ࡱ>    #`bjbjmm, T< <\^B(jjjj6 YYYYYYY$\h9_XY%jjYjj[TTT.jjYTYTTZXZYj R'5&YY[0\@Y_Qd_4ZY_ZY0>,T*$NYYwTX\<<<<<<<<<   TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc2870841"   PAGEREF _Toc2870841 \h 1  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc2870842" !   PAGEREF _Toc2870842 \h 282   88  46 5G0B05BAO ?> ?>AB0=>2;5=8N 540:F8>==>-8740B5;LA:>3> A>25B0 >A:>2A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0 5F5=75=BK: . !. 5<>2, 4>:B>@ ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E =0C:, . . 2G8==8:>20, :0=4840B ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E =0C: 8;N=0A . .  46 A8E>;>38G5A:85 <5E0=87<K <>B820F88 G5;>25:0. .: 74-2> #, 1990. 288 A. ISBN 5 211 01031 0  <>=>3@0D88 @0AA<0B@820NBAO :>=:@5B=K5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 <5E0=87<K 8 ?@>F5AAK, >15A?5G820NI85 @0728B85 <>B820F88 G5;>25:0. >;LH>5 2=8<0=85 C45;O5BAO 2>?@>AC > ?@55<AB25==>AB8 <5E0=87<>2 18>;>38G5A:>9 8 A>F80;L=>9 <>B820F88, ?@5>1@07>20=8N ?@>F5AA>2, @072820NI8E ?@8@>4=K5 ?>B@51=>AB8, 2 CA;>28OE G5;>25G5A:>9 ?A8E8:8. 1AC640NBAO 2>7459AB28O, 87<5=ONI85 <>B820F8>==K5 >B=>H5=8O G5;>25:0, M<>F8>=0;L=K5 ?@>F5AAK, ;560I85 2 >A=>25 B0:8E 87<5=5=89, CA;>28O, >B :>B>@KE 7028A8B 8E 70:@5?;5=85, 8 4@C385 2>?@>AK, 8<5NI85 ?@O<>5 >B=>H5=85 : ?@0:B8:5 2>A?8B0=8O. @54=07=0G5=0 4;O ?A8E>;>3>2, ?5403>3>2, A>F8>;>3>2, 0 B0:65 4;O H8@>:>3> :@C30 G8B0B5;59, 8=B5@5ACNI8EAO D>@<8@>20=85< <>B820F88 G5;>25:0. 0303020GOO 080 077(02) 90 23 90  88 ISBN 5 211 01031 0 8;N=0A  , 1990  >A:>;L:C A;>6=K5 O2;5=8O, : :0:8< >B=>A8BAO <>B820F8O, =5 <>3CB 1KBL >?8A0=K A@07C, B@51CO ?5@52>40 A;>6=>3> :><?;5:A0 2708<>A2O70==KE 40==KE 2 =5:>B>@CN ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL 87;>65=8O, ?@8 @5H5=88 B0:>9 7040G8 =587156=K :0: ?@5420@8B5;L=>5 @0AG;5=5=85 MB>3> :><?;5:A0, B0: 8 2K1>@ =5:>B>@>3> ?>@O4:0 2 >A25I5=88 2K45;5==KE 0A?5:B>2.  40==>9 @01>B5 1C45B >1AC640BLAO ?@5645 2A53> >=B>35=5B8G5A:>5 @0728B85 <>B820F88, ?@8G5< 2 =0?@02;5=88 >B D5=><5=>;>38G5A:8E 40==KE : >1>1I5=8O< 8 B5>@5B8G5A:8< ?>AB@>5=8O<. 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F5;>< 40==K5 > @07=>>1@0788 <>B820F8>==KE >B=>H5=89 G5;>25:0 B@51CNB ?@54AB02;5=8O, A>3;0A => :>B>@><C <>B820F8O >B:@K205BAO 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< >1@075 =5 2 2845 >4=>3> 8;8 =5A:>;L:8E ?>1C645=89, 8AE>4OI8E 87 :>=5G=KE <>B82>2, 0 A:>@55 2 2845 A;>6=>3> ?>;O A> <=>65AB2>< 2708<>459AB2CNI8E <>B820F8>==KE >B=>H5=89 : >B45;L=K< >B@0605<K< ?@54<5B0< (?>4>1=> B><C, :0: MB> 87>1@060; . 528=, A<. =FKD5@>20, 1960; Heider, 1960; Lewin, 1935, 1951). >=5G=>, A>AB02;ONI85 MB>3> ?>;O =5 @02=K ?> 7=0G5=8N, 2 =5< >1KG=> 2K45;ONBAO >4=0 8;8 =5A:>;L:> 4><8=0=B, ?@82;5:0NI8E >A=>2=>5 2=8<0 =85 AC1J5:B0, >4=0:> MB> =5 7=0G8B, GB> 4@C385 A>AB02;ONI85 =5 >:07K20NB 2;8O=8O =0 53> 0:B82=>ABL. 7  ACI5AB2CNI59 2 ;8B5@0BC@5 (E>BO =5 2A5340 2 O2=>< 2845) B5=45=F88 @07;8G5=8O >1>1I5==KE 8 :>=:@5B=>-A8BC0B82=KE <>B820F8>==KE >1@07>20=89 A<. 0BO520, 1983. 32 "0:, G5;>25: <>65B 70<5B=> 87<5=8BL E0@0:B5@ B5;5D>==>3> @073>2>@0 8;8 ?@>F5AA 54K ?@8 ?>O2;5=88 @O4>< 4@C3>3>, 4065 =57=0:><>3> ;8F0 8<5==> 87-70 87<5=5=8O >1I53> <>B820F8>==>3> D>=0 0:B82=>AB8. AA;54>20=8O ?>:070;8, =0?@8<5@, GB> G5< 1>;LH5 ;N459 A84OB 70 AB>;8:>< 2 AB>;>2>9, B5< @565 8 :>@>G5 :064K9 87 =8E >3;O4K205BAO :@C3><, GB>, 2?@>G5<, 2> 2@5<O A>2<5AB=>9 54K >1=0@C6820NB <=>385 284K 682>B=KE (Wirtz, Wawra, 1986). ><8=8@CNI85 ?>1C645=8O >?@545;ONB >1I55 =0?@02;5=85 0:B82=>AB8, 55 65 A?>A>1, :>=:@5B=>5 A>45@60=85 ?>@>9 25AL<0 A;>6=K< >1@07>< :>@@838@C5BAO <>B820F8>==K< 7=0G5=85< >:@C60NI8E ?@54<5B>2. @0:B8G5A:8 ?>AB>O==>5 2;8O=85 =0 A?>A>1 459AB289 G5;>25:0 >:07K205B, =0?@8<5@, MB8G5A:0O <>B820F8O (>6>28G, >==8:>20, 1975). 0: <>6=> 2845BL, >7=0:><;5=85 A D5=><5=>;>3859 <>B820F8>==KE >B=>H5=89 G5;>25:0 ?>4B25@6405B 8 =03;O4=> 8;;NAB@8@C5B ?>;>65=85 !. . C18=HB59=0, A>3;0A=> :>B>@><C <>B820F8>==>5 7=0G5=85 ?@8>1@5B05B :064>5 >B@065==>5 G5;>25:>< O2;5=85... >MB><C <>B820F8O 70:;NG5=0 =5 B>;L:> 2 GC2AB20E 8 B. 4., => 8 2 :064>< 725=5 ?@>F5AA0 >B@065=8O, ?>A:>;L:C >=> 2A5340 70:;NG05B 2 A515 8 ?>1C48B5;L=K9 :><?>=5=B (1969. !. 369 370). 0==>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 :>=:@5B878@C5B B5>@5B8G5A:89 ?@8=F8? 548=AB20 8=B5;;5:B0 8 0DD5:B0 (K3>BA:89, 1982. !. 22; C18=HB59=, 1957. !. 264), CB25@640O, GB> =0 ?>;NA5 0DD5:B0 2 2845 ?@8AB@0AB=>3> >B=>H5=8O :> 2A5<C >B@0605<><C 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< >1@075 ?>;CG05B 2K@065=85 <>B820F8O. =>3>G8A;5==>ABL 8 @07=>>1@0785 G5;>25G5A:8E <>B820F8>==KE >B=>H5=89, 0 B0:65 4>AB0B>G=> >G5284=K9 D0:B, GB> 8E @0728B85 =52>7<>6=> 157 ?>=8<0=8O 2A53> :><?;5:A0 ?@8G8= 8 >B40;5==KE ?>A;54AB289 ?@>8AE>4OI53>, B. 5. 7028A8B >B @0728B8O 8=B5;;5:B0, >1JOA=O5B ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABL 8 A;>6=>ABL ?@>F5AA0 8E >=B>35=5B8G5A:>3> D>@<8@>20=8O. 0AA<>B@8<, B>65 A D5=><5=>;>38G5A:>9 AB>@>=K, :0:85 CA;>28O 8 2>7459AB28O 2;8ONB =0 MB>B ?@>F5AA. " "+ "/ "& ' !@548 B5E >B=>H5=89, 2 :>B>@K5 2ABC?0NB ;N48 2 CA;>28OE >1I5AB20, >4=8<8 87 =081>;55 E0@0:B5@=KE 8 206=KE O2;ONBAO 2>A?8B0B5;L=K5 >B=>H5=8O, =0?@02;5==K5 =0 D>@<8@>20=85 =>2KE <>B820F8>=-=KE >@85=B0F88. 57 ?@5C25;8G5=8O <>6=> A:070BL, GB> =0 ?@>BO65=88 2A59 687=8 1C:20;L=> A ?5@2KE 55 =545;L G5;>25: ?>425@305BAO ?>AB>O==><C, B>B0;L=><C 8 E>@>H> >@30=87>20==><C, E>BO G0AB> 8 ?@>B82>@5G82><C 402;5=8N A> AB>@>=K 4@C38E ;N459 8 A?5F80;L=KE A>F80;L=KE 8=AB8BCB>2, ?@5A;54CNI5<C F5;8 2>A?8B0=8O 8 ?@54?8AK20NI5<C ?@8=8<0BL >4=8 8 >B25@30BL 4@C385 F5==>AB8, =>@<K, 8450;K 8 B. ?. 7=0G0;L=> 2>A?8B0B5;L=K5 2>7459AB28O 8AE>4OB 87 1;8609H53> >:@C65=8O: @>48B5;8, A>B@C4=8:8 4>H:>;L=KE CG@5645=89, 40 8 2A5 27@>A;K5, >1I0OAL A @515=:><, >1KG=> =5 >AB02;ONB ?>78F89 2>A?8B0B5;O 8 8A?>;L7CNB 2A5 ?>4E>4OI85 A;CG08 4;O B>3>, GB>1K C:070BL, :0:8< >= 4>;65= 1KBL 8 GB> =54>AB>9=> 2 687=8. ?>A;54AB288 ?> <5@5 ?@8>1I5=8O G5;>25:0 : :C;LBC@5 8 2E>645=8O 2 A>F80;L=CN 687=L 8AB>G=8:8 2>A?8B0B5;L=KE 2>7459AB289 AB0=>2OBAO 7=0G8B5;L=> 1>;55 @07=>>1@07=K<8; =081>;55 ?@O<> 70 D>@<8@>20=85 >?@545;5==>9 <>B820F8>==>9 =0?@02;5==>AB8 G5;>25:0 >B25G0NB H:>;0, A@54AB20 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88, 8A:CAAB2>, >1I5AB25==K5 >@30=870F88, @01>B0, ?@02>>E@0=8B5;L=K5 >@30=K; D0:B8G5-A:8 >B MB>9 DC=:F88 =5 >A2>1>645= =8 >48= A>F80;L=K9 8=AB8BCB 8;8 :>=:@5B=K9 G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 70 =525@=>5 2>A?8B0=85, =0?@8<5@, 2>2;5G5=85 ?>4@>AB:>2 2 0A>F80;L=CN 45OB5;L=>ABL, <>65B ?>=5AB8 4065 C3>;>2=>5 =0:070=858. 5?@028;L=> 1K;> 1K 4C<0BL, GB> G5;>25: :0: >1J5:B B>B0;L=KE 2>7459AB289 ?> D>@<8@>20=8N ?@8AB@0AB=KE >B=>H5=89 >AB05BAO ?0AA82=K< ACI5AB- 8 ;8O=85 @07;8G=KE A>F80;L=KE 8=AB8BCB>2 =0 @0728B85 <>B820F88 G5;>25:0 8 :>=:@5B=K5 A?>A>1K MB>3> 2;8O=8O 0=0;878@CNBAO 2 @01>B0E . $. !:8==5@0 (Skinner, 1953, 1969, 1972). 5=L38, =0?@8<5@, MB8< 02B>@>< @0AA<0B@820NBAO :0: 35=5@0;87>20==K9 ?>4:@5?;ONI89 D0:B>@ par excellence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aumeister 0. >., 1964; Shirley, 1929, 44 :@5B=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:85 <5E0=87<K >15A?5G820NB MB>B ?@>F5AA, B. 5. GB> ;568B 70 0;;53>@859 2AB@5G8 ?>B@51=>AB8 A ?@54<5B><. 5 405B >B25B0 =0 MB8 2>?@>AK B0:65 8 ?>;>65=85 > ?@>872>4AB25 ?@54<5B>2 G5;>25G5A:8E ?>B@51=>AB59 >1I5AB25==K<8 A8;0<8, AB0=>2OI8<8AO 1;03>40@O MB><C 3;02=>9 45B5@<8-=0=B>9 8E @0728B8O (5>=BL52, 1971; 8;L<0=, 1982). !0<> ?> A515 ?@>872>4AB2> ?@54<5B>2 <0B5@80;L-O>9 8 4CE>2=>9 :C;LBC@K 02B><0B8G5A:8 8E F5==>ABLN =5 =045;O5B, 8, :0: 1K;> ?>:070=> 2KH5, >B >1I5AB20 B@51CNBAO 7=0G8B5;L=K5 8 ?>AB>O==K5 CA8;8O, ?@8G5< =5 2A5340 4>AB830NI85 CA?5E0, 4;O B>3>, GB>1K MB8 ?@54<5BK ?@8>1@5;8 <>B820F8>==>5 7=0G5=85 4;O >B45;L=KE ;N459.  G5< A>AB>OB MB8 CA8;8O, :0:85 87<5=5=8O >=8 ?@>872>4OB 2 8=48284C0;L=>< A>7=0=88, G5< >?@545;O5BAO 8E MDD5:B82 =>ABL  B0:>3> @>40 2>?@>AK B@51CNB C65 =5 ?@8=F8?80;L=>-<5B>4>;>38G5A:>3>, 0 :>=:@5B=>-?A8E>;> 38G5A:>3> 0=0;870 ?@>1;5<K @0728B8O G5;>25G5A:>9 <>B820F88.  40==>9 @01>B5 MB>B 0=0;87 1C45B =0G0B A >1AC645=8O =081>;55 >1I8E ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E <5 E0=87<>2 >=B>35=570 <>B820F88. ;020 2 %+ "/ "& '   !&$ ''! "& ;O 0=0;870 <5E0=87<>2 @0728B8O <>B820F88 G5;>25:0 1>;LH>5 7=0G5=85 8<55B ?@5420@8B5;L=>5 CB>G=5=85 2>?@>A0 > B><, 2 :0:>9 <5@5 >=8 O2;ONBAO A?5F8D8G5A:8 G5;>25G5A:8<8 8 2 :0:>9 A>E@0=ONB AE>4AB2> A <5E0=87<0<8, A;>682H8<8AO 2 18>;>38G5 A:>9 M2>;NF88. ! F5;LN B0:>3> CB>G=5=8O @0AA<>B@8< A=0G0;0 A?5F8D8G5A:85 ?@87=0:8 G5;>25G5A:>9 <>B8 20F88, 2K45;O5<K5 2 70B@03820NI59 MB>B 2>?@>A ;8 B5@0BC@5. =>385 87 ?@87=0:>2, A>AB02;ONI8E 2 F5;>< 4> AB0B>G=> ?5AB@K9 ?5@5G5=L, CB>G=ONB 8 @072820NB >A=>2>?>;030NI55 ?>;>65=85 > A>F80;L=>< ?@>8A E>645=88 <>B820F88 G5;>25:0, >1JOA=O5<><, 2 G0AB =>AB8, B5<, GB> ?@54<5BK 53> ?>B@51=>AB59 O2;ONBAO ?@>4C:B>< >1I5AB25==>3> ?@>872>4AB20 (4@02><KA- ;>2, 1986; 5>=BL52, 1971; 8;L<0=, 1982). >4G5@:8 205BAO, GB> 2 >B;8G85 >B 18>;>38G5A:>9 <>B820F88, 70 :>B>@>9 AB>OB =C64K 8=482840 8 2840, A>1AB25==> G5;>25G5A:0O <>B820F8O 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5 >B25G05B =C640< >1I5AB20 (545=>2, 1956; 0??