7=0G5=8O 8 <>65B 2AB@5B8BLAO =5 B>;L:> 2 ?>25;8B5;L=>< =0:;>=5=88. 4=0:> 4;O D>@< ?>25;8B5;L=>3> =0:;>=5=8O E0@0:B5@=> 8725AB=>5 >3@0=8G5=85: <K =5 <>65< 2AB@5B8BL 745AL comes. BACBAB285 ?>4;560I53> 8<55B 745AL >?@545;5==>5 7=0G5=85 8 2KABC?05B :0: ?@87=0: ?>25;8B5;L=>3> =0:;>=5=8O. #:070=85 =0 AC1J5:B 2 MB>< A;CG05 405BAO A0<>9 A8BC0F859: A>45@60=85< ?>25;8B5;L=>3> =0:;>=5=8O <>65B 1KBL ?@8:070=85, ?@>AL10, :>B>@K5 <>3CB >B=>A8BLAO ;8HL : B><C, : :><C >=8 >1@0I5=K. !;54>20B5;L=>, A0<0 A8BC0F8O C:07K205B =0 2->5 ;8F>, 8 =5>1E>48<>ABL 2 ?>4;560I5< >B?0405B. >4;560I55 <>65B >BACBAB2>20BL 2 >B25B0E =0 2>?@>AK 8;8 2 ?>25AB2>20=88 2 @073>2>@=>9 @5G8, 5A;8 :>=B5:AB C:07K205B, : G5<C >B=>A8BAO A:07C5<>5: =0?@8<5@, @CAA:. '"K 2845; 53>?  845;'; 0=3;. Saw him yesterday? 845; 53> 2G5@0?; Was there yesterday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hank you ?>4;560I53> =5B, 8 F5=B@>< :>=AB@C:F88 O2;O5BAO A:07C5<>5.  A;CG05 >BACBAB28O ?>4;560I53> ?@548:0F8O >B=>A8BAO : AC1J5:BC, AB>OI5<C 2=5 ?@54;>65=8O. "0:, E>BO 2 2KH5?@82545==KE ?@8<5@0E ?>4;560I53> =5B, >=8 =5 15AAC1J5:B=K. 7 D>@<K 3;03>;0 2 ?5@2KE 42CE ?@54;>65=8OE '3>2>@OB' 8 '=5 45;0NB' OA=>, GB> @5GL 845B > 3-A< ;8F5 <=>65AB25==>3> G8A;0, 0 2 B@5BL5< ?@54;>65=88 (Thank you) D>@<0 3;03>;0 8 :>=B5:AB C:07K20NB =0 B>, GB> AC1J5:B>< O2;O5BAO 1->5 ;8F>, B0: :0: 1;03>40@=>ABL 2K@0605BAO A0<8< 3>2>@OI8<.  @CAA:>< O7K:5 ?>AB@>5=85 ?@54;>65=89 157 ?>4;560I53> H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5=>. A>15==> G0AB> >BACBAB285 ?>4;560I53> =01;N405BAO 2 >B@8F0B5;L=KE ?@54;>65=8OE. 139 0?@8<5@: '45AL =5B AB>;0', 345 '=5B' AB0=>28BAO F5=B@>< :>=AB@C:F88.  ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL @CAA:><C O7K:C 0=3;89A:89 O7K: 8715305< ?>AB@>5=8O ?@54;>65=89 157 ?>4;560I53>. CAA:8< ?@54;>65=8O< 157 ?>4;560I53> 2 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5 G0AB> A>>B25BAB2CNB ?@54;>65=8O A ?>4;560I8<. !@.:  @CAA:>< O7K:5:  0=3;89A:>< O7K:5: >2>@OB ... They say ... >6=> 1K;> 1K ?>4C<0BL ... One might think... "5<=55B. It is getting dark.  0=3;89A:>< O7K:5 ?@54;>65=8O 157 ?>4;560I53> 1K20NB ?@58<CI5AB25==> 2> 2->< ;8F5 2 ?>25;8B5;L=>< =0:;>=5=88 (>4=0:> A@. Thank you 8 4@.); 4;O @CAA:>3> 65 O7K:0, :0: 284=>, >=8 E0@0:B5@=K 8 2 3-5< ;8F5. =3;89A:89 O7K: 8715305B ?>AB@>5=8O ?@54;>65=89 157 ?>4;560I53> 2 3-5< ;8F5. '5< 65 >1JOA=O5BAO @07;8G85 2 >D>@<;5=88 ?@54;>65=89 (157 ?>4;560I53>) 2 0=3;89A:>< 8 @CAA:>< O7K:0E? >4;560I55 >1>7=0G05B AC1J5:B, B. 5. C:07K205B, : G5<C >B=>A8BAO ?@548:0F8O. 4=0:> 8=>340 1K205B 70B@C4=8B5;L=> A:070BL, : G5<C >B=>A8BAO CB25@645=85. @>8AE>48B MB> 2A;54AB285 @07=KE ?@8G8=.  @CAA:>< 8 0=3;89A:>< O7K:0E =54>AB0B>G=> G5B:>5 7=0G5=85 AC1J5:B0 ?5@5405BAO 8=>340 ?>-@07=><C. 0: 284=> 87 ?@82>48<KE ?@8<5@>2, @CAA:89 O7K: H8@>:> 8A?>;L7C5B ?@54;>65=8O 157;8G=K5 8 ?@54;>65=8O 157 ?>4;560I53>, B>340 :0: 2 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5 4065 157;8G=K5 ?@54;>65=8O AB@>OBAO ?@8 ?><>I8 157;8G=>3> ?>4;560I53>. -B> >1JOA=O5BAO =54>AB0B>G=> G5B:>9 >D>@<-;5==>ABLN 0=3;89A:>3> 3;03>;0, :>B>@K9 A2>59 D>@<>9 =5 2A5340 <>65B 4>AB0B>G=> OA=> C:07K20BL =0 AC1J5:B; A;54>20B5;L=>, =0;8G85 ?>4;560I53> AB0=>28BAO =5>1E>48<K<. 0AA<>B@8< =081>;55 B8?8G=K5 A;CG08 =54>AB0B>G=> G5B:>3> A>45@60=8O AC1J5:B0 8 A?>A>1K 3@0<<0B8G5A:>3> >D>@<;5=8O MB8E A;CG052 2 @CAA:>< 8 0=3;89A:>< O7K:0E. 1. A;8 F5;L 2KA:07K20=8O 70:;NG05BAO 2 >?@545;5=88 ?@54<5B0, @0A:@KB88 53> =0720=8O, B> ?>4;560I8< A>>B25BAB2CNI8E ?@54;>65=89 :0: 2 0=3;89A:><, B0: 8 2 @CAA:>< O7K:5, 1C45B~ C:070B5;L=>5 <5AB>8<5=85: =0?@8<5@, 0=3;. This is a piece of chalk; @CAA:. '-B>  <5;'.  40==>< A;CG05 B@C4=> =09B8 =0720=85 4;O AC1J5:B0, >4=0:> OA=>, GB> 8<55BAO 2 284C C:070=85 =0 :>=:@5B=K9 ?@54<5B. 140 2.  B>< A;CG05, 5A;8 AC1J5:B =54>AB0B>G=> OA5=, 8;8 =565;0B5;L=> 4>AB0B>G=> OA=> =0 =53> C:07K20BL, 8;8 65 =52>7<>6=> 53> :>=:@5B878@>20BL, 8A?>;L7CNBAO =5>?@545;5==>-;8G=K5 ?@54;>65=8O.  @CAA:>< 8 0=3;89A:>< O7K:0E B0:85 ?@54;>65=8O AB@>OBAO ?>-@07=><C.  @CAA:>< O7K:5  0=3;89A:>< O7K:5 57 ?>4;560I53>: ! ?>4;560I8<, >1>7=0G0NI8< AC1J5:B =5G5B:> ?@8 ?><>I8 <5AB>8<5=89: >2>@OB. !>>1I0NB. They say. (!@. B0:65 :>=AB@C:F88 B8?0: One might think.) 4=0:>, :>340 MB>B =5G5B:89 AC1J5:B <KA;8BAO 2 2845 2>>1@0605<>3> A>15A54=8:0, :0: @CAA:89, B0: 8 0=3;89A:89 O7K: C?>B@51;ONB 2 :0G5AB25 ?>4;560I53> =5>?@545;5==>-;8G=>5 <5AB>8<5=85 2-3> ;8F0: =0?@8<5@, @CAA:. '"K =8:>340 =5 <>65HL B>G=> 7=0BL, GB> ?@>87>945B'; 'K <>3;8 1K C4828BLAO' 8;8 0=3;. You can never say what he will do next. =0;>38G=K5 ?@54;>65=8O <>3CB 1KBL 4065 >1@0I5=85< : A0<><C A515. 3. =>340 AC1J5:B ?@54AB02;O5BAO =5 :0: ?@54<5B, 0 :0: A8BC0F8O, AB5G5=85 >1AB>OB5;LAB2.  B0:>< A;CG05 <K 8<55<:  @CAA:>< O7K:5  0=3;89A:>< O7K:557;8G=K5 ?@54;>65=8O 157 ?>4;560I53>: 57;8G=K5 ?@54;>65=8O A 157;8G=K< ?>4;560I8< it: "5<=55B. It is getting dark. "0:8< >1@07><, ?@8 >BACBAB288 4>AB0B>G=>9 OA=>AB8 2 ?@54AB02;5=88 > AC1J5:B5 >4=8 0=3;89A:85 ?@54;>65=8O A ?>4;560I8< A>>B25BAB2CNB @CAA:8< =5>?@545;5==>-;8G=K< ?@54;>65=8O<, 0 4@C385  157;8G=K< ?@54;>65=8O<. ! B>G:8 7@5=8O G5B:>AB8 >1>7=0G5=8O AC1J5:B0 2 ?>4;560I5<   0=3;89A:>< O7K:5 2 @CAA:>< O7K:5 8< A>>B25B-@07;8G0NBAO A;54CNI85 B8- AB2CNB: ?K ?@54;>65=89: 1. 8G=K5 ?@54;>65=8O 0) ! ?>4;560I8<: 5 says. 0) = 3>2>@8B. HI > E0@0:B5@C A C 35=B0> =0;8G8N ?>4;560I53> ! ?>4;560I8<157 ?>4;560I53>8G=K5L 1 thtIiK S^p~4. Come I^~P~~5>?@545;5==>-;8G=K52. They say5. >2>@OB157;8G=K53. It rtfII7j-6. "5<=55B0 AE5<5 1C:2>9  CA;>2=> >1>7=0G5=> =0;8G85 40==>3> B8?0 2 @CAA:>< O7K:5, B0: 65 :0: 8 2 0=3;89A:><. -B> >B=>A8BAO : B8?0< ?@54;>65=89 ;8G=KE A ?>4;560I8< 8 157 ?>4;560I53>. 0<:>9 >12545=K B8?K, A2>9AB25==K5 :0:><C-;81> >4=><C O7K:C 8 =5A2>9AB25==K5 4@C3><C. "0: =5>?@545;5==>-;8G=K5 8 157;8G=K5 ?@54;>65=8O A ?>4;560I8< A2>9AB25==K ;8HL 0=3;89A:><C O7K:C, B>340 :0: =5>?@545;5==>-;8G=K5 8 157;8G=K5 157 ?>4;560I53> A2>9AB25==K ;8HL @CAA:><C O7K:C 8 =5 A2>9AB25==K 0=3;89A:><C. "0:8< >1@07><, 87 AE5<K 284=>, GB> B>340 :0: ;8G=K5 142 1) 57 ?>4;560I53>: 1) 4>;68B5 <=5 20HC Lend me your book. :=83C. 2. 5>?@545;5==>-;8G=K5 ?@54;>65=8O !B@>OBAO A ?>4;560I8< !B@>OBAO 157 ?>4;560- they, one 8;8 you: I53> 8;8 A =5>?@545;5==>- ;8G=K< 'BK': They say. (!@. B0:65 :>=- >2>@OB. (!@. B0:65 :>=- AB@C:F88 B8?0: One thinks; AB@C:F88 B8?0: ''B> BK BCB You can never tell.) ?>45;05HL'.) 3. 57;8G=K5 ?@54;>65=8O !B@>OBAO A 157;8G=K< !B@>OBAO 157 ?>4;560I53>: ?>4;560I8< it: It is dark. 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"0:, =0?@8<5@, ?@8 A@02=5=88 B0:8E ?@54;>65=89 :0: '=5 E>G5BAO' 8 '/ E>GC' AB0=>28BAO OA=>, GB> 157;8G=0O AB@C:BC@0 ?@54;>65=8O '=5 E>G5BAO' ?5@5405B AB8E89=>ABL 65;0=8O, =57028A8<>ABL 53> >B 2>;8 G5;>25:0.  ?@54;>65=88 65 '/ E>GC' 2K@0605BAO 0:B82=0O, =0AB>9G820O =0?@02;5==>ABL 2>;8 3>2>@OI53>. 143 A;8 >48=0:>2>5 A>45@60=85 <>65B 1KBL >D>@<;5=> 3@0<<0B8G5A:8 ?>-@07=><C, B> 8 @07;8G=>5 A>45@60=85 <>65B 1KBL 8=>340 >48=0:>2> >D>@<;5=>. !@02=8< A;54CNI85 ?@54;>65=8O: It rains 8 5 reads. 10 ?@54;>65=8O >48=0:>2K ?> 3@0<<0B8G5A:><C >D>@<;5=8N, 8 ?> >D>@<;5=8N >10 >=8  ;8G=K5 ?@54;>65=8O: :0: 2 B><, B0: 8 2 4@C3><, 5ABL ?>4;560I55. > A>45@60=8N 65 >=8 A>25@H5==> @07;8G=K: It rains >1>7=0G05B ?@>F5AA 157 CG0AB8O 2 =5< :0:>3>-;81> 45OB5;O (;8F0); 2 ?@54;>65=88 65 5 reads >1>7=0G5=> 459AB285 2?>;=5 >?@545;5==>3> ;8F0. It rains A5<0=B8G5A:8 157;8G=>, B0: :0: A5<0=B8:0 it 157;8G=0 ?> ACI5AB2C. >MB><C ?@54;>65=8O, ?>4>1=K5 It rains; It is cold, ?@O<> ?@>B82>?>;>6=K ?@54;>65=8O< B8?0 '=5 E>;>4=>': 2 ?5@2>< A;CG05 A>45@60=85 157;8G=>5, 0 AB@C:BC@=>5 >D>@<;5=85 ;8G=>5; ?> 2B>@>< 65 A;CG05, =0>1>@>B, A>45@60=85 ;8G=>5, 0 :>=AB@C:F8O 157;8G=0O. 0: C65 3>2>@8;>AL 2KH5, ?><8<> @07;8G8O <564C 3@0<<0B8G5A:8< ?>4;560I8< 8 AC1J5:B><, =5>1E>48<> @07;8G0BL 3@0<<0B8G5A:>5 ?>4;560I55 8 >1>7=0G5=85 45OB5;O. 07;8G5=85 ?>4;560I53> 8 45OB5;O >A>15==> 206=> 4;O ?@028;L=>3> ?>=8<0=8O 0:B82=>9 8 ?0AA82=>9 :>=AB@C:F88. !@02=8< 420 ?@54;>65=8O: The hunter killed the wolf 8 The wolf was killed by the hunter.  0:B82=>9 :>=AB@C:F88 the hunter O2;O5BAO ?>4;560I8<, B0: :0: MB> 3@0<<0B8G5A:89 F5=B@ :>=AB@C:F88 8 A:07C5<>5 5<C ?>4G8=5=>.  ?0AA82=>9 :>=AB@C:F88, =0>1>@>B, ?>4;560I55  the wolf, ?>A:>;L:C 8<5==> >=> O2;O5BAO 745AL 3@0<<0B8G5A:8< F5=B@>< ?@54;>65=8O, ?>4G8=ONI8< A:07C5<>5. "0:8< >1@07><, 2 0:B82=>9 :>=AB@C:F88 3@0<<0B8G5A:89 F5=B@ A>2?0405B A =08<5=>20=85< ?@54<5B0, ?@>872>4OI53> 459AB285 =0720=85< 45OB5;O), 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2 ?0AA82=>9 :>=AB@C:F88 3@0<<0B8G5A:89 F5=B@ A>2?0405B =5 A =08<5=>20=85< 45OB5;O, 0 A =0720=85< ?@54<5B0, =0 :>B>@K9 =0?@02;5=> 459AB285. C6=> A:070BL, GB> 2 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5 8<5NBAO H8@>:85 2>7<>6=>AB8 8A?>;L7>20=8O 2 :0G5AB25 ?>4;560I53> A;>2, >1>7=0G0NI8E ?@54<5BK, :>B>@K5 =0E>4OBAO 2 A0<KE @07=>>1@07=KE >B=>H5=8OE A 459AB285<: A@. 5 was laughed at 04 =8< A<5O;8AL; The boy was given a book 0;LG8:C 40;8 :=83C; The bed was not slept in  :@>20B8 =5 A?0;8 8 B. ?. (A@. 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"0:8< >1@07><, 8<5=8B5;L=K9 ?0456 ?>AB5?5==> 2KB5A=O5BAO 87 A:07C5<>3>.  G0AB=>AB8, 2 682>< ;8B5@0BC@=>< O7K:5 C65 ?@8=OB> 3>2>@8BL It's me -B> O; =0?@>B82, It's I 2>A?@8=8<05BAO :0: AC3C1> :=86=>5, ?>A:>;L:C D>@<0 8<5=8B5;L=>3> ?04560 <5AB>8<5=8O I 2A5 1>;LH5 70:@5?;O5BAO 70 ?>4;560I8<. 151 # <5AB>8<5=8O he C:070==0O B5=45=F8O ?@>O2;O5BAO A <5=LH59 A8;>9, => B0:65 8 745AL 2 @073>2>@=>9 @5G8 2>7<>6=> It's him; A@. B0:65 It's her. >6=> 1K;> 1K, :0: 1C4B>, 4C<0BL, GB> 2 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5 459AB2C5B A59G0A B0 65 B5=45=F8O, :>B>@0O =01;N40;0AL @0=LH5 2> D@0=FC7A:>< O7K:5, 345 <5AB>8<5=8O je, tu, il, elle AB0;8 C?>B@51;OBLAO B>;L:> 2 DC=:F88 ?>4;560I53>, B>340 :0: moi, toi, lui 8 B. 4. 8A?>;L7CNBAO 8 2 4@C38E DC=:F8OE: A@., =0?@8<5@, C'est moi. 4=0:> 2 B> 65 2@5<O 2 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5 A;>2>D>@<K 8<5=8B5;L=>3> ?04560 E0@0:B5@87CNBAO 8 1>;55 A2>1>4=K< C?>B@51;5=85<, G5< A>>B25BAB2CNI85 D@0=FC7A:85 <5AB>8<5=8O, 2 A8;C G53> 2>7<>6=K A>G5B0=8O B8?0 5 is taller than I = 2KH5 <5=O (A@. 66). (>4@>1=55 >B=>A8B5;L=> ?0456=KE D>@< ;8G=KE 8 4@. <5AB>8<5=89 A<. 2 >@D>;>388 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0.)  A8AB5<5 ACI5AB28B5;L=KE (8 <5AB>8<5=89 =5 ;8G=KE) =5B =8:0:>3> =0<5:0 =0 @07;8G85 <564C 8<5=8B5;L=K< 8 =58<5=8B5;L=K< ?04560<8, :>B>@>5 <K =01;N405< C ;8G=KE <5AB>8<5=89. @0240, <>65B 2>7=8:=CBL 2>?@>A, =5 8<55< ;8 <K 2 A8AB5<5 ACI5AB28B5;L=KE ><>=8<8N D>@< ?04560, 0=0;>38G=CN @CAA:. '=>GL' 2 ?@54;>65=88 '>GL ?@8H;0' 8 '=>GL' 2 ?@54;>65=88 '=0 ?@>A?0;0 2AN =>GL'. 4=0:> 2=8<0B5;L=>5 87CG5=85 A8AB5<K ?0456=KE D>@< ACI5AB28B5;L=KE 2 A>2@5<5==>< 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5 ?>:07K205B, GB> 0=3;89A:><C O7K:C ?>4>1=>5 ?0456=>5 @07;8G85 =5 A2>9AB25==> : A>2?045=85 72CG0=8O 2 A;CG0OE B0:>3> @>40 O2;O5BAO =5 ><>=8<859 D>@< ?04560, 0 8E =5@07;8G5=85<. (> MB><C 2>?@>AC A<. >@D>;>38N 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0.) BACBAB285 >A>1>9 ?0456=>9 D>@<K C ACI5AB28B5;L=>3> ?@8 C?>B@51;5=88 53> 2 DC=:F88 ?>4;560I53> 2545B : B><C, GB> 4;O 2K45;5=8O ?>4;560I53> 2 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5 1>;LHCN @>;L 83@05B ?>@O4>: A;>2. >4;560I55 2K45;O5BAO B5<, GB> >=> =5?>A@54AB25==> ?@54H5AB2C5B A:07C5<><C (5A;8 ?@8 A:07C5<>< =5B >?@545;8B5;L=KE A;>2). 0==>5 ?@028;> >AB05BAO 2 A8;5 8 B>340, :>340 ?@O<>5 4>?>;=5=85 2K=>A8BAO =0 ?5@2>5 <5AB>: A@., =0?@8<5@, This letter he wrote '-B> ?8AL<> >= =0?8A0; (A<. 57). A>1> 65 A?5F8D8G=K< 4;O 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0 O2;O5BAO B>, GB> 2 2>?@>A8B5;L=KE ?@54;>65=8OE ?>4;560I55 :0: 1K 2428305BAO 2 A:07C5<>5, @07<5I0OAL <564C 2A?><>30B5;L=K< 3;03>;>< 8 >A=>2=>9 G0ABLN A:07C5<>3>: A@. Do you know him? K 7=05B5 53> ? (A<. 58). 152 !2O7L <564C A>45@60=85< A:07C5<>3> 8 A>45@60=85< ?>4;560I53> 85. 564C A>45@60=85< ?>4;560I53> 8 A>45@60=85< A:07C5<>3> 8<55BAO 8725AB=0O 2708<>A2O7L: 1. G5=L G0AB> E0@0:B5@ A>45@60=8O ?>4;560I53> 4> =5:>B>@>9 AB5?5=8 >?@545;O5BAO E0@0:B5@>< A>45@60=8O A:07C5<>3>. 0: C65 C:07K20;>AL (A<. 75), A:07C5<>5 ?> A2>5<C A>45@60=8N ?>4@0745;O5BAO =0 @O4 B8?>2: 1) @>F5AA=>5: =0?@8<5@, 5 is reading; He reads. 2) 20;8D8:0B82=>5: =0?@8<5@, 5 is a doctor; The table is black. 3) 1AB>OB5;LAB25==>5: =0?@8<5@, 5 is here. 4) 1J5:B=>5: =0?@8<5@, He has many friends. #:070==K5 @07;8G=K5 B8?K A:07C5<>3> ?>-@07=><C E0@0:B5@87CNB ?>4;560I55. @>F5AA=>5 A:07C5<>5.  45AL 2K45;ONBAO 420 >A=>2=KE A;CG0O: 0) A> A:07C5<K< 2 D>@<5 459AB28B5;L=>3> 70;>30: A@. 5 examined On M:70<5=>20; 8 1) A> A:07C5<K< 2 D>@<5 AB@040B5;L=>3> 70;>30: A@. 5 was examined 3> M:70<5=>20;8.  7028A8<>AB8 >B D>@<K 70;>30 A:07C5<>5 C:07K205B =0 =0?@02;5=85 ?@>F5AA0 2 >B=>H5=88 AC1J5:B0, 0, B5< A0<K<, 8725AB=K< >1@07>< E0@0:B5@87C5B AC1J5:B: >=> ?>:07K205B, O2;O5BAO ;8 AC1J5:B 0:B82=K< CG0AB=8:>< ?@>F5AA0, 53> 8AB>G=8:><, 8;8 65 AC1J5:B ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ;8HL ?@54<5B, =0 :>B>@K9 =0?@02;5=> 459AB285, 2>7=8:H55 345-B> 2=5 53>. @0D8G5A:8 @07;8G85 <564C ?@54;>65=8O<8: 5 examined 8 5 was examined <>6=> 87>1@078BL A;54CNI8< >1@07><: Iie------------------------examined AC5J5:B =0?@02;5=85 ?@>F5AA0 he-------------------was examined J AC&J5:B =0?@02;5=85 ?@>F5AA0 153 =0G5 3>2>@O, 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B D>@<K 70;>30 ?@>F5AA=>3> A:07C5<>3> <>6=> 2K45;8BL 420 B8?0 ?>4;560I53>: 0) >4;560I55 A 0:B82=K< A>45@60=85<, 8;8 ?>4;560I55, >1>7=0G0NI55 45OB5;O: A@. The hunter killed the bear E>B=8:, C1K; <54254O. 1) >4;560I55 A ?0AA82=K< A>45@60=85<, 8; G ?>4;560I55, >1>7=0G0NI55 ?@54<5B, =0 :>B>@K9 ?5@5E>48B 459AB285: A@. The bear was killed by the hunter 54254L 1K; C18B >E>B=8:><. @8<5G0=85 1. K45;5=85 MB8E B8?>2 ?>4;560I53> 5I5 @07 A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, GB> ?>4;560I55 ?@54;>65=8O 8 8AB>G=8: 459AB28O  45OB5;L  ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 420 A>25@H5==> @07;8G=KE ?>=OB8O, ;560I8E 2 42CE @07;8G=KE ?;0=0E: ?>4;560I55 O2;O5BAO 3@0<<0B8G5A:8< F5=B@>< ?@54;>65=8O, => ?@54<5B, >1>7=0G05<K9 8<, =5 >1O70B5;L=> O2;O5BAO F5=B@0;L=K< ?> >B=>H5=8N : 459AB<H>, >1>7=0G5==><C A:07C5<K<. @8<5G0=85 2.  0=3;89A:>< O7K:5 ?>4;560I55 A 0:B82=K< A>45@60=85< 8 ?>4;560I55 A ?0AA82=K< A>45@60=85< =8:0: =5 48DD5@5=F8@CNBAO ?> 3@0<<0B8G5A:>9 D>@<5 A;>2: ?@8 =0;8G88 ;N1>3> B8?0 ACI5AB28B5;L=>5 >D>@<;5=> >1I8< ?0456><, 0 <5AB>8<5=85  8<5=8B5;L=K< ?0456><. "0 65 :0@B8=0 =01;N405BAO 8 2 @CAA:>< O7K:5  A B>9 B>;L:> @07=8F59, GB> 8<5=8B5;L=K9 ?0456 8A?>;L7C5BAO :0: 4;O <5AB>8<5=8O, B0: 8 4;O ACI5AB28B5;L=>3>. 4=0:> 2 =5:>B>@KE O7K:0E =5 8=4>52@>?59A:>9 A8AB5<K =01;N405BAO >?@545;5==0O 7028A8<>ABL <564C 3@0<<0B8G5A:>9 D>@<>9 ?>4;560I53> 8 A>45@60=85< A:07C5<>3>. /7K:8, 2 :>B>@KE 40==>9 7028A8<>AB8 =5 >1=0@C68205BAO, 8=>340 >1>7=0G0NBAO B5@<8=>< O7K:8 =><8=0B82=>3> AB@>O.  MB>< A<KA;5 AN40 A;54C5B >B=5AB8 8 B0:>9 O7K:, :0: 0=3;89A:89, ?>A:>;L:C, E>BO 8<5=8B5;L=K9 ?0456 2 =5< 8 ?5 ?@>=87K205B 2A59 A8AB5<K 8<5=8, B5< =5 <5=55 A>45@60=85 ?>4;560I53> =5 >B@0605BAO =0 53> >D>@<;5=88. 4=0:> =C6=> 70<5B8BL, GB> E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 2A53> AB@>O O7K:0 ?> >4=><C MB><C ?@87=0:C 2@O4 ;8 O2;O5BAO 25@=>9. 20;8D8:0B82=>5 A:07C5<>5.  @8 :20;8D8:0B82=>< A:07C5<>< A>45@60=85 ?>4;560I53> 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 <5@5 @0A:@K205BAO G5@57 >1>7=0G05<K9 A:07C5<K< ?@87=0:: A@., =0?@8<5@, 5 is old = AB0@, 345 ?@87=0: AB0@>AB8 ?@8?8AK205BAO ;8FC, :>B>@>5 >1>7=0G05BAO ?>4;560I8<. 1AB>OB5;LAB25==>5 A:07C5<>5.   A;CG05 >1AB>OB5;LAB25==>3> A:07C5<>3> A>45@60=85 ?>4;560I53> >?@545;O5BAO G5@57 CA;>28O, 2 :>B>@KE ACI5AB2C5B >1>7=0G05<K9 ?>4;560I8< ?@54<5B: A@. 5 is here = 745AL, 345 CA;>28O =0E>645=8O 2 >?@545;5==>< <5AB5 E0@0:B5@87CNB ;8F>, >1>7=0G5==>5 ?>4;560I8<.  MB>< >B=>H5=88 >1AB>OB5;LAB25==>5 A:07C5<>5 4> =5:>B>@>9 AB5?5=8 A1;8605BAO A ?@>F5AA=K< A:07C5<K<: 154 ?@8 ?@>F5AA=>< A:07C5<>< ?@54<5B, >1>7=0G5==K9 ?>4;560I8<, >?@545;O5BAO G5@57 53> CG0AB85 2 ?@>F5AA5, 0 ?@8 >1AB>OB5;LAB25==><  G5@57 53> ACI5AB2>20=85 2 >?@545;5==KE CA;>28OE >1J5:B82=>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. 1J5:B=>5 A:07C5<>5.   MB>< A;CG05 A>45@60=85 ?>4;560I53> E0@0:B5@87C5BAO G5@57 >B=>H5=85 >1>7=0G5==>3> 8< ?@54<5B0 : 4@C3><C ?@54<5BC >1J5:B82=>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8: A@., =0?@8<5@, 5 has many friends # =53> <=>3> 4@C759, 345 ;8F>, >1>7=0G5==>5 ?>4;560I8<, ?>;CG05B 8725AB=CN E0@0:B5@8AB8:C G5@57 >B=>H5=85 MB>3> ;8F0 : 4@C38< ;8F0< (53> 4@C7LO<).  B5E A;CG0OE, :>340 >B=>H5=85 >4=>3> ?@54<5B0 : 4@C3><C ?@54<5BC (8;8 4@C38< ?@54<5B0<) >:07K205BAO @53C;O@=K<, >=> AB0=>28BAO ?@87=0:>< ?@54<5B0, 8 ?>4;560I55 2 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E ?@54;>65=8OE A1;8605BAO A ?>4;560I8< 2 ?@54;>65=8OE B8?0 5 is old, 345 A:07C5<>5 O2;O5BAO :20;8D8:0B82=K<. A5 @07>1@0==K5 2KH5 A;CG08 A =5A><=5==>ABLN C:07K20NB =0 B>, GB> A>45@60=85 A:07C5<>3> 2 :0:>9-B> AB5?5=8 2A5340 >?@545;O5B A>45@60=85 ?>4;560I53>. @><5 B>3>, A>45@60=85 ?>4;560I53>, 157>B=>A8B5;L=> : A>45@60=8N A:07C5<>3>, @53C;O@=> 8 ?>A;54>20B5;L=> E0@0:B5@87C5BAO G5@57 ;5:A8G5A:>5 7=0G5=85 A;>2, 8A?>;L7>20==KE 4;O 53> 2K@065=8O. @8 MB>< A;54C5B >1@0B8BL >A>1>5 2=8<0=85 =0 B>, GB> 745AL 2>7<>6=K 8725AB=K5 >1>1I5=8O: B5 8;8 8=K5 A;>20 A >48=0:>2K< >1I8< ;5:A8G5A:8< 7=0G5=85< <>3CB A>74020BL >?@545;5==K5 >1I85 B8?K ?>4;560I53>; 2 A2>N >G5@54L, MB8 ?>A;54=85 <>3CB 8725AB=K< >1@07>< E0@0:B5@87>20BL A>>B25BAB2CNI85 ?@54;>65=8O 8 A;C68BL >A=>2>9 4;O :;0AA8D8:0F88 ?@54;>65=89 ?> B8?0<. !:070==>5 <>6=> ?@>8;;NAB@8@>20BL A ?><>ILN A;54CNI8E ?@8<5@>2: "0:, 5A;8 2 ?@54;>65=88 My brother wrote a letter >9 1@0B =0?8A0; ?8AL<> ?@>8725AB8 A;54CNI85 70<5=K: My brother wrote a letter. My son wrote a letter. The boy wrote a letter. That man wrote a letter. to <K C2848<, GB> 2> 2A5E MB8E A;CG0OE @07;8G8O <564C ?>4;560I8<8 =5 8<5NB 745AL ?@8=F8?80;L=>3> E0@0:B5@0. 155 ;L8H .. ;L8H .. !B@>9 A>2@5<5==>3> 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0. 2-5 874. (=0 0=3;. O7.). .: @>A25I5=85, 1971.  368 A. Chapter XXX WORD ORDER SOME GENERAL POINTS The term "word order" is a singularly unhappy one, as it is based on a confusion of two distinct levels of language structure: the level of phrases and that of the sentence. To approach this problem from a viewpoint doing justice to modern linguistic theory, we should carefully distinguish between two sets of phenomena: the order of words within a phrase and the order of parts of the sentence within a sentence. Here we are again confronted with the problem of the attribute: if the attribute is a secondary part of the sentence, its place falls under the heading "order of the parts of the sentence"; if, on the other hand, the attribute is part, not of a sentence, but of a phrase, its place with reference to its head word must be considered within the theory of the phrase and its parts. Since this question has not been settled yet, we may consider the place of the attribute in this chapter. All other questions ought to be discussed under the heading "order of sentence parts", but as it is hardly possible to introduce a change and to dismiss a term so firmly established, we will keep the term "word order", bearing in mind that it is quite conventional: what we shall discuss is the order of the parts of the sentence. SUBJECT AND PREDICATE4 The first question in this sphere is that of the relative position of subject and predicate. Although there are obviously only two possible variants of their mutual position ("subject + predicate", "predicate + subject"), this question has given rise to many discussions and different opinions have been expressed in the matter. In the light of these discussions we can now state that the main problem is this: should one of the two possible orders be taken to be the general norm of a Modern English sentence, so that all cases of the opposite order come to be regarded as deviations from it, or should the normal order be stated for every type of sentence in particular? If we take the first view, we shall say that the normal order in English is "subject 4- predicate", and every case of the order "predicate + subject" is to be considered as a deviation, that is, as an inversion. This has been the common view put forward in most grammars until recently. If we take the second view we will, in the first place, distinguish between declarative and interrogative sentences. The normal order in declarative sentences will of course be "subject + predicate", but the normal order in interrogative sentences Subject and Predicate V 289 will be "predicate + subject". Speaking of interrogative sentences, therefore, we wijl not say that there is any inversion in these sentences. We will take the second view, which has recently been very convincingly advanced in several special papers. l This is justified by the following simple considerations. If we take, for instance, the sentence, Only at sunset did I leave the house (GISSING, quoted by Poutsma), in which part of the predicate (the auxiliary verb do) comes before the subject, we have every reason to say that this order in a declarative sentence is due to the particle only coming at its beginning. If it were not for the particle, there would be the order "subject + predicate", which is the normal one in a declarative sentence: At sunset I left the house. The use of the particle, which ^ives special prominence to the adverbial modifier al sunset, to which it belongs, has caused the change of the usual declarative order, that is, it has caused an inversion. On the other hand, if we take an interrogative sentence like the following: When did he leave the house? we cannot say that the order "predicate + subject" (to be more exact, "part of the predicate + subject") is due to any special word being used in it. Even if we exclude the adverbial modifier when, which is essential for the meaning of the sentence, we shall get the sentence Did he leave the house? The order cannot be changed without the sentence ceasing to be interrogative and becoming declarative. The order "predicate + subject" is essential for the interrogative character of the sentence.2 Accordingly it is preferable to distinguish between two sets of phenomena: (1) normal order, which may be either the order "subject + predicate*', as in most declarative sentences, or "predicate + subject", as in most interrogative and in some declarative sentences, and (2) inverted order, or inversion, which may be the order "predicate.+ subject" in a special type of declarative sentence, or "subject + predicate" in a special type of sentence characterised in general by the order "predicate + subject" (the latter is a very rare phenomenon indeed). Up to now we have to some extent simplified the actual facts of the Modern English language. It is time now to point out the special cases which do not come under the general headings so far mentioned. For one thing, there is a type of declarative sentence in which the order "predicate + subject" is normal. These are sentences stating the existence or the appearance of something in a certain place. The most widely known type of such sentences is the one 1 See M. . 070@:528G, >@O4>: A;>2 2 A>2@5<5==>< 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5, 2B>@5D5@0B :0=4. 48AA., 1961. 2 We leave aside interrogative sentences of the type Who has come? What has happened?, where the order is "subject + predicate". (See p. 241.) 240 Word Order beginning with the words There is ... (we take the two words there and is as constituting together the predicate of the sentence)* Examples of such sentences are too well known to need illustration here. Besides the type There is ..., there arc also sentences beginning with the words There came .. ., as There came a thunderstorm] There appeared . .., and others of the same kind, and also sentences without there, beginning with an adverbial modifier, mostly denoting place, and followed by the predicate and the subject. The verbs most usually found in such sentences are, sit, stand, that is verbs indicating the position of a body in space. For instance: On the terrace stood a knot of distinguished visitors. (HUXLEY) In one corner sat the band and, obedient to its scraping and blowing, two or three hundred dancers trampled across the dry ground, wearing away the ground with their booted feet. (Idem) Something of the same kind is found in the following sentence, where the predicate verb is come: From below, in the house, came the thin wasp-like buzzing of an alarum-clock. (Idem) Cf. also the following sentence: On the corner, waiting for a bus, had stood a young woman, and just as he was about to pass she had dropped a coin which rolled on the sidewalk before him. (BUECHNER) This example differs from the preceding ones in two points: in the first place, the predicate verb is in the past perfect, and secondly, between the adverbial : modifier of place (on the corner) there is a participle phrase (waiting for a bus), which is probably best taken as an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances, and which is in any case a secondary part of the sentence. In the following sentence the order "predicate + subject" is sufficiently accounted for by the fact that there are two adverbial modifiers of place at the opening of the sentence. However, there is an additional factor here which is working in the same direction, namely the particle only singling out the adverbial modifiers and making them represent, partly at least, the rheme of the sentence. Only here and there among the neo-gothic buildings was there a lighted window, the sound of a voice, a shout or, in the distance, the noise of lonely footsteps on a stone path. (BUECHNER) Thus it appears that we have here normal order for this type of sentence, reinforced by the influence of only, which would have caused the order "predicate + subject" in any case. Word order is influenced by an initial only even if the rest of the main clause is separated from it by a considerable amount of intervening words, as in the following sentence: Only when, after a few minutes, he (the monkey) ceased spinning and simply crouched in the pale light, bouncing softly up and down, his fingers digging into the carpet, his tail curled out stiff, did he start to speak to them. (BUEGHNER) The particle only here serves t> single out the adverbial clause of time beginning with the words when, after a few The Secondary Parts 241 minutes, and, with the dependent participle constructions, running down to the words curled out stiff. In the sentence we also find the characteristic feature of many absolute constructions (compare p. 260): the subject of the absolute construction is a noun denoting a part of the body of the being whose name is the subject of the sentence (in this particular case it is not the actual name of the boing but the pronoun he replacing it). A much rarer type of inversion is found in the following sentence: Many were the inquiries she was eager to make of Miss' Tllney: but so active were her thoughts, that when these inquiries were answered, she was hardly more assured than before of Nort-hunger Abbey having been a richly endowed convent at the time of Hie Reformation... (J. AUSTEN) The position of the predicative in each of the two first clauses is distinctly emphatic, and the inversion is here a sign of an emotional colouring, which, in a larger context, appears to be ironic. Among interrogative sentences a well-known special type are sentences having an interrogative pronoun either as subject or as attribute to the subject; we might say, in a generalising way, having an interrogative pronoun within the subject group, as in the following examples: What is your business with me this morning? ; (SHAW) Who in this house would dare be seen speaking to you ever again? (Idem) Oh, who would be likely to see us anyhow at tins time of night? (DREISER) In the way of word order, then, such sentences correspond, to declarative sentences. Inversion, that is, the order "predicate + subject'*, in such sentences appears to be entirely out of the question. THE SECONDARY PARTS The Object The term "inversion" has sometimes been used to denote an unusual position of a secondary part of the sentence, that is, of an object or an adverbial modifier. That, however, is undesirable, since it might lead to misunderstandings and seriously hamper the study of word order. To illustrate our point, let us compare the following two sentences: This he knew very well, and, A pretty paradise did we build for ourselves. (THACKERAY, quoted by Poutsma) In both sentences the object stands at the beginning, which is not its usual place. After this, in the first sentence, come the subject and the predicate in their normal order for a declarative sentence, whereas in the second sentence the predicate comes before the subject. It is natural to say that in the first sentence there is no inversion, while in the second sentence there is one. Now, if we were to use 198 PARTS OF A SENTENCE. THE MAIN PARTS THE SUBJECT AND THE PREDICATE The question now arises, how are we to define the subject of a sentence? The question may also he put in a different way: what criteria do we practically apply when we say that a word (or, sometimes, a phrase) is the subject of a sentence? In trying to give a definition of the subject, we shall have to include in it both general points, valid for language in general, and specific points connected with the structure of Modern English. Thus the definition of the subject in Modern English will only partly, not wholly, coincide with its definition, say, in Russian, First let us formulate the structure of the definition itself. It is bound to contain the following items: (1) the meaning of the subject, i. e. its relation to the thought expressed in the sentence, (2) its syntactical relations in the sentence, (3) its morphological realisation: here a list of morphological ways of realising the subject must be given, but it need not be exhaustive, as it is our purpose merely to establish the essential characteristics of every part of the sentence. The definition of the subject would, then, be something like this. The subject is one of the two main parts of the sentence. (1) It denotes the thing l whose action or characteristic is expressed by the predicate. (2) It is not dependent on any other part of the sentence. (3) It may be expressed by different parts of speech, the most frequent ones being: a noun in the common case, a personal pronoun in, the nominative case, a demonstrative pronoun occasionally, a substantivised adjective, a numeral, an infinitive, and a gerund. It may also be expressed by a phrase.2. In discussing problems of the subject, we must mention the argument that has been going on for some time about sentences of the following type: It gave Hermione a sudden convulsive sensation of pleasure, to see these rich colours under the candlelight. (LAWRENCE) Two views have been put forward concerning such sentences. One is, that the pronoun it at the beginning of the sentence is the formal subject, and the real subject is the infinitive (in this particular case, to see). The other view is, that it is the subject of the sentence, and the infinitive an apposition to it. There is something to be said on both sides of the question. On the wholeIhowever, the second view seems preferable, as the division of subjects into formal and real ones seems hard to justify in general syntactical theory. 