>?>@B, 1976; 59=20;L4, 1974). "0:8< 55 ?@>8AE>645=85< >1JOA=O NBAO :0: 55 @07=>>1@0785, 87<5=G82>ABL, 8AB>@8G=>ABL (5ABC652-040, 1974; >=G5=:> 8 4@., 1984; (>@>- E>20, 1974), B0: 8 B>B D0:B, GB> >=0 2 >=B>35=575 @07 28205BAO =5 A?>=B0==>, 0 2 @57C;LB0B5 A?5F80;L=> =0?@02;5==KE D>@<8@CNI8E 2>7459AB289, A>AB02;ON I8E >A=>2=>5 A>45@60=85 2>A?8B0=8O G5;>25:0 (20=- GC:, 1986; !8<>=>2, 1987; 'E0@B8H28;8, 1974). " @C3>9 206=K9 D0:B>@, >?@545;ONI89 A?5F8D8:C <>B820F88 G5;>25:0,  MB> 55 >?>A@54AB2>20==>ABL 8=B5;;5:B><, @5GLN, A>7=0=85< (>20;52, 1981; %5:E0C-75=, 1986; Buck, 1985), >ACI5AB2;5=85 ?@8 ?><>I8 2>;52KE ?@>F5AA>2 (20==8:>2, 1985; !5;820=>2, 1974, #7=0475, 1966). ! MB8< A2O70=0 CAB>9G82>ABL, =04A8- 46 BC0B82=>ABL, DC=:F8>=0;L=0O 02B>=><=>ABL >B A>AB>O=89 >@30=87<0 G5;>25G5A:>9 <>B820F88 (5B@>2A:89, 1975; $097C;;052, 1987; Allport, 1937), =0?@02;5==>ABL =0 >B40;5==K5 687=5==K5 F5;8 (0@0<8475, 1974; 1CE>2A:89, 1974; Nuttiri, 1964), =53><5>AB0B8G5-A:89 E0@0:B5@, 15A:>=5G=>ABL (;E078H28;8, 1974; A552, 1976; Harlow, 1953), B@0=A3@5AA82=>ABL (>-zielecki, 1987). B45;L=> <>6=> 2K45;8BL ?@87=0:8, E0@0:B5@87CNI85 2=CB@5==NN >@30=870F8N 8 48=0<8:C <>B820F88 G5;>25:0: 85@0@E8G5A:CN A>?>4G8=5==>ABL <>B82>2 (>6>28G, 1968; 5>=BL52, 1975; Maslow, 1943), ?>;8<>B828@>20==K9 E0@0:B5@ 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?>;820;5=B=>ABL <>B82>2 ?> >B=>H5=8N : ?>B@51=>ABO< (>4>=>2, 1984; <540475, 19846; 03C=, 1983), ?;0AB8G=>ABL, 2708<>70<5=O5<>ABL (8;835=A:89, 1975) 8 4@. 0: <>6=> 2845BL, 1>;LH8=AB2> 87 ?5@5G8A;5==KE >B;8G89 8<5NB D5=><5=>;>38G5A:89 E0@0:B5@, A:>@55 :>=AB0B8@CO, G5< >1JOA=OO =01;N40NI85AO D0:BK. -B> >1CA;>2;5=> B5<, GB> 2K45;5=85 A?5F8D8G5A:8E >B;8G89 ?> A2>5<C =07=0G5=8N D8:A8@C5B 4286CI85 A8;K 8 :>=5G=K5 @57C;LB0BK @0728B8O <>B820F88 G5 ;>25:0, 0 =5 A0< ?@>F5AA @0728B8O, 157 7=0=8O :>B> @>3>, >G5284=>, ?>;=>B0 ?>=8<0=8O 8 >1JOA=5=8O <>B820F88 =52>7<>6=0. 0728B85 65 =5 <>65B 1KBL >E0@0:B5@87>20=> B>;L:> 40==K<8 >1 >B;8G8OE, B@5 1CO >1>7=0G5=8O B>3>, A G53> >=> =0G8=05BAO 8 :0: ?@>8AE>48B: :0:85 =87H85 <>B820F8>==K5 ?@>F5AAK ?@5>1@07>2K20NBAO A>F80;L=K<8 A8;0<8, D>@<8@CN I8<8 2KAHCN G5;>25G5A:CN <>B820F8N, :0:85 :>= :@5B=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:85 <5E0=87<K MB>3> ?@>F5AA0, GB> 8<5==> >?>A@54C5BAO 8=B5;;5:B><, 8 B. ?. "0:>3> @>40 2>?@>AK ?@54?>;030NB 2KOA=5=85 =5 >B;8G89, 0 A>E@0=ONI53>AO AE>4AB20 <564C A>F80;L=> @0728B>9 8 18>;>38G5A:>9 <>B820F859 ?@>1;5<K, :>B>@0O 2 A>25BA:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5, @0AA<0B@820NI59 8 ?>4G5@:8 20NI59 ?@58<CI5AB25==> >B;8G8O, >A25I5=0 O2=> =5 4>AB0B>G=>. ;O 2KO2;5=8O >1I8E <><5=B>2 <564C A>F80;L=>9 8 18>;>38G5A:>9 <>B820F859 206=>5 7=0G5=85 8<55B 48DD5@5=F80F8O @07;8G=KE 0A?5:B>2 <>B820F88, 2 G0AB=>AB8 55 A>45@60=8O 8 <5E0=87<>2. 5;> 2 B><, GB> ?@8 CB>G=5=88 2>?@>A0 > A?5F8D8:5 <>B820F88 47 J G5;>25:0 MB8 420 55 0A?5:B0 ?>;CG0NB @07;8G=>5 7=0 G5=85. !>45@60B5;L=K5 @07;8G8O <564C 18>;>38G5A:>9 8 A>1AB25==> G5;>25G5A:>9 <>B820F859 <>3CB 1KBL :>=AB0B8@>20=K 157 >A>1KE >3>2>@>:  =0AB>;L:> >=8 ACI5AB25==K 8 >G5284=K. ">B D0:B, GB> <>B820F8O G5;>25:0 D>@<8@C5BAO ?@8687=5==> 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B A>F80;L=KE CA;>289 8 2 @57C;LB0B5 2>A?8B0B5;L=KE 2>7459AB289, =0?@02;ONI8E 55 =0 >1I5AB25==> 7=0G8 <>5 A>45@60=85, B. 5. GB> >=0 8<55B A2>9 >A>1K9 8A B>G=8: 8 4286CI85 A8;K @0728B8O, >1JOA=O5B :0: =587156=>ABL MB8E @07;8G89, B0: 8 BC 8E ?@8=F8?8 0;L=>ABL, ?@8 :>B>@>9 ?>AB0=>2:0 2>?@>A0 > 55 A?5 F8D8:5. 5420 ;8 8<55B A<KA;. !?5F8D8G5A:8< ?> >B =>H5=8N : 4@C3><C O2;5=8N <>65B 1KBL =5GB>, ?@56 45 2A53> A MB8< O2;5=85< AE>4=>5, => 8<5NI55 B0:65 8 @07;8G8O, :>B>@K5 ?>=OB85< A?5F8D8:8, A>1AB25==>, 8 >E20BK20NBAO. !>45@60=85 65 18>;>38G5A:>9 8 A> F80;L=>9-<>B820F88 ?@5645 2A53> @07;8G=>. -B> =5 >A?0@820NB 4065 18>;>3870B>@A:85 :>=F5?F88 (18E5 28>@87<, ?A8E>0=0;87), >BAB0820NI85 AE>4AB2> ?@> 8AE>645=8O 8 <5E0=87<>2 <>B820F88 G5;>25:0 8 68 2>B=KE, => =5 55 A>45@60=8O.  >B;8G85 >B A>45@60=8O <5E0=87<K @07;8G=KE C@>2=59 <>B820F88 AB>;L @57:> ?@>B82>?>AB02;OBLAO =5 <>3CB. :BC0;870F8O ?>B@51=>AB59 2 2845 CAB0=> 2>:, =081>;55 >1I85 M<>F8>=0;L=K5 <5E0=87<K 35=5 B8G5A:>3> 8 A8BC0B82=>3> @0728B8O <>B820F88 8 B. ?., A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, =5 O2;ONBAO ?@>4C:B>< 0=B@>?>35 =570, A 4@C3>9- 8A?>;L7CNBAO 2 55 D>@<8@>20=88 8 >1=0@C65=88 C G5;>25:0. "5 D5=><5=>;>38G5A:85 >A> 15==>AB8, :>B>@K5 >B;8G0NB <5E0=87<K A>1AB25==> G5;>25G5A:>9 <>B820F88 (>?>A@54AB2>20==>ABL 8=B5; ;5:B><, 2>;59, =0?@02;5==>ABL =0 >B40;5==K5 687=5= =K5 F5;8 8 B. ?.), =5 >B@8F0NB 459AB28O 18>;>38G5A:8E <5E0=87<>2, =0>1>@>B, A>3;0A=> >1I5<C ?@8=F8?C D>@<8@>20=8O 2KAH8E ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89 =0 >A=> 25 =0BC@0;L=KE (K3>BA:89, 19830), ?@54?>;030NB 8E :0: B>, GB> 2 8AB>@8G5A:>< @0728B88 ?>425@305BAO A>25@H5=AB2>20=8N 8 ?@5>1@07>20=8N, B. 5. :0: =5>1 E>48<>5 CA;>285 A2>53> 2>7=8:=>25=8O. 5 A;CG09=> MB8 >A>15==>AB8 ?>O2;ONBAO 2 >=B>35=575 A@02=8B5;L => ?>74=> :0: 8B>3 A>F80;L=>3> @0728B8O <>B820F88, 0 =5 :0: 53> ?@54?>AK;:0. 48 '5;>25:0 >1KG=> =5 ?@8E>48BAO CG8BL 65;0BL, 1>OBLAO 8;8 3=520BLAO, E>BO =0 ?@>BO65=88 2A53> @0728B8O >= ?>425@305BAO 15A?@5@K2=K< 2>7459AB28O< ?> G0AB8 B>3>, G53> 5<C A;54C5B 8;8 =5 A;54C5B 65 ;0BL 8;8 1>OBLAO, =0 GB> <>6=> 8 :>340 =54>AB>9=> 3=520BLAO, 8 B. ?. -B> 7=0G8B, GB> =>2>5 A>F80;L=> >1CA;>2;5==>5 A>45@60=85, ?> :@09=59 <5@5 =0 =0 G0;L=KE MB0?0E >=B>35=570, AB0=>28BAO 4;O G5;>25:0 <>B820F8>==> 7=0G8<K< =0 >A=>25 <5E0=87<>2, A;> 682H8EAO 2 18>;>38G5A:>9 M2>;NF88. -B> 2?>;=5 5AB5AB25==>, B0: :0: A0<>9 ?> A515 =5>1E>48<>AB8 2 B><, GB>1K G5;>25: : =>2K<, 18>;>38G5A:8 5<C =5 A2>9AB25==K< F5;O< ?>1C640;AO =5?@5<5==> =>2K<8 <5E0=87<0<8, 2 0=B@>?>35=575 =5 ACI5AB2>20;>. 07C<55BAO, B> A;>6=>5 A>45@60=85, :>B>@>5 ?>;C G05B <>B820F8>==>5 7=0G5=85 7 A>F80;L=> @0728B>9 ?A8E8:5, =5 <>65B 1KBL C;>65=> B>;L:> 2 ?@8<8B82 =K5 18>;>38G5A:85 D>@<K, GB>, A>1AB25==>, A>7405B =5>1E>48<>ABL 2 2>7=8:=>25=88 A?5F8D8G5A:8 G5;>25 G5A:8E <5E0=87<>2 <>B820F88, >4=0:> MB> =5 8A:;N G05B 8A?>;L7>20=8O B0:8E ?@8<8B82=KE D>@< 2 @07 28B88 : 459AB288 A;>6=KE <5E0=87<>2. -B8 ?@5420@8B5;L=K5 70<5G0=8O 4>;6=K 1K;8 ?>:070BL, GB> ?@8 >1AC645=88 2>?@>A0 > A?5F8D8:5 G5;>25G5A:>9 <>B820F88 =54>AB0B>G=> @0AA<0B@820BL 55 :0: F5;>AB=>5 O2;5=85 157 2K45;5=8O A>AB02;ON I8E 55 0A?5:B>2 1. 4=> 8 B> 65 CB25@645=85, =0?@8 <5@, 48E>B><8O 18>;>38G5A:>3> 8 A>F80;L=>3> :0: <5B>4 >1JOA=5=8O ?5@5E>40 >B 107>2KE : 2KAH8< ?@>872>4=K< ?>B@51=>ABO< G5;>25:0 2 F5;>< =5?@8 5<;5<0 (8;835=A:89, 1976. !. 35), ?>;CG05B @07=>5 7=0G5=85 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B B>3>, : :>B>@>9 87 A>AB02 ;ONI8E <>B820F88 >=> ?@8<5=O5BAO.  >B;8G85 >B A>45@60=8O <5E0=87<K 18>;>38G5A:>9 8 A>F80;L=>9 <>B820F88 =5 >1=0@C6820NB B>3> ?@8=F8?80;L=>3> @07@K20, :>B>@K9 =5 ?>72>;O; 1K 8A:0BL ?5@5E>40 >B 87=0G0;L=KE ?@8@>4=KE >1@07>20=89 8 ?@>F5AA>2 : 1>;55 A;>6=K<, D>@<8@CNI8<AO ?> <5@5 =0:>?;5=8O A>F8>35==KE ?@5>1@07>20=89 2 G5;>25G5A:>9 ?A8E8:5. ' 0: MB> G0AB> 2AB@5G05BAO, >A>15==> 2 <5B>4>;>38G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5; A<. 5454>2, 1956; 8;835=A:89, 1976, 1977; >=-G5=:> 8 4@., 1984; 20=GC:, 1986; 8:=0475, 1968; >20;52, 1984; CG52A:0O, 1974; "0@0A>2, 1979; 8 4@. 49 <5==> =0;8G85 >1I53> :0: CA;>285 ?>8A:0 >B;8G89 >?@024K205B ?>AB0=>2:C 2>?@>A0 > @0728B88 <>B820F88 G5;>25:0 ?@5645 2A53> 2 >B=>H5=88 >15A?5G820NI8E 53> <5E0=87<>2. 865 1C45B A45;0=0 ?>?KB:0 2K45;8BL >A=>2C 8 A2>53> @>40 548=8FC B0:>3> @0728B8O. ;O B>3> GB>1K 8<5BL 2>7<>6=>ABL A@02=5=8O, ?@5420@8B5;L=> >1>7=0G8< A>>B25BAB2CNICN 548=8FC @0728B8O 18>;>38G5A:>9 <>B820F88 8 @0AA<>B@8< 40==K5 > 55 ?@>O2;5=8OE 2 G5;>25G5A:>9 ?A8E8:5. "& #! =B>35=5B8G5A:>5 @0728B85 18>;>38G5A:>9 <>B820F88 ?@>8AE>48B 1;03>40@O ?@8>1@5B5=8N 87=0G0;L=> 8=48DD5@5=B=K<8 2>7459AB28O<8 A?>A>1=>AB8 2K7K20BL 0:B82=>ABL 8=482840 8 >15A?5G8205BAO <5E0=87<><, =07K205<K< 2 ;8B5@0BC@5 70<K:0=85< CA;>2=>9 A2O78. ! ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 AB>@>=K, 0 8<5==> ?@8 CG5B5 B>3>, GB> 2K@01>B:0 CA;>2=>9 A2O78 >7=0G05B 87<5=5=85 AC1J5:B82=>3> >B=>H5=8O : CA;>2=><C @074@068B5;N, MB>B <5E0=87< <>65B 1KBL 87>1@065= 2 2845 ?5@540G8 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> (<>B820F8>==>3>) 7=0G5=8O 8<5NI8< 53> 2>7459AB285< =>2><C A>45@60=8N, A2O70==><C A MB8< 2>7459AB285< 2 >?KB5 8=482840, B. 5. A2>53> @>40 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85< 8;8 ?5@5:;NG5=85< M<>F8>=0;L=>3>- ?5@56820=8O 2 >1@075 A>3;0A=> >B@0605<K< >1J5:B82=K< A2O7O< 8 D8:A0F859 =0 =>2>< A>45@60=88, :>B>@>5 2 A8;C MB>3> AB0=>28BAO <>B820-F8>==K<. <5==> B0:>5 ?5@5:;NG5=85 ;568B 2 >A=>25 <>B820F8>==>3> >1CA;>2;820=8O, ?@54AB02;ONI53> A>1>9 >A=>2=>9 <5E0=87< @0728B8O 18>;>38G5A:>9 <>B820F88 2 >=B>35=575 (A<. ?>4@>1=55: 8;N=0A, 1986. !. 154 174). $0:B8G5A:8 D5=><5= <>B820F8>==>3> >1CA;>2;820=8O =5A:>;L:> A;>6=55, ?>A:>;L:C B> M<>F8>=0;L=>5 ?5@56820=85, :>B>@>5 D8:A8@C5BAO =0 =>2>< A>45@60=88, 2K7K205BAO =5 A0<8< ?