1 The term "thing" has to be taken in its widest sense, including human beings, abstract notions, etc. * We do not speak here about subordinate clauses performing the function of subject, since in that case the sentence is composite. See below, p. 286 ff. THE PREDICATE 199 As we have seen, the definition of the subject given here includes mention of the predicate. This is in accordance with the view stated above, that the two notions are correlative, that is to say, there is a subject in two-member sentences only. In a similar way, a definition oi' the predicate will have to include mention of the subject. Following the same pattern in the definition of the predicate, we arrive at the following result. The predicate is. one of the two main parts of the sentence. (1) It denotes the action or property of the thing expressed by the subject. (2) It is not dependent on any other part of the sentence. (3) Ways of expressing the predicate are varied and their structure will better be considered under the heading of types of predicate. Here it will suffice to say that among them are: a finite verb form, and a variety of phrases, for instance, phrases of the following patterns: "finite verb + infinitive", "link verb -f- noun", "link verb + adjective", "link verb + preposition + noun", etc. The assertion that the predicate is not dependent on any other part of the sentence, including the subject, requires some comment. It is sometimes claimed that the predicate agrees in number with the subject: when the subject- is in the singular, the predicate is bound to be in the singular, and when the subject is in the plural, the predicate is bound to be in the plural t as well. However, this statement is very doubtful. As we have seen above (p. 182), there is much to be said in favour of the view that the category of number in the predicate verb is independent of the number in the subject. This is especially confirmed by sentences like My family are early risers, where the plural number in the link verb shows the plurality of the acting persons, though the subject noun is in the singular. Besides it should be noted that this question of concord or no concord is one that belongs to the level of phrases, not to that of the sentence and its parts. Thus, there seems to be no valid reason for thinking that the predicate is in any way dependent on the subject. Types of Predicate Predicates may be classified in two ways, one of which is based on their structure (simple and compound), and the other on their morphological characteristics (verbal and nominal). If we take the structural classification as the basic one we obtain the following types: A Simple predicate (1) Verbal (2) Nominal 201 PARTS OF A SENTENCE, THE MAIN PARTS  Compound predicate (1) Verbal (2) Nominal If we were to take the morphological classification as the basic one the result would be the following: A Verbal predicate (1) Simple , (2) Compound  Nominal predicate (1) Simple (2) Compound The ultimate result is of course the same in both cases. Most of the predicate types mentioned here do not call for any comment. However, something has to be said on two questions: the simple nominal predicate and the limits of the compound verbal predicate. The simple nominal predicate, that is, a predicate consisting merely of a noun or an adjective, without a link verb, is rare in English, but it is nevertheless a living type and must be recognised as such. The spheres of its use appear to be mainly two. One of these is found in sentences where the immediate neighbourhood of the subject noun and the predicate noun or adjective is used to suggest the impossibility or absurdity of the idea that they might be connected. Sentences with this kind of simple nominal predicate are always exclamatory, that is, they are pronounced with the exclamatory intonation, and have an exclamation mark in writing. For instance, the sentence from a play by Shaw, My ideas obsolete!!!!!!! (with seven exclamation marks) expresses the speaker's indignation at hearing his ideas characterised as obsolete by a younger man. * It would not do to call such sentences elliptical (see also p. 261), since the link verb cannot be added without completely changing the meaning of the sentence. In our next example the subject is followed by an infinitive with an inserted clause between them: Such an old, old lady, he came near to saying out loud to himself, to come so far, on a train called the Blue Mountain, out of the south, into the north. (BUECHNER) The infinitive to come here clearly performs the function of predicate. 1 O. Jespersen calls such sentences "nexus of deprecation" (see O. Jespersen, A Modern English Grammar, Part III, p. 372 ff.). THE SIMPLE NOMINAL PREDICATE 202 Though there is no exclamation mark at the end of the sentence, it is clearly exclamatory. The idea expressed in it might also be expressed in this way: That such an old, old lady... should come so far, on a train called the Blue Mountain, out of the south, into the north. In our next example both sentences have a predicate infinitive without to: George mind tennis on SundayI George, after his education, distinguish between Sunday (FORSTER) This is said in reply to a suggestion that George would refuse to play tennis on a Sunday. Another type of sentence with a simple nominal predicate is that in which the predicative comes first, the subject next, and no link verb is either used or possible. Such sentences seem to occur chiefly, in colloquial style, for instance: "Splendid game, cricket," remarked Mr Barbecue-Smith heartily to no one in particular; "so thoroughly English" (HUXLEY) This is a sentence with a simple nominal predicate. There is inversion, no article with the predicative noun, and the style is very colloquial. The phrase representing the rheme comes first, and after it comes the word representing the theme. That it is the theme is made quite clear by the preceding context. Priscilla, the mistress of the house, is reading a newspaper at breakfast: "I see Surrey won," she said, with her mouth full, "by four wickets. The sun is in Leo: that would account for it!" Although the word cricket is not mentioned, it is quite evident, from the words Surrey (which here denotes a cricket team), won and wickets, that she has been reading about the latest cricket match. The latter part of Mr Barbecue-Smith's speech, so thoroughly English, adds another predicative to the first, splendid game, and also with no link verb to it. If changed into the usual compound nominal predicate pattern, the sentence would run: "Cricket is a splendid game; it is so thoroughly English"; the meaning would be quite the same as in the original sentence but the specific colloquial colouring would be gone altogether. The Participle as Predicate We should probably also class among sentences with a simple nominal predicate the sentences in which the function of predicate is performed by a participle. Sentences of this type received very little attention until quite recently, when they were discussed in a grammar by Prof. N. Irtenyeva * and in a dissertation by Y. Ko-missarova. 2 1 H. $. @B5=L520, @0<<0B8:0 A>2@5<5==>3> 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0, 1956, AB@. 160. 2 10. . ><8AA0@>20, @8G0AB=K5 ?@54;>65=8O 2 A>2@5<5==>< 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5. 0=4. 48AA., 1962. 203 PARTS OF A SENTENCE. THE MAIN PARTS It will perhaps be bu&st to start discussion of such sentences by considering a few characteristic examples. And then to add to the nervousness and confusion engendered by all this, thoughts as to what additional developments or persons, even, he might encounter before leaving on his climacteric errand Roberta announcing that because of the heat and the fact that they were coming back to dinner, she would leave her hat and coat a hat in which he had already seen the label of Braunstein B Lycurgus  and which at the time caused him to meditate as to the wisdom of leaving or extracting it. (DREISER) This of course is a complex sentence, with several subordinate clauses in it, and the main clause is a participle clause: And then... Roberta announcing... This might admit of two different interpretations: we may take the clause with Roberta announcing as a one-member clause, Roberta the main part and announcing an attribute to it, or we may think it is a two-member clause, with Roberta the subject and announcing the predicate. What criterion shall we apply to choose between the two alternatives? If we take it as a one-member clause it would fall under the same head as some sentences we have considered above, for instance, the one from "An American Tragedy": Dusk of a summer night, or like so many stage-directions of the type, A large room. Three chairs, etc. Now the sentence containing Roberta announcing is evidently quite different in character. It tells the fact that Roberta announced that she would leave her hat and coat, etc. Much the same may be said of the following example: And then the next day at noon, Gun Lodge and Big Bittern itself and Clyde climbing down from the train at Gun Lodge and escorting Roberta to the waiting busf the while he assured her that since they were coming back this way, it would be best if she were to leave her bag there, while he, because of his camera as well as the lunch done up at Grass Lake and crowded into his suitcase, would take his own with him, because they would lunch on the lake. (DREISER) We need not dwell here on the subordinate clauses, which are irrelevant for our judgement of the structure of the participle clause. This example differs from the preceding in that the section of the sentence preceding the first subordinate clause, namely the text And then the next day at noon, Gun Lodge and Big Bittern itself and Clyde climbing down from the train at Gun Lodge and escorting Roberta to the waiting bus consists of two co-ordinate independent clauses, with the adverbial modifier then the next day at noon referring to both of them. The first main clause, namely Gun Lodge and Big Bittern itself, is quite clearly a one-member clause, with two co-ordinate main parts, and the second main clause a participle clause: Clydf climbing down from the train at Gun Lodge and escorting Roberta to the waiting bus. There are two participle. predicates here: (1) climbing (down), THE PARTICIPLE AS PREDICATE 204 (2) escorting. Even the neighbourhood of the one-member clause Gun Lodge and Big Bittern itself cannot, it would seem, be taken as proof that the clause Clyde ... waiting bus is a one-member clause. Such examples as these go a long way to show that the participle, though it is a verbal, not 'a finite verb form, is able to perform by itself a function generally believed to be characteristic of finite verb forms only, namely that of predicate. This possibility, as well as the ability of the infinitive to be, in certain circumstances, (he main part of a one-member sentence, should perhaps be taken into account in a definition of these forms and of verbals in general. An additional remark may not be out of place here. In analysing sentences having an infinitive or a participle as predicate we have taken the predicate to be a nominal one. However, this view may be challenged on the ground that both the infinitive and the participle are forms of a verb, and there would seem to be some reason for claiming that the predicate of such sentences is a verbal one. It must be admitted that there are no binding reasons either way, as both the infinitive and the participle are verbals, that is, they share of the nature of a verb and of a nominal part of speech (noun or adjective). The reason why we considered such predicates to be nominal is, that an infinitive and a participle can function as predicative in connection with a link verb, and it may, at least, be argued that this shows them to be nominal elements of a predicate. Other Types of Nominal Predicate Besides these main cases of a simple nominal predicate there are also some rare types, such as in the text of weather bulletins, and the like, for instance: Wind southerly, later veering westward, sea slight, etc. Such sentences as these read like passages from a questionnaire, the adjective answering a question referring to the thing denoted by the noun (wind, sea, etc.). Limits of the Compound Verbal Predicate Now we come to the second question, about the limits of the compound verbal predicate. It arises from the fact that a rather considerable number of verbs can be followed by an infinitive, some of them with, others without the particle to. Among such verbs are: shall, will, should, would, can, may, must (without to); ought, wish, want, desire, hate, fear, begin, start, continue, omit, forget, remember, etc. (with to). The relation between these phrases and parts of the sentence is of course not the same in all cases. We can at once eliminate the phrases "shall, should, will, would + infinitive", which constitute 205 PARTS OP A SENTENCE. THE MAIN PARTS tease or mood forms of the verb. Thus, the phrase shall write is a form of the verb write (as it does not differ from the forms write, writes, wrote in its lexical meaning) and, consequently, it is a simple verbal predicate. The phrases with the verbs can, may, must, ought (in the latter case with to) constitute a compound verbal predicate (this is almost universally recognised). But the phrases with the verbs wish, want, desire, hate, fear, begin, start, continue, etc. give rise to doubts and controversies. On the whole, there are two views expressed in this matter. According to one of them, all such phrases are also a compound predicate: the finite verb (wish, begin, etc.) does not denote any action of its own, it merely denotes the subject's attitude to the action expressed by the following infinitive (in the case of wish, fear, etc.), or a phase in the development of that action, namely, its beginning, continuation, etc. (in the case of begin, continue, etc.); consequently, it is argued, the phrase as a whole constitutes the predicate of the sentence: it is a compound verbal predicate, just as in the case of can, may, or ought. This argument, as will be easily seen, is based on purely semantic reasons: its decisive point is, that the finite verb does not denote any special action and only denotes the subject's attitude to it, or a phase of the action itself. But this is irrelevant from the grammatical viewpoint. What is more, this line of reasoning is dangerous: if we were to follow it to its logical consequences we should have to include into the predicate riot only such phrases as stopped laughing, avoided meeting, and a number of other phrases including the gerund, but also such phrases as began his work, continued his speech, liked his job, and a number of other phrases containing a noun. Indeed, from the semantic viewpoint, on which the argument for began to work being the predicate is based, there is no difference between began to work and began his work. Therefore, approaching phenomena from a grammatical viewpoint, which is the essential one here, we start from the assumption that in the phrase began his work the group his work is a separate (secondary) part of the sentence (an object).1 This shows that the verb begin can be followed by a noun functioning as an object (the same of course applies to a number of other verbs). Since the verb begin can take an object there appears to be no reason to deny that an infinitive following this verb is an object as well. We might give here a table based on what is called transformation: began to work began his work continued to work continued his work liked to sing liked songs etc. 1 We are not discussing here the syntactic position of the word his (the attribute). For this problem, see p. 229 ff. LIMITS OP THE PREDICATE 206 On the other hand, no table of this kind is possible with such verbs as can, may, must, ought: they cannot under any circumstances be followed by a noun, and this is an important difference on which syntactic analysis should be based. Another question of a similar kind arises with reference to sentences containing idioms of the pattern "verb + noun", e.g. make a mistake, make one's appearance, have a look, have a smoke, take a glance, etc. Here two different approaches are possible, and the approach chosen will predetermine all conclusions to be arrived at in considering concrete examples. One approach would be to say that if a phrase is a phraseological unit, that is, if its meaning is not equal to the sum of the meanings of its components, it cannot be divided into two parts of the sentence, and has to be taken as one part, namely, the predicate. The other approach would be to say that such phraseological phenomena belong to the sphere of lexicology alone and are irrelevant for grammar, that is, for sentence analysis. The choice between the two approaches entirely depends on the view one takes of grammar, its place in linguistics, and its relation to lexicology. It does not seem possible to prove that one of the approaches is right and the other wrong. One of the arguments in favour of the view that phraseological units should be treated as one part of the sentence, is this. If the phrase "verb + noun" is not a phraseological unit, a separate question can be put to the noun, that is, a question to which the noun supplies an answer. For instance, if we take the sentence He makes toys the question would be, What does he make? and the answer would be supplied by the word toys, which, accordingly, is a separate part of the sentence, namely, an object. If, on the other hand, we take the sentence, He makes mistakes, it would not be possible to ask the question, What does he make? and to give mistakes as an answer to it. Consequently, according to this view, we cannot say that mistakes is a separate part of the sentence, and we must conclude that the phrase makes mistakes as a whole is the predicate. However, this sort of argument is riot binding. The method of asking questions, though widely used in school language teaching, is not a scientifically valid method of syntactic study. In a number of cases the choice of the question is arbitrary, and there are even cases when no question at all can be asked. Thus, the decision between the two alternatives presented above rests with the scholar. This is, and most probably will always be, a matter of opinion rather than of proved knowledge. Before we go further in this matter, let us consider another case also belonging here, namely phrases of the type come in, bring up, put down, etc., which we discussed in Chapter XVII, when studying 207 PARTS OP A SENTENCE. THE MAIN PART?" parts of speech. Should these phrases be taken as the predicate, or should the predicate be limited to the verb alone (come, bring, put, etc.)? This again is a matter of opinion. The phrase come in, for instance, can equally well be analysed as the predicate of the sentence, and as a combination of the predicate and a secondary part. On the other hand, the phrase bring up (as in the sentence, They brought up three children) would be taken to be the predicate, rather than a combination of the predicate with a secondary part, and this of course is due to the meaning of the phrase, which certainly is not equal to the sum of meanings of the verb bring and the adverb up. This semantic consideration is in favour of taking the whole phrase to be one part of the sentence (its predicate). But again, this argument is not binding. Whether such semantic considerations should or should not be taken into account in syntactic analysis is a matter of opinion. It is possible to argue that considerations of this kind should not weigh when we are engaged in syntactic studies. On the whole, we will adhere to the view that such considerations should be taken into account, and accordingly we will consider the phrases bring up, set in, etc., as the predicate of the sentence. The Compound Nominal Predicate The compound nominal predicate always consists of a link verb (also called copula) and a predicative, which may be expressed by various parts of speech, usually a noun, an adjective, also a stative, or an adverb (as in the sentence The lesson is over). Often enough the predicative is represented by a phrase, most usually of the pattern "preposition + noun", which may or may not be a phraseological unit. Now we must find the characteristic features of a link verb. It should first of all be noted that the term "link verb" (as well as the term "copula", after which it appears to have been coined) is not a very happy one. The idea of "link" suggests that its function is to connect the predicative with the subject. This, however, is hardly intelligible. Why should the predicative need some special word to connect it with the subject? It could stand side by side with the subject without the help of any "link". Indeed it does not require any link in sentences with the simple nominal predicate which we have discussed on p. 208 ff., and this is still more usual in Russian, where no link verb as a rule appears in the present tense. The true function of a link verb is not % connecting function. It expresses the tense and the mood in the predicate. Tlie link verb be, which expresses these categories, and also those of number and person, is rightly considered to be the most abstract of all link verbs, that is, the one THE COMPOUND NOMINAL PREDICATE 208 most devoid of any meaning of its own. Other link verbs have each some lexical meaning. Though the term "link verb" is purely conventional, we will retain it, as it is in common use and an attempt to substitute another term would stand little chance of success. Besides the verb be there are a number of other link verbs with different meanings which we need not discuss here, for instance become, get, continue, grow, turn, e. g. Then he grew thirsty and went indoors (LINKLATER); But presently the sea turned rough (Idem), etc. It will be readily seen that some of them do not always perform this function but may also be a predicate in themselves, for instance the verb grow in the sentences The child has grown, or, We grow potatoes. Of course it is only the meaning of the noun following the verb that shows whether the noun is a predicative or an object: compare the two sentences They have grown fine young men and They grow potatoes. So if we say that a verb is a link verb this need not necessarily mean that it is always a link verb and cannot perform any other function. To approach the subject of link verb and predicative from another angle, we may say that if a verb is followed by a predicative it is, to some extent at least, a link verb. The restriction "to some extent at least" is necessary because there are sentences in which the finite verb is a predicate in itself, that is, it contains some information about the subject which may be taken separately, but at the same time the verb is followed by a predicative (a noun or an adjective) and is in so far a link verb. This is found in sentences like the following: He came home tired, She married young, He died a bachelor, etc. The finite verb in such sentences conveys a meaning of its own (he came, she married, he died), but the main point of the sentence lies in the information conveyed by the predicative noun or adjective. We might retell the meaning of these sentences in another way, namely: He was tired when he came home, She was young when she married, He was a bachelor when he died, etc. The finite verb, besides being a predicate in itself, also performs the function of a link verb. Since such sentences have both a simple verbal predicate and a compound nominal predicate, they form a special or mixed type: predicates of this kind may be termed double predicates. 1 Here are some examples: 1 Corresponding phenomena in Russian have been treated by Academician A. Shakhmatov, who named such sentences "double-predicate sentences" (42CA:07C5<K5 ?@54;>65=8O). See . . (0E<0B>2, !8=B0:A8A @CAA:>3> O7K:0, AB@. 221 A;. For a treatment of this type of predicate in English see M. M. 0;8=A:0O,  42CA:07C5<KE ?@54;>65=8OE 2 A>2@5<5==>< 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5. =>AB@0==K5 O7K:8 2 H:>;5, 1948, ! 2. 209 PARTS OP A SENTENCE. THE MAIN PARTS Sunlight seeped thick and golden through the high, oblong windows above the cages and fell in broad shafts to the linoleum floor where he dropped his bucket. (BUECHNER) Compare also the following sentence: Catherine's blood ran cold with the horrid suggestions which naturally sprang from these words. (J. AUSTEN) The lexical meaning of the verb run is here almost wholly obliterated, as will also be seen by translating the sentence into Russian, or, indeed, any other language. The essence of the predication is of course contained in the predicative adjective cold. Let us now look at a few more examples of sentences with a predicative coming after a full predicate with secondary parts attached to it. She had set her feet upon that road a spoiled, selfish and untried girl, full of youth, warm of emotion, easily bewildered by life. (DREISER) A spoiled, selfish, and untried girl is a predicative, coming after a fully developed predicate group consisting of the predicate itself, an object and an adverbial modifier. That the group a spoiled, selfish and untried girl is a predicative, is clear, because no other syntactical tie between this group and the preceding words in the sentence can be imagined. It is a peculiarity of this sentence that the predicative has three loose attributes belonging to it: full of youth, warm of emotion, and easily bewildered by life. They make this predicative group very weighty indeed. It may also be noted that the predicative group a spoiled, selfish and untried girl, full of youth, warm of emotion, easily bewildered by life represents the rheme of the sentence, while the preceding words in the sentence represent its theme. Indeed, the contents, or the purpose of the sentence, is not to inform the reader that she had set her feet on that road, but what kind of person she was at the time she did so. If the predicative (with its secondary parts) were to be dropped, the communication value of the sentence would be basically changed, and in the context in which it stands its value would be reduced to nought. The same is found in the following examples: You've come home such a beautiful lady. (TAYLOR) I sat down hungry, I was hungry while I ate, and I got up from the table hungry. (SAROYAN) It should also be noted that the verb preceding the predicative and therefore performing (at least partly) the function of a link verb, may be in the passive voice. This is especially true of the verbs find, think, report, as in the sentences, He was found guilty, He was reported dead, etc. From such sentences there is an easy transition to sentences in which the finite verb is followed by an infinitive, as in He was known to have arrived, etc. It may be the infinitive of the verb be, which is then in its turn followed by a predicative (a noun or an adjective), for instance, He was said to be a great actor, He was reported to be dead, etc. THE DOUBLE PREDICATE 210 As far as meaning is concerned, there seems to be no difference between the sentences He was reported dead, and He was reported to be dead, or between the sentences He seemed clever and He seemed to be clever. As far as structure is concerned, the second variant in each case is somewhat more complicated, in that the finite verb is first followed by an infinitive, which apparently is bound to be a predicative (since it comes after the link verb), but which is itself the infinitive of a link verb and therefore followed by another predicative. Besides the combinations of different predicates, already mentioned various other combinations are possible and actually occur in texts. However, finding out all these possibilities is of no particular scientific interest. 1 1 We shall have to touch on another question connected with the predicate after examining the secondary parts of the sentence (see p. 237 ff,). Chapter XXXII TRANSITION FROM SIMPLE TO COMPOSITE SENTENCES Though the notions of simple sentence and composite sentence seem to be well defined and distinctly opposed to each other, this does not mean that there are no transitional elements between them. As in so many other cases, in the sphere of sentence types we find a considerable number of phenomena which, though not exactly transgressing the limits of the simple sentence, do not quite fit into it, and show some peculiarities which justify our treating them as transitional between the simple and the composite sentence. - Of these, we will consider the following syntactical phenomena: (1) sentences with homogeneous parts (sometimes also termed "contracted sentences"), (2) sentences with a dependent appendix, and (3) sentences with secondary predication. Different as they are in many respects, these phenomena are alike in that they gradually get out of the limits of the simple sentence and approach the composite sentence (some of them the compound, others the complex sentence). SENTENCES WITH HOMOGENEOUS PARTS By homogeneous parts of a sentence we mean parts of the same category (two or more subjects, two or more predicates, two or more objects, etc.), standing in the same relation to other parts of the sentence (for homogeneous secondary parts we should say: standing in the same relation to the same head word). According to the older terminology, such sentences used to be termed "contracted sentences", as if they had been "contracted" put of two or more simple sentences. For example, the sentence I met my relatives and friends would be said to have been "contracted" out of two sentences: I met my relatives, and I met my friends. This treatment does not seem to be justified, as it introduces a sort of historical element, implying the origin of such sentences, which is both doubtful and completely irrelevant for the study of these sentences as they exist in the modern language. ] This category of sentences covers a wider variety of phenomena. Some types of sentences with homogeneous parts quite clearly fit into the general type of simple sentences. This is the case, for instance, with sentences having two or more homogeneous objects to one predicate, e. g. Its literary equipment consists of a single fixed shelf stocked with old paper-covered novels, broken-backed, coffee-stained, torn and thumbed; and a couple of little hanging shelves 1 However, this treatment has been recently revived on new grounds, for example, by L. Tesniere in his book Elements de syntaxe structurale, p. 325, Sentences with a Dependent Appendix 255 with a few gifts on them ... (SHAW) The same can be said about sentences having two or more homogeneous adverbial modifiers to one predicate: I only came to thank you and return the coat you lent me. (Idem) And this is also true of sentences having two or more homogeneous attributes to one head word even if we take an attribute to be a secondary part of a sentence on the same level as objects and adverbial modifiers. ' If, on the other hand, we take an attribute to be a part of phrase, rather than of a sentence, the presence of homogeneous attributes is still more irrelevant for the general character of the sentence. However, the number of homogeneous parts in a sentence can be much larger than that. We will not here give examples of the gradual growth of a sentence due to accumulation of homogeneous parts but we will at once proceed to sentences in which only the subject keeps, as it were, the sentence together: it is the case when there are two verbal predicates, and each predicate has its objects, adverbial modifiers, attributes to nouns functioning as objects, etc.: Louka makes way proudly for her, and then goes into the house. (SHAW) Madame Michel put down her netting and surveyed him sharply over her glasses. (R. MAGAULAY) Compare also: She caught the thoughtful, withdrawn, disengaged look that rested on the girl and boy: and, glancing back at the girl, saw an expression in the sullen grey eyes that perplexed her. (Idem) The reason why we cannot call this sentence compound is that it has only one subject and thus cannot be separated into two clauses. If we repeat the subject before the second predicate we shall get a compound sentence consisting of two clauses and identical in meaning with the original sentence with homogeneous parts. Thus the sentence Scarlett stood in her apple-green "second-day" dress in the parlor of Twelve Oaks amid the blaze of hundreds of candles, jostled by the same throng as the night before, and saw the plain little face of Melanie Hamilton glow into beauty... (M. MITCHELL) cannot be described as a compound one because it has only one subject, but it cannot very well be described as a simple sentence either, as its unity depends on that subject alone while the predicates are different and each of them is accompanied by a set of secondary parts. So it will be safe to say that it stands somewhere between simple and compound sentences. SENTENCES WITH A DEPENDENT APPENDIX Under this head we will consider some phenomena which clearly overstep the limits of the simple sentence and tend towards the complex sentence, but which lack an essential feature of a complex sentence. 1 Compare above, p. 222 ff. 256 TRANSITION FROM SIMPLE TO COMPOSITE SENTENCES Some of these phenomena are common to English, Russian, and other languages, while some of them are typical of English alone. In the first place, there are the phrases consisting of the conjunction than and a noun, pronoun, or phrase following an adjective or adverb in the comparative degree, as in these sentences: ...I've known many ladies who were prettier than you... (M. MITCHELL) Come cheer up: it takes less courage to climb down than to face capture: remember that. (SHAW) It would always be possible to expand this appendix into a clause by adding the required form of the verb be (or do, or, in some cases, can, etc.) Thus, for instance, the first of the above sentences can be expanded into I've known many ladies who were prettier than you are . . . arid the second into . . . it takes less courage to climb down than it does to face capture. After this change we get a clause introduced by the conjunction than and the sentence is a complex one. But that should not make us think that in the original text the verb be or do has been "omitted". There is no ground whatever for such a view. The sentences have to be taken for what they are, and classified among those intermediate between a simple and a complex sentence. Very similar to these are the sentences containing an adjective or adverb, which may be preceded by the adverb as, and an additional part consisting of the conjunction as and some other word (an adjective, a noun, or an adverb), as in the following examples: His expression had been as bland and clear as the day without. (BUECHNER) The conduct of a widow must be twice as circumspect as that of a matron. (M. MITCHELL) In each case a finite verb might be added at the end (either be, or do, or have, or can, etc.), and then the sentence would become a complex one. But this is irrelevant for the syntactical characteristic of the original sentences, as given above. They contain something which does not fit into the pattern of a simple sentence, yet at the same time they lack something that is necessary to make the sentence complex. So it is most natural to say that they occupy an intermediate position between the two. Now we shall consider the type of sentence containing a phrase which is introduced by a subordinating conjunction; Tristram had stood about picking up letters, arranging things, as though preparing with some difficulty just the situation he wanted. (BUECHNER) The subordinate part as though preparing is here clearly distinguished from the secondary parts expressed by participle phrases, picking up letters and arranging things. Catherine, though a little disappointed, had loo much good nature to make any opposition, and, the "others rising up, Isabella had only time to press her friend's hand and say, "Good-bye, my dear love," before they hurried off. (J. AUSTEN) It seems much better to say that the phrase though Secondary Predication 257 a little disappointed is a subordinate part than to suppose that it is a subordinate clause, with the subject she and the link verb was ''omitted". As it is, the phrase had best be described as a loose attribute to the subject of the sentence. Compare: Such a compliment recalled all Catherine's consciousness, and silenced her directly; and, though pointedly applied to by the General for her choice of the prevailing colour of the paper and hangings, nothing like an opinion on the subject could be drawn from her. (J. AUSTEN) There are some few cases of a subordinating conjunction being used in a simple sentence, thus introducing no subordinate clause of any kind. It may be used to introduce a second homogeneous part: With these feelings, she rather dreaded than sought for the first view of that well-known spire which would announce her within twenty miles from home. (J. AUSTEN) Sometimes a secondary part of a sentence is added on to it, connected with the main body of the sentence by a co-ordinating conjunction, although there is not in the main body any part that could in any sense be considered to be homogeneous with the part thus added. Here is an example of this kind of sentence: Denis tried to escape, but in vain. (HUXLEY) It is probably best not to suppose that anything has been "omitted" in this sentence and may be sup? plied. The sentence Denis tried to escape, but it was in vain, and possible other variants would be grammatically entirely different from the actual text. The co-ordinating conjunction makes it difficult to term such phrases loose secondary parts of the sentence: it gives them something of a separate status. As in all preceding instances, each of the sentences might be made into a compound sentence by adding a noun or pronoun, and a link verb: Denis tried to escape, but it was in vain. The sentence thus obtained is compound, but it must not be taken as a starting point in the syntactical study of the original sentence, as given above, which is intermediate between a simple and a composite sentence. Sentences containing a part thus introduced by a subordinating or co-ordinating conjunction are best classed as sentences with a dependent appendix. SECONDARY PREDICATION Another syntactical phenomenon which is best considered under this heading of transition to the composite sentence is based on what is very aptly termed "secondary predication". Before starting to discuss the syntactical phenomena involved, we shall therefore have to explain briefly what is meant by secondary predication. 9 . . ;L8H 258 TRANSITION FROM SIMPLE TO COMPOSITE SENTENCES In every sentence there is bound to be predication, without which there would be no sentence. In a usual two-member sentence the predication is between the subject and the predicate. In most sentences this is the only predication they contain. However, there are also sentences which contain one more predication, which is not between the subject and the predicate of the sentence. This predication may conveniently be termed secondary predication. ! In Modern English there are several ways of expressing secondary predication. One of them is what is frequently termed the complex object, as seen in the sentences, I saw him run, We heard them sing, The public watched the team play, I want you to come to-morrow, We expect you to visit us, etc. Let us take the first of these sentences for closer examination. The primary predication in this sentence is between the subject I and the predicate saw. I is the doer of the action expressed by the predicate verb. But in this sentence there is one more predication, that between him and run: the verb run expresses the action performed by him. This predication is obviously a secondary one: him is not the subject of a sentence or a clause, and run is not its predicate. The same can be said about all the sentences given above. On the syntactic function of the group him run (or of its elements) views vary. The main difference is between those who think that him run is a syntactic unit, and those who think that him is one part of the sentence, and run another. If the phrase is taken as a syntactic unit, it is very natural to call it a complex object: it stands in an object relation to the predicate verb saw and consists of two elements. If, on the other hand, the phrase him run is not considered to be a syntactic unit, its first element is the object, and its second element is conveniently termed the objective predicative. The choice between the two interpretations remains arbitrary and neither of them can be proved to be the only right one. In favour of the view that the phrase is a syntactical unit, a semantic reason can be put forward. In some cases the two elements of the phrase cannot be separated without changing the meaning of the sentence. This is true, 'for instance, of sentences with the verb hate. Let us take as an example the sentence, I hate you to go, which means much the same as I hate the idea of your going, or The idea of your going is most unpleasant to me. Now, if we separate the two elements of the phrase, that is, if we stop after its first element: I hate you . . . , the sense is completely changed. This shortened version expresses hatred for "yu'\ which the original full version certainly did not imply. 1 The Russian equivalent of the term "secondary predication" was introduced by Prof. G. Vorontsova in her excellent paper. See . . >@>=F>20, B>@8G=0O ?@548:0B82=>ABL 2 0=3;89A:>< O7K:5. =>AB@0==K5 O7K:8 2 H:>;5, 1950, ! 6. SECONDARY PREDICATION 259 H. Sweet, discussing these phenomena, referred to the sentence I like boys to be quiet, which, as he pointed out, does not imply even the slightest liking for boys. ! In other cases, that is, with other verbs, the separation of the two elements may not bring about a change in the meaning of the sentence. Thus, if we look at our example I saw him run, and if we stop after him: I saw him, this does not contradict the meaning of the original sentence: I saw him run implies that I saw him. Another case in which the two elements of the phrase cannot be separated is found when the verb expresses some idea like order or request and the second element of the phrase is a passive infinitive. With the sentence He ordered the man to be summoned we cannot possibly stop after man. There is no doubt, therefore, that with some verbs (arid some nouns, for that matter) the two elements of the phrase following the predicate verb cannot be separated. It is, however, not certain that this is a proof of the syntactic unity of the phrase. This is again one of the phenomena which concern the mutual relation of the semantic and syntactic aspects of the language. The choice between the two possibilities: complex object or object and objective predicative remains largely a matter of arbitrary decision. If we make up our mind in favour of the second alternative, and state in each case two separate parts of the sentence, this will add to our list of secondary parts one more item: the objective predicative. The objective predicative need not be an infinitive: it may be a participle (I saw him running, We heard them singing), an adjective (I found him ill. They thought him dead), a stative (I found him asleep), sometimes an adverb, and a prepositional phrase. The sentence I found him there admits of two different interpretations. One of them, which seems to be the more usual, takes the sentence as an equivalent of the sentence There I found him: the adverb there is then an adverbial modifier belonging to the verb find. The other interpretation would make the sentence equivalent to the sentence I found that he was there. In this latter case the adverb there does not show where the action of finding took place, and it is not an adverbial modifier belonging to the predicate verb found. It is part of the secondary predication group him there and has then to be taken as an objective predicative: I found him there is syntactically the same as I found him ill, or I found him asleep. The choice between the two alternatives evidently depends on factors lying outside grammar. From a strictly grammatical viewpoint it can be said that the difference between an adverbial modifier and an objective predicative is here neutralised. 1 H. Sweet, A New English Grammar, Part I, 124. 9* 260 TRANSITION FROM SIMPLE TO COMPOSITE SENTENCES This type of secondary predication brings the sentence closer to a composite one. 0. Jespersen has proposed the term "nexus" for every predicative grouping of words, no matter by what grammatical means it is realised. He distinguishes between a "junction", which is not a predicative group of words (e. g. reading man) and "nexus", which is one (e. g. the man reads). l If this term is adopted, we may say that in the sentence I saw him run there are two nexuses: the primary one I saw, and the secondary him run. In a similar way, in the sentence I found him ill, the primary 'nexus would be I found, arid the secondary him ill. THE ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTION Another type of secondary predication may be seen in the so-called absolute construction. This appears, for instance, in the following example: Only when his eyes at last met her own. . . was he reassured that for her what had happened had simply happened. She was prepared, the situation already falling gracefully into place about her, to consider it} incredibly enough he thought, as no more than that. (BUECHNER) Here the phrase the situation already falling gracefully into place about her constitutes an absolute construction. 2 The absolute construction is of course a case of secondary predication, or, in Jespersen's terminology, a nexus. The participle falling, which denotes an action performed by the thing denoted by the noun situation, is not a predicate, and situation is not the subject either of a sentence or of a clause. This is evidence that the predication contained in the phrase is a secondary one. Participles seem to be the most widely used types of predicative element in the absolute construction. We find them, for example, in the following sentences. The preliminary greetings spoken, Denis found an empty chair between Gombauld and Jenny and sat down. (HUXLEY) Off the table leapt the monkey, the tails of his jacket flying out behind him and his silk hat knocked askew as he landed 1 See 0. Jespersen, The Philosophy of Grammar, p. 97, 114 ff.; 0. Jespersen, A Modern English Grammar, Part III, p. 203 ff. However, Jespersen used the term "nexus" in so wide a sense that, with him, it even penetrated into the sphere of lexicology: thus, he would call the noun arrival a nexus substantive on the ground that, for example, the phrase the doctor's arrival was in some general way analogous to the sentence the doctor arrived. Of course we will not accept this wide interpretation of the term and we will use it only in a syntactical sense, as a name for a predicative relation between two words or phrases. 2 The term "absolute" is here used in the original sense of the Latin absolutus, that is, 'absolved', 'free', 'independent', and it has nothing to do with the meaning of the word which is the opposite of 'relative'. The term is clearly a conventional one. THE ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTION 261 and leapt again to a streak of light that sprawled in widening, crisscrossed perspective on the floor in the center of the room so that Emma and Bone had to turn about in their chairs to see him spin around and around there making no sound. (BUECHNER) The subject part of an absolute construction is sometimes represented by a noun or phrase denoting some part of the body or dress (here it is the dress) of the being denoted by the subject of the sentence. In this particular case it is the tails of his jacket and his silk hat, his referring to the monkey. This example has its peculiarity, however: the two absolute constructions have a subordinate clause attached to them, which in its turn has a subordinate clause of the second-degree (a clause of result) depending on it. The absolute construction expresses what is usually called accompanying circumstances something that happens alongside of the main action. This secondary action may be the cause of the main action, or its condition, etc., but these relations are not indicated by any grammatical means. The position of the absolute construction before or after the main body of the sentence gives only a partial clue to its concrete meaning. Thus, for example, if the construction denotes some secondary action which accompanies the main one without being either its cause or its condition, it always follows the main body of the sentence; if the construction indicates the cause, or condition, or time of the main action, it can come both before and after the main body of the sentence. Thus the grammatical factor plays only a subordinate part in determining the sense relations between the absolute construction and the main body of the sentence. The stylistic colouring of the absolute construction should also be noted. It is quite different in this respect from the constructions with the objective predicative, which may occur in any sort of style. The absolute construction is, as we have seen, basically a feature of literary style and unfit for colloquial speech. Only a few more or less settled formulas such as weather permitting may be found in ordinary conversation. Otherwise colloquial speech practically always has subordinate clauses where literary style may have absolute constructions. A participle is by no means a necessary component of an absolute construction. The construction can also consist of a noun and some other word or phrase, whose predicative relation to the noun is made clear by the context. Here are a few examples: Bone stood in a patch of sunlight on the gray carpet, his hands behind him, his face in shadow. (BUECHNER) This example is characteristic in so far as the subject of the sentence is a noun denoting a human being, the predicate group tells of his position in space, and the subjects of the two absolute constructions are nouns denoting parts of his body (his hands and his face), while the predicative parts of the constructions describe 262 Transition from Simple to Composite Sentences the position of these parts (behind him and in the shadow]. 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(HUXLEY) And here now he was beside Elizabeth the memory of this encounter rich within him to bolster and pad, but sad in that it was presently and precisely incommunicable. (BUECHNER) This absolute construction is somewhat more developed than usual, there are two predicatives in it (rich . . . but sad), and a subordinate clause attached to the latter predicative (sad). It might be possible to argue that in each of these sentences the participle being "is "omitted", so that we have-here an elliptical participial absolute construction after all. But if we firmly adhere to the principle that nothing ought to be considered omitted unless there is overwhelming evidence that this is: really so, we shall recognize the absolute construction without participle as a construction in its own right, existing alongside of the participle construction. In the following sentence there are two absolute constructions: one at the beginning, and the other at the end of the sentence: Her golden arm stretched out, she pointed with a golden finger, and as usual Bone's eyes followed her direction and stopped at the bronze lady standing unclothed in the fountain before them, in her arms a shallow bowl from which water trickled. (BUECHNER) An absolute construction may be found in narrative style where is does not produce the impression of high-flown language, but is decidedly uncolloquial in character. Here are some examples from modern novels: She had hoped that the war being over, life would gradually resume its old face. (M. MITCHELL) Though this is a kind of indirect speech rendering the heroine's thoughts, it is fairly certain that her thoughts did not run like this: The war being over, life will gradually resume its old face. This is far too literary to have been in the mind of a person thinking silently, or even talking in an informal atmosphere. In the author's rendering of her thoughts, however, the absolute construction is perfectly all right. In a few minutes she returned, her eyes shining, her hair still damp. .(SNOW) This again is normal narrative style. The semantic connections" between the absolute constructions and the main body of the sentence are different in the two sentences, and they become clear from the lexical meanings of the words, and partly also from the position which the absolute construction occupies in the sentence. Thus, in our first example the absolute construction the war being over clearly has a temporal connection with the main body of the sentence, and in our second example it is evident, both from the lexical meanings of the words involved and from the position of the two absolute constructions after the main body of the sentence, that the relation is that usually called "accompanying circumstances". The Absolute Construction 263 In the following sentence both a parenthesis and an absolute construction come between the subject group and the predicate. The entire question of whom one loved, he continued, Emma looking up from her work for the first time as she listened, seemed to him of relative unimportance. (BUECHNER) It should also be noted that there is a subordinate clause (of) whom one loved belonging to the subject group, and another subordinate clause, as she listened, belonging to the absolute construction, so that the number of elements separating the predicate of the main clause (seemed to be. . .) from its subject (the . . . question) is quite considerable. However, no misunderstanding can arise here, though there are three finite verb forms (loved, continued, and listened) intervening between the subject question and its predicate seemed . . . This is due to the fact that each of these three finite verb forms is closely connected with Its own subject (in every case a pronoun immediately preceding it), namely, one loved, he continued, she listened. Besides, it should be noted that neither loved nor listened would have made any sense in connection with the subject question, and as to the verb continued, it might be connected with the subject question only if the verb were followed by an infinitive of appropriate meaning, e. g. the question continued to worry him. As it is, continued here means ^continued to speak', which can only be connected with a subject representing a human being. One more remark about the absolute construction is necessary here. It concerns the semantic ties between the absolute construction and the rest of the sentence. For example, we can say that in the sentence She had hoped that the war being over, life would gradually resume its old face the relations between the construction and the rest of the sentence are causal: we can say that the absolute construction is here a loose adverbial modifier of cause. On the other hand, in the sentence Weather permitting, we shall start on an excursion the relations between the construction and the rest of the sentence are those of condition, and the absolute construction may be said to be a loose adverbial modifier of condition. But now the question is, how do we know that it is cause in one example, and condition in the other? This is not expressed by any grammatical means .and it only follows from the lexical meanings of the words and the general meaning of the sentence. What is expressed by grammatical means is merely the subordinate position of the absolute construction. All the rest lies outside the sphere of grammar. Such, then, are the syntactical phenomena which occupy a place somewhere between the simple and the composite sentence and which may therefore be considered as a kind of stepping stone from . the one to the other. Now we proceed to study the various kinds of composite sentences. RAYEVSKAYA (a) 5 lost his courage. (b) Courage deserted him. (a) He lent them money. (b) They borrowed money from him. (a) He subsided into sleep. (b) Sleep took him in its embrace. 2) lexico-grammatical periphrasis based on semantic and functional similarity between adjectives and verbs in patterns like the following: I like music. I B fond of music. I regret it. I B sorry about it. He knows it. He is aware of it. 3) lexico-grammatical periphrasis by nominalisation: He lost his nerves. He was all nerves. 4) the use of phrasal verbs adapted to style and purpose in each case (aspect or voice modifications, in particular): He was asleep = He gave himself up to sleep. We supported him = He found our support. 5) lexical periphrasis based on lexical synonymy of verbs in the structure of predication, e. g.: He shared his secret with me. He let me into his secret. Lexico-grammatical periphrasis by phrasal verbs of various types is a floodgate of synonyms in sentence-patterning. This nominal tendency is decidedly on the increase in present-day English. Variations in the structure of the predicate producing subtle shades of objective and subjective distinctions make up a regular system and present a rather complicated subject which linguists have by no means fully investigated. This insight into sentence-patterning helps to coordinate and deepen the student's grasp of the language. Chapter X THE SIMPLE SENTENCE THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE SENTENCE Parts of the sentence are a syntactic category constituted by the organic interaction of different linguistic units in speech. It is important to observe that the division into parts of speech and the division into parts of the sentence are organically related. This does not call for much to explain. The part of speech classification is known to be based not only on the morphological and word-making characteristics of words but their semantic and syntactic features as well. The latter are particularly important for such parts of speech as have no morphological distinctions at all. A word (or a phrase) as a part of sentence may enter into various relations with the other parts of a given sentence. These mutual relationships are sometimes very complicated as being conditioned by different factors: lexical, morphological and syntactic proper. Important observations in the theory of the parts of the sentence based on the interrelation of types of syntactic bond and types of syntactic content were made by A.I.SmirnitskCl. A part of the sentence is defined as a typical combination of the given type of syntactic content and the given type of syntactic bond as regularly reproduced in speech. Different types of syntactic bond form a hierarchy where distinction should be made between predicative bond and non-predicative bond. On the level of the sentence elements this results in the opposition of principal parts and secondary parts. The predicative bond constitutes the sentence itself. The parts of the sentence which are connected by means of the predicative bond are principal parts. These are the core of the communicative unit. The non-predicative bond comprises attributive, completive and copulative relations. Subject-predicate structure gives the sentence its relative independence and the possibility to function as a complete piece of communication. This, however, must be taken with some points of reservation because a sentence may be included in some larger syntactic unit and may thus weaken or loose its independence functioning as part of a larger utterance. Using the terms "subject" and "predicate11 we must naturally make distinction between the content of the parts of the sentence and their 1 See: . . !<8@=8F:89. !8=B0:A8A 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0. ., 1957. 183 linguistic expression, i. e.: a) the words as used in a given sentence and b) the thing meant, which are part of the extralinguistic reality. The distinction made at this point in Russian terminology between "?>4;560I55"  "A:07C5<>5" and "AC1J5:B"  "?@548:0B" seems perfectly reasonable. The two concepts must be kept apart to mean a) the words involved and b) the content expressed, respectively. The subject is thus the thing meant with which the predicate is connected. All the basic sentences consist, first of all, of two immediate constituents: subject and predicate. In the basic sentence patterns subjects are rather simple, consisting of either a single noun, a noun with its determiner or a pronoun. They can naturally grow much more complicated: nouns can be modified in quite a variety of ways and other syntactic structures can be made subjects in place of nouns or its equivalents. Meaning relationships are naturally "varied. Subjects can refer to something that is identified, described and classified or located; they may imply something that performs an action, or is affected by action or, say, something involved in an occurrence of some sort. The semantic content of the term "subject" can be made clear only if we examine the significant contrastive features of sentence patterning as operating to form a complete utterance. In Modern English there are two main types of subject that stand In contrast as opposed to each other in terms of content: the definite subject and the indefinite subject. Definite subjects denote a thing-meant that can be clearly defined: a concrete object, process, quality, etc., e. g.: " > (a) Fleur smiled, (b) To defend our Fatherland is our sacred duty, (c) Playing tennis is a pleasure, (d) Her prudence surprised me. Indefinite subjects denote some indefinite pefson, a state of things I or a certain situation, e. g.: (a) They say. (b) You never can tell, (c) One cannot be too careful, (d) II is rather cold, (e) It was easy to do so. Languages differ in the forms which they have adopted to express this meaning. In English indefinite subjects have always their formal expression. Sentences of this type will be found in French: (a) On dit. (b) II fait froid. Similarly in German: (a) Man sagt. (b) Es ist halt. In Russian and Ukrainian the indefinite subject Is expressed by one-member sentences: >2>@OB, GB> ?>3>40 87<5=8BAO. >6=> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> M:A?548F8O C65 70:>=G8;0 A2>N @01>BC. In some types of sentence patterns Modern English relies on the word-order arrangement alone. In The hunter killed the bear variation in the order of sentence elements will give us a different subject. English syntax is well known as primarily characterised by "subject  verb  complement" order. It will be noted, however, that in a good many sentences of this 184 type the subject and the doer of the action are by no means in full correspondence, e .g.: This room sleeps three men, or Such books sell readily. It comes quite natural that a subject combines the lexical meaning: with the structural meaning of "person". Things are specifically different in cases when it and there are used in subject positions as representatives of words or longer units which embody the real content of the subject but are postponed. It is most pleasant that she has already come. It was easy to do so. There are a few mistakes in your paper. There were no seats at all. It and there in such syntactic structures are generally called anticipatory or introductory subjects. There in such patterns is often referred to as a function word, and this is not devoid of some logical foundation. It is pronounced with weak or tertiary stress, which distinguishes it from the adverb tliere pronounced (ehrf eh) and having primary or secondary stress. There is sometimes called a temporary subject filling the subject position in place of the true subject, which follows the verb. This interpretation seems to have been borne out by the fact that the verb frequently shows concord with the following noun, as in: there is a botanical gardens in our town there were only three of us there comes his joy The grammatical organisation of predicates is much more complicated. The predicate can be composed of several different structures. It is just this variety of the predicate that makes us recognize not one basic English sentence pattern but several. In terms of modern linguistics, the predicate is reasonably defined as the 1C of the sentence presented by a finite-form of the verb, if even in its zero-alternant. Predicates with zero-alternants offer special difficulties on the point of their analysis as relevant to the problem of ellipsis which has always been a disputable question in grammar learning. Various criteria of classifying different kind of predicate have been set up by grammarians. The common definition of the predicate in terms of modern linguistics is that it is a more or less complex structure with the verb or verb-phrase at its core. This is perfectly reasonable and in point of fact agrees with the advice of traditional grammars to identify a predicate by looking for the verb. The sentence, indeed, almost always exists for the sake of expressing by means of a verb, an action, state or being. The verb which is always in key position is the heart of the matter and certain qualities of the verb in any language determine important, elements in the structural meaning of the predicate. These features will engage our attention next. To begin with, the predicate may be composed of a word, a phrase or an entire clause. When it is a notional word, it is naturally not only structural but the notional predicate as well. 185 The predicate can be a word, a word-morpheme or a phrase. If it consists of one word or word-morpheme it is simple; if it is made up of more than -one word it is called compound. In terms of complementation, predicates are reasonably classified into verbal (time presses, birds fly, the moon rose, etc.) and nominal (is happy, felt strong, got cool, grew old). \ The two types of predicates in active syntax may be diagrammed .as follows: A. Verbal Predicate Simple Tastes differ. Compound One must do one's duty. B. Nominal Predicate Simple Quite serious all this! Compound The picture was beautiful. The multiplicity of ways in which predication can be expressed in active syntax permits a very large number of sentence-patterns to be built in present-day English. We find here both points of coincidence with other languages and special peculiarities of sentence-patterning conditioned by the whole course of language development. Predication, with its immediate relevance to the syntactic categories of person, time and modality, is known to be expressed not only morphologically. Syntactic arrangement and intonation may do this " duty as well. Time relations, for instance, may find their expression in syntactic structures without any morphological devices indicating time. The one-member sentence Fire!, depending on the context, linguistic or situational, may be used as: 1) a stylistic alternative of the imperative sentence meaning: a) cBpi;O9! ,) 70?0;8 2>3>=L! A) ?