> A515 8AE>4=K< <>B8-20F8>==K< 2>7459AB285<, 0 @0728205BAO ?@8 53> 2>A?@8OB88 A CG5B>< CA;>289 A8BC0F88, >4=0:> MB> =5 8A:;NG05B 2>7<>6=>AB8 C?@>I5==>3> 87>1@065=8O 40==>3> D5=><5=0 2 2845 ?5@5:;NG5=8O 8 D8:A0F88 M<>F89. B<5B8<, GB> ?@8 B0:>< C?@>I5==>< ?>=8- 50 <0=88 <>B820F8>==>5 >1CA;>2;820=85 >E20BK205B B0:65 8 8<?@8=B8=3, B. 5. 1>;55 ?@>AB>9 A;CG09 >=B>35=5B8G5A:>3> @0728B8O 18>;>38G5A:>9 <>B820F88, GB> ?>72>;O5B @0AA<0B@820BL ?5@5:;NG5=85 M<>F89 :0: C=825@A0;L=K9 <5E0=87< B0:>3> @0728B8O. D5=><5=>;>38O >1CA;>2;820=8O 2 ?A8E8:5 G5;>25:0. =>3>G8A;5==K5 8AA;54>20=8O, ?@>2545==K5 ?@8 @07@01>B:5 :>=F5?F89 2KAH59 =5@2=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 18E528>@87<0, =5 >AB02;ONB A><=5=89 2 B><, GB> ?@>F5AAK <>B820F8>==>3> >1CA;>2;820=8O A2>9AB25==K G5;>25:C (5EB5@52, 1928; 5 8, 1973; !8<>=>2, 1975; Hilgard, Marquis, 1940; Mowrer, 1960b; Skinner, 1953). "0:, 2 >4=>< 87 :;0AA8G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89 M:A?5@8<5=B0B>@ C40@O; 2 3>=3, 2K7K20O @57:89, 70AB02;ONI89 274@03820BL 72C:, 2 B>B <><5=B, :>340 =8G53> =5 ?>4>7@520NI89 11-<5AOG=K9 <0;LG8: ?KB0;AO :>A=CBLAO ;01>@0B>@=>9 :@KAK; H5AB8 B0:8E A>G5B0=89 157CA;>2=>3> (@57:89 72C:) 8 CA;>2=>3> (284 :@KAK) @074@068B5;59 >:070;>AL 4>AB0B>G=> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K C @515=:0 AD>@<8@>20;>AL >B@8F0B5;L=>5 >B=>H5=85 : 682>B=><C, ?@8 2845 :>B>@>3> >= ?C30;AO 8 =0G8=0; ?;0:0BL (Watson, 1930. . 158 163). >:070B5;L=>, GB> ?>A;5 >?KB>2 @515=>: >1=0@C68; @50:F88 AB@0E0 ?@8 2845 4@C38E 682>B=KE, <5E>2>3> ?0;LB> 8 4065 <0A:8 540 >@>70; MB> A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, GB> 2 @57C;LB0B5 >1CA;>2;820=8O <>B820F8>==>5 7=0G5=85 ?@8>1@5B05B =5 B>;L:> F5;>AB=K5 ?@54<5BK (2 40==>< A;CG05 :@KA0), => 8 >B45;L=K5 8E A2>9AB20 (=0?@8<5@, D0:BC@0 2>;>AO=>3> ?>:@>20 B5;0), :>B>@K5 2>A?@8=8<0NBAO M<>F8>=0;L=> 8 2 B>< A;CG05, :>340 2E>4OB 2 A>AB02 A2>9AB2 4@C38E ?@54<5B>2. @8 CB>G=5=88 <5@K, 2 :>B>@>9 <5E0=87< >1CA;>2;820=8O A2>9AB25= G5;>25:C, 206=> CG5ABL, GB> 2 ;8B5@0BC@5 >= >?8AK205BAO =5 >1O70B5;L=> 2 B5@<8=>;>388 8 B@048F8OE, A;>682H8EAO 2 D878>;>388 2KAH59 =5@2=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. "0:, 2 ?>;>65=88, AD>@<C;8@>20==>< 5I5 2 XVII 2.: A;54AB285 >4=>3> B>3>, GB> <K 2845;8 :0:CN-;81> 25IL 2 0DD5:B5 C4>2>;LAB28O 8;8 =5C4>2>;LAB28O... <K <>65< 55 ;N18BL ?;8 =5=02845BL (!?8=>70, 1957. !. 469), CB25@6405BAO, ?> ACI5AB2C, B> 65 A0<>5, GB> 8 2 >1>1I5==>< 2K2>45 87 A>2@5<5==KE M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE 8AA;54>20=89: ...59B@0;L=K5 @074@068B5;8, :>B>@K5 ?@54H5AB2CN 51 NB ?>O2;5=8N M<>F8>35==KE @074@068B5;59 8;8 8E A>?@>2>640NB, A0<8 ?@8>1@5B0NB A?>A>1=>ABL 2K7K20BL M<>F88 ( 59:>2A:89, 1979. !. 90; A<. B0:65: Babkin, 1967; Golin, 1961; Mowrer, 1960a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affel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mielinski, 1974. . 307). 52 >6=> A>A;0BLAO 8 =0 1>;55 A5@L57=K5 A>F80;L=K5 O2;5=8O. 0728B85 G5;>25G5AB20 =0AKI5=> ?@8<5@0<8 B>3>, GB> >1I5AB25==K5 A8;K, AB>;:=C2H8AL A =52>7<>6=>ABLN ?>4G8=5=8O ;N459 A?>A>1>< C15645=8O, ?@81530NB : 3@C1> 18>;>38G5A:><C >1CA;>2;820=8N. -B><C A;C60B B5;5A=K5 =0:070=8O, :0@F5@K, ?KB:8 8 F5;K5 8=AB8BCBK, B0:85 :0: 8=:2878F8O.  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"0:8< >1@07><, D5=><5=K >1CA;>2;820=8O >1=0@C6820NBAO C G5;>25:0 A@02=8B5;L=> >BG5B;82> 8 @07=>>1@07=>. 4=0:> ?@8 ?5@5E>45 >B ?@>AB>9 8E :>=AB0B0F88 : CB>G=5=8N >A>15==>AB59 ?@>O2;5=8O MB>3> <5E0=87<0 2 CA;>28OE A>F80;L=> @0728B>9 ?A8E8:8, >15A?5G820NI59 >A>7=0==>5 >B@065=85 2A53> <=>3>>1@078O O2;5=89 8 A2O759 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 2 :>=B5:AB5 F5;>AB=>3> >1@070 <8@0, 2>7=8:0NB 7=0G8B5;L=K5 70B@C4=5=8O 8 =5OA=>AB8. >A:>;L:C MB8 >A>15==>AB8 8<5NB ?@O<>5 >B=>H5=85 : >1AC6405<><C 2>?@>AC > A?5F8D8:5 @0728B8O <>B820F88 G5;>25:0, @0AA<>B@8< 8E ?>4@>1=55. 1CA;>2;820=85 8 ?@>F5AAK ?>7=0=8O. #65 =0 C@>2=5 682>B=KE =01;N405BAO 7028A8<>ABL ?@>F5AA>2 >1CA;>2;820=8O >B >A>15==>AB59 ?>7=020B5;L=>3> >B@065=8O A2O78 <564C CA;>2=K< 8 157CA;>2=K< @074@068B5;O<8. 59AB28B5;L=>, 2 :;0AA8G5A:>< 20@80=B5 70<K:0=85 CA;>2=>9 A2O78 >1=0@C68205BAO :0: ?@>F5AA, >A=>20==K9 =0 =0:>?;5=88 AB0B8AB8:8 A>G5B05<>AB8 @074@068B5;59. 7-70 >BACBAB28O ?@>H;>3> >?KB0, :0A0NI53>AO 8E A2O78, ?>7=020B5;L=K5 ?@>F5AAK 87=0G0;L=> <>3CB >15A?5G8BL ;8HL ?@5420@8B5;L=>5 70<5G0=85 CA;>2=>3> @074@068B5;O, 53> 2K45;5=85 2 <=>65AB25 >4=>2@5<5==> 459AB2CNI8E 2=CB@5==8E AB8<C;>2, :>B>@>5 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO A?5F80;L=> 4;O MB>3> ?@54=07=0G5==K<8 >@85=B8@>2>G=K<8 @50:F8O<8 (@85=B8@>2>G=K9 @5D;5:A..., 1958; !>:>;>2, 1958; $5935=15@3, 20==8:>2, 1969). 4=0:> AB0B8AB8G5A:89 E0@0:B5@ ;01>@0B>@=>3> >1CA;>2;820=8O >?@545;O5BAO >A>15==>ABO<8 <5B>48:, 8A?>;L7CNI8E, :0: ?@028;>, 8A:CAAB25==K5 A83=0;L=K5 @07- 53 4@068B5;8 (A25B ;0<?>G:8, C40@K <5B@>=><0 8 B. ?.), A2O7L :>B>@KE A ?>4:@5?;5=85< =5 O2;O5BAO =03;O4=>9, =5 >B@0605BAO 8=48284>< =0 >A=>25 ?@>H;>3> >?KB0 8 B@51C5B 2KO2;5=8O. AB5AB25==>, GB> MB> A:07K205BAO =0 A:>@>AB8 >1CA;>2;820=8O. %>BO AB>;:=>25=85 A A>25@H5==> =>2K<8 AB8<C;0<8 8 A8BC0F8O<8, <>45;8@C5<>5 ;01>@0B>@=K<8 <5B>48:0<8, =587156=> 8 2 @50;L=>9 687=8, 8=48284C 2A5-B0:8 G0I5 ?@8E>48BAO 8<5BL 45;> A 1>;55 >A2>5==K< 8 ?@82KG=K< >:@C65=85<. 1CA;>2;820=85 2 B0:>< >:@C65=88 >1KG=> ?@>8AE>48B 1KAB@55 8 G0AB> A@07C, 157 ?>2B>@=KE A>G5B0=89. -B> >BG5B;82> 45<>=AB@8@CNB 8AA;54>20=8O . !. 5@8B0H28;8, 2 :>B>@KE 682>B=K5 AB028;8AL 2 CA;>28O, ?@81;865==K5 : 5AB5AB25==K<; >=8 ?>:070;8, =0?@8<5@, GB> 4>AB0B>G=> =0:>@<8BL A>10:C 2A53> >48= @07 87 >4=>3> 8;8 42CE-B@5E OI8:>2 8;8 40BL 59 ?>=NE0BL =0E>4OICNAO 2 =8E ?8IC, GB>1K 2?>A;54AB288 =0 A83=0; : 545 >=0 H;0 ?@O<> : B5< <5AB0<, 345 MB8 OI8:8 AB>O;8. !>10:0 =0E>48B MB8 <5AB0, 4065 5A;8 OI8:8 A ?8I59 8 4@C385 A>A54=85 1K;8 C40;5=K (B. 5. 2 MB8E <5AB0E =5 1C45B =8 ?8I8, =8 55 70?0E0) (1975. !. 382) 2. !;54C5B ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> @5GL 845B =5 > :0:8E-B> >A>1KE A;CG0OE, 0 > A0<KE >1KG=KE A>1KB8OE 5AB5AB25==>9 687=8, A@548 :>B>@KE, =0>1>@>B, >1CA;>2;820=85 ?> AB0=40@B=>9 ;01>@0B>@=>9 ?@>F54C@5 2K3;O48B A:>@55 8A:;NG5=85<. 0: AG8B0; . . =>E8=, 18>;>38G5A:8 =5F5;5A>>1@07=>, GB>1K CA;>2=K9 @5D;5:A 2K@010BK20;AO ?>A;5 <=>3>:@0B=KE (4> 200) A>G5B0=89. 0 A0<>< 45;5 18>;>38G5A:8 >=8 4>;6=K 2K@010BK20BLAO A ?5@2>3> @070 (B0< 65. !. 515). >=OB=>, GB> >A2>5==>ABL 8 ?@82KG=>ABL A8BC0F88 >?@545;ONBAO ?@5645 2A53> ?@>H;K< >?KB>< AC1J5:B0, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 CA;>2=>@5D;5:B>@=K<, :>B>@K9 ?>72>;O5B >B@060BL 2 ?A8E8G5A:>< =5 B>;L:> D0:B8G5A:85 AB8<C;L=K5 2>7459AB28O, => 8 2KO2;5==K5 2708<>A2O78 <564C =8<8, ?@542>AE8I0BL 2>7<>6=K5 8E 2 B;8G8O, :>B>@K5 . !. 5@8B0H28;8 ?>4G5@:8205B, ?@>B82>?>AB02;OO 8AA;54>202H55AO 8< 8=48284C0;L=> ?@8>1@5B5==>5 ?>2545=85 A>1AB25==> CA;>2=>@5D;5:B>@=><C (A G5< <=>385 53> >??>=5=BK =5 A>3;0H0;8AL; A<. 1975. !. 503 524), ?5@5AB0NB 1KBL ACI5AB25==K<8 ?@8 CG5B5 B>3>, GB> >1CA;>2;820=8N ?>425@30NBAO =5 B5;5A=K5 8;8 ?>2545=G5A:85 @50:F88, 0 AC1J5:B82=K5 >B=>H5=8O. 54 87<5=5=8O, :0: =57028AOI85 >B 0:B82=>AB8 8=482840, B0: 8 5N 2K7K205<K5 8 B. ?. (Miller, Matzel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CA;>2=K5 @50:F88 2K@010BK20NBAO ?> B5< 65 A0<K< >A=>2=K< 70:>=0<, ?> :0:8< >=8 2K@010BK20NBAO C 682>B=KE. 5>1E>48<> B>;L:> AB@>3> 8 BI0B5;L=> :>=B@>;8@>20BL 8 0=0;878@>202 2A5 A;>6=K5 CA;>28O A8BC0F88 (5 8, 1973. !. 33). 06=>, >4=0:>, ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> 2 @50;L=>AB8 2K?>;=5=85 40==>3> B@51>20=8O >G5=L G0AB> >1>@0G8205BAO B0:8< C?@>I5=85< M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE A8BC0F89, ?@:: :>B>@>< 8A:;NG05BAO 3;8 ACI5AB25==> >3@0- 55 =8G8205BAO ?@>O2;5=85 A>1AB25==> G5;>25G5A:8E :0 G5AB2 ?A8E8:8. -B> 4>AB8305BAO B5<, GB> >1CA;>2;820 =8N ?>425@30NBAO M;5<5=B0@=K5 B5;5A=K5 @50:F88, =54>ABC?=K5 ?@O<><C ?@>872>;L=><C :>=B@>;N, B0:85 :0: 7@0G:>2K9, <830B5;L=K9 8;8 ?>4>H25==K9 @5D ;5:AK, :>6=>-30;L20:8G5A:0O @50:F8O, >B45@3820=85 ?0;LF0 ?@8 1>;52><, @074@065=88 (B0< 65), 8;8 2>2A5 AC1J5:B>< =5 :>=B@>;8@C5<K5 28AF5@0;L=K5 ?@>F5A AK (K:>2, 1947), 2 :0G5AB25 8A?KBC5<KE 8A?>;L7CNB AO 45B8, =5 8<5NI85 2>7<>6=>AB8 >A<KA;8BL A2O78, ?> :>B>@K< ?@>8AE>48B >1CA;>2;820=85 (@0A=>3>@ A:89, 1935, 1958), 27@>A;K5 8A?KBC5<K5 AB02OBAO 2 CA;>28O, >3@0=8G820NI85 8;8 8A:;NG0NI85 >A>7=0 =85 MB8E A2O759 (Cohen 0. >., 1954; Lacey 0. >., 1958; Tassinary 0. >., 1984; Thorndike, 1931). =>340 8AA;54>20B5;8 ?>4G5@:820NB =5>1E>48 <>ABL B0:>3> @>40 >3@0=8G5=89 4;O ?>;CG5=8O AB0= 40@B=>9 CA;>2=>@5D;5:B>@=>9 D5=><5=>;>388: > A:>;L:C 70:>=K >1CA;>2;820=8O =5 >E20BK20NB D0:B> @>2 ?@>872>;L=>3> :>=B@>;O, 2KO2;5=85 8 D>@<C;8 @>2:0 ?@8=F8?>2 >1CA;>2;820=8O 7028A8B >B A>740=8O B0:8E M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE A8BC0F89, ?@8 :>B>@KE 2;8O=85 MB8E D0:B>@>2 =52>7<>6=> 8;8 8A:;NG5=> (Hilgard, Marquis, 1940. . 270 271).  B5E 65 A;C G0OE, :>340 >3@0=8G5=8O =5 ?@8<5=ONBAO 8 >1CA;>2;8 20=85 ?@>8AE>48B =0 C@>2=5, :>=B@>;8@C5<>< A>7=0 =85<, ?