@8=5A8 2>3=N! 2) a stylistic alternative of a declarative sentence stating a fact: 284-.ho 2>3>=L. Similarly in Russian: >3>=L! 0) AB@5;O9! b) 70638 >3>=L or ?@8=5A8 >3=O! A) 2845= >3>=L. The multiplicity of syntactic ways in which modality and time relations as well as the category of person may be expressed in infinitival clauses is also well known. Examples are commonplace. Run away! Go to the east! (Galsworthy) To think that he should be tortured so  her Frankl (Dreiser) Cf. 4=C <8=CBC, 5I5 >4=C <8=CBC, 2845BL 55, ?@>AB8BLAO, ?>60BL 59 @C:C! (5@<>=B>2) >7<>6=> ;8! 5=O ?@>40BL!  5=O 70 ?>F5;C9 3;C?F0... (5@<>=B>2) In the theory of English structure the term "sentence analysis" is open to more than one interpretation. Structural grammatical studies of some modern linguists have abandoned many of the commonly held views of syntax. With regard to the methodology employed their linguistic approach differs from former treatments in language learning. 186 To begin with, distinction must be made between the  mentalistic" and the  mechanistic" approach to sentence analysis. By "mentalistic" approach we mean the parts of the sentence analysis based on consideration of semantic relationships between the sentence elements. The "mechanistic" approach is known to have originated in USA in nineteen forties. It is associated primarily with the names of Bloomfield, Fries, Harris and Gleason. Claimed to be entirely formal, the "mecha-nistic" approach is based only on the structural relations of sentence elements, i. e. their position in the speech chain. To make the distinction between the two approaches clear consider the following examples: "mentalistically" (i. e. analysing sentences by putting questions) "to invite students and "invitation of students" are parsed as syntactic structures with objects denoting the person towards whom the action is directed. In terms of "mechanistic" analysis, students and of students would be different sentence elements because they differ in terms of structure (expression plane). The new method of sentence analysis is known as the method of immediate constituents (ICs). As we have already pointed out, the concept of IC was first introduced by L. Bloomfield and later on developed by other linguists. The structural grouping of sentence elements into ICs has naturally its own system in each language. It has been recognised that English has a dichotomous structure. The concept of immediate constituents (ICs) is important both in morphology and syntax. An immediate constituent is a group of linguistic elements which junctions as a unit in some larger whole. The study of syntax is greatly facilitated by studying the types of immediate constituents which occur. We have learned to call the direct components of the sentence "groups". In terms of modern linguistics they are immediate constituents. A basic sentence pattern consists first of all of a subject and a predicate. These are called the immediate constituents of the sentence. They are constituents in the sense that they constitute, or make up, the sentence. They are immediate in the sense that they act immediately on one another: the whole meaning of the one applies to the whole meaning of the other. The subject of a basic sentence is a noun cluster and the predicate is a verb cluster, we can therefore say that the immediate constituents (ICs) of a sentence are a noun cluster and a verb cluster. Each of the ICs of the sentence can in turn be divided to get ICs at the next lower level. For example, the noun cluster of a sentence may consist of a determiner plus a noun. In this case, the construction may be cut between the determiner and the noun, e. g. the girl. The ICs of this noun cluster are the and girl. The verb cluster of the sentence may be a verb plus a noun cluster (played the piano). This cluster can be cut into ICs as follows: played the piano. 187 Blokh M.Ya. ;>E ./. "5>@5B8G5A:0O 3@0<<0B8:0 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0: #G51. (=0 0=3;. O7.)  4-5 874., 8A?@.  .: KAH. H:., 2003.  423 A. (!B@0=8FK 40=K ?> ?5@2><C 8740=8N 1983 3>40.  A:>1:0E 2 =0G0;5 :064>3> @0745;0 C:070=K A>>B25BAB2CNI85 AB@0=8FK ?> 4-<C 8740=8N) still running the show? (run  monocomplementive, transitive). The railings felt cold. (feel  link-verb, predicative complementive). We felt fine after the swim. (feel  adverbial complementive, non-objective). You shouldn't feel your own pulse like that. (feel  monocomplementive, transitive). The problem arises, how to interpret these different subclass entries  as cases of grammatical or lexico-grammatical homonymy, or some kind of functional variation, or merely variation in usage. The problem is vexed, since each of the interpretations has its strong points. To reach a convincing decision, one should take into consideration the actual differences between various cases of the "subclass migration" in question. Namely, one must carefully analyse the comparative characteristics of the corresponding subclasses as such, as well as the regularity factor for an individual lexeme subclass occurrence. In the domain of notional subclasses proper, with regular inter-class occurrences of the analysed lexemes, probably the most plausible solution will be to interpret the "migration forms" as cases of specific syntactic variation, i.e. to consider the different subclass entries of migrating units as syntactic variants of the same lexemes [>G5?F>2, (2), 87 8 A;.]. In the light of this interpretation, the very formula of "lexemic subclass migration" will be vindicated and substantiated. On the other hand, for more cardinally differing lexemic sets, as, for instance, functional versus notional, the syntactic variation principle is hardly acceptable. This kind of differentiation should be analysed as lexico-grammatical homonymy, since it underlies the expression of categorially different grammatical functions. CHAPTER XI NON-FINITE VERBS (VERBIDS) (2 4-< 8740=88 =0G8=05BAO A> AB@. 112) 1. Verbids are the forms of the verb intermediary in many of their lexico-grammatical features between the verb and the non-processual parts of speech. The mixed features of these forms are revealed in the principal spheres of the part-of-speech characterization, i.e. in their meaning, structural marking, combinability, and syntactic functions. The processual meaning is exposed by them in a substan- 102 tive or adjectival-adverbial interpretation: they render processes as peculiar kinds of substances and properties. They are formed by special morphemic elements which do not express either grammatical time or mood (the most specific finite verb categories). They can be combined with verbs like non-processual lexemes (performing non-verbal functions in the sentence), and they can be combined with non-processual lexemes like verbs (performing verbal functions in the sentence) . From these characteristics, one might call in question the very justification of including the verbids in the system of the verb. As a matter of fact, one can ask oneself whether it wouldn't stand to reason to consider the verbids as a special lexemic class, a separate part of speech, rather than an inherent component of the class of verbs. On closer consideration, however, we can't but see that such an approach would be utterly ungrounded. The verbids do betray intermediary features. Still, their fundamental grammatical meaning is processual (though modified in accord with the nature of the inter-class reference of each verbid). Their essential syntactic functions, directed by this relational semantics, unquestionably reveal the property which may be called, in a manner of explanation, "verbality", and the statement of which is corroborated by the peculiar combinability character of verbid collocations, namely, by the ability of verbids to take adjuncts expressing the immediate recipients, attendants, and addressees of the process inherently conveyed by each verbid denotation. One might likewise ask oneself, granted the verbids are part of the system of the verb, whether they do not constitute within this system a special subsystem of purely lexemic nature, i.e. form some sort of a specific verbal subclass. This counter-approach, though, would evidently be devoid of any substantiality, since a subclass of a lexemic class, by definition, should share the essential categorial structure, as well as primary syntactic functions with other subclasses, and in case of verbids the situation is altogether different. In fact, it is every verb stem (except a few defective verbs) that by means of morphemic change takes both finite and non-finite forms, the functions of the two sets being strictly differentiated: while the finite forms serve in the sentence only one syntactic function, namely, that of the finite predicate, the non-finite forms serve various syntactic functions other than that of the finite predicate. 103 The strict, unintersecting division of functions (the functions themselves being of a fundamental nature in terms of the grammatical structure of language as a whole) clearly shows that the opposition between the finite and non-finite forms of the verb creates a special grammatical category. The differential feature of the opposition is constituted by the expression of verbal time and mood: while the time-mood grammatical signification characterizes the finite verb in a way that it underlies its finite predicative function, the verbid has no immediate means of expressing time-mood categorial semantics and therefore presents the weak member of the opposition. The category expressed by this opposition can be called the category of "finitude" [Strang, 143; 0@EC40@>2, (2), 106]. The syntactic content of the category of finitude is the expression of predication (more precisely, the expression' of verbal predication). As is known, the verbids, unable to express the predicative meanings of time and mood, still do express the so-called "secondary" or "potential" predication, forming syntactic complexes directly related to certain types of subordinate clauses. Cf.: Have you ever had anything caught in your head? Have you ever had anything that was caught in your head?  He said it half under his breath for the others not to hear it.  He said it half under his breath, so that the others couldn't hear it. The verbid complexes anything caught in your head, or for the others not to hear it, or the like, while expressing secondary predication, are not self-dependent in a predicative sense. They normally exist only as part of sentences built up by genuine, primary predicative constructions that have a finite verb as their core. And it is through the reference to the finite verb-predicate that these complexes set up the situations denoted by them in the corresponding time and mood perspective. In other words, we may say that the opposition of the finite verbs and the verbids is based on the expression of the functions of full predication and semi-predication. While the finite verbs express predication in its genuine and complete form, the function of the verbids is to express semi-predication, building up semi-predicative complexes within different sentence constructions, The English verbids include four forms distinctly differ- 104 ing from one another within the general verbid system: the infinitive, the gerund, the present participle, and the past participle. In compliance with this difference, the verbid semi-predicative complexes are distinguished by the corresponding differential properties both in form and in syntactic-contextual function. 2. The infinitive is the non-finite form of the verb which combines the properties of the verb with those of the noun, serving as the verbal name of a process. By virtue of its general process-naming function, the infinitive should be considered as the head-form of the whole paradigm of the verb. In this quality it can be likened to the nominative case of the noun in languages having a normally developed noun declension, as, for instance, Russian. It is not by chance that A. A. Shakhmatov called the infinitive the "verbal nominative". With the English infinitive, its role of the verbal paradigmatic head-form is supported by the fact that, as has been stated before, it represents the actual derivation base for all the forms of regular verbs. The infinitive is used in three fundamentally different types of functions: first, as a notional, self-positional syntactic part of the sentence; second, as the notional constituent of a complex verbal predicate built up around a predicator verb; third, as the notional constituent of a finite conjugation form of the verb. The first use is grammatically "free", the second is grammatically "half-free", the third is grammatically "bound". The dual verbal-nominal meaning of the infinitive is expressed in full measure in its free, independent use. It is in this use that the infinitive denotes the corresponding process in an abstract, substance-like presentation. This can easily be tested by question-transformations. Cf.: Do you really mean to go away and leave me here alone? -> What do you really mean? It made her proud sometimes to toy with the idea.  > What made her proud sometimes? The combinability of the infinitive also reflects its dual semantic nature, in accord with which we distinguish between its verb-type and noun-type connections. The verb-type combinability of the infinitive is displayed in its combining, first, with nouns expressing the object of the action; second, with nouns expressing the subject of the action; third, with modifying adverbs; fourth, with predicator verbs of semi-functional 105 nature forming a verbal predicate; fifth, with auxiliary finite verbs (word-morphemes) in the analytical forms of the verb. The noun-type combinability of the infinitive is displayed in its combining, first, with finite notional verbs as the object of the action; second, with finite notional verbs as the subject of the action. The self-positional infinitive, in due syntactic arrangements, performs the functions of all types of notional sentence-parts, i. e. the subject, the object, the predicative, the attribute, the adverbial modifier. Cf.: To meet the head of the administration and not to speak to him about your predicament was unwise, to say the least of it. (Infinitive subject position) The chief arranged to receive the foreign delegation in the afternoon. (Infinitive object position) The parents' wish had always been to see their eldest son the continuator of their joint scientific work. (Infinitive predicative position) Here again we are faced with a plot to overthrow the legitimately elected government of the republic. (Infinitive attributive position) Helen was far too worried to listen to the remonstrances. (Infinitive adverbial position) If the infinitive in free use has its own subject, different from that of the governing construction, it is introduced by the preposition-particle for. The whole infinitive construction of this type is traditionally called the "for-to infinitive phrase". Cf.: For that shy-looking young man to have stated his purpose so boldly  incredible! The prepositional introduction of the inner subject in the English infinitive phrase is analogous to the prepositional-casal introduction of the same in the Russian infinitive phrase (i.e. either with the help of the genitive-governing preposition 4;O, or with the help of the dative case of the noun). Cf.: ;O =0A >G5=L 206=> ?>=OBL ?@8@>4C ?>4>1=KE A>>B25BAB289. With some transitive verbs (of physical perceptions, mental activity, declaration, compulsion, permission, etc.) the infinitive is used in the semi-predicative constructions of the complex object and complex subject, the latter being the passive counterparts of the former. Cf.: We have never heard Charlie play his violin.  > Charlie has never been heard to plan his violin. The members of the committee expected him to speak against the suggested re- 106 solution.  > He was expected by the members of the committee to speak against the suggested resolution. Due to the intersecting character of joining with the governing predicative construction, the subject of the infinitive in such complexes, naturally, has no introductory preposition-particle. The English infinitive exists in two presentation forms. One of them, characteristic of the free uses of the infinitive, is distinguished by the pre-positional marker to. This form is called traditionally the "to-infinitive", or in more recent linguistic works, the "marked infinitive". The other form, characteristic of the bound uses of the infinitive, does not employ the marker to, thereby presenting the infinitive in the shape of the pure verb stem, which in modern interpretation is understood as the zero-suffixed form. This form is called traditionally the "bare infinitive", or in more recent linguistic works, respectively, the "unmarked infinitive". The infinitive marker to is a word-morpheme, i.e. a special formal particle analogous, mutatis mutandis, to other auxiliary elements in the English grammatical structure. Its only function is to build up and identify the infinitive form as such. As is the case with the other analytical markers, the particle to can be used in an isolated position to represent the whole corresponding construction syntagmatically zeroed in the text. Cf.: You are welcome to acquaint yourself with any of the documents if you want to. Like other analytical markers, it can also be separated from its notional, i.e. infinitive part by a word or a phrase, usually of adverbial nature, forming the so-called "split infinitive". Cf.: My task is not to accuse or acquit; my task it to thoroughly investigate, to clearly define, and to consistently systematize the facts. Thus, the marked infinitive presents just another case of an analytical grammatical form. The use or non-use of the infinitive marker depends on the verbal environment of the infinitive. Namely, the unmarked infinitive is used, besides the various analytical forms, with modal verbs (except the modals ought and used), with verbs of physical perceptions, with the verbs let, bid, make, help (with the latter  optionally), with the verb know in the sense of "experience", with a few verbal phrases of modal nature (had better, would rather, would have, etc.), with the relative-inducive why. All these uses are detailed in practical grammar books. 107 The infinitive is a categorially changeable form. It distinguishes the three grammatical categories sharing them with the finite verb, namely, the aspective category of development (continuous in opposition), the aspective category of retrospective coordination (perfect in opposition), the category of voice (passive in opposition). Consequently, the categorial paradigm of the infinitive of the objective verb includes eight forms: the indefinite active, the continuous active, the perfect active, the perfect continuous active; the indefinite passive, the continuous passive, the perfect passive, the perfect continuous passive. E.g.: to take  to be taking  to have taken  to have been taking; to be taken  to be being taken  to have been taken  to have been being taken. The infinitive paradigm of the non-objective verb, correspondingly, includes four forms. E.g.: to go  to be going  to have gone  to have been going. The continuous and perfect continuous passive can only be used occasionally, with a strong stylistic colouring. But they underlie the corresponding finite verb forms. It is the indefinite infinitive that constitutes the head-form of the verbal paradigm. 3. The gerund is the non-finite form of the verb which, like the infinitive, combines the properties of the verb with those of the noun. Similar to the infinitive, the gerund serves as the verbal name of a process, but its substantive quality is more strongly pronounced than that of the infinitive. Namely, as different from the infinitive, and similar to the noun, the gerund can be modified by a noun in the possessive case or its pronominal equivalents (expressing the subject of the verbal process), and it can be used with prepositions. Since the gerund, like the infinitive, is an abstract name of the process denoted by the verbal lexeme, a question might arise, why the infinitive, and not the gerund is taken as the head-form of the verbal lexeme as a whole, its accepted representative in the lexicon. As a matter of fact, the gerund cannot perform the function of the paradigmatic verbal head-form for a number of reasons. In the first place, it is more detached from the finite verb than the infinitive semantically, tending to be a far more substantival unit categorially. Then, as different from the infinitive, it does not join in the conjugation of the finite verb. Unlike the infinitive, it is a suffixal form, which 108 makes it less generalized than the infinitive in terms of the formal properties of the verbal lexeme (although it is more abstract in the purely semantic sense). Finally, it is less definite than the infinitive from the lexico-grammatical point of view, being subject to easy neutralizations in its opposition with the verbal noun in -ing, as well as with the present participle. Hence, the gerund is no rival of the infinitive in the paradigmatic head-form function. The general combinability of the gerund, like that of the infinitive, is dual, sharing some features with the verb, and some features with the noun. The verb-type combinability of the gerund is displayed in its combining, first, with nouns expressing the object of the action; second, with modifying adverbs; third, with certain semi-functional predicator verbs, but other than modal. Of the noun-type is the combinability of the gerund, first, with finite notional verbs as the object of the action; second, with finite notional verbs as the prepositional adjunct of various functions; third, with finite notional verbs as the subject of the action; fourth, with nouns as the prepositional adjunct of various functions. The gerund, in the corresponding positional patterns, performs the functions of all the types of notional sentence-parts, i.e. the subject, the object, the predicative, the attribute, the adverbial modifier. Cf.: Repeating your accusations over and over again doesn't make them more convincing. (Gerund subject position) No wonder he delayed breaking the news to Uncle Jim. (Gerund direct object position) She could not give her mind to pressing wild flowers in Pauline's botany book. (Gerund addressee object position) Joe felt annoyed at being shied by his roommates. (Gerund prepositional object position) You know what luck is? Luck is believing you're lucky. (Gerund predicative position) Fancy the pleasant prospect of listening to all the gossip they've in store for you! (Gerund attributive position) He could not push against the furniture without bringing the whole lot down. (Gerund adverbial of manner position) One of the specific gerund patterns is its combination with the noun in the possessive case or its possessive pronominal equivalent expressing the subject of the action. This gerundial construction is used in cases when the subject of the gerundial process differs from the subject of the governing 109 sentence-situation, i.e. when the gerundial sentence-part has its own, separate subject. E.g.: Powell's being rude like that was disgusting. How can she know about the Morions' being connected with this unaccountable affair? Will he ever excuse our having interfered? The possessive with the gerund displays one of the distinctive categorial properties of the gerund as such, establishing it in the English lexemic system as the form of the verb with nounal characteristics. As a matter of fact, from the point of view of the inner semantic relations, this combination is of a verbal type, while from the point of view of the formal categorial features, this combination is of a nounal type. It can be clearly demonstrated by the appropriate transformations, i.e. verb-related and noun-related re-constructions. Cf.: I can't stand his criticizing artistic works that are beyond his competence. (T-verbal  >He is criticizing artistic works. T-nounal > His criticism of artistic works.) Besides combining with the possessive noun-subject, the verbal ing-form con also combine with the noun-subject in the common case or its objective pronominal equivalent. E.g.: I read in yesterday's paper about the hostages having been released. This gerundial use as presenting very peculiar features of categorial mediality will be discussed after the treatment of the participle. The formal sign of the gerund is wholly homonymous with that of the present participle: it is the suffix -ing added to its grammatically (categorially) leading element. Like the infinitive, the gerund is a categorially changeable (variable, demutative) form; it distinguishes the two grammatical categories, sharing them with the finite verb and the present participle, namely, the aspective category of retrospective coordination (perfect in opposition), and the category of voice (passive in opposition). Consequently, the categorial paradigm of the gerund of the objective verb includes four forms: the simple active, the perfect active; the simple passive, the perfect passive. E.g.: taking  having taken  being taken  having been taken. The gerundial paradigm of the non-objective verb, correspondingly, includes two forms. E.g.: going  having gone. The perfect forms of the gerund are used, as a rule, only in semantically strong positions, laying special emphasis on the meaningful categorial content of the form. 4. The present participle is the non-finite form of the verb which combines the properties of the verb with those of the adjective and adverb, serving as the qualifying-processual name. In its outer form the present participle is wholly homonymous with the gerund, ending in the suffix -ing and distinguishing the same grammatical categories of retrospective coordination and voice. Like all the verbids, the present participle has no categorial time distinctions, and the attribute "present" in its conventional name is not immediately explanatory; it is used in this book from force of tradition. Still, both terms "present participle" and "past participle" are not altogether devoid of elucidative signification, if not in the categorial sense, then in the derivational-etymological sense, and are none the worse in their quality than their doublet-substitutes "participle I" and "participle II". The present participle has its own place in the general paradigm of the verb, different from that of the past participle, being distinguished by the corresponding set of characterization features. Since it possesses some traits both of adjective and adverb, the present participle is not only dual, but triple by its lexico-grammatical properties, which is displayed in its combinability, as well as in its syntactic functions. The verb-type combinability of the present participle is revealed, first, in its being combined, in various uses, with nouns expressing the object of the action; second, with nouns expressing the subject of the action (in semi-predicative complexes); third, with modifying adverbs; fourth, with auxiliary finite verbs (word-morphemes) in the analytical forms of the verb. The adjective-type combinability of the present participle is revealed in its association with the modified nouns, as well as with some modifying adverbs, such as adverbs of degree. The adverb-type combinability of the present participle is revealed in its association with the modified verbs. The self-positional present participle, in the proper syntactic arrangements, performs the functions of the predicative (occasional use, and not with the pure link be), the attribute, the adverbial modifier of various types. Cf.: The questions became more and more irritating. (Present participle predicative position) She had thrust the crucifix on to the surviving baby. (Present participle attributive 111 front-position) Norman stood on the pavement like a man watching his loved one go aboard an ocean liner. (Present participle attributive back-position) He was no longer the cocky, pugnacious boy, always squaring up for a fight. (Present participle attributive back-position, detached) She went up the steps, swinging her hips and tossing her fur with bravado. (Present participle manner adverbial back-position) And having read in the papers about truth drugs, of course Gladys would believe it absolutely. (Present participle cause adverbial front-position) The present participle, similar to the infinitive, can build up semi-predicative complexes of objective and subjective types. The two groups of complexes, i.e. infinitival and present participial, may exist in parallel (e.g. when used with some verbs of physical perceptions), the difference between them lying in the aspective presentation of the process. Cf.: Nobody noticed the scouts approach the enemy trench.  Nobody noticed the scouts approaching the enemy trench with slow, cautious, expertly calculated movements. Suddenly a telephone was heard to buzz, breaking the spell.  The telephone was heard vainly buzzing in the study. A peculiar use of the present participle is seen in the absolute participial constructions of various types, forming complexes of detached semi-predication. Cf.: The messenger waiting in the hall, we had only a couple of minutes to make a decision. The dean sat at his desk, with an electric fire glowing warmly behind the fender at the opposite wall. These complexes of descriptive and narrative stylistic nature seem to be gaining ground in present-day English. 5. The past participle is the non-finite form of the verb which combines the properties of the verb with those of the adjective, serving as the qualifying-processual name. The past participle is a single form, having no paradigm of its own. By way of the paradigmatic correlation with the present participle, it conveys implicitly the categorial meaning of the perfect and the passive. As different from the present participle, it has no distinct combinability features or syntactic function features specially characteristic of the adverb. Thus, the main self-positional functions of the past 112 participle in the sentence are those of the attribute and the predicative. Cf.: Moyra's softened look gave him a new hope. (Past participle attributive front-position) The cleverly chosen timing of the attack determined the outcome of the battle. (Past participle attributive front-position) It is a face devastated by passion. (Past participle attributive back-position) His was a victory gained against all rules and predictions. (Past participle attributive back-position) Looked upon in this light, the wording of the will didn't appear so odious. (Past participle attributive detached position) The light is bright and inconveniently placed for reading. (Past participle predicative position) The past participle is included in the structural formation of the present participle (perfect, passive), which, together with the other differential properties, vindicates the treatment of this form as a separate verbid. In the attributive use, the past participial meanings of the perfect and the passive are expressed in dynamic correlation with the aspective lexico-grammatical character of the verb. As a result of this correlation, the attributive past participle of limitive verbs in a neutral context expresses priority, while the past participle of unlimitive verbs expresses simultaneity. E.g.: A tree broken by the storm blocked the narrow passage between the cliffs and the water. (Priority in the passive; the implication is "a tree that had been broken by the storm") I saw that the picture admired by the general public hardly had a fair chance with the judges. (Simultaneity in the passive; the implication is "the picture which was being admired by the public") Like the present participle, the past participle is capable of making up semi-predicative constructions of complex object, complex subject, as well as of absolute complex. The past participial complex object is specifically characteristic with verbs of wish and oblique causality (have, get). Cf.: I want the document prepared for signing by 4 p.m. Will you have my coat brushed up, please? Compare the use of the past; participial complex object 113 and the complex subject as its passive transform with a perception verb: We could hear a shot or two fired from a field mortar.  >  shot or two could be heard fired from a field mortar. The complex subject of this type, whose participle is included in the double predicate of the sentence, is used but occasionally. A more common type of the participial complex subject can be seen with notional links of motion and position. Cf.: We sank down and for a while lay there stretched out and exhausted. The absolute past participial complex as a rule expresses priority in the correlation of two events. Cf.: The preliminary talks completed, it became possible to concentrate on the central point of the agenda. The past participles of non-objective verbs are rarely used in independent sentence-part positions; they are mostly included in phraseological or cliche combinations like faded photographs, fallen leaves, a retired officer, a withered flower, dream come true, etc. In these and similar cases the idea of pure quality rather than that of processual quality is expressed, the modifying participles showing the features of adjectivization. As is known, the past participle is traditionally interpreted as being capable of adverbial-related use (like the present participle), notably in detached syntactical positions, after the introductory subordinative conjunctions. Cf.: Called up by the conservative minority, the convention failed to pass a satisfactory resolution. Though welcomed heartily by his host, Frederick felt at once that something was wrong. Approached from the paradigmatic point of view in the constructional sense, this interpretation is to be re-considered. As a matter of fact, past participial constructions of the type in question display clear cases of syntactic compression. The true categorial nature of the participial forms employed by them is exposed by the corresponding transformational correlations ("back transformations") as being not of adverbial, but of definitely adjectival relation. Cf.: ... > The convention, which was called up by the conservative minority, failed to pass a satisfactory resolution. ... > Though he was welcomed heartily by his host, Frederick felt at once that something was wrong. 114 Cf. a more radical diagnostic transformational change of the latter construction: ... > Frederick, who was welcomed heartily by his host, nevertheless felt at once that something was wrong. As is seen from the analysis, the adjectival relation of the past participle in the quoted examples is proved by the near-predicative function of the participle in the derived transforms, be it even within the composition of the finite passive verb form. The adverbial uses of the present participle react to similar tests in a different way. Cf.: Passing on to the library, he found Mabel entertaining her guests.  > As he passed on to the library, he found Mabel entertaining her guests. The adverbial force of the present participle in constructions like that is shown simply as resulting from the absence of obligatory mediation of be between the participle and its subject (in the derivationally underlying units). As an additional proof of our point, we may take an adjectival construction for a similar diagnostic testing. Cf.: Though red in the face, the boy kept denying his guilt.  > Though he was red in the face, the boy kept denying his guilt. As we see, the word red, being used in the diagnostic concessive clause of complete composition, does not change its adjectival quality for an adverbial quality. Being red in the face would again present another categorial case. Being, as a present participial form, is in the observed syntactic conditions neither solely adjectival-related, nor solely adverbial-related; it is by nature adjectival-adverbial, the whole composite unity in question automatically belonging to the same categorial class, i.e. the class of present participial constructions of different subtypes. 6. The consideration of the English verbids in their mutual comparison, supported and supplemented by comparing them with their non-verbal counterparts, puts forward some points of structure and function worthy of special notice. In this connection, the infinitive-gerund correlation should first be brought under observation. Both forms are substance-processual, and the natural question that one has to ask about them is, whether the two do not repeat each other by their informative destination and employment. This question was partly answered in the 115 ing of words (see 5). Compare some more examples given in the reverse order: The arrival of the train --> The train arrived. The baked potatoes - The potatoes are baked. The gifted pupil - The pupil has a gift. Completive combinations of adjectives and adverbs (adjective-phrases and adverb-phrases), as different from noun combinations (noun-phrases), are related to predicative constructions but indirectly, through the intermediary stage of the corresponding noun-phrase. Cf.: utterly neglected  utter neglect  The neglect is utter; very carefully  great carefulness  The carefulness is great; speechlessly reproachful  speechless reproach  The reproach is speechless. These distinctions of completive word combinations are very important to understand for analysing paradigmatic relations in syntax (see further). CHAPTER XXI SENTENCE: GENERAL (2 4-< 8740=88 =0G8=05BAO A> AB@. 255) 1. The sentence is the immediate integral unit of speech built up of words according to a definite syntactic pattern and distinguished by a contextually relevant communicative purpose. Any coherent connection of words having an informative destination is effected within the framework of the sentence. Therefore the sentence is the main object of syntax as part of the grammatical theory. The sentence, being composed of words, may in certain cases include only one word of various lexico-grammatical standing. Cf.: Night. Congratulations. Away! Why? Certainly. The actual existence of one-word sentences, however, does not contradict the general idea of the sentence as a special syntactic combination of words, the same as the notion of one-element set in mathematics does not contradict the general idea of the set as a combination of certain elements. Moreover, this fact cannot lead even to the inference that under some circumstances the sentence and the word may wholly coincide: a word-sentence as a unit of the text is radically different from a word-lexeme as a unit of lexicon, the differentiation being inherent in the respective places 236 occupied by the sentence and the word in the hierarchy of language levels. While the word is a component element of the word-stock and as such is a nominative unit of language, the sentence, linguistically, is a predicative utterance-unit. It means that the sentence not only names some referents with the help of its word-constituents, but also, first, presents these referents as making up a certain situation, or, more specifically, a situational event, and second, reflects the connection between the nominal denotation of the event on the one hand, and objective reality on the other, showing the time of the event, its being real or unreal, desirable or undesirable, necessary or unnecessary, etc. Cf.: I am satisfied, the experiment has succeeded. I would have been satisfied if the experiment had succeeded. The experiment seems to have succeeded  why then am I not satisfied? Thus, even one uninflected word making up a sentence is thereby turned into an utterance-unit expressing the said semantic complex through its concrete contextual and consituational connections. By way of example, compare the different connections of the word-sentence "night" in the following passages: 1) Night. Night and the boundless sea, under the eternal star-eyes shining with promise. Was it a dream of freedom coining true? 2) Night? Oh no. No night for me until 1 have worked through the case. 3) Night. It pays all the day's debts. No cause for worry now, I tell you. Whereas the utterance "night" in the first of the given passages refers the event to the plane of reminiscences, the "night" of the second passage presents a question in argument connected with the situation wherein the interlocutors are immediately involved, while the latter passage features its "night" in the form of a proposition of reason in the flow of admonitions. It follows from this that there is another difference between the sentence and the word. Namely, unlike the word, the sentence does not exist in the system of language as a ready-made unit; with the exception of a limited number of utterances of phraseological citation, it is created by the speaker in the course of communication. Stressing this fact, linguists point out that the sentence, as different from the word, is not a unit of language proper; it is a chunk of text 237 built up as a result of speech-making process, out of different units of language, first of all words, which are immediate means for making up contextually bound sentences, i. e. complete units of speech. It should be noted that this approach to the sentence, very consistently exposed in the works of the prominent Soviet scholar A. I. Smirnitsky, corresponds to the spirit of traditional grammar from the early epoch of its development. Traditional grammar has never regarded the sentence as part of the system of means of expression; it has always interpreted the sentence not as an implement for constructing speech, but as speech itself, i. e. a portion of coherent flow of words of one speaker containing a complete thought. Being a unit of speech, the sentence is intonationally delimited. Intonation separates one sentence from another in the continual flow of uttered segments and, together with various segmental means of expression, participates in rendering essential communicative-predicative meanings (such as, for instance, the syntactic meaning of interrogation in distinction to the meaning of declaration). The role of intonation as a delimiting factor is especially important for sentences which have more than one predicative centre, in particular more than one finite verb. Cf.: 1) The class was over, the noisy children fitted the corridors. 2) The class was over. The noisy children filled the corridors. Special intonation contours, including pauses, represent the given speech sequence in the first case as one compound sentence, in the second case as two different sentences (though, certainly, connected both logically and syntactically). On the other hand, as we have stated elsewhere, the system of language proper taken separately, and the immediate functioning of this system in the process of intercourse, i.e. speech proper, present an actual unity and should be looked upon as the two sides of one dialectically complicated substance  the human language in the broad sense of the term. Within the framework of this unity the sentence itself, as a unit of communication, also presents the two different sides, inseparably connected with each other. Namely, within each sentence as an immediate speech element of the communication process, definite standard syntactic-semantic features are revealed which make up a typical model, a generalized pattern repeated in an indefinite number of actual utterances. 238 This complicated predicative pattern does enter the system of language. It exists on its own level in the hierarchy of lingual segmental units in the capacity of a "linguistic sentence" and as such is studied by grammatical theory, Thus, the sentence is characterized by its specific category of predication which establishes the relation of the named phenomena to actual life. The general semantic category of modality is also defined by linguists as exposing the connection between the named objects and surrounding reality. However, modality, as different from predication, is not specifically confined to the sentence; this is a broader category revealed both in the grammatical elements of language and its lexical, purely nominative elements. In this sense, every word expressing a definite correlation between the named substance and objective reality should be recognized as modal. Here belong such lexemes of full notional standing as "probability", "desirability", "necessity" and the like, together with all the derivationally relevant words making up the corresponding series of the lexical paradigm of nomination; here belong semi-functional words and phrases of probability and existential evaluation, such as perhaps, may be, by all means, etc.; here belong further, word-particles of specifying modal semantics, such as just, even, would-be, etc.; here belong, finally, modal verbs expressing a broad range of modal meanings which are actually turned into elements of predicative semantics in concrete, contextually-bound utterances. As for predication proper, it embodies not any kind of modality, but only syntactic modality as the fundamental distinguishing feature of the sentence. It is the feature of predication, fully and explicitly expressed by a contextually relevant grammatical complex, that identifies the sentence in distinction to any other combination of words having a situational referent. The centre of predication in a sentence of verbal type (which is the predominant type of sentence-structure in English) is a finite verb. The finite verb expresses essential predicative meanings by its categorial forms, first of all, the categories of tense and mood (the category of person, as we have seen before, reflects the corresponding category of the subject). However, proceeding from the principles of sentence analysis worked out in the Russian school of theoretical syntax, in particular, in the classical treatises of V.V. Vinogradov, we insist that predication is effected not only by the 239 forms of the finite verb connecting it with the subject, but also by all the other forms and elements of the sentence establishing the connection between the named objects and reality, including such means of expression as intonation, word order, different functional words. Besides the purely verbal categories, in the predicative semantics are included such syntactic sentence meanings as purposes of communication (declaration  interrogation  inducement), modal probability, affirmation and negation, and others, which, taken together, provide for the sentence to be identified on its own, proposemic level of lingual hierarchy. 2. From what has been said about the category of predication, we see quite clearly that the general semantic content of the sentence is not at all reduced to predicative meanings only. Indeed, in order to establish the connection between some substance and reality, it is first necessary to name the substance itself. This latter task is effected in the sentence with the help of its nominative means. Hence, the sentence as a lingual unit performs not one, but two essential signemic (meaningful) functions: first, substance-naming, or nominative function; second, reality-evaluating, or predicative function. The terminological definition of the sentence as a predicative unit gives prominence to the main feature distinguishing the sentence from the word among the meaningful lingual units (signernes). However, since every predication is effected upon a certain nomination as its material semantic base, we gain a more profound insight into the difference between the sentence and the word by pointing out the two-aspective meaningful nature of the sentence. The semantics of the sentence presents a unity of its nominative and predicative aspects, while the semantics of the word, in this sense, is monoaspective. Some linguists do not accept the definition of the sentence through predication, considering it to contain tautology, since, allegedly, it equates the sentence with predication ("the sentence is predication, predication is the sentence"). However, the identification of the two aspects of the sentence pointed out above shows that this negative attitude is wholly unjustified; the real content of the predicative interpretation of the sentence has nothing to do with definitions of the "vicious circle" type. In point of fact as follows from the given exposition of predication, predicative meanings 240 do not exhaust the semantics of the sentence; on the contrary, they presuppose the presence in the sentence of meanings of quite another nature, which form its deeper nominative basis. Predicative functions work upon this deep nominative basis, and as a result the actual utterance-sentence is finally produced. On the other hand, we must also note a profound difference between the nominative function of the sentence and the nominative function of the word. The nominative meaning of the syntagmatically complete average sentence (an ordinary proposemic nomination) reflects a processual situation or event that includes a certain process (actional or statal) as its dynamic centre, the agent of the process, the objects of the process, and also the various conditions and circumstances of the realization of the process. This content of the proposemic event, as is known from school grammar, forms the basis of the traditional syntactic division of the sentence into its functional parts. In other words, the identification of traditional syntactic parts of the sentence is nothing else than the nominative division of the sentence. Cf.: The pilot was steering the ship out of the harbour.------ The old pilot was carefully steering the heavily loaded ship through the narrow straits out of the harbour. As is easily seen, no separate word, be it composed of so many stems, can express the described situation-nominative semantics of the proposition. Even hyperbolically complicated artificial words such as are sometimes coined for various expressive purposes by authors of fiction cannot have means of organizing their root components analogous to the means of arranging the nominative elements of the sentence. Quite different in this respect is a nominal phrase  a compound signemic unit made up of words and denoting a complex phenomenon of reality analysable into its component elements together with various relations between them. Comparative observations of predicative and non-predicative combinations of words have unmistakably shown that among the latter there are quite definite constructions which are actually capable of realizing nominations of proposemic situations. These are word-combinations of full nominative value represented by expanded substantive phrases. It is these combinations that, by their nominative potential, directly correspond to sentences expressing typical proposemic situations. Cf.: 241 ... - The pilot's steering of the ship out of the harbour. ... -> The old pilot's careful steering of the heavily loaded ship through the narrow straits out of the harbour. In other words, between the sentence and the substantive word-combination of the said full nominative type, direct transformational relations are established: the sentence, interpreted as an element of paradigmatics, is transformed into the substantive phrase, or "nominalized", losing its processual-predicative character. Thus, syntactic nominali-zation, while depriving the sentence of its predicative aspect (and thereby, naturally, destroying the sentence as an immediate communicative unit), preserves its nominative aspect intact. The identification of nominative aspect of the sentence effected on the lines of studying the paradigmatic relations in syntax makes it possible to define more accurately the very notion of predication as the 3pecific function of the sentence. The functional essence of predication has hitherto been understood in linguistics as the expression of the relation of the utterance (sentence) to reality, or, in more explicit presentation, as the expression of the relation between the content of the sentence and reality. This kind of understanding predication can be seen, for instance, in the well-known "Grammar of the Russian Language" published by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, where it is stated that "the meaning and purpose of the general category of predication forming the sentence consists in referring the content of the sentence to reality".* Compare with this the definition advanced by A. I. Smirnitsky, according to which predication is understood as "referring the utterance to reality" [!<8@=8F:89, (1), 102]. The essential principles of this interpretation of predication can be expressed even without the term "predication" as such. The latter approach to the exposition of the predicative meaning of the sentence can be seen, for instance, in the course of English grammar by M. A. Ganshina and N. M. Vasilevskaya, who write: "Every sentence shows the relation of the statement to reality from the point of view of the speaker" [Ganshina, Vasilevskaya, 321]. Now, it is easily noticed that the cited and similar definitions * @0<<0B8:0 @CAA:>3> O7K:0. M. 1960. T. 2, '. ". A, 79. 80. 242 of predication do not explicitly distinguish the two cardinal sides of the sentence content, namely, the nominative side and the predicative side. We may quite plausibly suppose that the non-discrimination of these two sides of sentence meaning gave the ultimate cause to some scholars for their negative attitude towards the notion of predication as the fundamental factor of sentence forming. Taking into consideration the two-aspective character of the sentence as a signemic unit of language, predication should now be interpreted not simply as referring the content of the sentence to reality, but as referring the nominative content of the sentence to reality. It is this interpretation of the semantico-functional nature of predication that discloses, in one and the same generalized presentation, both the unity of the two identified aspects of the sentence, and also their different, though mutually complementary meaningful roles. CHAPTER XXII ACTUAL DIVISION OF THE SENTENCE 1. The notional parts of the sentence referring to the basic elements of the reflected situation form, taken together, the nominative meaning of the sentence. For the sake of terminological consistency, the division of the sentence into notional parts can be just so called  the "nominative division" (its existing names are the "grammatical division" and the "syntactic division"). The discrimination of the nominative division of the sentence is traditional; it is this type of division that can conveniently be shown by a syntagmatic model, in particular, by a model of immediate constituents based on the traditional syntactic analysis (see Ch. XXIV). Alongside of the nominative division of the sentence, the idea of the so-called "actual division" of the sentence has been put forward in theoretical linguistics. The purpose of the actual division of the sentence, called also the "functional sentence perspective", is to reveal the correlative significance of the sentence parts from the point of view of their actual informative role in an utterance, i.e. from the point of view of the immediate semantic contribution they make to the total information conveyed by the sentence in the context 243 of connected speech. In other words, the actual division of the sentence in fact exposes its informative perspective. The main components of the actual division of the sentence are the theme and the rheme. The theme expresses the starting point of the communication, i.e. it denotes an object or a phenomenon about which something is reported. The rheme expresses the basic informative part of the communication, its contextually relevant centre. Between the theme and the rheme are positioned intermediary, transitional parts of the actual division of various degrees of informative value (these parts are sometimes called "transition"). The theme of the actual division of the sentence may or may not coincide with the subject of the sentence. The rheme of the actual division, in its turn, may or may not coincide with the predicate of the sentence  either with the whole predicate group or its part, such as the predicative, the object, the adverbial. Thus, in the following sentences of various emotional character the theme is expressed by the subject, while the rheme is expressed by the predicate: Max bounded forward. Again Charlie is being too clever! Her advice can't be of any help to us. In the first of the above sentences the rheme coincides with the whole predicate group. In the second sentence the adverbial introducer again can be characterized as a transitional element, i.e. an element informationally intermediary between the theme and the rheme, the latter being expressed by the rest of the predicate group, The main part of the rheme  the "peak" of informative perspective  - is rendered in this sentence by the intensified predicative too clever. In the third sentence the addressee object to us is more or less transitional, while the informative peak, as in the previous example, is expressed by the predicative of any help. In the following sentences the correlation between the nominative and actual divisions is the reverse: the theme is expressed by the predicate or its part, while the rheme is rendered by the subject: Through the open window came the purr of an approaching motor car. Who is coming late but John! There is a difference of opinion between the parties. Historically the theory of actual division of the sentence is connected with the logical analysis of the proposition. The 244 principal parts of the proposition, as is known, are the logical subject and the logical predicate. These, like the theme and the rheme, may or may not coincide, respectively, with the subject and the predicate of the sentence. The logical categories of subject and predicate are prototypes of the linguistic categories of theme and rheme. However, if logic analyses its categories of subject and predicate as the meaningful components of certain forms of thinking, linguistics analyses the categories of theme and rheme as the corresponding means of expression used by the speaker for the sake of rendering the informative content of his communications. 2. The actual division of the sentence finds its full expression only in a concrete context of speech, therefore it is sometimes referred to as the "contextual5' division of the sentence. This can be illustrated by the following example: Mary is fond of poetry. In the cited sentence, if we approach it as a stylistically neutral construction devoid of any specific connotations, the theme is expressed by the subject, and the rheme, by the predicate. This kind of-actual division is "direct". On the other hand, a certain context may be built around the given sentence in the conditions of which the order of actual division will be changed into the reverse: the subject will turn into the exposer of the rheme, while the predicate, accordingly, into the exposer of the theme. Cf.: "Isn't it surprising that Tim is so fond of poetry?"  "But you are wrong. Mary is fond of poetry, not Tim." The actual division in which the rheme is expressed by the subject is to be referred to as "inverted". 3, The close connection of the actual division of the sentence with the context in the conditions of which it is possible to divide the informative parts of the communication into those "already known" by the listener and those "not yet known" by him, gave cause to the recognized founder of the linguistic theory of actual division J. Mathesius to consider this kind of sentence division ns a purely semantic factor sharply opposed to the "formally grammatical" or "purely syntactic" division of the sentence (in our terminology called its "nominative" division). One will agree that the actual division of the sentence will really lose all connection with syntax if its components are to be identified solely on the principle of their being 245 "known" or "unknown" to the listener. However, we must bear in mind that the informative value of developing speech consists not only in introducing new words that denote things and phenomena not mentioned before; the informative value of communications lies also in their disclosing various new relations between the elements of reflected events, though the elements themselves may be quite familiar to the listener. The expression of a certain aspect of these relations, namely, the correlation of the said elements from the point of view of their immediate significance in a given utterance produced as a predicative item of a continual speech, does enter the structural plane of language. This expression becomes part and parcel of the structural system of language by the mere fact that the correlative informative significance of utterance components are rendered by quite definite, generalized and standardized lingual constructions. The functional purpose of such constructions is to reveal the meaningful centre of the utterance (i.e. its rheme) in distinction to the starting point of its content (i.e. its theme). These constructions do not present any "absolutely formal", "purely differential" objects of language which are filled with semantic content only in the act of speech communication. On the contrary, they are bilateral signemic units in exactly the same sense as other meaningful constructions of language, i.e. they are distinguished both by their material form and their semantics. It follows from this that the constructional, or immediately systemic side of the phenomenon which is called the "actual division of the sentence" belongs to no other sphere of language than syntax. And the crucial syntactic destination of the whole aspect of the actual division is its rheme-identifying function, since an utterance is produced just for the sake of conveying the meaningful content expressed by its central informative part, i.e. by the rheme. 