>;CG8BL >4=>7=0G=K5 40==K5 >1KG=> =5 C405B AO: 0: >B<5G0NB @07;8G=K5 02B>@K, >B;8G8B5;L=>9 >A>15==>ABLN M:A?5@8<5=B>2 ?> >1CA;>2;820=8N C G5;>25:0 O2;O5BAO 206=0O @>;L CAB0=>2>:, 2>7=8 :0NI8E A?>=B0==> 8;8 ?>4 2;8O=85< 8=AB@C:F89; MB8 CAB0=>2:8 <>3CB 7=0G8B5;L=> >1;53G0BL 8;8, =0?@>B82, 70B@C4=OBL, B> 5ABL B>@<>78BL, ?@>F5AA 2K@01>B:8 CA;>2=KE @50:F89. G5=L G0AB> >=8 45;0NB CA;>2=K5 @50:F88 C G5;>25:0 <5=55 AB018;L=K<8 = 3>@074> 1>;55 20@8015;L=K<8, G5< C 682>B=KE (>=?5;;L5, 1973. !. 70; A<. Al-Issa, 1964; Mowrer, 1938, 1950; Razran, 1949a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ewicki 0. >., 1987; Osgood, 1953. . 701 705; Razran, 1949A). 0?@8<5@, ?>A;5 2K@01>B:8 =0 1075 M;5:B@>@074@065=8O CA;>2=>9 @50:F88 =0 A;>2> :>@>20 C 8A?KBC5<KE, =5 2A5340 MB> >A>7=0202H8E, B0:0O @50:F8O AB0;0 2K7K20BLAO B0:65 A;>20<8 >2 F0, B@0:B>@, 75@=> 8 B. ?. (Lacey, Smith, 1954. . 1046). >:070B5;L=>, GB> A5<0=B8G5A:8 1;87:85 A;>20 2 B0:>3> @>40 8AA;54>20=8OE 2K7K20NB 1>;55 2K@065==K5 @50:F88, G5< A;>20, AE>4=K5 ?> 72C:>2> <C A>AB02C (Razran, 1949b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owrer, 1960a; Myers, 1958; Wike, 1966). > 2A59 2848<>AB8, G5;>25G5A:89 8=B5;;5:B A>7405B 2>7<>6=>ABL 7=0G8B5;L=>3> C25;8G5=8O ?>@O4:0 >1CA;>2;5==>AB8 ?@54<5B>2, A?>A>1=KE 2 A2>N >G5@54L A;C68BL ?>4:@5?;5=85< (>28:>20, 1929). A;8 CG5ABL 1>;LH>5 87=0G0;L=>5 @07=>>1@0785 157CA;>2=> 7=0G8<KE 2>7459AB289 (!8<>=>2, 1986), 5I5 1>;55 C25;8G8205<>5 <=>3>ABC?5=G0BK< >1CA;>2;820=85<, :@C3 ?>4:@5?;ONI8E O2;5=89 A;54C5B ?@87=0BL 25AL<0 H8@>:8< (Skinner, 1969). B0:, ?@>O2;5=85 ?@>F5AA>2 >1CA;>2;820=8O =0 =5?>A@54AB25==>-GC2AB25==>< 8 >?>A@54AB2>20==>< A>F80;L=K< >?KB>< C@>2=OE >B@065=8O >1=0@C68205B @O4 :0G5AB25==KE >B;8G89. 4=0:> A;54C5B ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> MB8 >B;8G8O :0A0NBAO A>45@60B5;L=>3> 8 59 48=0<8G5A:>3> 0A?5:B>2 >1CA;>2;820=8O, B> 5ABL B>3>; =0 GB> 8<5==>, 0 B0:65 :0: 1KAB@> 8 H8@>:> >=> ?@> 8AE>48B, B>340 :0: <5E0=87< ?5@5:;NG5=8O M<>F89 =0' =>2>5 A>45@60=85 8 D8:A0F88 =0 =5< >AB05BAO 2 >1>8E A;CG0OE 2 ?@8=F8?5 B5< 65. 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A>15==> >BG5B ;82> B0:>5 AB@>5=85 2>7459AB289, =0?@02;5==KE =0 87<5=5=85 <>B820F8>==KE >B=>H5=89 G5;>25:0, ?@>A<0B@8205BAO 2 10A=OE, A0B8@5 8, @07C<55BAO, 2 A:07 :0E, ?>>I@ONI8E, =0?@8<5@, 4>1@K5 45;0 65=>9-:@0A028F59 8 ?>;>28=>9 F0@AB20 8;8 4>;3>9 AG0AB;82>9 687=LN.  <0AHB010E 8AB>@88 G5;>25G5AB20 @5;838O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 =5A><=5==> >48= 87 A0<KE >?KB=KE 8 5 "0:>5 A?>=B0==>5 !C645=85 G5;>25G5A:8E @0728B8O <>B820F88, =5 20=8O. 7" 8;8 A?5F80;L=> >@30=87>20==>5 ?@>-?>B@51=>AB59 <>65B A;C68BL ?@8<5@>< >E20BK205<>3> ?@8=F8?>< >?>A@54AB2>- 67 @=205<K5 =0<8 :>=:@5B=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@>F5AAK, ;560I85 2 >A=>25 2>A?8B0=8O, @54:> AB0=>28;8AL ?@54<5B>< A?5F80;L=>3> 87CG5=8O, E>BO 70B@03820;8AL ?@8 >1AC645=88, =0?@8<5@, B@048F8>==>3> 2>?@>A0 >1 8A?>;L7>20=88 2 2>A?8B0B5;L=>9 ?@0:B8:5 ?>>I@5=89 8 =0:070=89. >4>1=CN =0?@02;5==>ABL A>E@0=O5B 8 A>2@5<5= =0O ?5403>38G5A:0O ;8B5@0BC@0 (70@>2, 1985; 0:0 @5=:>, 1956; !CE><;8=A:89, 1979 1980). > CB25@6 45=8N . . >6>28G, ...2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 2 ?540 3>38:5 2>>1I5 =5 ?>AB02;5=0 ?@>1;5<0 2>A?8B0=8O ?>'@51:>AB59: >=0 =5 2K428305BAO 2 :0G5AB25 A?5F8- 0GL=>9 7040G8 2>A?8B0=8O; B0:>3> @0745;0 =5B 2 ?5 403>38G5A:8E CG51=8:0E, =5B 53> 8 2 ?@>3@0<<5 2>A ?8B0B5;L=>9 @01>BK H:>;K (1972. !. 34). #@>25=L 87CG5==>AB8 ?@>1;5< 2>A?8B0=8O >BG5B;82> @5D;5:A8- @C5BAO . . !8<>=>2K< 8 . . @H>2K<: !>3;0 H0OAL A B5<, GB> 2>A?8B0=85 5ABL D>@<8@>20=85 >1I5 AB25==> F5==KE ?>B@51=>AB59, <K ?@5645 2A53> >1=0 @C68205< :@09=NN >3@0=8G5==>ABL =0H8E @50;L=KE 7=0=89 >1 MB>9 >1;0AB8 2KAH59 =5@2=>9 (?A8E8G5A:>9) 45OB5;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0. <:...> >A?8B0=85 4> A8E ?>@ >AB05BAO ?@58<CI5AB25==> 8A:CAAB2><, 8 2K40NI85AO ?@54AB028B5;8 MB>9 AD5@K G5;>25G5A:>9 45OB5;L=> AB8 0:0@5=:>, >@G0:, !CE><;8=A:89 O2;ONBAO =0< A:>@55 2 >1@075 EC4>6=8:>2, G5< 8=65=5@>2 G5;>25G5A:8E 4CH. >4;8==> =0CG=0O B5>@8O 2>A?8B0 =8O 2 >1I5?@8=OB>< A<KA;5 A;>20 B5>@8O ?>-?@56 =5<C >AB05BAO 45;>< 1C4CI53> (1984. !. 145). 7-70 C:070==KE ?@8G8= 2 ?5403>38G5A:8E CG5=8OE B@C4=> =09B8 4>A;>2=CN ?>445@6:C @0AA<0B@8205<> <C B578AC > =587156=>AB8 8A?>;L7>20=8O C65 ACI5AB 2CNI59 <>B820F88 4;O D>@<8@>20=8O =>2KE <>B820 F8>==KE >B=>H5=89, E>BO 8<?;8F8B=> >= >1KG=> A> 45@68BAO 2 ?@82>48<KE ?@8<5@0E, C:070=8OE =0 =5 >1E>48<>ABL 8=48284C0;L=>3> ?>4E>40 2 ?@0:B8:5 2>A?8B0=8O, 7=0=8O C2;5G5=89 8 4CH52=KE :0G5AB2 2>A?8BK205<>3> ;8F0, >1O70B5;L=>ABL 53> M<>F8>=0;L =>3> 2>2;5G5=8O 2 A8BC0F88, A?>A>1=K5 >B:@KBL =>2K5 F5==>AB8 8 >B=>H5=8O. ...'@57 GC2AB20 4>;6=> 2A5 ;OBL 2> <;04CN 4CHC ?5@2K5 ?@8OB=K5 7=0=8O 8 ?@54 AB02;5=8O 8 A>E@0=OBL 8E 2 =59 (>28:>2, 1985. !. 333); CA;>285< MB><C O2;O5BAO 2>71C645=85 C65 8<5NI59AO <>B820F88, 81> =5B =8 548=>9 87 ?>B@51- 69 =>AB59 =0H8E, C4>2;5B2>@5=85 :>B>@>9 =5 8<5;> 1K 2 A515 ?@8OB=>AB8 (B0< 65. !. 335). A:;NG8B5;L=>5 7=0G5=85 M<>F89 4;O @0728B8O G5;>25:0 ?>4G5@:820; . . #H8=A:89  >48= 87 =5 <=>38E ?5403>3>2, =5 AG8B02H8E 2>7<>6=K< @0AA<0B @820BL ?@>1;5<K 2>A?8B0=8O 2 >B@K25 >B ?A8E>;>38 G5A:8E 7=0=89: ...>A?8B0=85, =5 ?@84020O 01A>;NB =>3> 7=0G5=8O GC2AB20< @515=:0, B5< =5 <5=55 2 =0 ?@02;5=88 8E 4>;6=> 2845BL A2>N 3;02=CN 7040GC (1950. ". 10. !. 537). 1=0@C682, 2>?@5:8 B0:><C 7=0G5=8N GC2AB2 4;O 2>A?8B0=8O, >BACBAB285 2AO:>9 ?>?KB:8 0=0;870 GC2AB2>20=89 8 AB@0AB59 2> 2A5E ?5403>38:0E, 70 8A:;NG5=85< 15=5:>2A:>9 (B0< 65. !. 479), . . #H8=A:89 ?@>25; >3@><=CN @01>BC 4;O CAB@0=5=8O MB>3> ?@>15;0 2 ?5403>38:5, ?@54;>682 2 8B>35 CG5=85 > GC2AB2>20=8OE, ?@>4>;60NI55 1KBL 0:BC0;L=K< 8 A53>4=O.  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B0:>5 65 >B=>H5=85 4>;65= AB0BL 8 2>A?8B0B5;L : MB8< O2;5 =8O< G5;>25G5A:>9 4CH8: =0A;0645=85 8 AB@040=85 4>;6=K 1KBL 4;O =53> =5 F5;LN, 0 A@54AB2>< 2K25AB8 4CHC 2>A?8B0==8:0 =0 ?CBL ?@>3@5AA82=>3> A2>1>4=> 3> B@C40, 2 :>B>@>< >:07K205BAO 2A5 4>ABC?=>5 G5;> 25:C =0 75<;5 AG0ABL5. ;C1>:85 8 >1H8@=K5 D8;> A>DA:85 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 8AB8=K 4>ABC?=K B>;L:> 2>A?8B0B5;N, => =5 2>A?8B0==8:C, 8 ?>B><C 2>A?8B0 B5;L 4>;65= @C:>2>4AB2>20BLAO 8<8, => =5 2 C15645 =88 2>A?8B0==8:0 2 8E ;>38G5A:>9 A8;5 8A:0BL 4;O B>3> A@54AB2. 4=8< 87 459AB28B5;L=59H8E A@54AB2 : B><C O2;ONBAO =0A;0645=8O 8 AB@040=8O, :>B>@K5 70 2>A?8B0B5;L <>65B ?> 2>;5 2>71C640BL 2 4CH5 2>A ?8B0==8:0 8 B0<, 345 >=8 =5 2>71C640NBAO A0<8 A> 1>N :0: ?>A;54AB28O ?>ABC?:0 (B0< 65. !. 512 513). -<>F88 65 <>3CB 1KBL 2>71C645=K B>;L:> B5<, GB> 8<55B >B=>H5=85 : ACI5AB2CNI8< ?>B@51=>ABO< G5;> 25:0.  :>=F5?F88 . . 5>=BL520 >BG5B;82> 2K45;5= D5=><5= A42830 <>B820 =0 F5;L (1972. !. 304), ?@54 AB02;ONI89 A>1>9 >48= 87 20@80=B>2 <>B820F8>==>3> >?>A@54AB2>20=8O. @C385 20@80=BK MB>3> ?@>F5AA0 <>6=> ?> 0=0;>388 >1>7=0G8BL :0: A4283 <>B820 =0 CA;>285, A@54AB2>, A83=0;, A8<2>; 8 4@C385 7=0G8<K5 4;O 53> 4>AB865=8O <><5=BK. "0:>3> @>40 A42838 8=>340 >BG5B;82> @5D;5:A8@CNBAO 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5, @0AA<0B@820NI59 ?@0:B8:C 2>A?8B0=8O: ?8@0OAL =0 8<5NI89AO <>B82, AB02OB 2 7028A8<>ABL >B =53> B>B =>2K9 <>B82 45OB5;L=>AB8, :>B>@K9 =C6 => AD>@<8@>20BL, B. 5. A1;860NB, A>548=ONB MB8 <> B82K, A>74020O 8E 548=K9 A?;02 4> B5E ?>@, ?>:0 =5 2>7=8:=5B >@30=8G5A:8 =>2K9 <>B82 (@CB>20, 1969. !. 19). 4=0:> G0I5 845O <>B820F8>==>3> >?>A@54AB 2>20=8O 2AB@5G05BAO 2 MB8E @01>B0E 2 =52KG;5=5==>< 2845, :0: A>AB02=0O G0ABL =5:>B>@>9 A8AB5<K ?5403> 38G5A:8E 8;8 ?A8E>B5@0?52B8G5A:8E @5:><5=40F89 (=0?@., 81@8E, @;>2, 1986; 609=>BB, 1986; @;>2, 1987; !?820:>2A:0O, 1986). "0:, MDD5:BK 3@C??>2>9 ?A8E>B5@0?88 (818E, 1979) 8;8, 2 ?5403>38:5, 2>A ?8B0=8O 2 :>;;5:B825 (C4@8:, 1984; 5<>2, 8@?8G =8:, 1988) >15A?5G820NBAO, 2 G0AB=>AB8, B5<, GB> =5 157@07;8G=>5 >B=>H5=85 G5;>25:0 : <=5=8N >:@C60N I8E ;N459 8A?>;L7C5BAO 4;O 87<5=5=8O 53> >B=>H5 =89 : 4@C38< O2;5=8O<. >B820F8>==>5 >?>A@54AB2>- 20=85 745AL O2=> 8<55B <5AB>. #:065<, =0:>=5F, =0 40==K5 87 >1;0AB8 <>B820F8->==>9 A0<>@53C;OF88 8, 2 G0AB=>AB8, A0<>2>A?8B0=8O, 2 :>B>@KE B>65 <>6=> =09B8 ?>445@6:C @0AA<0B@8205<><C B578AC >1 >?>A@54AB2>20==>AB8 =>2KE <>B8-20F8>==KE >B=>H5=89 C65 ACI5AB2CNI59 <>B820F859.  F5;>< >=8 ?>4B25@640NB >4=> 87 F5=B@0;L=KE ?>;>65=89 CG5=8O > 2KAH8E ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F8OE (K3>BA:89, 19830), A>3;0A=> :>B>@><C 2=CB@5==85 A@54AB20, 8A?>;L7C5<K5 G5;>25:>< 4;O C?@02;5=8O A>1AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN, ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 B5 65 A0<K5, B>;L:> 8=B5@8>@87>20==K5 2=5H=85 A@54AB20, 71 @0=55 ?@8<5=O2H85AO 4;O C?@02;5=8O 53> 45OB5;L =>ABLN 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8. 59AB28B5;L=>, 2 G5< A>AB>8B 2=CB@5==OO 0:B82 =>ABL G5;>25:0, ?KB0NI53>AO 871028BLAO >B =565;0 B5;L=>9, => A8;L=>9 AB@0AB8 8;8 C:@5?8BL =54>AB0B>G =>, =0 53> 273;O4, 2K@065==K5 C2;5G5=8O 8;8 8450;K? G5284=>, 2 =0?><8=0=88 A515 >B40;5==KE ?