4. Among the formal means of expressing the distinction between the theme and the rheme investigators name such structural elements of language as word-order patterns, intonation contours, constructions with introducers, syntactic patterns of contrastive complexes, constructions with articles and other determiners, constructions with intensifying particles. The difference between the actual division of sentences signalled by the difference in their word-order patterns can 246 be most graphically illustrated by the simplest type of transformations. Cf.: The winner of the competition stood on the platform in the middle of the hall. -> On the platform in the middle of the hall stood the winner of the competition. Fred didn't notice the flying balloon. - The one who didn't notice the flying balloon was Fred. Helen should be the first to receive her diploma. -> The first to receive her diploma should be Helen. In all the cited examples, i.e. both base sentences and their transforms, the rheme (expressed either by the subject or by an element of the predicate group) is placed towards the end of the sentence, while the theme is positioned at the beginning of it. This kind of positioning the components of the actual division corresponds to the natural development of thought from the starting point of communication to its semantic centre, or, in common parlance, from the "known data" to the "unknown (new) data". Still, in other contextual conditions, the reversed order of positioning the actual division components is used, which can be shown by the following illustrative transformations: It was unbelievable to all of them. - Utterly unbelievable it was to all of them. Now you are speaking magic words, Nancy. -* Magic words you are speaking now, Nancy. You look so well! -> How well you look! It is easily seen from the given examples that the reversed order of the actual division, i.e. the positioning of the rheme at the beginning of the sentence, is connected with emphatic speech. Among constructions with introducers, the there-pattern provides for the rhematic identification of the subject without emotive connotations. Cf.: Tall birches surrounded the lake. - There were tall birches surrounding the lake. A loud hoot came from the railroad. - There came a loud hoot from the railroad. Emphatic discrimination of the rheme expressed by various parts of the sentence is achieved by constructions with the anticipatory it. Cf.: Grandma gave them a moment's deep consideration. -> It was a moment's deep consideration that Grandma gave 247 them. She had just escaped something simply awful. ~* It was something simply awful that she had just escaped. At that moment Laura joined them. - It was Laura who joined them at that moment. Syntactic patterns of contrastive complexes are used to expose the rheme of the utterance in cases when special accuracy of distinction is needed. This is explained by the fact that the actual division as such is always based on some sort of antithesis or "contraposition" (see further), which in an ordinary speech remains implicit. Thus, a syntactic contrastive complex is employed to make explicative the inner contrast inherent in the actual division by virtue of its functional nature. This can be shown on pairs of nomin-atively cognate examples of antithetic constructions where each member-construction will expose its own contrastively presented element. Cf.: The costume is meant not for your cousin, but for you. ------The costume, not the frock, is meant for you, my dear. The strain told not so much on my visitor than on myself. -----The strain of the situation, not the relaxation of it, was what surprised me. Determiners, among them the articles, used as means of forming certain patterns of actual division, divide their functions so that the definite determiners serve as identifiers of the theme while the indefinite determiners serve as identifiers of the rheme. Cf.: The man walked up and down the platform.  A man walked up and down the platform. The whole book was devoted to the description of a tiny island on the Pacific.------ A whole book is needed to describe that tiny island on the Pacific. I'm sure Nora's knit ting needles will suit you.- I'm sure any knitting needles will suit you. Intensifying particles identify the rheme, commonly imparting emotional colouring to the whole of the utterance. Cf.: Mr. Stores had a part in the general debate. -> Even Mr. Stores had a part in the general debate. Then he sat down in one of the armchairs.  > Only then did he sit down in one of the armchairs. We were impressed by what we heard and saw* -* W were so impressed by what w heurd and saw. 248 As for intonation as a means of realizing the actual division, it might appear that its sphere is relatively limited, being confined to oral speech only. On closer consideration, however, this view of rheme-identifying role of intonation proves inadequate. To appreciate the true status of intonation in the actual division of the sentence, one should abstract oneself from "paper syntax" (description of written texts) and remember that it is phonetical speech, i.e. articulately pronounced utterances that form the basis of human language as a whole. As soon as the phonetical nature of language is duly taken account of, intonation with its accent-patterns presents itself not as a limited, but as a universal and indisputable means of expressing the actual division in all types and varieties of lingual contexts. This universal rheme-identifying function of intonation has been described in treatises on logic, as well as in traditional philological literature, in terms of "logical accent". The "logical accent", which amounts linguistically to the "rhematic accent", is inseparable from the other rheme-identifying means described above, especially from the word-order patterns. Moreover, all such means in written texts in fact represent the logical accent, i.e. they indicate its position either directly or indirectly. This can be seen on all the examples hitherto cited in the present chapter. 5. While recognizing the logical accent as a means of effecting the actual division, we must strictly distinguish between the elements immediately placed under the phonetical, "technical" stress, and the sentence segments which are identified as the informative centre of communication in the true sense of the term. Technically, not only notional, but functional units as well can be phrasally stressed in an utterance, which in modern printed texts is shown by special graphical ways of identification, such as italics, bold type, etc. Cf.: "I can't bring along someone who isn't invited."  "But I am invited!" said Miss Casement (I. Murdoch). Moreover, being a highly intelligent young woman, she'd be careful not to be the only one affected (. Christie). However, it would be utterly incorrect to think that in such instances only those word-units are logically, i.e. rhematically, marked out as are stressed phonetically. As a matter of fact, functional elements cannot express any self- dependent nomination; they do not exist by themselves, but make up units of nomination together with the notional elements of utterances whose meanings they specify. Thus, the phrasal phonetical stress, technically making prominent some functional element, thereby identifies as rhematic the corresponding notional part ("knot") of the utterance as a whole. It is such notional parts that are real members of the opposition "theme  rheme", not their functional constituents taken separately. As for the said functional constituents themselves, these only set up specific semantic bases on which the relevant rhematic antitheses are built up. 6. The actual division, since it is effected upon the already produced nominative sentence base providing for its contextually relevant manifestation, enters the predicative aspect of the sentence. It makes up part of syntactic predication, because it strictly meets the functional purpose of predication as such, which is to relate the nominative content of the sentence to reality (see Ch. XXI). This predicative role of the actual division shows that its contextual relevance is not reduced to that of a passive, concomitant factor of expression. On the contrary, the actual division is an active means of expressing functional meanings, and, being organically connected with the context, it is not so much context-governed as it is |context-governing: in fact, it does build up concrete contexts out of constructional sentence-models chosen to reflect different situations and events. One of the most important manifestations of the immediate contextual relevance of the actual division is the regular deletion (ellipsis) of the thematic parts of utterances in dialogue speech. By this syntactic process, the rheme of the utterance or its most informative part (peak of informative perspective) is placed in isolation, thereby being very graphically presented to the listener. Cf.: "You've got the letters?"  "In my bag" (G. W. Target). "How did you receive him?"  "Coldly" (J. Galsworthy). In other words, the thematic reduction of sentences in the context, resulting in a constructional economy of speech, performs an informative function in parallel with the logical accent: it serves to accurately identify the rheme of the utterance. 250 CHAPTER XXIII COMMUNICATIVE TYPES OF SENTENCES 1. The sentence is a communicative unit, therefore the primary classification of sentences must be based on the communicative principle. This principle is formulated in traditional grammar as the "purpose of communication". The purpose of communication, by definition, refers to the sentence as a whole, and the structural features connected with the expression of this sentential function belong to the fundamental, constitutive qualities of the sentence as a lingual unit. In accord with the purpose of communication three cardinal sentence-types have long been recognized in linguistic tradition: first, the declarative sentence; second, the imperative (inducive) sentence; third, the interrogative sentence. These communicative sentence-types stand in strict opposition to one another, and their inner properties of form and meaning are immediately correlated with the corresponding features of the listener's responses. Thus, the declarative sentence expresses a statement, either affirmative or negative, and as such stands in systemic syntagmatic correlation with the listener's responding signals of attention, of appraisal (including agreement or disagreement), of fellow-feeling. Cf.: "I think," he said, "that Mr. Desert should be asked to give us his reasons for publishing that poem."  "Hear, hear!" said the . !. (J. Galsworthy). "We live very quietly here, indeed we do; my niece here will tell you the same."  "Oh, come, I'm not such a fool as that," answered the Squire (D. du Maurier). The imperative sentence expresses inducement, either affirmative or negative. That is, it urges the listener, in the form of request or command, to perform or not to perform a certain action. As such, the imperative sentence is situa-tionally connected with the corresponding "netion response" (Ch. Fries), and lingually is systemicnlly correlated with a verbal response showing that the inducement is either complied with, or else rejected. Cf.: "Let's go and sit down up there, Diimy."  "Very well" (J. Galsworthy). "Then marry me."  "Really, Alan, I 251 never met anyone with so few ideas" (J. Galsworthy). "Send him back!" he said again.  "Nonsense, old chap" (J. Aldridge). Since the communicative purpose of the imperative sentence is to make the listener act as requested, silence on the part of the latter (when the request is fulfilled), strictly speaking, is also linguistically relevant. This gap in speech, which situationally is filled in by the listener's action, is set off in literary narration by special comments and descriptions. Cf.: "Knock on the wood."  Ret an's man leaned forward and knocked three times on the barrera (E. Hemingway). "Shut the piano," whispered Dinny; "let's go up."  Diana closed the piano without noise and rose (J. Galsworthy). The interrogative sentence expresses a question, i.e. a request for information wanted by the speaker from the listener. By virtue of this communicative purpose, the interrogative sentence is naturally connected with an answer, forming together with it a question-answer dialogue unity. Cf.: "What do you suggest I should do, then?" said Mary helplessly.  "If I were you I should play a waiting game," he replied (D. du Maurier). Naturally, in the process of actual communication the interrogative communicative purpose, like any other communicative task, may sporadically not be fulfilled. In case it is not fulfilled, the question-answer unity proves to be broken; instead of a needed answer the speaker is faced by silence on the part of the listener, or else he receives the latter's verbal rejection to answer. Cf.: "Why can't you lay off?" I said to her. But she didn't even notice me (R. P. Warren). "Did he know about her?"  "You'd better ask him" (S. Maugham). Evidently, such and like reactions to interrogative sentences are not immediately relevant in terms of environmental syntactic featuring. 2. An attempt to revise the traditional communicative classification of sentences was made by the American scholar Ch. Fries who classed them, as a deliberate challenge to the UK "accepted routine", not in accord with the purposes of communication, but according to the responses they elicit [Fries, 29-53]. In Fries's system, as a universal speech unit subjected to communicative analysis was chosen not immediately a sentence, but an utterance unit (a "free" utterance, i.e. capable of isolation) understood as a continuous chunk of talk by one speaker in a dialogue. The sentence was then defined as a minimum free utterance. Utterances collected from the tape-recorded corpus of dialogues (mostly telephone conversations) were first classed into "situation utterances" (eliciting a response), and "response utterances". Situation single free utterances (i.e. sentences) were further divided into three groups: 1) Utterances that are regularly followed by oral responses only. These are greetings, calls, questions. E.g.: Hello! Good-bye! See you soon! ... Dad! Say, dear! Colonel Howard! ... Have you got moved in? What are you going to do for the summer? ... 2) Utterances regularly eliciting action responses. These are requests or commands. E.g.\ Read that again, will you? Oh, wait a minute! Please have him call Operator Six when he comes in! Will you see just exactly what his status is? 3) Utterances regularly eliciting conventional signals of attention to continuous discourse. These are statements. E.g.: I've been talking with Mr. D  in the purchasing department about our type-writer. ( Yes?). That order went in March seventh. However it seems that we are about eighth on the list. ( I see). Etc. Alongside of the described "communicative" utterances, i.e. utterances directed to a definite listener, another, minor type of utterances were recognized as not directed to any listener but, as Ch. Fries puts it, "characteristic of situations such as surprise, sudden pain, disgust, anger, laughter, sorrow" [Fries, 53]. E.g.: Oh, oh! Goodness! My God! Darn! Gosh! Etc. Such and like interjectional units were classed by Ch. Fries as "noncommunicative" utterances. Observing the given classification, it is not difficult to 253 see that, far from refuting or discarding the traditional classification of sentences built up on the principle of the "purpose of communication", it rather confirms and specifies it. Indeed, the very purpose oi communication inherent in the addressing sentence is reflected in the listener's response. The second and third groups of Ch, Fries's "communicative" sentences-utterances are just identical imperative and declarative types both by the employed names and definition. As for the first group, it is essentially heterogeneous, which is recognized by the investigator himself, who distinguishes in its composition three communicatively different subgroups. One of these ("C") is constituted by "questions", i.e. classical interrogative sentences. The other two, viz. greetings ("A") and calls ("B"), are syntactically not cardinal, but, rather, minor intermediary types, making up the periphery of declarative sentences (greetings  statements of conventional goodwill at meeting and parting) and imperative sentences (calls  requests for attention). As regards "non-communicative" utterances  interjectional units, they are devoid of any immediately expressed intellective semantics, which excludes them from the general category of sentence as such (see further). Thus, the undertaken analysis should, in point of fact, be looked upon as an actual application of the notions of communicative sentence-types to the study of oral speech, resulting in further specifications and development of these notions. 3. Alongside of the three cardinal communicative sentence-types, another type of sentences is recognized in the theory of syntax, namely, the so-called exclamatory sentence. In modern linguistics it has been demonstrated that exclamatory sentences do not possess any complete set of qualities that could place them on one and the same level with the three cardinal communicative types of sentences. The property of exclamation should be considered as an accompanying feature which is effected within the system of the three cardinal communicative types of sentences.* In other words, each of the cardinal communicative sentence types can be represented in the two variants, viz. non-exclamatory and exclamatory. For instance, with the following exclam- * See: @0<<0B8:0 @CAA:>3> O7K:0. ., 1960. ", 2. !8=B0:A8A, G. I, A. 353; 365 8 A;. 254 atory sentences-statements it is easy to identify their non-exclamatory declarative prototypes: What a vary small cabin it was! (K. Mansfield) - It was a very small cabin, How utterly she had lost count of events! (J. Galsworthy) - She had lost count of events. Why, if it isn't my lady! (J. Erskine)  It is my lady. Similarly, exclamatory questions are immediately related in the syntactic system to the corresponding non-exclamatory interrogative sentences. E.g.: Whatever do you mean, Mr. Critchlow? (A. Bennett) -What do you mean? Then why in God's name did you come? (K- Mansfield) - Why did you come? Imperative sentences, naturally, are characterized by a higher general degree of emotive intensity than the other two cardinal communicative sentence-types. Still, they form analogous pairs, whose constituent units are distinguished from each other by no other feature than the presence or absence of exclamation as such. E.g.: Francis, will you please try to speak sensibly! (E. Hemingway) - Try to speak sensibly. Don't you dare to compare me to common people! (B. Shaw) < Don't compare me to common people. Never so long as you live say I made you do that! (J. Erskine) < Don't say I made you do that. As is seen from the given examples, all the three pairs of variant communicative types of sentences (non-exclamatory  exclamatory for each cardinal division) make up distinct semantico-syntactic oppositions effected by regular grammatical means of language, such as intonation, word-order and special constructions with functional-auxiliary lexemic elements. It follows from this that the functional-communicative classification of sentences specially distinguishing emotive factor should discriminate, on the lower level of analysis, between the six sentence-types forming, respectively, three groups (pairs) of cardinal communicative qual-ity. 4. The communicative properties of sentences can further be exposed in the light of the theory of actual division of the sentence. The actual division provides for the informative content of the utterance to be expressed with the due gradation of 255 its parts according to the significance of their respective role in the context. But any utterance is formed within the framework of the system of communicative types of sentences. And as soon as we compare the communication-purpose aspect of the utterance with its actual division aspect we shall find that each communicative sentence type is distinguished by its specific actual division features, which are revealed first and foremost in the nature of the rheme as the meaningful nucleus of the utterance. The strictly declarative sentence immediately expresses a certain proposition. By virtue of this, the actual division of the declarative sentence presents itself in the most developed and complete form. The rheme of the declarative sentence makes up the centre of some statement as such. This can be distinctly demonstrated by a question-test directly revealing the rhematic part of an utterance. Cf.: The next instant she had recognized him. - What had she done the next instant? The pronominal what-question clearly exposes in the example the part "(had) recognized him" as the declarative rheme, for this part is placed within the interrogative-pronominal reference. In other words, the tested utterance with its completed actual division is the only answer to the cited potential question; the utterance has been produced by the speaker just to express the fact of "his being recognized". Another transformational test for the declarative rheme is the logical superposition. The logical superposition consists in transforming the tested construction into the one where the rheme is placed in the position of the logically emphasized predicate. By way of example let us take the second sentence in the following sequence: And I was very uneasy. All sorts of forebodings assailed me. The logical superposition of the utterance is effected thus: - What assailed me was all sorts of forebodings. This test marks out the subject of the utterance "all sorts of forebodings" as the rheme, because it is just this part of the utterance that is placed in the emphatic position of the predicate in the superpositional transform. Similar diagnostic procedures expose the layer-structure of the actual division in composite syntactic constructions. For instance, in the following complex sentence rhematic question-tests easily reveal the three declarative rhemes on the three consecutive syntactic layers: I knew that Mr, Wade had been very excited by something that he had found out. 256 Test for the first syntactic layer: What did I know? Test for the second syntactic layer: What state was Mr. Wade in? Test for the third syntactic layer: What made him excited? (By what was he excited?) The strictly imperative sentence, as different from the strictly declarative sentence, does not express by its immediate destination any statement of fact, i.e. any proposition proper. It is only based on a proposition, without formulating it directly. Namely, the proposition underlying the imperative sentence is reversely contrasted against the content of the expressed inducement, since an urge to do something (affirmative inducement) is founded on the premise that something is not done or is otherwise not affected by the wanted action, and, conversely, an urge not to do something (negative inducement) is founded on the directly opposite premise. Cf.: Let's go out at once! (The premise: We are in.) Never again take that horrible woman into your confidence, Jerry! (The premise: Jerry has taken that horrible woman into his confidence.) Thus, the rheme of the imperative utterance expresses the informative nucleus not of an explicit proposition, but of an inducement  a wanted (or unwanted) action together with its referential attending elements (objects, qualities, circumstances). Due to the communicative nature of the inducement addressed to the listener, its thematic subject is usually zeroed, though it can be represented in the form of direct address. Cf.: Don't try to sidetrack me (J. Braine). Put that dam* dog down, Fleur; I can't see your face (J. Galsworthy). Kindly tell me what you meant, Wilfrid (J. Galsworthy). Inducements that include in the address also the speaker himself, or are directed, through the second person medium, to a third person (persons) present their thematic subjects explicit in the construction. E.g.: I say, Bob, let's try to reconstruct the scene as it developed. Please don't let's quarrel over the speeds now. Let her produce the document if she has it. The whole composition of an ordinary imperative utterance is usually characterized by a high informative value, 257 so that the rheme proper, or the informative peak, may stand here not so distinctly against the background information as in the declarative utterance. Still, rhematic testing of imperative utterances does disclose the communicative stratification of their constituents. Compare the question-tests of a couple of the cited examples: Put that dam' dog down, Fleur. - What is Fleur to do with the dog? Kindly tell me what you meant, Wilfrid. - What is Wilfrid to tell the speaker? As for the thematic, and especially the subrhematic (transitional) elements of the imperative utterance, they often are functionally charged with the type-grading of inducement itself,--i.e.-with making it into a command, prohibition, request, admonition, entreaty, etc. Compare, in addition to the cited, some more examples to this effect: Let us at least remember to admire each other (L. Hellman). Oh, please stop it... Please, please stop it (E. Hemingway). Get out before I break your dirty little neck (A. Hailey). The second-person inducement may include the explicit pronominal subject, but such kind of constructions should be defined as of secondary derivation. They are connected with a complicated informative content to be conveyed to the listener-performer, expressing, on the one hand, the choice of the subject out of several persons-participants of the situation, and on the other hand, appraisals rendering various ethical connotations (in particular, the type-grading of inducement mentioned above). Cf.: "What about me?" she asked.  "Nothing doing. You go to bed and sleep" (A. Christie). Don't you worry about me, sir. I shall be all right (B..K. Seymour). .At a further stage of complication, the subject of the inducement may be shifted to the position of the rheme. E.g.: "...We have to do everything we can."  "You do it," he said. "I'm tired" (E. Hemingway). The .essentially different identifications of the rheme in the two imperative utterances of the cited example can be proved by transformational testing: ... -> What we have to do is (to do) everything we can. ... ~> The person who should do it is you The inducement with the rhematic subject of the latter 255 type may be classed as the "(informatively) shifted inducement". 5. As far as the strictly interrogative sentence is concerned, its actual division is uniquely different from the actual division of both the declarative and the imperative sentence-types. The unique quality of the interrogative actual division is determined by the fact that the interrogative sentence, instead of conveying some relatively self-dependent content, expresses an inquiry about information which the speaker (as a participant of a typical question-answer situation) does not possess. Therefore the rheme of the interrogative sentence, as the nucleus of the inquiry, is informationally open (gaping); its function consists only in marking the rhematic position in the response sentence and programming the content of its filler in accord with the nature of the inquiry. Different types of questions present different types of open rhemes. In the pronominal ("special") question, the nucleus of inquiry is expressed by an interrogative pronoun. The pronoun is immediately connected with the part of the sentence denoting the object or phenomenon about which the inquiry ("condensed" in the pronoun) is made. The gaping pronominal meaning is to be replaced in the answer by the wanted actual information. Thus, the rheme of the answer is the reverse substitute of the interrogative pronoun: the two make up a rhematic unity in the broader question-answer construction. As for the thematic part of the answer, it is already expressed in the question, therefore in common speech it is usually zeroed. E.g.: "Why do you think so?"  "Because mostly I keep my eyes open, miss, and I talk to people" (A. Hailey). The superpositional rhematic test for the pronominal question may be effected in the following periphrastic-definitional form:  The question about your thinking so is: why? For the sake of analytical convenience this kind of superposition may be reduced as follows: -> You think so  why? Compare some more pronominal interrogative superpositions: What happens to a man like Hawk Harrap as the years go by? (W. Saroyan). -> To a man like Hawk Harrap, as 259 the years go by  what happens? How do you make that out, mother? (E. M. Forster) - You make that out, mother,  how? How's the weather in the north? (D. du Maurier) - The weather in the north  how is it? What's behind all this? (A. Hailey) -> Behind all this is  what? The rheme of non-pronominal questions is quite different from the one described. It is also open, but its openness consists in at least two semantic suggestions presented for choice to the listener. The choice is effected in the response; in other words, the answer closes the suggested alternative according to the interrogative-rhematic program inherent in it. This is clearly seen in the structure of ordinary, explicit alternative questions. E.g.: Will you take it away or open it here? (Th.% Dreiser) The superposition of the utterance may be presented as follows:  > You in relation to it  will take (it) away, will open (it) here? The alternative question may have a pronominal introduction, emphasizing the open character of its rheme. Cf.: In which cave is the offence alleged, the Buddhist or the Jain? (E. M. Forster) The superposition: - The offence is alleged  in the Buddhist cave, in the Jain cave? Thus, in terms of rhematic reverse substitution, the pronominal question is a question of unlimited substitution choice, while the alternative question is a question of a limited substitution choice, the substitution of the latter kind being, as a rule, expressed implicitly. This can be demonstrated by a transformation applied to the first of the two cited examples of alternative questions: Will you take it away or open it here? - Where will you handle it  take it away or open it here? The non-pronominal question requiring either confirmation or negation ("general" question of yes-no response type) is thereby implicitly alternative, though the inquiry inherent in it concerns not the choice between some suggested facts, but the choice between the existence or non-existence of an indicated fact. In other words, it is a question of realized rhematic substitution (or of "no substitution choice"), but with an open existence factor (true to life or not true to life?), which makes up its implicitly expressed alternative. This can be easily shown by a superposition; Are they going to stay long? - They are going to stay  long, not long? 260 The implicit alternative question can be made into an explicit one, which as a rule is very emphatic, i.e. stylistically "forced". The negation in the implied alternative part is usually referred to the verb. Cf.:  > Are they going to stay long, or are they not going to stay long? The cited relation of this kind of question to interrogative reverse substitution (and, together with it, the open character of its rheme) is best demonstrated by the corresponding pronominal transformation: - How long are they going to stay  long (or not long)? As we see, the essential difference between the two types of alternative questions, the explicit one and the implicit one, remains valid even if the latter is changed into an explicit alternative question (i.e. into a stylistically forced explicit alternative question). This difference is determined by the difference in the informative composition of the interrogative constructions compared. In general terms of meaning, the question of the first type (the normal explicit alternative question) should be classed as the alternative question of fact, since a choice between two or more facts is required by it; the question of the second type (the implicit alternative question) should be classed as the alternative question of truth, since it requires the statement of truth or non-truth of the indicated fact. In terms of actual division, the question of the first type should be classed as the polyperspective alternative question (biperspective, triperspective, etc.), because it presents more than one informative perspectives (more than one actual divisions) for the listener's choice; the question of the second type, as opposed to the polyperspective, should be classed as the monoperspective alternative question, because its both varieties (implicit and explicit) express only one informative perspective, which is presented to the listener for the existential yes-no appraisal. 6. The exposition of the fundamental role of actual division in the formation of the communicative sentence types involves, among other things, the unequivocal refutation of recognizing by some linguists the would-be "purely exclamatory sentence" that cannot be reduced to any of the three demonstrated cardinal communicative types.* * The existence of the "purely exclamatory sentence" is defended, in particular, by B. A. Ilyish in his cited book (pp. 186-187). 