>A;54 AB289 =0;8G8O 8;8 >BACBAB28O C A51O MB>9 <>B820F88, B>3>, :0: 87-70 =55 : =5<C >B=>AOBAO 4@C385 ;N48, GB> >=0 8E >3>@G05B 8;8 <>3;0 1K A8;L=> >1@04>20BL, :>@>G5 2 ?>8A:0E <>B82>2-4>=>@>2 (0A8;N:. 1984. !. 63) 8 ?>?KB:0E ?5@5:;NG8BL 8E <>B820F8>=- =>5 7=0G5=85 =0 =>2>5 A>45@60=85 6. > ACI5AB2C MB> >7=0G05B ?@8<5=5=85 ?> >B=>H5=8N : A515 B0:8E 65 2>A?8B0B5;L=KE 2>7459AB289, :>B>@K< G5;>25: >1KG=> ?>425@305BAO A> AB>@>=K 4@C38E ;N459. >4>1=K< >1@07>< G5;>25: >40;68205B ?>1C48 B5;L=CN A8;C C 4@C38E <>B82>2 2 A;CG05, :>340 5<C ?@8E>48BAO 459AB2>20BL 2>?@5:8 =5?>A@54AB25==K< ?>1C645=8O<, =0?@8<5@ 2K?>;=OBL =5GB> =5?@8OB=>5. 5 2AB0=C 87-70 AB>;0, ?>:0 2A5 =5 A45;0N B0:>5 @5H5=85 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ?>?KB:C ?5@5:;NG8BL =0 =5?@82;5:0B5;L=CN @01>BC @50;L=> ACI5AB2CNI55 ?>1C645=85 >B =55 871028BLAO. @C38< ?@8<5@>< B0:>3> @>40 ?@>872>;L=>9 <>B820F88 (20==8:>2, 19856. !. 119) <>65B A;C68BL @5H5=85 =5:>B>@K< =5=C6=K< 8;8 4065 =5?@8OB=K< 4;O A0<>3> G5;>25:0 ?>ABC?:>< GB>-B> :><C-B> (2 B>< G8A;5 8 A515) 4>:0 70BL. !>3;0A=> . . 20==8:>2C, B0:>5 2=CB@5==55 ?A8E8G5A:>5 459AB285 ?> ?>AB@>5=8N ?>1C645=8O ;568B 2 >A=>25 2>;52KE ?>ABC?:>2: @>872>;L=0O D>@<0 B0:>3> 459AB28O ?>72>;O5B A>74020BL ?>1C645 =85 : 459AB28O<, =5 A2O70==K< A 0:BC0;L=>9 ?>B@51 =>ABLN AC1J5:B0. -B> 8 5ABL <>BG20F8>==K9 <5E0=87< 2>;52>3> ?>2545=8O (19856. !. 122). @82545< B5:AB MB>3> 02B>@0 (19850. !. 52), ?>:07K20NI89, GB> ?@87=0=85 A?>A>1=>AB8 G5;>25:0 8A?>;L7>20BL ?>1C48B5;L =CN A8;C 2>>1@0605<KE <>B82>2 8<55; 2A>25BA:>9 ?A8E>;>388 A2>N ?@54KAB>@8N: @82;5G5=85 =>2>3> 6 !>3;0A=> $. ." 0A8;N:C, >1>7=0G82H5<C MB>B 3@>F5AA 2 :0B5">@;OE B5>@88 45OB5;L=>AB8 :0: ?@>872>4AB2> A<KA;0 (1984. !. 27), B0:>9 ?5@5=>A O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 <5E0=87<>2 87<5=5=8O A;>682H8EAO <>B820F8>=8KE >B=>H5=8O, B@51CNI53>AO 4;O ?@5>4>;5=8O :@878A=KE A>AB>O=89. 72 <>B820, 2:;NG5=85 459AB28O 2 1>;55 H8@>:CN A8AB5<C >B=>H5=89 8 B5< A0<K< 87<5=5=85 A<KA;0 459AB28O A F5;LN CA8;5=8O ?>1C645=8O @0AA<0B@820NBAO . . =FKD5@>2>9 :0: ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 <5E0=87< CA8;89 2>;8 G5;>25:0 (1981. !. 13). 0 B0:CN @>;L 2A?><>30B5;L=>3> <>B820 C:07K20; . !. 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rnold, Gasson, 84 1954. . 294). 4=0:> 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B CA;>289, 2 :>B>@KE >:07K20NBAO ?@54<5BK MB8E M<>F89, 87 =8E @072820NBAO 4@C385 M<>F88: 8<?C;LA82=K5, 2K@060NI85 0:B82=>5 >B=>H5=85 : MB8< ?@54<5B0< (65;0=85, @04>ABL, >B2@0I5=85), 8;8 ?@5>4>;520NI85, B0: 8;8 8=0G5 A2O70==K5 A ?@5?OBAB285< (=045640, AB@0E, 3=52). "0:8< >1@07><, =0@O4C A B5>@8O<8, ?>4G5@:820NI8<8 A G@57<5@=K<, :0: ?@54AB02;O5BAO, >1>1I5=85< 2>7=8:=>25=85 M<>F89 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B @57C;LB0B>2 ?@>F5AA>2 ?>7=0=8O, ACI5AB2CNB :>=F5?F88, 2 :>B>@KE 40==0O 7028A8<>ABL 87>1@0605BAO A 1>;LH59 45B0;870F859, 4>?CA:0NI59 @0728B85 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> ?@>F5AA0, 2>7=8:=>25=85 '>4=8E M<>F89 2 >B25B =0 =5?>A@54AB25==> 687=5==> 7=0G8<K5 2>7459AB28O 8 4@C38E  ?@8 ?>7=020B5;L=>< CB>G=5=88 CA;>289, 2 :>B>@KE MB8 2>7459AB28O 2>A?@8=8<0NBAO. 4=0:> A?@0254;82>AB8 @048 A;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> 40==0O 745AL 8=B5@?@5B0F8O MB8E :>=F5?F89 O2;O5BAO =5A:>;L:> =0BO=CB>9; M<>F8>=0;L=>5 ?5@5:;NG5=85 :0: D5=><5= ?5@504@5A>2:8 M<>F88 ?> ?>7=020B5;L=K< A2O7O< A >4=>3> >B@0605<>3> O2;5=8O =0 4@C3>5 2 =8E CA<0B@8205BAO, => >BG5B;82> =5 D>@<C;8@C5BAO, 2> 2AO:>< A;CG05 =5 8<55B O2=>9 >1JOA=8B5;L=>9 =03@C7:8. -B> 65 <>6=> A:070BL > B5>@88 48DD5@5=F80;L=KE M<>F89 . . 70@40.  =59 2708<>459AB28N M<>F89 :0: <564C A>1>9, B0: 8 A ?>1C645=8O<8 B8?0 3>;>40, CAB0;>AB8, A5:A0, 0 B0:65 A :>3=8B82=K<8 ?@>F5AA0<8, C45;O5BAO A@02=8B5;L=> 1>;LH>5 2=8<0=85. #B25@6405BAO, =0?@8<5@, GB> 1>;L, @0AA<0B@8205<0O :0: ?>1C645=85, >1;040NI55 =5:>B>@K<8 E0@0:B5@8AB8:0<8 M<>F89 (1980. !. 70), A?>A>1=0 2K720BL AB@0E, AB@040=85, 3=52, M<>F8O @04>AB8 ABK4, 28=C 8 B. ?. > 2708<>459AB285 M<>F89 2 MB>9 B5>@88 >A25I05BAO A:>@55 2 ?>@O4:5 D>@<0;L=>3> :><18=8@>20=8O, G5< 2 ?;0=5 ?>8A:0 70:>=><5@=>AB59 @0728B8O <>B820F88, GB> =5 ?>72>;O5B 3>2>@8BL >1 >BG5B;82>< >1>7=0G5=88 2 =59 D5=><5=0 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> ?5@5:;NG5=8O. >;55 70<5B5= MB>B D5=><5= 2 @01>B0E 8 :>=F5?F8OE, >1AC640NI8E B0: =07K205<>5 >1CA;>2;820=85 M<>F8>=0;L=KE @50:F89 8 A>AB>O=89 (A<. Strongman, 1978. . 108 124). 4=0:> 87-70 ?>78B828ABA:>9 =0?@02;5==>AB8 MB8E @01>B, 83=>@8@>20=8O.?;0=0 AC1J- 85 5:B82=KE ?5@56820=89 A>1AB25==> ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 0A?5:B ?@>1;5<K 2 =8E >B@065=8O ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 ?> ;CG05B. "0:, 2 42CED0:B>@=>9 :>=F5?F88 =0CG5=8O . X. 0C@5@0 (Mowrer, 1950, 19600) M<>F88 2K?>; =ONB @>;L A2>53> @>40 ?>A@54=8:0 <564C >7040G820 NI8<8 8=482840 ?@>F5AA0<8 >1CA;>2;820=8O (prob lem making, sight learning) 8 ?>A;54CNI8< ?>8A:>< 8=AB@C<5=B0;L=>3> @5H5=8O 7040G (problem solving, solution learning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ates, 1965). > =0 O7K:5 M<>F89 ?>78B828ABA:0O D>@<C;8@>2:0 38?>B57K D@CAB@0F88 03@5AA88 >7=0G05B =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: 38?>B57C >3>@G5=8O  3=520, B. 5. ?5@5:;NG5=85 M<>F88, 2K720==>9 =5CA?5E>< 8;8 ;8H5=85<, =0 ?@54?>;0305<CN 8E ?@8G8=C. AA;54>20=8O ?>:070;8, GB> 2A;54AB285 =5C40G8 <>65B 2>7=8:=CBL =5 B>;L:> 03@5AA8O, => 8 C482;5=85, 28=0, ABK4, 0 2A;54AB285 CA?5E0 C25@5==>ABL 2 A515, @0AA;01;5=85, 1;03>40@=>ABL, ?@8G5< 2>7=8:=>25=85 B>9 8;8 8=>9 M<>F88 7028A8B 8<5==> >B 2>A?@8OB8O G5;>25:>< ?@8G8= CA?5E0 8;8 =5C40G8 (%5:E0C75=, 1986. ". 2. !. 167). ;O B>3> GB>1K CA<>B@5BL 2 40==>< 8AA;54>20=88 M<>F8>=0;L=>5 ?5@5:;NG5=85, =C6=> ?@87=0BL, GB> CA?5E 8;8 =5C40G0 A0<8 ?> A515 2K7K20NB M<>F8N (@04>ABL, >3>@G5=85), :>B>@0O, ?>4G8=OOAL >B@0605<K< ?@8G8==K< A2O7O<, @0728205BAO 2 4@C385 M<>F88. =0;>38G=CN 8=B5@?@5B0F8N 4>?CA:0NB 8AA;54>20=8O, ?>:07K20NI85, GB> 2>7=8:=>25=85 3=520 2 >B25B =0 03@5AA82=K5 459AB28O 4@C3>3> ;8F0 7028A8B >B B>3>, 2 :0:>9 <5@5 MB8 459AB28O 2>A?@8=8<0NBAO ?@54=0<5@5==K<8 8;8 A;CG09=K<8 (Epstein, Taylor, 1967; Schantz, VoydanoU, 1973). B0:, ?@8 F5;5=0?@02;5==>< 8, 2>7<>6=>, =5A:>;L:> ?@8AB@0AB=>< ?>8A:5 <>6=> =09B8 >B>1@065=85 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> ?5@5:;NG5=8O 8 2 A>2@5<5==>9 ?A8E>;>388, >4=0:> MB8 40==K5, =0:>?;5==K5 2=5 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E B5>@5B8G5A:8E AE5<, =>AOB D@03<5=B0@=K9 E0@0:B5@ 8 =5 2A5340 <>3CB 1KBL 8=B5@?@5B8@>20=K >4=>7=0G=>. 8=>9 B0:><C A>AB>O=8N ?@>1;5<K A;C60B 87 =54>ABC?=>ABL 1>;55 B>=:8E =N0=A>2 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 687=8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=><C :>=B@>;N 8 <5B>4>;> 38O ?>78B8287<0, A>?@>B82;ONI0OAO 2=5M:A?5@8<5=- B0;L=><C ?>7=0=8N. B MB8E >1AB>OB5;LAB2 1K;8 A2> 1>4=K 02B>@K ?@>H;>3>, 2 CG5=8OE :>B>@KE (A<. Gar- diner 0. >., 1937) 48=0<8:0 M<>F89, 70:>=><5@=>AB8 8E @0728B8O >4=8E =0 >A=>25 4@C38E >A25I5=K 1>;55 >BG5B;82> 8 ?>;=> (8;N=0A, 1976, 1984). 8=0<8:0 M<>F89 2 CG5=8OE ?@>H;>3>. B45;L=K5 =01;N45=8O 8 >1>1I5=8O 02B>@>2 ?@>H;>3> >BG5B;8 2> ?5@5:;8:0NBAO A A>2@5<5==K<8 M<?8@8G5A:8<8 8A A;54>20=8O<8. "0:, : C:070==K< 2KH5 8AA;54>20=8O< CA;>289 2>7=8:=>25=8O 3=520 A0<>5 ?@O<>5 >B=>H5 =85 8<5NB A;54CNI85 CB25@645=8O . .<0: '5;> 25:, =0=5AH89 =0< @0=C 8;8 ?>2@5645=85 A;CG09=>, =5 AB0=>28BAO 2 A8;C MB>3> =0H8< 2@03><, B>G=> B0: 65 :0: <K =5 AG8B05< A51O >1O70==K<8 ;8FC, A;C G09=> >:0702H5<C =0< CA;C3C; '5;>25:, :>B>@K9 ?@8G8=O5B =0< AB@040=85 =0<5@5==>, => =5 87-70 =5=0 28AB8 8 7;>1K, 0 @048 A?@0254;82>AB8 8 ?> ?@02C, 5A;8 B>;L:> <K 4> =5:>B>@>9 AB5?5=8 @07C<=K, =5 2>71C6405B =0H53> 3=520, =5A<>B@O =0 B> GB> >= O2 ;O5BAO ?@8G8=>9, 8 ?@8B>< A>7=0B5;L=>9 ?@8G8=>9, =0H8E AB@040=89 (1966. !. 483,485). !>3;0A=> >4=><C 87 >1>1I5=89 . !?8=>7K: A;8 :B> 2>>1@0605B, GB> 53> :B>-;81> =5=02848B, 8 ?@8 MB>< =5 4C<05B, GB> A0< ?>40; 5<C :0:>9-;81> ?>2>4 : =5=028AB8, B> >= 2 A2>N >G5@54L 1C45B 53> =5=02845BL (1957. !. 488). 0==>9 D>@<C;8@>2:5 O2=> A>72CG=K @57C;LB0BK M: A?5@8<5=B0, ?>:0702H53>, GB> >B@8F0B5;L=0O >F5=:0 4@C7LO<8 H:>;L=8:0 53> 2=5H=>AB8 2K7K205B >B25B =>5 CEC4H5=85 : =8< 53> >B=>H5=8O (Zielinska, Zabo- rowski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"0:, 8A?KBC5<K9, 4>182H8AL CA?5E0 2 @5H5=88 H0E<0B=>9 7040G8 ?@8 ?><>I8 =5:>B>@>9 D83C@K, =5>A>7=0==> 8 =5>?@0240==> >B405B 59 ?@54?>GB5=85 ?@8 @5H5=88 A;54CNI59 7040G8 (8=>3@04>2 8 4@., 1977). 103 ?KB <=>3>G8A;5==KE @04>AB59 8 >3>@G5=89 2 ?@>H;><, 0:BC0;878@CNI89AO 2 2845 ?@542>AE8I0N I8E M<>F89, ?> <5@5 =0:>?;5=8O >1>1I05BAO. 0 M<> F859 >BG0O=8O ;568B, :0: ?@028;>, =5 548=8G=K9 =5 CA?5E, 0 @O4 ?5@56820=89, A;54>202H8E 70 2A52>7<>6 =K<8 8 B5< =5 <5=55 157CA?5H=K<8 ?>?KB:0<8 ?@81;865=8O : F5;8. >4>1=K< >1@07>< >1>1I0NBAO ?5@56820=8O, ?@542>AE8I0NI85 CA?5E-=5CA?5E =0 >B 45;L=KE MB0?0E A;>6=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8; B0:, ?5@568 20=8O A?>@BA<5=0 ?> ?>2>4C >B45;L=KE <><5=B>2 ?@54AB>OI59 83@K A;820NBAO 2 >1ICN B@52>3C 70 55 8AE>4 2 F5;><. 1>1I5==0O M<>F8O CA?5E0-=5CA?5E0 2708<>459 AB2C5B A 254CI8< M<>F8>=0;L=K< ?5@56820=85<, ?> 1C640NI8< : 45OB5;L=>AB8, CA8;820O 53>, :>340 ?@54 2>AE8I05BAO A:>@K9 CA?5E, 8 ;8H0O 53> ?>1C640N I59 A8;K ?@8 ?@542>AE8I5=88 B@C4=>AB59 8 =5C40G. "0:8< >'1@07><, 8<5==> 40==0O @07=>284=>ABL M<>F89 CA?5E0-=5CA?5E0 >ACI5AB2;O5B ?> >B=>H5=8N : 254C I5<C ?>1C645=8N C?><8=02HCNAO AB>=-DC=:F8N, ;01>@0B>@=K9 20@80=B :>B>@>9 87CG05BAO ?>4 =0720 =85< 2KCG5==>9 15A?><>I=>AB8 (Levis, 1976; Maier, Seligman, 1976). @8=F8? 2708<>459AB28O M<>F8>=0;L=KE ?5@568 20=89, 2>7=8:0NI8E ?@8 2>A?@8OB88 ?@54<5B0 ?>B@51 =>AB8 2 7=0:><>9 AC1J5:BC A8BC0F88, <>6=> CA;>2=> A@02=8BL A 2708<>459AB285< 8<?C;LA>2 F5=B@0;L=>9 8 ?5@8D5@8G5A:>9 7>= 2 @5F5?B82=KE ?>;OE 7@8B5;L =>9 A8AB5<K (A<. !><L5=, 1975. !. 229; Hubel, 1963). @54?>;>68<, GB> >1@07 A@54K B>65 A>AB>8B 87 42CE 7>=, ?@>4CF8@CNI8E 420 @07;8G=KE M<>F8>=0;L=KE 8<?C;LA0. &5=B@>< >1@070 2>A?@8=8<05BAO ?@54<5B ?>B@51=>AB8, 2K7K20NI89 254CI55 ?>1C645=85, ?5 @8D5@859  >:@C60NI85 MB>B ?@54<5B CA;>28O, :>B> @K5 CA?5E8-=5CA?5E8 2 ?@>H;>< @07<5B8;8 B0:, GB> 8E 2>A?@8OB85 A>?@>2>6405BAO =5:>B>@>9 ?@542>AE8 I0NI59 >1>1I5==>9 M<>F859. KE>4 B0:>3> ?>;O, B0: 65 :0: 8A5BG0B>G=>3>, 7028A8B >B 2708<>459AB28O >1>8E 8<?C;LA>2: 1;03>?@8OB=K5 CA;>28O A0=:F8>=8 @CNB 254CI55 ?>1C645=85, =51;03>?@8OB=K5 =0;0 30NB 25B>. '5< A8;L=55 ?>B@51=>ABL, G5< 8=B5=A82=55 254CI55 ?>1C645=85  B5< 1>;55 25@=K9 =5CA?5E 4>;65= ?@54A:07K20BLAO >1>1I5==>9 M<>F859, GB>1K MB> ?>1C645=85 1K;> 7045@60=>. ">;L:> B0:8< 270- 104 8<>459AB285<, :0: 1K @5H0NI8< 2>?@>A AB>8B ;8 83@0 A25G, <>6=> >1JOA=8BL, =0?@8<5@, '?>G5<C :>H:0 =5 2718@05BAO =0 :064>5 45@52>, =0 :>B>@>< A848B 2>@>159. ;O ?>;=>BK :0@B8=K A;54C5B 4>1028BL, GB> =0@O4C A 206=59H8<8 DC=:F8O<8, :>B>@K5 M<>F88 CA?5E0-=5CA?5E0 2K?>;=ONB 2 A8BC0B82=>< @0728B88 <>B820F88 A0<8 ?> A515 (2708<>459AB285 A 254CI8< ?>1C645=85<, @53C;OF8O 53> 2KE>40 2 459AB285, CG0AB85 2 2K1>@5 A?>A>10 459AB28O), 8<8 5I5 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO >B<5G5==0O =5A:>;L:> 2KH5 @>;L ?>A@54=8:0, ?>4:;NG0NI53> : @53C;OF88 45OB5;L=>AB8 4@C385 ?@>872>4=K5 M<>F88.  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"0:, G5;>25:, CABC?0O M<>F88, <>65B A ?>;=K< 2=CB@5==8< A>3;0A85< >B;>68BL 2 AB>@>=C =0A:CG82HCN @01>BC, E>BO @0=LH5 =0<5@520;AO 4>25AB8 55 4> :>=F0; 2 4@C3>9 A8BC0F88 >= <>65B 65;0BL @0AA5@48BLAO 8 4065 ?@54?@8=8<0BL CA8;8O 2 MB>< =0?@02;5=88, => ?>B>< A<8@8BLAO A B5<, GB> 87 MB8E CA8;89 ?>;CG8;>AL. "0:>3> @>40 @0AE>645=8O <564C 8=AB0=F859 AC1J5:B0 8 5N =5 C?@02;O5<K<8, => B5< =5 <5=55 A0=:F8>=8@C5<K<8 M<>F8O<8 =5 >7=0G0NB :>=D@>=B0F88 <564C =8<8 8 =5 2K7K20NB @0742>5=8O ?>1C645=89. !?>A>1 @5H5=8O 7040G AC1J5:B>< 2 B0:8E CA;>28OE B@0:B>20;AO @0=55 02B>@>< 8=B5;;5:BC0;8AB8G5A:8 8 2K45;O;AO ?>4 =0720=85< @07C<=>3>. B>@>9 A;CG09 @0728B8O ?@>872>4=KE M<>F89 >B- 105 ;8G05BAO >B=>A8B5;L=>9 .02B>=><=>ABLN >B =0<5@5=89 AC1J5:B0 8 A?>A>1=>ABLN D>@<8@>20BL 0;LB5@=0B82 =K5 ?>1C645=8O. 1KG=> MB> =01;N405BAO ?@8 459 AB288 A8;L=KE 254CI8E ?>1C645=89 8;8 2 =5>6840= =KE, =5?@542845==KE AC1J5:B>< A8BC0F8OE, ?@8 53> 70B@C4=5=8OE 2 ?>8A:5 045:20B=>3> 87 =8E 2KE>40. !?5F8D8G5A:85 <>B820F8>==K5 A8AB5<K 2 B0:8E A;C G0OE :0: 1K ?5@5E20BK20NB 8=8F80B82C 8 ?KB0NBAO =02O70BL AC1J5:BC B> 8;8 8=>5 @07@5H5=85 A8BC0F88, :>B>@>5, 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL ?@54K4CI5<C, <>65B 1KBL =0720=> M<>F8>=0;L=K<. !?>A>1=>ABL A?5F8D8G5A:8E <5E0=87<>2 <>B820F88 =02O7K20BL G5;>25:C >?@545;5==K5 ?>ABC?:8 A2O70=0 A 2:;NG5==>ABLN 2 F5?8 @072820NI8EAO ?@>872>4=KE M<>F89 ?>1C640NI8E ?5@56820=89. "0:85 M<>F88, :0: AB@0E, 3=52, ABK4, 7028ABL, @52=>ABL, 2>AE8I5=85, 1;03>40@=>ABL, C2065=85, A8<?0B8O, =5 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 AC3C1> >F5=>G=KE A>AB>O=89, 87 =8E A;54CNB >?@545;5==K5, 8=>340 >G5=L A8;L=K5 65;0=8O.  ?> A:>;L:C 65;0=85 ACBL =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: A0<>5 AB@5< ;5=85 459AB2>20BL (!?8=>70, 1957. !. 570), 2>7=8:0N I85 ?@>872>4=K5 M<>F88 ?>1C640NB G5;>25:0 2 A8 BC0F88 : >?@545;5==K< 459AB28O<. 064K9 ?@8<5@, :>340 G5;>25: 8A?KBK205B =5:> B>@>5 65;0=85, 2 B> 65 2@5<O ?>=8<0O, GB> @50;87> 20BL 53> 2 40==>9 A8BC0F88 =5 A;54C5B 8;8 ?@>AB> =5;L7O, :>340 ?5@54 =8< 2>7=8:05B 48;5<<0, ?>ABC ?0BL ;8 B0:, :0: E>G5BAO, 8;8 65 B0:, :0: =04>, <>6=> @0AA<0B@820BL :0: 4>:070B5;LAB2> A?>A>1=>AB8 ?@>872>4=KE M<>F89 : ?@>O2;5=8N, =57028A8<><C >B ?;0=>2 8 =0<5@5=89 AC1J5:B0, 2>7<>6=>AB8 ?0@0; ;5;L=>3> @0728B8O 8< A0=:F8>=8@>20==>9 8 =5A0=: F8>=8@>20==>9 A8BC0B82=>9 <>B820F88. '0AB> @07 42>5==>5 @0728B85 A8BC0B82=KE ?>1C645=89 2K@0 605B ?@>B82>@5G85 <564C 40;L=59 <>B820F859, ?>445@68205<>9 8 @0728205<>9 AC1J5:B><, 8 =5?> A@54AB25==K<8 M<>F8>=0;L=K<8 @50:F8O<8 =0 A8 BC0F8N. !;>20 @07@5H5=85 A8BC0F88 2 A;CG05 02B>=>< =>3> @0728B8O ?@>872>4=KE M<>F89 =5 A;54C5B ?>=8 <0BL 1C:20;L=>. 07@5H05B A8BC0F8N 459AB285, @50;L=> 2K?>;=5==>5 AC1J5:B><, 0 =5 65;0=85  A0<>5 AB@5<;5=85 459AB2>20BL. @>872>4=K5 M<>F88 2 40==>< A;CG05 ?@54;030NB AC1J5:BC 2A53> ;8HL A2>9 20- 106 @80=B B0:>3> @07@5H5=8O, A :>B>@K< >= 8<55B 2>7<>6=>ABL 8 =5 A>3;0A8BLAO. 4=0:> A>E@0=5=85 AC1J5:B>< >1I53> :>=B@>;O =04 2KE>4>< ?@>872>4=KE M<>F89 2 459AB285 =5 >7=0G05B 8E ?>;=>3> >BAB@0=5=8O >B ?>2545=8O. 065 :>340 2 A;CG05 C?><O=CB>9 48;5<<K G5;>25: ?@8=8<05B @5H5=85 ?>ABC?0BL ?> ?@54?8A0=8O< =04>, @07=>>1@07=K5 E>B5;>AL 1K ?@>4>;60NB ACI5AB2>20BL :0: ?A8E8G5A:85 D5=><5=K, >?@545;OO A>45@60=85 2=CB@5==59 687=8, 81> ?>4G8=8BL @07C<=><C @5H5=8N B5G5=85 <KA;8 7=0G8B5;L=> B@C4=55, G5< 2=5H=55 ?>2545=85. >745@6820OAL >B ?>1C6405<>3> M<>F859 ?>ABC?:0, G5;>25: B5< =5 <5=55 <>65B >:070BLAO =5 A?>A>1=K< CAB>OBL ?5@54 =0B8A:>< 70<5I0NI8E 3@57 8 @07<KH;5=89, >B2;5:0NI8E 53> >B 2K?>;=O5<>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 A=860NI8E 55 ?@>4C:B82=>ABL. @>1;5<0 2A52>7<>6=KE ?>A;54AB289 8 MDD5:B>2 40==>3>, >B2;5:0NI53> 2;8O=8O ?@>872>4=KE M<>F89 =0 45OB5;L=>ABL ?>;CG8;0 2 A>2@5<5==>9 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 AB8E89=>5 >1>A>1;5=85 8 >1AC6405BAO ?>4 =0720=85< AB@5AA0 (8;N=0A, 2G8==8:>20, 1972; 8B052-!<K:, 1983; 528, 1970; Appley, Trumbull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A:CAAB25==>ABL B0:>3> AC65=8O ?@>1;5<K >B<5G0;0AL <=>38<8 02B>@0<8 8 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O ?@54AB02;O5BAO >G5284=>9: ;O '1>;LH8=AB20 ;N459 ?@>872>;L=>5 2>A?@>872545=85 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 ?0<OB8 ... ?> A2>5<C 65;0=8N 70B@C4=8B5;L=> 8 G0AB> 4065 =5 2>7<>6=>. 8HL C =5:>B>@KE ;N459, 3;02=K< >1@0 7>< <C7K:0=B>2, EC4>6=8:>2, 0@B8AB>2, ?@>872>;L=>5 ^?@>872545=85 ?5@568BKE @0=55 M<>F8>=0;L=KE 123 A>AB>O=89 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO ;53:>, GB>, >G5284=>, O2 ;O5BAO @57C;LB0B>< G0AB>9 B@5=8@>2:8 MB>3> ?@>F5A A0 (@><>20, 1980. !. !32); GB> :0A05BAO =5?@>87 2>;L=>9 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 ?0<OB8, B> ... 55 872;5G5=85 ?@>8AE>48B ?>AB>O==> C 2A5E ;N459, >:07K20O 1>;L H>5 2;8O=85 =0 =0H5 ?>2545=85, =0AB@>5=85, !"# , -2708<>>B=>H5=8O, > G5< A2845B5;LAB2CNB <=>3> G8A;5==K5 ?@8<5@K 87 =0H59 >1K45==>9 687=8 (B0< 65. !. 134). 0==>5 >1AB>OB5;LAB2>  =5?@>872>;L=K9 E0@0: B5@ D8:A0F88 O 2>A?@>872545=8O M<>F89 A2845B5;L AB2C5B > B><, GB> M<>F8>=0;L=0O ?0<OBL =5A2>48<0 : ?@>O2;5=8O< 'A>1AB25==> <=5AB8G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2 8 70:>=><5@=>AB59 8 8<55B 1>;55 A;>6=CN 45B5@<8=0 F8N. G5284=>, GB> 5A;8 G5;>25: ?>A;5 ?;>B=>3> >15 40 =5 A?>A>15= '2A?><=8BL ?@8OB=K9 2:CA E;510, E>BO 157 70B@C4=5=89 45;05B MB> 2 3>;>4=>< A>AB>O =88, 5A;8, 1C4CG8 >1865==K<, >= ;53:> ?@54AB02;O5B 2A5 '=54>AB0B:8 8 >B@8F0B5;L=K5 G5@BK >184G8:0 8 A B@C4><  53> ?>;>68B5;L=K5 :0G5AB20, B> B0:0O 87 18@0B5;L=0O =0?@02;5==>ABL 2>A?@>872>4OI8EAO M<> F89 >?@545;O5BAO A>AB>O=85< ?>B@51=>AB59, 0 =5 >A> 15==>ABO<8 ?0<OB8. 0B@C4=5=8O, 0=0;>38G=K5 >B<5G5==K<, 2>7=8:0NB 8 ?@8 ?>?KB:5 @0AA<>B@5BL <>B820F8>==CN D8:A0F8N ?> 40==K< 8AA;54>20=89 2 >1;0AB8 =0CG5=8O ('A<. Berlyne, 1964; Mowrer, 1950, 1960b). @8 >1AC645=88 ?@>F5AA>2 <>B820F8>==>3> >1CA;>2;820=8O <K AB0; :820;8AL A B5<, GB> A:>@>ABL 8 4@C385 >A>15==>AB8 2>7=8:=>25=8O =>2KE <>B820F8>==KE >B=>H5=89 70 28AOB >B ?>7=020B5;L=>3> >B@065=8O A2O78 <564C CA;>2=K< 8 157CA;>2=K< @074@068B5;5< (Miller, Matzel, 1987).  B5E A;CG0OE, .:>340 A2O7L >G5284=0, :>340 8=48284C 4;O 55 2KO2;5=8O =5 B@51C5BAO 2K@0 1>B:8 =>2>3> C<5=8O, =02K:0, ?5@F5?B82=>3> 459 AB28O, >1CA;>2;820=85, B. 5. <>B820F8>==>5 ?5@5:;N G5=85 8 D8:A0F8O, A?>A>1=> ?@>87>9B8 >G5=L 1KAB@> 8;8 A@07C. 4=0:> 2 1>;55 A;>6=KE A;CG0OE, 2 :>B> @KE =>2K5 <>B820F8>==K5 >B=>H5=8O O2;ONBAO AC< <0@=K< @57C;LB0B>< ?>7=020B5;L=>3> 2KO2;5=8O A2O78 8 ?5@5:;NG5=8O ?> MB>9 A2O78 <>B820F88, @07;8G8BL >10 <><5=B0 =0CG5=8O 1K205B B@C4=>. 7-70 >B<5G5==KE >A>15==>AB59 D8:A0F8O 2 >?KB5 A;54>2 M<>F89, > :>B>@>9 . . #H8=A:89 ?8A0;  ] 24  4I;>< 25:5 :0: > A0<>9 B5<=>9 3;025 2 ?A8E>;>-?3 (1950. ". 9. !. 407), <=>38<8 A2>8<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 >AB05BAO B0:>2>9 8 A53>4=O. -B> =C6=> ?>4G5@:=CBL 4;O ?@54C?@5645=8O > B><, GB> =5:>B>@K5 =865?