261 Indeed, by "purely exclamatory sentences" are meant no other things than interjectional exclamations of ready-made order such as "Great Heavens!", "Good LordI", "For God's sake!" "Fiddle-dee-dee!", "Oh, I say!" and the like, which, due to various situational conditions, find themselves in self-dependent, proposemically isolated positions in the text. Cf.: "Oh, for God's sake!"  "Oh, for God's sake!" the boy had repeated (W. Saroyan). "Ah!" said Lady Mont. "That reminds me" (J. Galsworthy). As is seen from the examples, the isolated positions of the interjectional utterances do not make them into any meaningfully articulate, grammatically predicated sentences with their own informative perspective (either explicit, or implicit). They remain not signals of proposemically complete thoOghts, not "communicative utterances" (see above), but mere symptoms of emotions, consciously or unconsciously produced shouts of strong feelings. Therefore the highest rank that they deserve in any relevant linguistic classification of "single free units of speech" is "non-sentential utterances" (which is just another name for Ch. Fries's "noncom-municative utterances"). Of quite another nature are exclamatory sentences with emphatic introducers derived on special productive syntactic patterns. Cf.: Oh, that Mr. Thornspell hadn't been so reserved! How silly of you! If only I could raise the necessary sum! Etc. These constructions also express emotions, but they are meaningfully articulate and proposemically complete. They clearly display a definite nominative composition which is predicated, i.e. related to reality according to the necessary grammatical regularities. And they inevitably belong to quite a definite communicative type of sentences, namely, to the declarative type. 7. The vast set of constructional sentence models possessed by language is formed not only by cardinal, mono-functional communicative types; besides these, it includes also intermediary predicative constructions distinguished by mixed communicative features. The true nature of such intermediary constructions can be disclosed in the light of the actual division theory combined with the general theory of paradigmatic oppositions. Observations conducted on the said principles show that intermediary communicative sentence models may be identified between all the three cardinal communicative correlations (viz., statement  question, statement  inducement, inducement  question); they have grown and are sustained in language as a result of the transference of certain characteristic features from one communicative type of sentences to another. 8. In the following dialogue sequence the utterance which is declarative by its formal features, at the same time contains a distinct pronominal question: "I wonder why they come to me about it. That's your job, sweetheart."  I looked up from Jasper, my face red as fire. "Darling," I said, "I meant to tell you before, but  but I forgot" (D. du Maurier). Semantic-syntactic comparison of the two utterances produced by the participants of the cited dialogue clearly shows in the initial utterance the features inherently peculiar to the interrogative communicative type, namely, its open rhematic part ("why they come to me about it") and the general programming character of its actual division in relation to the required response. Compare some more examples of a similar nature: "But surely I may treat him as a human being."  "Most certainly not" (B. Shaw), "I don't disturb you, I hope, Mr Cokane."  "By no means" (B. Shaw). "Wait a second, you haven't told me your address."  "Oh, I'm staying at the Hotel du Phare" (A. Christie), "I should like to hear your views on that," replied Utterson (R. L. Stevenson). As is seen from the examples, utterances intermediary between statements and questions convey meanings and connotations that supplement the direct programming of the answer effected by strictly monofunctional, cardinal interrogative constructions. Namely, they render the connotation of insistency in asking for information, they express a more definite or lass definite supposition of the nature of information possessed by the listener, they present a suggestion to 263 the listener to perform a certain action or imply a request for permission to perform an action, etc. On the other hand, in the structural framework of the interrogative sentence one can express a statement. This type of utterance is classed as the "rhetorical question"  an expressive construction that has been attracting the closest attention of linguistic observers since ancient times. A high intensity of declarative functional meaning expressed by rhetorical questions is best seen in various proverbs and maxims based on this specifically emphatic predicative unit. Cf.: Can a leopard change his spots? Can man be free if woman be a slave? O shame! Where is thy blush? Why ask the Bishop when the Pope's around? Who shall decide when the doctors disagree? Compare rhetorical questions in stylistically freer, more common forms of speech: That was my mission, you imagined. It was not, but where was I to go? (O. Wilde) That was all right; I meant what I said. Why should I feel guilty about it? (J. Braine) How could I have ever thought I could get away with it! (J. Osborne) It should be noted that in living speech responses to rhetorical questions exactly correspond to responses elicited by declarative sentences: they include signals of attention, appraisals, expressions of fellow feeling, etc. Cf.: "How can a woman be expected to be happy with a man who insists on treating her as if she were a perfectly rational being?"  "My dear!" (O. Wilde) A rhetorical question in principle can be followed by a direct answer, too. However, such an answer does not fill up the rheme of the rhetorical question (which, as different from the rheme of a genuine question, is not at all open), but emphatically accentuates its intensely declarative semantic nature. An answer to a rhetorical question also emphasizes its affirmative or negative implication which is opposite to the formal expression of affirmation or negation in the outer structure of the question. Cf.: "What more can a gentleman desire in this world?"  "Nothing more, I am quite sure" (O. Wilde). Due to these connotations, the answer to a rhetorical 264 question can quite naturally be given by the speaker himself: Who, being in love, is poor? Oh, no one (O. Wilde). The declarative nature of the rhetorical question is revealed also in the fact that it is not infrequently used as an answer to a genuine question  namely, in cases when an expressive, emphatic answer is needed. Cf.: "Do you expect to save the country, Mr Mangan?"  "Well, who else will?" (B. Shaw) Rhetorical questions as constructions of intermediary communicative nature should be distinguished from such genuine questions as are addressed by the speaker to himself in the process of deliberation and reasoning. The genuine quality of the latter kind of questions is easily exposed by observing the character of their rhematic elements. E.g.: Had she had what was called a complex all this time? Or was love always sudden like this? A wild flower seeding on a wild wind? (J. Galsworthy) The cited string of questions belongs to the inner speech of a literary personage presented in the form of non-personal direct speech. The rhemes of the questions are definitely open, i.e. they are typical of ordinary questions in a dialogue produced by the speaker with an aim to obtain information from his interlocutor. This is clearly seen from the fact that the second question presents an alternative in relation to the first question; as regards the third question, it is not a self-dependent utterance, but a specification, cumulatively attached to the foregoing construction. Genuine questions to oneself as part of monologue deliberations can quite naturally be followed by corresponding responses, forming various kinds of dialogue within monologue. Cf.: Was she tipsy, week-minded, or merely in love? Perhaps all three! (J. Galsworthy). My God! What shall I do? I dare not tell her who this woman really is. The shame would kill her (O. Wilde). 9. The next pair of correlated communicative sentence types between which are identified predicative constructions of intermediary nature are declarative and imperative sentences. The expression of inducement within the framework of a declarative sentence is regularly achieved by means of constructions with modal verbs. E.g.: 265 You ought to get rid of it, you know (C. P. Snow). "You can't come in," he said, "You mustn't get what I have" (E. Hemingway). Well, you must come to me now for anything you want, or I shall be quite cut up (J. Galsworthy). "You might as well sit down," said Javotte (J. Erskine). Compare semantically more complex constructions in which the meaning of inducement is expressed as a result of interaction of different grammatical elements of an utterance with its notional lexical elements: "And if you'll excuse me, Lady Eileen, I think it's time you were going back to bed." The firmness of his tone admitted of no parley (A. Christie). If you have anything to say to me, Dr Trench, I will listen to you patiently. You will then allow me to say what I have to say on my part (B. Shaw). Inducive constructions, according to the described general tendency, can be used to express a declarative meaning complicated by corresponding connotations. Such utterances are distinguished by especially high expressiveness and intensity. E.g.: The Forsyte in him said: "Think, feel, and you're done for!" (J. Galsworthy) Due to its expressiveness this kind of declarative inducement, similar to rhetorical questions, is used in maxims and proverbs. E.g.: Talk of the devil and he will appear. Roll my log and I will roll yours. Live and learn. Live and let live. Compare also corresponding negative statements of the formal imperative order: Don't count your chickens before they are hatched. Don't cross the bridge till you get to it. 10. Imperative and interrogative sentences make up the third pair of opposed cardinal communicative sentence types serving as a frame for intermediary communicative patterns. Imperative sentences performing the essential function of interrogative sentences are such as induce the listener not to action, but to speech. They may contain indirect questions. E.g.: "Tell me about your upbringing."  "I should like to hear about yours" (E. J. Howard). "Please tell me what I can do. There must be something I can do."  "You can take the leg off and that might stop it..." (E. Hemingway). 266 The reverse intermediary construction, i.e. inducement effected in the form of question, is employed in order to convey such additional shades of meaning as request, invitation, suggestion, softening of a command, etc. E.g.: "Why don't you get Aunt Em to sit instead, Uncle? She's younger than I am any day, aren't you, Auntie?" (J. Galsworthy) "Would  would you like to come?"  "I would," said Jimmy heartily. "Thanks ever so much, Lady Coote" (A. Christie). Additional connotations in inducive utterances having the form of questions may be expressed by various modal constructions. E.g.: Can I take you home in a cab? (W. Saroyan) "Could you tell me," said Dinny, "of any place close by where I could get something to eat?" (J. Galsworthy) I am really quite all right. Perhaps you will help me up the stairs? (A. Christie) In common use is the expression of inducement effected in the form of a disjunctive question. The post-positional interrogative tag imparts to the whole inducive utterance a more pronounced or less pronounced shade of a polite request or even makes it into a pleading appeal. Cf.: Find out tactfully what he wants, will you? (J. Tey) And you will come too, Basil, won't you? (O. Wilde) 11. The undertaken survey of lingual facts shows that the combination of opposite cardinal communicative features displayed by communicatively intermediary sentence patterns is structurally systemic and functionally justified. It is justified because it meets quite definite expressive requirements. And it is symmetrical in so far as each cardinal communicative sentence type is characterized by the same tendency of functional transposition in relation to the two other communicative types opposing it. It means that within each of the three cardinal communicative oppositions two different intermediary communicative sentence models are established, so that at a further level of specification, the communicative classification of sentences should be expanded by six subtypes of sentences of mixed communicative features. These are, first, mixed sentence patterns of declaration (interrogative-declarative, imperative-declarative); second, mixed sentence patterns of interrogation (declarative-interro- 267 Pleasure may turn a heart to stone, riches may make it callous, but sorrow  oh, sorrow cannot break it (O. Wilde). The structure of the closed coordinative construction is most convenient for the formation of expressive climax. CHAPTER XXIX SEMI-COMPLEX SENTENCE (2 4-< 8740=88 =0G8=05BAO A> AB@. 368) 1. In accord with the principles laid down in the introductory description of composite sentences (Ch. XXVI), the semi-composite sentence is to be defined as a sentence with more than one predicative lines which are expressed in fusion. For the most part, one of these lines can be identified as the leading or dominant, the others making the semi-predicative expansion of the sentence. The expanding semi-predicative line in the minimal semi-composite sentence is either wholly fused with the dominant (complete) predicative line of the construction, or partially fused with it, being weakened as a result of the fusing derivational transformation. The semi-composite sentence displays an intermediary syntactic character between the composite sentence and the simple sentence. Its immediate syntagmatic structure ("surface" structure) is analogous to that of an expanded simple sentence, since it possesses only one completely expressed predicative unit. Its derivational structure ("deep" structure), on the other hand, is analogous to that of a composite sentence, because it is derived from two or more completely predicative units  its base sentences. There are two different causes of the existence of the semi-composite sentence in language, each of them being essentially important in itself. The first cause is the tendency of speech to be economical. As a result of this tendency, reductional processes are developed which bring about semi-blending of sentences. The second cause is that, apart from being economical, the semi-composite sentence fulfills its own purely semantic function, different from the function of the composite sentence proper (and so supplementing it). Namely, it is used to show that the events described in the corresponding sentence parts are more closely connected than the events described in the 340 parts of the composite sentence of complete composition. This function is inherent in the structure  it reflects the speaker's view of reality, his presentation of it. Thus, for different reasons and purposes the same two or several events can be reflected now by one type of structure, now by another type of structure, the corresponding "pleni"- and semi-constructions existing in the syntactic system of language as pairs of related and, for that matter, synonymically related functions. E.g.: The sergeant gave a quick salute to me, and then he put his squad in motion. -> Giving a quick salute to me, the sergeant put his squad in motion. -> With a quick salute to me, the sergeant put his squad in motion. The two connected events described by the cited sentences are, first, the sergeant's giving a salute to the speaker, and, second, the sergeant's putting his squad in motion. The first sentence, of the pleni-composite type, presents these situationally connected events in separate processual descriptions as they happened one after the other, the successive order being accentuated by the structural features of the construction, in particular, its sequential coordinate clause. The second sentence, of the semi-composite participial-expanded type, expresses a semantic ranking of the events in the situational blend, one of them standing out as a dominant event, the other as a by-event. In the presentation of the third construction, belonging to the primitivized type of semi-composition (maximum degree of blending), the fusion of the events is shown as constituting a unity in which the attendant action (the sergeant's salute) forms simply a background detail in relation to the immediately reflected occurrence (the sergeant's putting the squad in motion). According to the ranking structure of the semi-composite sentences, they should be divided into semi-complex and semi-compound ones. These constructions correspond to the complex and compound sentences of complete composition (i.e., respectively, pleni-complex and pleni-compound sentences). 2. The semi-complex sentence is a semi-composite sentence built up on the principle of subordination. It is derived from minimum two base sentences, one matrix and one insert. In the process of semi-complexing, the insert sentence is transformed into a partially depredicated construction which is embedded in one of the syntactic positions of the 341 matrix sentence. In the resulting construction, the matrix sentence becomes its dominant part and the insert sentence, its subordinate semi-clause. The semi-complex sentences fall into a number of subtypes. Their basic division is dependent on the character of predicative fusion: this may be effected either by the process of position-sharing (word-sharing), or by the process of direct linear expansion. The sentences based on position-sharing fall into those of subject-sharing and those of object-sharing. The sentences based on semi-predicative linear expansion fall into those of attributive complication, adverbial complication, and nominal-phrase complication. Each subtype is related to a definite complex sentence (pleni-complex sentence) as its explicit structural prototype. 3. Semi-complex sentences of subject-sharing are built up by means of the two base sentences overlapping round the common subject. E.g.: The man stood. + The man was silent. -> The man stood silent. The moon rose. + The moon was red. - The moon rose red. From the syntagmatic point of view, the predicate of these sentences forms the structure of the "double predicate" because it expresses two essential functions at once: first, the function of a verbal type (the verb component of the predicate); second, the function of a nominal type (the whole combination of the verb with the nominal component). The paradigmatic analysis shows that the verb of the double predicate, being on the surface a notional link-verb, is in fact a quasi-link. In the position of the predicative of the construction different categorial classes of words are used with their respective specific meanings and implications: nouns, adjectives, participles both present and past. Cf.: Sam returned from the polar expedition a grown-up man. They waited breathless. She stood bending over the child's bed. We stared at the picture bewildered. Observing the semantic, content of the given constructions, we sec that, within the bounds of their functional differences, they express two simultaneous events  or, rather, the simultaneity of the event described by the complicalor expansion with that described by the dominant part. At the 342 same time the construction gives informative prominence not to its dominant, but to the complicator, and corresponds to the pleni-complex sentence featuring the complicator event in the principal clause placed in post-position. Cf.: The moon rose red. - As the moon rose it was red. She stood bending over the child's bed. -> As she stood she was bending over the child's bed. In the subject-sharing semi-composites with reflexivised dominant verbs of intense action the idea of change is rendered. E.g.: He spoke himself hoarse. -> As he spoke he became hoarse. (Further diagnosis: He spoke and spoke until he became hoarse.) Apart from the described types of subject-sharing sentences there is a variety of them featuring the dominant verb in the passive. E.g.: The idea has never been considered a wise one. The company was ordered to halt. These sentences have active counterparts as their paradigmatic derivation bases which we analyse below as semi-complex sentences of object sharing. 4. Semi-complex sentences of object-sharing, as different from those of subject-sharing, are built up of two base sentences overlapping round the word performing different functions in them: in the matrix sentence it is the object, in the insert sentence it is the subject. The complicator expansion of such sentences is commonly called the "complex object". E.g.: We saw him.-\-He approached us. -> We saw him approach us (approaching us). They painted the fence.-\-The fence was (became) green. -> They painted the fence green. Some dominant verbs of such constructions are not used in the same essential meaning outside the constructions, in particular, some causative verbs, verbs of liking and disliking, etc. Cf.: *I made him.+He obeyed. ~ I made him obey. This fact, naturally, reflects a very close unity of the constituents of such constructions, but, in our opinion, it can't be looked upon as excluding the constructions from 343 the syntactic subsystem in question; rather, the subsystem should be divided into the subsets of "free" object-sharing and "bound" object-sharing. The adjunct to the shared object is expressed by an infinitive, a present or past participle, an adjective, a noun, depending on the structural type of the insert sentence (namely, on its being verbal or nominal). As is seen from the above, the paradigmatic (derivational) explanation of the sentence with a "complex object" saves much descriptive space and, which is far more important, is at once generalizing and practicable.* As for the relations between the two connected events expressed by the object-sharing sentence, they are of the three basic types: first, relations of simultaneity in the same place; second, relations of cause and result; third, relations of mental attitude towards the event (events thought of, spoken of, wished for, liked or disliked, etc.). All these types of relations can be explicated by the corresponding transformations of the semi-complex sentences into pleni-complex sentences. Simultaneity in the same place is expressed by constructions with dominant verbs of perceptions (see, hear, feel, smell, etc.). E.g.: He felt the morning breeze gently touching his face. --> He felt the morning breeze as it was gently touching his lace. I never heard the word pronounced like that. -> I never heard the word as it was pronounced like that. Cause and result relations are rendered by constructions with dominant causative verbs taking three types of complex objects: an unmarked infinitival complex object (the verbs make, let, get, have, help); a nounal or adjectival complex object (the verbs call, appoint, keep, paint, etc.); a participial complex object (the verbs set, send, keep, etc.). Cf.: I helped Jo find the photo. -> I helped Jo so that he found the photo. The cook beat the meat soft.  The cook beat the meat so that it was (became) soft. Different mental presentations of the complicator event are effected, respectively, by verbs of mental perceptions and thinking (think, believe, expect, find, etc.); verbs of speech * Cf. the classical "syntagmatic" explanation of constructions with complex objects in the cited 13. A. llyish's book, p. 257 ff. 344 (tell, ask, report, announce, etc.); verbs of wish; verbs of liking and disliking. Cf.: You will find many things strange here. - You will find that many things are strange here. I didn't mean my words to hurt you. - I didn't mean that my words should hurt you. Semi-complex sentences of the object-sharing type, as we have stated above, are closely related to sentences of the subject-sharing type. Structurally this is expressed in the fact that they can be transformed into the passive, their passive counterparts forming the corresponding subject-sharing constructions. Cf.: We watched the plane disappear behind the distant clouds. -> The plane was watched to disappear behind the distant clouds. They washed the floor clean.  > The floor was washed clean. Between the two series of constructions, i.e. active and passive, equivalence of the event-relations is observed, so that the difference in their basic meaning is inherent in the difference between the verbal active and passive as such. 5. Semi-complex sentences of attributive complication are derived from two base sentences having an identical element that occupies the position of the subject in the insert sentence and any notional position in the matrix sentence. The insert sentence is usually an expanded one. By the semi-complexing process, the insert sentence drops out its subject-identical constituent and is transformed into a semi-predicative post-positional attribute to the antecedent element in the matrix sentence. E.g.: The waves sent out fine spray. + The waves rolled over the dam. - The waves rolling over the dam sent out fine spray. I came in late for the supper. + The supper was served in the dining-room. -> I came in late for the supper served in the dining-room. The analogy between post-positional attributes (especially of a detached type) and attributive subordinate clauses has always been pointed out in grammar-books of various destination. The common pre-positional attribute is devoid of a similar half-predicative character and is not to be considered as forming a semi-composite construction with the 345 dominant predicative unit. Cf.: The bored family switched off the TV.  The family, bored, switched off the TV. As for the possible detachment of the defining element (construction) in pre-position, this use is rather to be analysed as adverbial, not attributive, the circumstantial semantic component prevailing over the attributive one in this case. Cf.: Bored, the family switched off the TV. -> As the family was bored, it switched off the TV. , Naturally, the existence of some intermediary types cannot be excluded, which should be exposed in due course by the corresponding contextual observation. As is seen, the base syntactic material for producing attributively complicated semi-composites is similar to the derivation base of position-sharing semi-composites. The essential difference between the constructions, though, lies in the character of joining their clausal parts: while the process of overlapping deprives the position-sharing expansion of any self-dependent existence, however potential it might be, the process of linear expansion with the attributive complication preserves the autonomous functional role of the semi-clause. The formal test of it is the possibility of inserting into the construction a relative conjunctive plus the necessary verbal element, changing the attributive semi-clause into the related attributive pleni-clause. E.g.:' This is a novel translated from the French.  > This is a novel which has been translated from the French, This test resembles a reconstruction, since an attributive complication in many respects resembles a reduced clause. The position-sharing expansion does not admit of this kind of procedure: the very process of overlapping puts it out of the question. The other factor of difference is the obligatory status of the position-sharing expansion (even in constructions of'"free"''object-sharing) against the optional status of the attributive complicator. The attributive semi-clause may contain in its head position a present participle, a past participle and an adjective. The present participial attributive semi-clause corresponds to the attributive subordinate clause with a verbal predicate in the active. E.g.: We found dry ground at the base of a tree looking toward the sun.  > We found dry ground at the base of a tree that looked toward the sun. Naturally, the present participial semi-clause of the attributive type cannot express an event prior to the event 346 of the dominant clause. So, an attributive clause of complete predicative character expressing such an event has no parallel in a participial attributive semi-clause. E.g.: The squad that picked me up could have been scouts. -> (*) The squad picking me up... The past participial attributive semi-clause corresponds to the passive attributive subordinate clause. E.g.: You can never rely on the information received from that office. -> You can never rely on the information which is received from that office. The adjectival attributive semi-clause corresponds to the nominal attributive subordinate clause. E.g.: We admired the lilies white against the blue water.  > We admired the lilies which were white against the blue water. Semi-complex sentences of participial attributive complication formed by introducer constructions resemble subject-sharing semi-complex sentences. Cf.: There is a river flowing through the town.  > There is a river which flows through the town. This is John speaking.  > This is John who is speaking. Still closer to the subject-sharing semi-composite sentence stands the peculiar introducer or demonstrative construction whose attributive semi-clause has a finite verb predicate. This specific semi-complex sentence, formed much on the pattern of common subject overlapping, is called the "apo-koinou" construction (Greek "with a common element"). E.g.: It was you insisted on coming, because you didn't like restaurants (S. O'Casey), He's the one makes the noise at night (E. Hemingway). And there's nothing more can be done (A. Christie). The apo-koinou construction is considered here under the heading of the semi-complex sentence of attributive complication on the ground of its natural relation to the complex sentence with an attributive subordinate clause, similar to any common semi-complex sentence of the type in question. The apo-koinou construction should be classed as a familiar colloquialism of occasional use. 6. Semi-complex sentences of adverbial complication are derived from two base sentences one of which, the insert 347 sentence, is predicatively reduced and embedded in an adverbial position of the other one, the matrix sentence. E.g.: The task was completed. + The task seemed a very easy one.  > The task, when completed, seemed a very easy one. The windows were closed.-\-She did not hear the noise in the street.  The windows being closed, she did not hear the noise in the street. The subject of the insert sentence may be either identical with that of the matrix sentence (the first of the above examples) or not identical with it (the second example). This feature serves as the first fundamental basis for classifying the semi-complex sentences in question, since in the derived adverbial semi-clause the identical subject is dropped out and the non-identical subject is preserved. It will be reasonable to call the adverbial semi-clause of the first type (i.e. referring to the subject of the dominant clause) the "conjoint" semi-clause. The adverbial complicator expansion of the second type (i.e. having its own subject) is known under the name of the "absolute construction" (it will further be referred to as "absolutive"). The given classification may be formulated for practical purposes as the "rule of the subject", which will run as follows: by adverbializing scmi-complexing the subject of the insert sentence is deleted if it is identical with the subject of the matrix sentence, The other classificational division of adverbial semi-clauses concerns the representation of the predicate position. This position is only partially predicative, the role of the partial predicate being performed by the participle, either present or past. The participle is derived from the finite verb of the insert sentence; in other words, the predicate of the insert sentence is participialised in the semi-clause. Now, the participle-predicate of the adverbial semi-clause may be dropped out if the insert sentence, presents a nominal or existential construction (the finite verb be). Thus, in accord with this feature of their outer structure, adverbial semi-clauses are divided into participial and non-participial. E.g.: One day Kitty had an accident. + She was swinging in the garden.  > One day Kitty had an accident while swinging in the garden. (The participle is not to be deleted, being of an actional character.) He is very young.+ He is quite competent in this field.  Though being very young, he is 348 quite competent in this field. -> Though very young, he is quite competent in this field. (The participle can be deleted, being of a linking nature.) She spoke as if being in a dream.  > She spoke as if in a dream. (The predicate can be deleted, since It is expressed by the existential be.) The two predicate types of adverbial semi-clauses, similar to the two subject types, can be briefly presented by the "rule of the predicate" as follows: by adverbializing semi-complexing the verb-predicate of the insert sentence is participialised, and may be deleted if it is expressed by be. Conjoint adverbial semi-clauses are either introduced by adverbial subordinated conjunctions or joined to the dominant clause asyndetically. The adverbial semantics expressed is temporal, broader local, causal, conditional, comparative. Cf. syndetic introduction of adverbial semi-clauses: He was silent as if not having heard the call. -> ...as if he had not heard the call. Read on unless told otherwise. - ... unless you are told otherwise. Although kept out of the press, the event is widely known in the diplomatic circles. - Although it is kept out of the press... When in London, the tourists travelled in double-deckers. -> When they were in London... Asyndetic introduction of adverbial semi-clauses is characteristic of temporal and causal constructions. Cf.: Working on the book, the writer travelled much about the country.  > When working on the book... Dialling her number, she made a mistake. -> While dialling her number... Being tired, I could not accept the invitation. -> As I was tired... As for the absolutive adverbial semi-clauses, they are joined to the dominant clause either asyndetically, or, mostly for the purpose of emphasis, by the conjunction with. The adverbial semantics of the absolutive complicator expansion is temporal, causal, and attendant-circumstantial. E.g.: Everything being settled, Moyra felt relieved. -- As everything was settled... Two days having elapsed, the travellers set out on their way.  When two days had elapsed...With all this work waiting for me, I can't afford to join their Sunday outing. -> As all this work is waiting for me... " " 349 The rule of the predicate is observed in absolulive complicators the same as in conjoint adverbial complicators. Its only restriction concerns impersonal sentences where the link-verb is not to be deleted. Cf.: The long luncheon over, the business friend would bow and go his way. - When the long luncheon was over... It being very hot, the children gladly ran down to the lake. - As it was very hot... 7. Semi-complex sentences of nominal phrase complication are derived from two base sentences one of which, the insert sentence, is partially norninalised (changed into a verbid phrase of infinitival or gerundial type) and embedded in one of the nominal and prepositional adverbial positions of the other sentence serving as the matrix. The nominal verbid constructions meet the demands both of economy and expressiveness, and they are widely used in all the functional orders of speech. The gerundial phrase is of a more substantive semantic character, the infinitival phrase, correspondingly, of a more processual semantic character. The gerundial nominalisalion involves the optional change of the noun subject into the possessive, while the infinitival nominalisation involves the use of the preposition for before the subject. E.g.- Tom's coming late annoyed his mother.  > The fact that Tom came late annoyed his mother. For him to come so late was unusual.  > It was unusual that he came so late. The rule of the subject exposed in connection with the adverbial semi-complexing (see above) applies also to the process of partial nominalisation and is especially important here. It concerns the two types of subject deletion; first, its contextual identification; second, its referring to a general (indefinite) person. Thus, the rule can be formulated in this way: the subject of the verbid phrase is deleted when it is either identified from the context (usually, but not necessarily, from the matrix sentence) or denotes an indefinite person. Cf. the contextual identification of the subject: We are definite about it. -> Our being definite about it. - Let's postpone being definite about it. Mary has recovered so soon.  For Mary to have recovered so soon  Mary is happy to have recovered so soon. 350 Cf. the indefinite person identification of the subject: One avoids quarrels with strangers.  One's avoiding quarrels with strangers. -> Avoiding quarrels with strangers is always a wise policy. One loves spring.  For one to love spring.-It's but natural to love spring. A characteristic function of the infinitive phrase is its use with subordinative conjunctions in nominal semi-clauses. The infinitive in these cases implies modal meanings of obligation, admonition, possibility, etc. E.g.: I wondered where to go.  I wondered where I was to go. The question is, what to do next. - The question is, what we should do next. In contrast with nominal uses of infinitive phrases, gerundial phrases are widely employed as adverbial semi-clauses introduced by prepositions. Semi-clauses in question are naturally related to the corresponding adverbial pleni-clauses. Cf.: In writing the letter he dated it wrong. -> White he was writing the letter he dated it wrong. She went away without looking back.  > As she went away she didn't look back. I cleaned my breast by telling you everything. - I cleaned my breast because I told you everything. The prepositional use of gerundial adverbial phrases is in full accord with the substantival syntactic nature of the gerund, and this feature differentiates in principle the gerundial adverbial phrase from the participial adverbial phrase as a positional constituent of the semi-complex sentence. CHAPTER XXX SEMI-COMPOUND SENTENCE 1. The semi-compound sentence is a semi-composite sentence built up on the principle of coordination. Proceeding from the outlined grammatical analysis of the composite sentence, the structure of the semi-compound sentence is derivationally to be traced back to minimum two base sentences having an identical element belonging to one or both of their principal syntactic positions, i.e. either the subject, 351 ;>E ./. ;>E ./. "5>@5B8G5A:0O >A=>2K 3@0<<0B8:8: #G51.  3-5 874., 8A?@.  .: KAH. H:., 2002.  160 A. (1-5 874. 2 1983 3.) 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"0:8< >1@07><, ?@8 A8=B0:A8G5A:>9 =><8=0;870F88, ;8H0NI59 ?@54;>65=85 53> ?@548:0B82=>3> 0A?5:B0 (8, @07C<55BAO, B5< A0<K< @07@CH0NI59 ?@54;>65=85 :0: :><<C=8:0B82=CN 548=8FC O7K:0  548=8FC ?@>?>78F88), =><8=0B82=K9 0A?5:B ?@54;>65=8O ?@54AB05B 2 A2>5< G8AB><, B0: A:070BL, 0=0B><8G5A:8 87>;8@>20==>< 2845. KO2;5=85 2 ?@54;>65=88 =><8=0B82=>3> 0A?5:B0, >ACI5AB2;5==>5 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K 2 @0<:0E @0A:@KB8O ?0@0483<0B8G5A:8E A2O759 2 A8=B0:A8A5 8 ?>43>B>2;5==>5 4;8B5;L=>9 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 @01>B>9 >B5G5AB25==KE 8 70@C156=KE A8=B0:A8AB>2 (A<. =865), ?>72>;O5B CB>G=8BL 8 A0<> ?>=OB85 ?@548:0F88, 2K@0605<>9 2 ?@54;>65=88. $C=:F8>=0;L=0O ACI=>ABL ?@548:0F88 4> A8E ?>@ D>@<C;8@>20;0AL >1KG=> :0: 2K@065=85 >B=>H5=8O 2KA:07K20=8O : 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, 8;8, 2 1>;55 @0AG;5=5==>< ?@54AB02;5=88, :0: 2K@065=85 >B=>H5=8O A>45@60=8O ?@54;>65=8O (2KA:07K20=8O) : 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. >4>1=>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 ?@548:0F88 <K 2848<, =0?@8<5@, 2 8725AB=>9 0:045<8G5A:>9 @0<<0B8:5 @CAA:>3> O7K:0, C:07K20NI59, GB> 7=0G5=85 8 =07=0G5=85 >1I59 :0B53>@88 ?@548:0B82=>AB8, D>@<8@CNI59 ?@54;>65=85, 70:;NG05BAO 2 >B=5A5=88 A>45@60=8O ?@54;>65=8O : 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 [@0<<0B8:0 @CAA:>3> O7K:0, B. 2, G. I, 1960, A. 79 80]. !@02=8B5 A MB8< >?@545;5=85 . . !<8@=8F:>3>, 2 A>>B25BAB288 A :>B>@K< ?@548:0F859 ?@87=05BAO >B=5A5=85 2KA:07K20=8O : 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 [!<8@=8F:89, 1957, A. 102]. 5B@C4=> 70<5B8BL, GB> 2 ?>4>1=KE ?@54AB02;5=8OE ?@548:0F88 =5 @07;8G0NBAO 425 2KH5>?8A0==K5 :0@48=0;L=K5 AB>@>=K A>45@60=8O ?@54;>65=8O  =><8=0B82=0O 8 ?@548:0B82=0O. 5 ?>4;568B A><=5=8N, GB> 8<5==> MB0 =5@0AG;5=5==>ABL 8 O28;0AL ?@8G8=>9 C:070==>3> 2KH5 >B@8F0B5;L=>3> >B=>H5=8O =5:>B>@KE CG5=KE : ?>=OB8N ?@548:0F88 :0: DC=40<5=B0;L=>3> D0:B>@0 ?>AB@>5=8O ?@54;>65=8O. #G8BK20O 42C0A?5:B=K9 E0@0:B5@ ?@54;>65=8O :0: 7=0:>2>9 548=8FK, ?@548:0F8N A;54C5B B5?5@L >A<KA;8BL =5 ?@>AB> :0: >B=5A5=85 A>45@60=8O ?@54;>65=8O : 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, 0 :0: >B=5A5=85 =><8=0B82=>3> A>45@60=8O ?@54;>65=8O : 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. <5==> B0:>5 ?>=8<0=85 A5<0=B8:>-DC=:F8>=0;L=>9 ?@8@>4K ?@548:0F88 @0A:@K205B 2 >4=>< >1>1I5==>< ?@54AB02;5=88 8 548=AB2> >B<5G5==KE 0A?5:B>2 ?@54;>65=8O :0: 42CE DC=40<5=B0;L=KE AB>@>= 53> :0G5AB25==>9 >?@545;5==>AB8, 8 8E @07;8G=CN, => 2708<>4>?>;=8B5;L=CN 7=0:>2CN @>;L. 100 2. @54;>65=85 >@30=87C5BAO 2 2845 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 7=0<5=0B5;L=KE G;5=>2, 70=8<0NI8E 2 =5< A2>8 A8AB5<=>->?@545;5==K5 ?>78F88. "0:8<8 ?>78F8>==K<8 G;5=0<8 ?@>AB>3> ?@54;>65=8O O2;ONBAO ?>4;560I55, A:07C5<>5, 4>?>;=5=85, >1AB>OB5;LAB2>, >?@545;5=85, 22>4=K9 G;5=, G;5=->1@0I5=85. A>1CN ?>;C7=0<5=0B5;L=CN ?>78F8N 70=8<05B <564><5B85. A5 MB8 G;5=K 85@0@E8G5A:8 A>>B=5A5=K B0:8< >1@07><, GB> :064K9 87 =8E 2K?>;=O5B =5:>B>@CN <>48D8:0F8>==CN, 8;8 >?@545;8B5;L=CN @>;L. >=5G=K< >1J5:B>< <>48D8:0F88 A;C68B ?@54;>65=85 2 F5;><, 0 G5@57 ?@54;>65=85  >B@065=85 A8BC0F8>==>3> A>1KB8O. "0:8< >1@07><, ?>4;560I55 >?@545;O5B A:07C5<>5 2 B>< A<KA;5, GB> 2K@0605B ;8F> ?@548:0F88 (B> 5ABL O2;O5BAO ;8G=>AB=K< >?@545;8B5;5< A:07C5<>3>). !:07C5<>5 >?@545;O5B ?>4;560I55 2 B>< A<KA;5, GB> 2K@0605B ?@>F5AA=>5 O4@> A>1KB8O ?@548:0F88 (B> 5ABL O2;O5BAO ?@>F5AA=>-A>1KB89=K< >?@545;8B5;5< ?>4;560I53>  0:F8>==K< 8;8 AB0B82=K<). >?>;=5=85 A;C68B ?@54<5B=K< >?@545;8B5;5< 3;03>;0-A:07C5<>3>. 1AB>OB5;LAB2> A;C68B, 2 H8@>:>< A<KA;5, =5?@54<5B=K< >?@545;8B5;5< A:07C5<>3> 8;8 ?@54;>65=8O 2 F5;>< (:0: 2K@060NI53> =5:>B>@K9 >1>1I5==K9 ?@>F5AA, 2=CB@5==5 ?@8ACI89 A8BC0B82=><C A>1KB8N). ?@545;5=85-0B@81CB A;C68B >?@545;8B5;5< ?@54<5B=>3> G;5=0 ?@54;>65=8O. 2>4=K9 M;5<5=B A;C68B >@85=B8@>20==K< =0 3>2>@OI53> >1>1I5==K< >?@545;8B5;5< ?@54;>65=8O 2 F5;>< 8;8 ;N1>3> 87 53> 7=0<5=0B5;L=KE G;5=>2. 1@0I5=85 A;C68B >?@545;8B5;5< 04@5A>20==>AB8 ?@54;>65=8O, B> 5ABL A> A2>59 AB>@>=K >?@545;O5B ?@54;>65=85 2 F5;><. 564><5B85 A;C68B >@85=B8@>20==K< =0 3>2>@OI53> M<>F8>=0;L=K< >?@545;8B5;5< ?@54;>65=8O 2 F5;>< 8;8 53> G0AB8. #:070==CN ?>4G8=8B5;L=>->?@545;8B5;L=CN 85@0@E8N ?@54;>65=8O C4>1=> >B@0605B <>45;L =5?>A@54AB25==KE A>AB02;ONI8E (A<. G. I, 3;. 3). 0 40==CN 85@0@E8N ?@54;>65=8O, A>AB02;ONICN 53> =><8=0B82=>5 G;5=5=85, =0:;04K205BAO 0:BC0;L=>5 G;5=5=85 ?@54;>65=8O, 2 @0<:0E :>B>@>3> @07;8G05BAO B5<0 A>>1I5=8O (A>AB02 53> >B?@02=>3> ?C=:B0) 8 @5<0 A>>1I5=8O (A>AB02 53> 8=D>@<0B82=>3> O4@0). 5<0 2K45;O5BAO @5<0B8G5A:8< (;>38G5A:8<) C40@5=85<. =0<5=0B5;L=K5 A;>2>A>G5B0=8O :0: A;>6=K5 548=8FK =><8=0F88 0AA8<8;8@CNBAO AB@C:BC@>9 ?@54;>65=8O B0:8< >1@07><, GB> @0A?@545;ONBAO 2 =59 ?> G;5==K< ?>78F8O< A>>B25BAB25==> >1I59 ?@>?>78B82=>9 A5<0=B8:5. =0G5 3>2>@O, >=8, :0: 8 A;>20, ?@52@0I0NBAO 2 G;5=K ?@54;>65=8O, E>BO, 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B A>1AB25==>3> AB@>O, <>3CB 70=8<0BL 745AL 1>;55 G5< >4=C ?>78F8N. @8 MB>< A;>2>A>G5B0=8O A>G8=8B5;L=>3> B8?0, O2;OOAL 1>;55 ?@>ABK<8, G5< A;>2>A>G5B0=8O ?>4G8=8B5;L=>3> B8?0, ACI5AB25==> =5 CA;>6=ONB ;8=59=>-85@0@E8G5A:CN AB@C:BC@C ?@54;>65=8O 2 B>< A<KA;5, GB> =5 4>102;ONB : =59 4>?>;=8B5;L=>3> A;>O 4><8=0F88. >4G8=8B5;L=K5 101 102 @50;L=>5 ?@54;>65=85 @5G8, :0:8< 1K A;>6=K< ?> AB@>5=8N >=> =8 1K;>, <>65B 1KBL 2 A2>59 A5<0=B8G5A:>9 >A=>25 A2545=> : >4=><C 8;8 =5A:>;L:8< M;5<5=B0@=K< ?@548:0B82=K< <>45;O< [Harris, 1962]. 'B> :0A05BAO ?@>AB>3> ?@54;>65=8O, B> >=> AB@>8BAO ;8HL =0 >4=>9 M;5<5=B0@=>9 ?@548:0B82=>9 <>45;8 :0: A2>5< AB@C:BC@=>-A5<0=B8G5A:>< :>ABO:5. 0: 2848<, ?>=OB8O M;5<5=B0@=>5 ?@54;>65=85 8 <>45;L ?@54;>65=8O =5 8A:;NG0NB 4@C3 4@C30, 0, =0>1>@>B, 4>?>;=ONB 4@C3 4@C30: <>45;L ?@54;>65=8O O2;O5BAO 01AB@0:F859, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: M;5<5=B0@=>5 ?@54;>65=85 <>65B @0AA<0B@820BLAO 8 =0 C@>2=5 01AB@0:B=KE :0B53>@89 (2 :0G5AB25 <>45;8 M;5<5=B0@=>3> ?@54;>65=8O), 8 =0 C@>2=5 @50;L=KE 2KA:07K20=89 682>9 @5G8. >4;560I55 A> A2>8<8 >?@545;8B5;O<8 (04JN=:B0<8) 8 A:07C5<>5 A >B=>AOI8<8AO : =5<C G;5=0<8 >1@07CNB 420 >A=>2=KE A>AB020 ?@54;>65=8O.  7028A8<>AB8 >B B>3>, >10 A>AB020 8;8 B>;L:> >48= 87 =8E ?@54AB02;5=K 2 ?@54;>65=88, 2A5 ?@54;>65=8O 45;OBAO =0 42CA>AB02=K5 8 >4=>A>AB02=K5. 0: 8725AB=>, <=>385 O7K:>254K =0AB0820NB =0 B><, GB> =5 A;54C5B A<5H820BL >4=>A>AB02=K5 ?@54;>65=8O A M;;8?B8G5A:8<8: M;;8?B8G5A:85 ?@54;>65=8O ?> 8E <=5=8N A;54C5B @0AA<0B@820BL :0: 42CA>AB02=K5 ?@54;>65=8O A >?CI5==K< 2B>@K< A>AB02>< (>= ?>4@07C<5205BAO 87 :>=B5:AB0), 0 >4=>A>AB02=K5 ?@54;>65=8O =8:0:>3> :>=B5:AB=>3> >?CI5=8O 2B>@>3> A>AB020 =5 ?@54?>;030NB. 4=0:> >17>@ <0B5@80;0 ?>:07K205B, GB> =5 ACI5AB2C5B AB@>3>9 @073@0=8G8B5;L=>9 ;8=88 <564C B0:8< >1@07>< @0745;5==K<8 42CA>AB02=K< 8 >4=>A>AB02=K< B8?0<8 ?@54;>65=89. >;55 B>3>, 4065 8 =081>;55 OA=K5 A;CG08 AB@>3> >4=>A>AB02=>3> ?@54;>65=8O >1=0@C6820NB 1>;55 A:@KBK5 8 <5=55 A:@KBK5 0AA>F80F88 A A>>B25BAB2CNI8<8 42CA>AB02=K<8 ?@54;>65=8O<8. !@.: Night. Silence. No leaf rustled, no branch moved, the world was asleep. It was night. It was silence... Not a word!  Don't say a word!  Don't you say a word!  A8;C MB>3> ?@54AB02;O5BAO 1>;55 @07C<=K< >B=5AB8 2A5 ?@54;>65=8O A >4=8< 2K@065==K< A>AB02><, 157>B=>A8B5;L=> : AB5?5=8 ?>4@07C<5205<>AB8 2B>@>3> A>AB020, : >1I5<C B8?C >4=>A>AB02=KE, 0 2=CB@8 40==>3> B8?0 2K45;8BL ?>4B8?K D8:A8@>20==KE >4=>A>AB02=KE ?@54;>65=89 8 A2>1>4=KE (:>=B5:AB=>-M;;8?B8G5A:8E) >4=>A>AB02=KE ?@54;>65=89. !@548 D8:A8@>20==KE >4=>A>AB02=KE ?@54;>65=89 8<55BAO F5;K9 @O4 8=B5@5A=KE @07=>284=>AB59. !N40 >B=>AOBAO, 2 G0AB=>AB8, =07K2=K5 ?@54;>65=8O, :>=AB@C:F88 ?@825BAB289 8 ?@54AB02;5=89, :>=AB@C:F88 ?>1C645=8O 8 8728=5=8O, :>=AB@C:F88 CB25@645=8O 8 >B@8F0=8O 8 B. 4. > :0: 1K @07=>>1@07=0 8 8=B5@5A=0 =8 1K;0 2=CB@5==OO B8?>;>38O ?>4>1=KE :>=AB@C:F89, >=8 >1@07CNB >3@0=8G5==CN >1;0ABL 2K@065=8O 2 >1H8@=>9 A8AB5<5 0=3;89A:>3> ?@54;>65=8O. 'B> :0A05BAO =081>;55 >1>1I5==>9 3@0<<0B8G5A:>9 A5<0=B8:8, 2K@0605<>9 ?@>ABK< ?@54;>65=85<, B> 55 A;54C5B >F5=820BL ?> B@5< 3;02=K< AB@>52K< >A=>20=8O<: 2>-?5@2KE, ?> :0B53>@80;L=>9 A5<0=B8:5 ?>4;560I53>; 2>-2B>@KE, ?> :0B53>@80;L=>9 A5<0=B8:5 A:07C5<>3>; 2-B@5BL8E, ?> A5<0=B8:5 AC1J5:B=>->1J5:B=>3> >B=>H5=8O. 103  %!/ -./. CHAPTER XI GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PREDICATIVE UNITS The predicative units of language are directly related to the entities of concept because they verbalize human thought and represent lingually the main predicative form of thought, i.e. the proposition. Taking into consideration the interaction of objective and subjective factors in language and the dialectical unity of language and thought the predicative units of language must be considered as the indirect reflections of objective situations, as the reflections of the general interrelation of everything in nature and society. But linguistic predicative units should not be identified with their conceptual correlatives since these pertain to the different realities, to lingual and conceptual respectively. Due to logicism which pervaded grammar for centuries, the sentence was unjustly identified with the proposition. The dialectical unity of language and thought presupposes the correlation of the predicative units of language with the predicative forms of thought as parts and counterparts of the dialectical unity. It is because of this unity that the analysis of the predicative units of language would be inefficient without any reference to the peculiarities of the forms of thought with which the given units correlate and which they represent lingually. The formation of the propositions and correlatively of predicative" units in the process of verbal thinking reflects the development of thought and the establishment of the predicative relations between the constituting parts of the units. The propositions with their predicative relations embody themselves in the bases of lingual predicative units. The prepositional basis (?@>?>78F8>=0;L=0O 1070) seems to be universal due to its ability to represent the universal proposition. It follows that all languages have predicative units the nucleus or the kernel of which is identified in terms of universal lingual categories. The kernel of the predicative unit is an exocentric construction built of universal categories. The members of the kernel (prepositional* basis) can be conventionally termed the "subjector" and the "predicator". The terms are chosen on purpose to distinguish linguistic notions from their logical correlatives: the subjector is, in fact, the linguistic representation of the logical subject and the predicator, respectively, represents the logical predicate. The relations between the constituents of the propositional basis are predicative relations correlating with the corresponding relations in the proposition. The triangle pattern works here as usual to illustrate the correlativity of objective  conceptual  lingual facts (see p. 173). Due to the correlation between propositions and propositional bases the typology of propositions can be extrapolated onto their linguistic counterparts. It is beyond our competence to dwell upon the typology of logical forms but the recognition of the actional propositions versus 17o  attributional ones is out of the question because they underlie the two main basic structures of predicative units: NV and N is A.  Predicative units in English are of different linguistic status: words, word-groups, clauses, sentences, etc. It is notable that all of them embody propositions in their prepositional bases. PREDICATIVE WORDS It would not be quite correct to assert that predicative words are exceptional in English. In keeping with the theory of nominalisation some basic predicative structures are apt to the transformation of nominalisation. The result of nominalisation is the derivation of noun-phrases. Accordingly, predicative relations characteristic of predicative constructions become concealed by the overt attributive -relations between the constituents of a noun-phrase: 1) N is A. T = NisA >A + N The sea is stormy  + the stormy sea 173 2) N is N, >Ni + N Davidson is a doctor  * doctor Davidson In both cases the resultant noun-phrases assume the form of attributive word-groups though the predicative character of the relations inherent in their constituents is re-establishable due to the transformation suggested above. ^ Nominalised word-groups, in their turn, are apt to lexicalisation the result of which is a phrase-word or a compound word. That is why it is convenient to comment upon .the implication and concealment of predicativity both in nominalised word-groups and in compound nouns. The process of lexicalisation is gradual, with many intermediate cases illustrating the graduality of implication of " predicative relations. It is sometimes difficult to qualify a combination of elements as either a word-group, a phraseological unit, or a compound word. Compare: a night duty, home work, population growth, heat pipe, space ship, machine time, errand-boy, etc. PREDICATIVE WORD-GROUPS They are traditionally recognised as constructions of "secondary predication*' or simply as predicative constructions. The term "secondary predication'* itself is not a lucky one because it does not expose the nature of the unit which it designates. It is even misleading. Sometimes the units of the so-called secondary predication seem to render information of primary significance. It is worth mentioning that in sentences where the predicate contains a verb of modal or intentional meaning such as to want, to expect, to consider the construction of the so-called secondary predication is, in fact, of primary informative significance. Compare: I want you to remember this point. We expected them to stand for themselves. In cases like these the finite verb is semi-notional, it is semantically incomplete and, therefore, it cannot function independently without any semantic confirmation. Such verbs occur in sentences as operatory words which form up predicative constructions conveying semiological information. The non-finite predication is not at all secondary as it is considered to be. In keeping with this, the main criterion on the basis of which predicative units can be typologically classified is not the functional significance of the unit in the sentence but the nature of its predicator. The predictor can be represented by the finite and by the non-finite verbs. Accordingly, differentiation should be made between finite predication (D8=8B=0O ?@548:0F8O) and non-finite predication (=5D8=8B=0O ?@548:0F8O). This differentiation remains syntactical only because the semiological information conveyed by the units of finite and non-finite predication seems to be the same. Their syntactic constituents are different, though the relations between them may be similar; 174  In traditional English grammar the term predicative construction is commonly used for the designation of the units of the non-finite predication with the infinitives and with the Ving-forms. This is probably justified because such predicative complexes differ, without question, from clauses and sentences which seem to be of higher rank and of higher syntactic status than the predicative constructions of non-finite predication. Predicative constructions are characterised by the following features: a) they are derived on the basis of the invariant pattern of a predicative unit. N ^!!^. V; ,) they are variable morphologically in accordance with the morphological variation of their verbal constituent; c) their syntactic variation is regulated by the syntagmatic behaviour of their verbal constituent, by its distribution, and by the functional potential of the predicative complex as a whole. The morphological variation of the construction is primarily 'caused by the formal variation of the predicator, i. e. of the non-finite constituent, which can be represented by the two non-finite forms of English verbs. Taking into account the analytical tendencies traceable in Modern English, it seems irrelevant to subcategorize the Vmg-forms ' into the participle and the gerund. It is more reasonable, as some linguists do, to regard the Ving-form as one fused non-finite form of the verb which varies morphologically and syntactically. It is the distribution of the Ving-form, its position and combinability, that appears diagnostic for the identification of the given form as the participle or the gerund. Their differentiation seems irrelevant in those cases where such verbal forms occur in identical distributional conditions: flying weather and flying saucers, ripening fruit and ripening period. Although semantic differences are observeable due to the substantivity of the gerund and the adjectivity of the participle. The morphological variants of the Ving and of the Ving are alike. Both forms display voice and Perfect distinctions. In addition, the infinitive has aspective (Continuous) forms which the Ving has none. The non-finite forms of the verb are devoid of finiteness, and neither the Vmf nor the Ving can display tense distinctions because they do not express the real time of the action. The non-finite forms can only indicate the time correlation between the action denoted by the predicate-verb and by the non-finite form itself: the Perfect forms express the 175  precedence of the action, the non-Perfect forms render simultaneousness or posteriority of the action denoted by the non-finite form. The morphological similarity1 of the non-finite forms of the verb is vividly seen when these are compared like the following: to V Ving to be '+ Ven being + Ven to have + Ven having + Ven to have been + Ven having been + Ven to be + Ving to have been + Vmg The morphological variation of the Vnon-fm is of syntactic relevance because there is certain compatibility between the semantics of the verb governing the complex and the perfectiveness / non-perfec-tiveness of the non-finite form in the predicative complex. The verbs of "sense perception" cannot occur with the Perfect forms of the Vnon-nn because of their semantic incompatibility but such verbs, on the contrary, pattern regularly with the elliptical Continuous Infinitive: (to be) + Ving. Compare: He could hear two persons talking in the pantry. (Joyce). He saw his wife making her way towards him through the waltzing couples. (Joyce). He could hear his son's muffled voice coming down to him, but he could hardly see. (Aldridge). He saw the boy watching him then, standing over him. (Aldridge). He found the two officers sitting at the table with his notebook in front tif them. (Aldington). Another direction in the variation of the predicative construction is exemplified by the morphological variation of the nominal constituent which can assume the form of either the Genitive (N's) or of the Common case (N). The N's + Ving complex is identified traditionally as gerundial whereas the N + Ving construction has been considered to be a participial'one. In some cases, in the object position, for instance, these variants are evidently merging or fusing into one predicative unit: N / N's + Vmg. The semantic shift is not great. The syntactical variation of the predicative constructions is their functional variation which is regulated by the semantic properties of the governing verb and by the distribution of the construction in the sentence. It is of common knowledge that the non-finites display their .non-verbal features when they occur in particular syntactic positions with particular syntactic functions. Gerundial and infinitival predicative constructions display their nominal features when used as subjective or objective in function. Participial constructions reveal their ad-jec4ival and adverbial features whenever used appropriately. It follows that the functional design of a predicative construction is in accord with the nature of the non-finite form in the given construction. In accordance with their functional design predicative constructions in English can be classified into subjective objective, adverbial and attributive ones: 176 1) The subjective and objective constructions should be analysed together because these are isomorphic in many respects. Moreover, the subject and object functions are performed not by qualitatively different constructions but by one and the same infinitival or gerundial complex-type. In other words, there is only one infinitival construction and only one gerundial complex in Modern English which are polyfunctional. It is their distribution that predetermines their functional design. The invariant pattern of the infinitival construction is as follows: en N ~?- Vmf. This construction-type varies morphologically and syn-tagmatically. The variation is caused by the variability of the infinitive which can assume different morphological and syntagmatic forms: , ^L j to V to V to be -f Ven to be + A to be 4- Vjng to be + N to have 4- Ven to be + D to have been + Von to have been + Vmg The infinitival construction occurs in the subject and in the object positions. Accordingly, its two functional variants can be distinguished: subjective and objective ones. The standpoint proposed here is proved by the fact that the pre-verb or the post-verb position of the construction predetermines its function. The given functional difference is of logico-semantic relevance because the infinitival construction is used as an objective one in sentences with definite subjects. It is noteable that the infinitival construction is used as a complement with the verbs of specifically human activity which do not render semiological information but function as epistemic operators forming up the information rendered by the infinitival construction itself. In case the agent of estimation is unknown or is likely to be not mentioned the infinitival construction is used in the position of the subject and the predicate verb assumes regularly the passive voice-form. 2) The adverbial and adjectival constructions can also be regarded together because the given functions are in fact performed by one and the same participial construction. Consequently, there is only one participial construction in Modern English which can occur in different syntactic positions and perform different functions in the sentence. The invariant pattern of the participial construction is G -*-* Ving. The pattern varies morphologically and syntagmatically in accordance with the variation of the Vmg-form: I V,ng | Ving Ving being + Ven being 4- A having * Ven being 4- N having been + Ven being + D 177 The verb to be in its participial forms is very often omitted and such an elliptical variant of the construction is sometimes called as "construction without participle". The participial construction refers not to the verb but to the whole predicative group. That is why it is usually detached from the rest of the sentence by the comma. The distribution of the construction is associated with its particular functional design. If it occurs before the predication to which it refers the participial construction is felt to be an adverbial of cause or time. The construction in the function of an adverbial of attendant circumstances usually follows the predication it refers to. The preposition with in the participial construction is equivalent in its connective function to the copulative conjunction and. Both elements can connect two predicative units one of which expresses the attending situation or circumstance. It is because of this that the preposition with marks the function of the participial construction. In other words, the prepositional variant of the construction is always used in the function of the adverbial of attendant circumstances. The position of the prepositional construction is not fixed, it can occur in different positions in the sentence. Compare: A big black steamer with a long loop of smoke streaming, with the portholes lighted, with lights everywhere, is putting out to sea. (Mansfield). The girl stayed just as she had been put, with her hands by her sides and her mouth slightly open. (Mansfield), She stood at the door with the tears streaming down her face and did not dare to enter. (Maugham). Ben, with his back well into the coral, was having trouble with the valve that supplied the right amount of air. (Aldridge). CLAUSES The term clause which is used in English grammar for the designation of one of the predicative units is very specific and exact in its application. It has no terminological equivalent in Russian grammatical terminology, it is unjustly identified with the sentence. The clause is a predicative unit and occupies its appropriate place among the predicative units of English. It can be conventionally placed between the predicative word-group and the sentence.. The clause has common features with both these units. The clause is the dependent predicative unit of finite predication, it represents in fact the structural body of the sentence but it is lower in its syntactical status than the sentence because the clause is devoid of communicative force. Due to its dependent nature the clause resembles the units of non-finite predication. They can sometimes be substituted one for another in some syntactic positions but there is certain selection on the part of English verbs to pattern either with predicative constructions or with clauses. Causatives or verbs of modal meanings pattern preferably with predicative complexes whereas the verbs of mental activity take clauses as their complements. By common tradition clauses are considered to be parts of composite sentences. 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