@82>48<K5 2K2>4K 8 70<5G0=8O 1C4CB 1>;55 ?@>1;5<=K<8, G5< :>=AB0B8@CNI8<8. =B5=A82=>ABL 8 3;C18=0 M<>F89. >;>65=85 > B><, GB> A?>A>1=>ABL M<>F89 >AB02;OBL A;54K 2 >?KB5 7028A8B >B 8E 8=B5=A82=>AB8, O2;O5BAO, :070;>AL 1K, C1548B5;L=K< 8 OA=K<. => =0E>48B ?>4B25@645=85 2 ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8: =081>;55 O@:> 8 ?@>G=> =0< ?><=OBAO :>340-B> A8;L=> =0A ?>@0782H85 @04>AB8,. >3>@G5=8O, B@52>38 8 B. 4. 028A8<>ABL >1=0@C65=0 8 2 8AA;54>20=8OE ?>2545=8O 682>B=KE 8 G5;>25:0 (=0?@., Annau, Kamin, 1961; Kanungo, Dutta, 1966). =0 70D8:A8@>20=0 2 70:;NG8B5;L=>9 G0AB8 70:>=0 MDD5:B0 -. . ">@=409:0: '5< 1>;LH5 C4>2;5B2>@5=85 8;8 48A:><D>@B, B5< 1>;LH5 CA8;820NBAO 8;8 >A;01;ONBAO A2O78 (Thorndike, 1966. . 184). !>3;0A=> . . ;>=A:><C, <>6=> AG8B0BL 2?>;=5 >1>A=>20==K< A;54CNI89 2K2>4: 4>;LH5 2A53> ?><=8BAO A8;L=> M<>F8>=0;L=> 2>71C482H55 A>1KB85 (1979. !. 149). 4=0:> ACI5AB2CNB 40==K5, =5 ?>72>;ONI85 01A>;NB878@>20BL MB> ?>;>65=85. # 27@>A;>3> G5;>25:0 8=B5=A82=>ABL M<>F88 =5 2A5340 O2;O5BAO ?>:070B5;5< 55 206=>AB8, A5@L57=>AB8, GB> >B@065=>, =0?@8<5@, 2 ?>A;>28F5 8;K5 AA>@OBAO  B>;L:> B5H0BAO. !>3;0A=> . (B5@=C, M<>F88, =57028A8<> >B 8E A8;K, <>3CB 2 @07;8G=>9 ?@>?>@F88 A>G5B0BL ?@87=0:8 A5@L57=KE 8 83@>2KE ?5@56820=89 (Stern, 1928). !A>@K <8;KE >B=>AOBAO : B0:8< ?>;CA5@L57=K< M<>F8O<, B0: 65 :0: 8 ?5@56820=8O =0 AF5=5 0:B5@0 8;8 N=>H5A:85 C2;5G5=8O. '5;>25: A?>A>15= E>E>B0BL, ?@K30BL >B @04>AB8 8;8 @K40BL 8 ?> ?CABO:>2>9 ?@8G8=5, ?@>AB> 2K@060O A2>5 A8N<8=CB=>5 A>AB>O=85 8;8 70@0782H8AL =0AB@>5=85< >:@C60NI8E ;N459. $. @N35@ ;>4G5@:-^# @07;8G85 <564C A8;>9 M<>F89 8 B0:>9 206=>9 8E E0@0:B5@8AB8:>9, :0: 3;C18=0, A>>B25BAB285 O45@=K< >1@07>20=8O< 4CH52=>9 AB@C:BC@K: ;C18=0 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> ?5@56820=8O... ACI5AB25==> >B;8G05BAO >B ?@>AB>9 8=B5=A82=>AB8 8 A8BC0B82=>9 A8;K 4CH52=>3> 42865=8O (1984. !. 118; A<. 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B. 87-70 ?@>H;KE A>1K B89, >68405<KE ?>A;54AB289, B. 5. 87-70 4@C38E, A<KA;>>1@07CNI8E F5==>AB59. > 8=>340 B0:0O 70 28A8<>ABL '=5 'A>E@0=O5BAO 8;8 ?>AB5?5==> 8AG5705B 8 =>2>5 <>B820F8>==>5 >B=>H5=85 ?@8>1@5B05B '1>;L HCN 8;8 <5=LHCN DC=:F8>=0;L=CN 02B>=><=>ABL (Allport, 1937), ?@>O2;ONICNAO 2 B0<, GB> =5:>B>@K9 ?@54<5B AB0=>28BAO 7=0G8<K< A0< . '?> A515. 'B> <>6=> A:070BL >1 MB>< D5=><5=5, ?@54AB02;ONI5< 8A:;NG8B5;L=>5 7=0G5=85 4;O ?@0:B8:8 2>A?8B0=8O? <?@8=B8=3 :0: <5E0=87< @0728B8O 157CA;>2=>9 <>B820F88. @5645 2A53> >B<5B8<, GB> >= 45 O2;O5B AO A?5F8D8G5A:8 G5;>25G5A:8<, B0: :0: ?>4>1=K9 D5 =><5= =01;N405BAO 2 <>B820F8>==>< =0CG5=88 68 2>B=KE. 5GL 845B >'1 8<?@8=B8=35 (A<. >=C30520, 1973; !;>=8<, ;NA=8=0, 1986; %5AA, 1983), @O4 >A> 15==>AB59 :>B>@>3> ?>72>;O5B CB25@640BL, GB> .<>B8 20F8>==>5 7=0G5=85 A>45@60=8O, 70?5G0B;O5<>3> ?@8 ?><>I8 MB>3> <5E0=87<0, '?@8>1@5B05B 157CA;>2=K9 E0@0:B5@ (8;N=0A, 1986. !. 153). 59AB28B5;L=>, >1I55 =07=0G5=85 <>B820F8>==>3> >1CA;>2;820=8O A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB>'1K ?@840BL <>B8 20F8>==>5 7=0G5=85 :0: <>6=> 1>;55 H8@>:><C :@C 3C >@85=B8@>2 8 A83=0;>2, ?>72>;ONI8E ?@81;860BL AO : .?>;57=K< 8 871530BL 2@54=KE '157CA;>2=KE 2>7459AB289, :>B>@K5 2 '?@>F5AA0E >1CA;>2;820=8O A;C60B ?>4:@5?;5=85<, 0 2 >A=>20==>< =0 =8E ?>2545=88 :>=5G=>9 F5;LN. !0<> =0720=85 @074@068B5;O CA;>2=K< ?>4G5@:8205B, GB> >= 2065= 8=48284C =5- 130 A0< ?0 c" e^e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offman, Ratner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horpe, '1956. . 124; A<. B0:65 8;N=0A, 1986. !. 143 154; Hess, 1959). >B820F8>==>5 7=0G5=85 CA;>2=>3> @074@068B5;O 8=0<8G=> 8 <5=O5BAO 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B ?>A;54CNI8E ?>4:@5?;5=89, GB> ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 D5=><5=0E C30H5-=8O 8;8 48DD5@5=F80F88. >B820F8>==K5 >B=>H5=8O, 5* 131 D>@<8@CNI85AO 2 @57C;LB0B5 8<?@8=B8=30, >B ;8G0NBAO =5>1@0B8<>ABLN =52>7<>6=>ABLN ?5@5CG8 20=8O 70?5G0B;5==>3> A>45@60=8O, 8;8, B>G=55, 7=0 G8B5;L=>9 B@C4=>ABLN B0:>3> ?5@5CG820=8O, GB>, >G5 284=>, A2845B5;LAB2C5B >1 8E '157CA;>2=>< E0@0:B5@5. AA;54>20=8O 8<?@8=B8=30 ?>:070;8 C?@>I5= =>ABL 87=0G0;L=>3> ?@54AB02;5=8O > =5< :0: >1 >A> 1>9 D>@<5 =0CG5=8O, >B;8G0NI59AO 'ACI5AB2>20=85< A5=78B82=>3> ?5@8>40 4;O 53> >ACI5AB2;5=8O, =5>1 @0B8<>ABLN, '1KAB@K< 70<K:0=85< A2O78 8 4@. (Lo- renz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owlby, 1987. . 167). 59AB28B5;L=>, G5< >B;8G05BAO 8<?@8=B8=3 >B >1CA;>2;820=8O A8;L=>9 1>;8 8;8 >B@02;ONI8E 25 I5AB2, :>B>@>5, :0: 8725AB=>, B>65 A?>A>1=> =0ABC ?8BL 157 ?>2B>@=KE A>G5B0=89 8 >1@07>20BL AB>9:85 : C30H5=8N <>B820F8>==K5 >B=>H5=8O (Gwinn, 1949; Rozin, Kalat, 1971; Solomon, Wynne, 1954)le. > D>@ <0;L=K< ?@87=0:0< >BACBAB285< A5=78B82=>3> ?5 @8>40, 2> 2@5<O :>B>@>3> 682K5 ACI5AB20 >1=0@C68- 16 5:>B>@K5 A>10:8 !>;><>=0 8 #8==0, 8AA;54>202H85AO 2 G5;=>G=>9 :0<5@5, ?>;CG82 548=AB25==K9 C40@ B>:><, ?@>4>; 60;8 157>H81>G=> @5038@>20BL =0 ?@54C?@5640NI89 A83=0; =0 ?@>BO65=88 42CEA>B ?@>1 8 : <><5=BC ?@5:@0I5=8O M:A?5@8 <5=B0* =5 =01;N40;8AL =8:0:85 ?@87=0:8 CEC4H5=8O >B25B>2. =>385 ?>4>1=K5 @57C;LB0BK >?8A0=K 2 >B=>H5=88 4@C38E 28 4>2 682>B=KE 8 4@C38E D>@< ?>2545=8O 871530=8O (Gray, 1971. . 174). >1028<, GB> 1>;LH8=AB2> A>10: (?>;CG82H8E, ?@02 40, 2 ?5@8>4 =0CG5=8O 2 A@54=5< 5 =0:070=89) ?@>4>;60;8 ?@K6:8 2 ?@>B82>?>;>6=CN AB>@>=C :0<5@K 4065 B>340, :>340 B0< ?>;CG0;8 (100 @07) B0:>9 65 C40@ B>:><.  @5:>@4=>< A;CG05 682>B=>5 >BCG8;>AL >B ?@K6:>2 ?>A;5 647 ?@>1, A@548 :>B>@KE 150 A>?@>2>640;8AL =0:070=85< (Solomon 0. >., 1953). 132 ONB 3>B>2=>ABL : 70?5G0B;5=8N A?5F8D8G5A:>3> A>- ^@?60=8O, 0 2=5 :>B>@>3>  =5 >1=0@C6820NB. > A B>G:8 7@5=8O 18>;>38G5A:>9 F5;5A>>1@07=>AB8 40=-  >5 >B;8G85 =5 O2;O5BAO ACI5AB25==K<, '1>;55 B>3>, 4=> 2?>;=5 5AB5AB25==>: : 70?5G0B;5=8N ?@54<5B>2, A5@L57=> C3@>60NI8E 687=8, 682>B=K5 4>;6=K 1KBL 3>B>2K =0 2A5< 55 ?@>BO65=88, B>340 :0: : 70;5G0B- ;5=<N, A:065<, 45B5=KH59 8;8 1@0G=KE ?0@B=5@>2 B>;L:> 2 >?@545;5==K5 55 ?5@8>4K. > B>9 65 ;>38:5 5AB5AB25==>9 O2;O5BAO 20@80 B82=>ABL =5>1@0B8<>AB8, ?@>4>;68B5;L=>AB8 8 ?@>G =>AB8 <>B820F8>==KE >B=>H5=89, >1@07>20==KE =0 >A=>25 8<?@8=B8=30. >340-B> ?@>G=0O ?@82O70==>ABL : <0B5@8 C ?>4@>AH53> 8 A?>A>1=>3> : A0<>AB>OB5;L =>9 687=8 45B5=-KH0 ?5@5AB05B 1KBL F5;5A>>1@07=>9 8, :0: 8725AB=>, 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B >A>15==>AB59 2840 @0=LH5 8;8 ?>765, A?>=B0==> 8;8 ?>4 2;8O=85< 55 >BCG0NI53> ?>2545=8O 8AG5705B. "0:>3> @>40 40==K5 A2845B5;LAB2CNB > B><, GB> @07;8G5=85 ?@>F5AA>2 =0CG5=8O ?> M<?8@8G5A:8 8 2 8725AB=>9 <5@5 A;CG09=> =0IC?0==K< ?@87=0:0< ?@8 ?><>I8 8A:CAAB25==KE M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE ?@>F54C@ =5 CG8BK205B 3;02=>3>  18>;>38G5A:>3> =07=0G5=8O MB8E ?@>F5AA>2, >?@545;O2H53> 8E M2>;NF8>==>5 @07 28B85 8 ?@8>1@5B5=85 '8<8 B5E 8;8 8=KE >A>15==>AB59. ! ?@8A;>A>18B5;L=>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O 8=48284C =5>1E> 48<0 A?>A>1=>ABL : D>@<8@>20=8N .:0: CA;>2=KE, 8= AB@C<5=B0;L=KE, B0: 8 157CA;>2=KE, 7=0G8<KE A0<8E ?> A515 <>B820F8>==KE >B=>H5=89 : =>2><C, 35=5B8 G5A:8 =570?@>3@0<<8@>20==><C A>45@60=8N (8<5==> >B=>H5=89, ?>A:>;L:C 42830B5;L=K5 @50:F88 4>;6=K >1=0@C6820BL 87<5=G82>ABL).  >A=>25 B0:>3> =0CG5 =8O ;568B 0:B <>B820F8>==>3> (M<>F8>=0;L=>3>) ?5@5:;NG5=8O, B>;L:> 2 ?5@2>< A;CG05 A>E@0=ONI53> $C=:F8>=0;L=CN 7028A8<>ABL >B ?>4:@5?;ONI53> D0:B>@0, 2> '2B>@>.< ?@840NI53> =>2><C A>45@60=8N DC=:F8>=0;L=CN 02B>=><=>ABL. >340 8 :0:8< >1@07>< ?@>87>945B B> 8;8 8=>5 =0CG5=85, GB> 53> 2K7>25B, :0: 4>;3> >=> A>E@0=8BAO 8 B. 4. 7028A8B, :0: MB> ?>:07K20NB 8AA;54>20=8O MB>;>3>2 (0:-$0@;5=4, 1988; %09=4, 1975), >B 284>2KE >A>15==>-^59 682>B=KE, 8 15A?>;57=> =045OBLAO C;>68BL MB8 "7<5=G8.2K5 40==K5 2 AB@>385 @0<:8 8A:CAAB25==> 2K45;O5<KE D>@< =0CG5=8O. 133 <5==> 284>B8?8G=>ABL >A>15==>AB59 8<?@8=B8=- 30, >1JOA=O5<0O 53> B5A=>9 A2O7LN " A <5E0=87<0<8 8=AB8=:B82=>3> ?>2545=8O, 8A:;NG05B ?5@5=>A :>= :@5B=KE 40==KE, ?>;CG5==KE ?@8 '8AA;54>20=88 68 2>B=KE, 2 >1;0ABL @0728B8O <>B820F88 G5;>25:0. 4 =0:> 2>7<>6=K >B2;5G5==K5 >B :>=:@5B=KE 45B0;59 " 2K2>4K, 8 A0<K9 >'1I89 87 =8E CB25@6405B, GB> ?@> F5AAK, >15A?5G820NI85 2>7=8:=>25=85 C G5;>25:0 CAB>9G82KE, DC=:F8>=0;L=> 02B>=><=KE <>B820- F8>==KE >B=>H5=89, 8<5NB ?@>4>;68B5;L=CN 8 A;>6 =CN ?@54KAB>@8N D8;>35=5B8G5A:>3> @0728B8O. 7 =55 A;54C5B, GB> B0:85 ?@>F5AAK <>3CB 8<5BL, => <>3CB 8 =5 8<5BL A5=78B82=K9 ?5@8>4 4;O A2>53> >ACI5AB 2;5=8O 8 GB> >1JOA=5=85 MB>9 =5>?@545;5==>AB8 A;5 4C5B 8A:0BL =5 2 >A>15==>ABOE <5E0=87<>2 =0CG5=8O, 0 2 F5;5A>>1@07=>AB8 ACI5AB2>20=8O B0:8E ?5@8>4>2 2 8AB>@88 @0728B8O 2840. A>15==> A;54C5B ?>4G5@:=CBL 2K2>4 > B><, GB> 3N7=8:0NI85 157CA;>2=K5 <>B820F8>==K5 >B=>H5=8O <>3CB >1=0@C6820BL >?@545;5==CN 87<5=G82>ABL C30A0BL A 8AB5G5=85< 2@5<5=8, 4>?CA:0BL ?5@5CG820 =85. 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MB>< 65 2>7@0AB5 >= AB0=>28BAO GC2AB28B5;L=K< : ?>@8F0NI59 8;8 >4>1@ONI59 8= B>=0F88 55 3>;>A0 8 >1=0@C68205B ?5@2K5 ?@87=0:8 >1CG5=8O =0 >A=>25 B0:>3> ?>4:@5?;5=8O (245520, 1982).  ?5@2>< ?>;C3>488 <;045=5F ?>@8F0NI55 >B=>H5=85 <0B5@8 ?@54?>G8B05B 157@07;8G=><C, @5038@CO =0 ?>A;54=55 1>;55 =530B82=> (8A8=0, 1986. !. 78). 0:>=5F, E>@>H> 8725AB=K D0:BK, GB> 2 2K7K20NI8E B@52>3C A8BC0F8OE >=, :0:, 2?@>G5<, 45 B5=KH8 682>B=KE (Harlow, 1961), 8I5B <0BL 8 AB@5 <8BAO : :>=B0:BC A =59 (Maccoby, Jacklin, 1973). @54AB02;O5BAO, GB> 2 A>2>:C?=>AB8 B0:>3> @>40 D0: BK (A<. Ainsworth, 1973; Uzgiris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chaffer, 1977. . 98). @8<5@>< B0:8E =02K:>2 <>3CB A;C68BL A?5F8D8G5A:85 8=B>=0F88, 8A?>;L7C5<K5 ?@8 >1I5=88 A <;045=F5< baby talk, @07;8G=K5 A?>A>1K ;>28BL 8 C45@6820BL 53> 273;O4, =0?@8<5@, A?>A>1AB2CNI55 :>=B0:BC 3;07 ?@8 :>@<;5=88 ?>;>65=85 3>;>2K <0B5@8 en face ?0@0;;5;L=>5 3>;>25 <;045=F0 (Klaus 0. >., 1972), 8;8 =02K: 45@60BL 53> =0 ;52>9 C:5 4;O B>3>, :0: ?@54?>;0305BAO, GB>1K >= <>3 A;KH0BL CA?>:0820NI85 72C:8 A5@4F5185=8O <0B5@8 ( 0=H1C@3, >??5@, 1983. !. 16). >@078B5;L=0 A?>A>1=>ABL <;045=F0 C;02;820BL MB>B B>=:89 O7K: 04@5A>20==KE 5<C >1@0I5=89 8 =0 =53> >B7K20BLAO. "0:, E0@0:B5@ 8 48=0<8:0 273;O4>2 <564C <0B5@LN 8 <;045=F5< A8;L=> =0?><8=05B >1 <5= @5?;8:0<8 2 15A545 (Jaffe 0. >., 1973), 0 A>3;0 A>20==>ABL 42865=89 8E 3>;>2, :0: CB25@640NB 8A- 137 A;54>20B5;8, A>2<5AB=> B0=FC5<K9 20;LA (Stern 1971. . 513). -<>F8>=0;L=0O =0AKI5==>ABL =02K:>2 <0B5@8= A:>3> CE>40, O2=0O 3>B>2=>ABL <;045=F0 =0 =8E >B :;8:0BLAO, 70B@C4=5=8O ?@8 ?>?KB:0E 8E ?@>872>;L =>9 7045@6:8 (:>340, =0?@8<5@, <0BL ?KB05BAO =5 @5038@>20BL =0 ?;0G <;045=F0), 0 B0:65 70B@C4=5=8O ?@8 ?>?KB:0E 8E CA2>8BL 157 ?@>A=C2H59AO <0B5@8= A:>9 ;N128, ?@8 :>B>@>9 <0BL 845=B8D8F8@C5BAO A <;045=F5<, 2>A?@8=8<05B 53> :0: G0ABL A0<>9 A51O 8 ?5@568205B 53> @04>AB8 8 >3>@G5=8O :0: A>1AB25= =K5 (Schaffer, 1977. . 86), 3>2>@OB >1 8E A2O70= =>AB8 A <5E0=87<0<8 8=AB8=:B0. 59AB28B5;L=>, =5 ACI5AB2>20;> >A=>20=89 (0 B0:65 8 @575@2>2 2@5<5 =8), ?> :>B>@K< 15AA?>@=> ?>;57=K5 M;5<5=BK 8= AB8=:B0 2 @>48B5;LA:>< ?>2545=88 2KAH8E 682>B=KE, 2 G0AB=>AB8 ?@>F5AAK 70?5G0B;5=8O 8<8 A2>8E 45B5 =KH59, 4>;6=K 1K;8 8AG57=CBL '2 0=B@>?>35=575. @8@>4=K5 ?@54?>AK;:8 E0@0:B5@=>9 <0B5@8=A:>9 A5=78B82=>AB8 (Ainsworth, 1973. . 82) : @515=:C, ?>2KH5==>9 GC2AB28B5;L=>AB8 : 53> C;K1:5, 65;0 =8N, ?;0GC, 273;O4C 8 B. ;. =8G5< =5 ?@5?OBAB2>20;8 A>F80;L=><C @0728B8N G5;>25:0, 0 B>;L:> A?>A>1AB 2>20;8 A0<>70125==>9 >B40G5 =0H8E ?@0<0B5@59 2 2K?>;=5=88 B>3>, GB> A>2@5<5==K5 <0B5@8 A25@ONB ?> :=830< . !?>:0. 4=0:>, @0AA<0B@820O 2>?@>A >1 8=AB8=:B82=>9 >1CA;>2;5==>AB8 >B45;L=KE M;5<5=B>2 <0B5@8=A:>3> CE>40, 206=> 8<5BL 2 284C, GB> C65 C 682>B=KE MB0 B>=:0O A8AB5<0 A;>6=KE =52KCG5==KE >B25B>2 (Harlow, Mears, 1978) =5 8<55B E0@0:B5@0 D0B0;L=>9 =5<8=C5<>AB8, >1=0@C6820O 70?CB0==CN 7028A8<>ABL >B CA;>289 >=B>35=570, A>AB>O=8O >@30=87<0, 2708<> 2;8O=89 <0B5@8 8 45B5=KH0 8 4@. (Harlow, Harlow, 1965; Rosenblum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ead, 1935; Turnbull, 1972). B45;L=K5 8AA;54>20=8O :0: 1C4B> A2845B5;LAB2CNB > ACI5AB2>20=88 ?@>F5AA>2 70?5G0B;5=8O <0B5@LN @515=:0. "0:, <0B5@8, :>B>@K5 2 @>48;L=>< 4><5 8<5;8 C4;8=5==K9 :>=B0:B A <;045=F5< =0 >48= G0A A@07C ?>A;5 @>4>2 8 =0 5 G0A>2 2 :064K9 87 B@5E ?5@2KE 4=59 687=8, ?@8 >1A;54>20=88 G5@57 <5AOF 8 70B5< G5@57 3>4 >1=0@C68;8 1>;55 '2K@065==CN : =8< ?@82O70==>ABL ?> A@02=5=8N A :>=B@>;L=>9 3@C??>9 (?@0240, B>;L:> ?> >B45;L=K< ?>:070B5;O<, =0?@8<5@, >=8 1>;LH5 AB@5<8;8AL >AB020BLAO 4><0, 2> 2@5<O :>@<;5=8O G0I5 ?>2>@0G820;8 3>;>2C 2 ?>;>65=85, C4>1=>5 4;O :>=B0:B0 3;07 8 4@.) (Kennell 0. >., 1974; Klaus 0. >., 1972). =0;>38G=K5 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:070;8, GB> 2?5@2K5 @>60NI85 <0B5@8, C :>B>@KE <;045=F0 ?>A;5 ?>O2;5=8O =0 A25B >B=8<0;8 =0 24 8;8 1>;55 G0A>2, 2 >B;8G85 >B <0B5@59, :>B>@K< @515=:0 >B4020;8 A@07C ?>A;5 @>4>2, 0 B0:65 @0=55 @>602H8E <0B5@59 =57028A8<> >B CA;>289 :>=B0:B0 A <;045=F5<, =5 >1=0@C6820;8 ?@82KG:8 45@60BL 53> =0 ;52>9 @C:5: ...0 :0:CN @C:C ?>;CG8;0 <0BL @515=:0, =0 B0:CN 65 >=0 1@0;0 <;045=F0 8 2?>A;54AB288. 7 @57C;LB0B>2 =01;N45=89 70:;NG8;8, GB> 2 D>@<8@>20=88 <0B5@8=A:>3> GC2AB20 B0:65 ACI5AB2C5B >?@545;5==K9 :@8B8G5A:89 ?5@8>4, 8 ?5@2K5 24 G0A0 ?>A;5 @>645=8O @515=:0 O2;ONBAO 53> >G5=L 206=>9 G0ABLN ( 0=H1C@3, >??5@, 1983. !. 17). 4=0:> >B<5B8<, GB> B0:>3> @>40 40==K5 2 ?@8=F8?5 =5 <>3CB 1KBL G5B:8<8. ;O G5;>25G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O <;045=5F ACI5AB2C5B 5I5 4> @>4>2, 0 :>340 >= =0E>48BAO 2 A>A54=5< ?><5I5=88, B> 53> ACI5AB2>20=85 ?5@568205BAO D0:B8G5A:8 A B5< 65 GC2AB2>< @50;L=>AB8, :0: 5A;8 1K >= 1K; @O4><. >A:>;L:C GC2AB2> @50;L=>AB8, :0: >B<5G0;>AL 2KH5, >15A?5G8205B ?>;=>F5==K5 M<>F8>=0;L=K5 ?5@5:;NG5=8O 2 ?;0=5 ?@54AB02;5=89, 8AA;54>20=8O, :>=B@>;8@CNI85 D878G5A:89 :>=B0:B, =5 <>3CB 2KO28BL ?@>F5A-^2 70?5G0B;5=8O <0B5@LN <;045=F0 8 A5=78B82=K9 =5@8>4 MB8E ?@>F5AA>2 4065 5A;8 >=8 ACI5AB2CNB 18. 18 # =5:>B>@KE 682>B=KE B0:>9 ?5@8>4 >3@0=8G5= 25AL<0 65AB:>. >70, =0?@8<5@, ?> 8AB5G5=88 G0A0 ?>A;5 @>4>2 :>7;5=- 139 >;>2>5 70?5G0B;5=85. @8 ?>?KB:0E @07>1@0BL AO 2 4@C38E AD5@0E ?@>O2;5=8O 8=AB8=:B>2 C G5;>25 :0 2>7=8:0NB B0:85 65 70B@C4=5=8O, :0: 8 ?@8 2K OA=5=88 45B5@<8=0=B <0B5@8=A:>3> ?>2545=8O. "0: ACI5AB2CNB >A=>20=8O ?>;030BL, GB> 8 C G5;>25:0 ?@>O2;ONBAO <5E0=87<K A5:AC0;L=>3> 70?5G0B;5=8O A?>A>1=>3> ?@840BL >B=>H5=8N : ?0@B=5@C 8A:;NG8-' B5;L=CN M<>F8>=0;L=CN =0AKI5==>ABL, 8=AB8=:B82 =CN 157>3;O4=>ABL 8 @0F8>=0;L=CN =5>1JOA=8<>ABL, > :0: MB>B, >1KG=> >1=0@C6820NI89 A:;>==>ABL : C1K20=8N, 0A?5:B >B=>H5=89 2K45;8BL 87 4@C38E A>AB02;ONI8E 2;N1;5==>AB8, 0 B5< 1>;55 ;N128, >:07K20NI8EAO 2?>A;54AB288 @5H0NI8<8, :0: >BKA :0BL 53>' A;54K 2 8B>30E 1>;LH>9 8 ?>@>9, :0: 87 25AB=>, 25AL<0 B2>@G5A:>9 @01>BK A>7=0=8O ?> >A<KA ;5=8N AB>;L =5>@48=0@=>3> A2>53> A>AB>O=8O? B25B =0 B0:85 2>?@>AK =5 =0945=, 8 ;N1>2L >AB05BAO, ?> CB25@645=8N A?5F80;8AB>2, 8A:;NG8B5;L=> A;>6=K< >1J5:B>< 4;O ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 0=0;870 (>7<0=, 1987. !. 110). "5< =5 <5=55 @O4 D0:B>2 4>AB0B>G=> C1548B5;L=> 3>2>@8B > ?@>O2;5=88 2 ?>;>2>< ?>2545=88 G5;>25:0 8=AB8=:B>2. '5<, =0?@8<5@, >1JOA=8BL @07=>>1@0785 8 AB>9:>ABL ?>;>2KE 872@0I5=89, >1=0@C6820NI8E AO, :0: ?@028;>, 2 CA;>28OE A8;L=59H53> 8 15A:>< ?@><8AA=>3> 8E >AC645=8O A> AB>@>=K >1I5AB25==>9 <>@0;8, ?@81530NI59 4065 : B0:><C :@09=5<C A@54 AB2C, :0: C3>;>2=>5 ?@5A;54>20=85? >G5<C 8=>340 548=8G=K9 >?KB C4>2;5B2>@5=8O A5:AC0;L=>9 ?>B@51 =>AB8 >AB02;O5B A;54K, ?@84020O, =0?@8<5@, 157CA ;>2=>5 <>B820F8>==>5 7=0G5=85 70?0EC @K1=>9 ;02 :8 8;8 :0:><C-=81C4L ?@54<5BC >4564K, >B :>B>@>3> 2?>A;54AB288 =5 A?>A>1=0 871028BL 2AO A8AB5<0 2>A ?8BK20NI8E G5;>25:0 A8;, 2 B>< G8A;5 A?5F80;L=K5 CA8;8O ?A8E>B5@0?52B>2? @87=0=85 B>3>, GB> MB0 ?>B@51=>ABL G5;>25:0 ?@8@>4=> 2>>@C65=0 8=AB8=:B><, >15A?5G820NI8< 8=B5=A82=>5 M<>F8>=0;L=>5 2>A?@8OB85 A;>6=>9 A8AB5<K -:;NG52KE, 0 B0:65 70- :0 : A515 =5 ?>4?CA:05B (Klopfer 0. >., 1964). AB0B8, ACI5AB2>20=85 C G5;>25:0 A5=78B82=KE ?5@8>4>2 4;O A?5F8D8G5A:>3> =0CG5=8O ?>4B25@6405BAO <=>38<8 40==K<8 8 H8@>:> ?@87=05BAO (59B5A, 1978; Connolly, 1972; Thorpe, 1961), >4=0:> MB8 40==K5 1>;LH5 :0A0NBAO @0728B8O ?>7=020B5;L=>9 AD5@K, G5< A>1AB25==> <>B820F8>==>3> =0CG5=8O. 140 45G0B;O5<KE <5E0=87<>< 8<?@8=B8=30 2>7459AB289 F A8BC0F89, O2=> >1;53G05B 8=B5@?@5B0F8N B0:>3> @>40 D0:B>2. D5=><5=>;>38O >B:;>=5=89 2 ?>;>2>< ?>2545=88 G5;>25:0 (A<. >=, 1988; Imielinski, 1974) ?>:07K205B, GB> >A=>2=>9 8E 8AB>G=8: 70:>48@>20==>ABL 2 35=0E :0: <C6A:>3>, B0: 8 65=A:>3> 20@80=B>2 53> @0728B8O, A>740NI0O 2>7<>6=>ABL ?@8 =51;03>?@8OB=KE CA;>28OE 2>7=8:=>25=8O A0<KE ?@8GC4;82KE A>G5B0=89 >1>8E ?>;>2 :0: 2 >B=>H5=88 <>@D>D878->;>388 (35@<0D@>487<; A<. !02G5=:>, 1974), B0: 8 ?> ;8=88 0:BC0;878@CNI8EAO 8=AB8=:B>2. ">B D0:B, =0?@8<5@, GB> =5 2A5 B@0=A25AB8ABK ;N48, =0@O60NI85AO 2 >4564C 8 4@C385 0B@81CBK ?@>B82>?>;>6=>3> ?>;0, O2;ONBAO 3><>A5:AC0;8AB0<8, A2845B5;LAB2C5B >1 >B=>A8B5;L=>9 02B>=><=>AB8 <5E0=87<>2, >15A?5G820NI8E 70?5G0B;5=85 ?>;>2>9 8 A5:AC-. 0;L=>9 ?@8=04;56=>AB8. > 459AB28B5;L=> ;8 B0:>3> @>40 70?5G0B;5=8O >1CA;>2;5=K 8=AB8=:B><? 5:>B>@K5 40==K5 :0: 1C4B> A2845B5;LAB2CNB > @5H0NI59 @>;8 ?@8>1@5B5==>3> >?KB0. "0:, ?>402;ONI55 1>;LH8=AB2> 35@<0D@>48B>2 =57028A8<> >B 4><8=8@CNI8E >1J5:B82=KE ?@87=0:>2 ?>;0 845=B8D8F8@CNBAO A B5< ?>;><, :>B>@K9 ?@82820;AO 8< 2 @0==5< 45BAB25 (Money 0. >., 1957). ! MB8< A>3;0ACNBAO 8 4@C385 40==K5: 3@><=>5 1>;LH8=AB2> B@0=A25AB8AB>2 CB25@6405B, GB> 2 @0==5< 45BAB25 8E >4520;8 2 >4564C ?@>B82>?>;>6=>3> ?>;0 (Imielinski, 1974. S. 290). > =04> >1@0B8BL 2=8<0=85 =0 B>, GB> >B=N4L =5 2A5 45B8, >45202H85AO 2 ?;0BL5 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>3> ?>;0, 2?>A;54AB288 AB@040NB B@0=A25AB87<><, GB> =5B @0A?@>AB@0=5==>3> 872@0I5=8O >1;0G0BLAO 2 ?>;7C=:8. D.0@BCG:8 8;8 H:>;L=CN D>@<C 2> GB> 45B8 >4520NBAO =5A@02=5==> G0I5, GB>, =0:>=5F, 5 87 105 35@<0D@>48B>2, =01;N402H8EAO 2 C?><O=CB>< 8AA;54>20=88, ?@54?>G;8 ?>;>2CN 845=B8D8:0F8N, ?@>B82>?>;>6=CN B>9, :>B>@CN =0<5G0;8 @>48B5;8. A5 MB> 3>2>@8B > B><, GB> 687=5==K5 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 A>740NB ;8HL 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 1;03>?@8OB=K5 CA;>28O ;O 8=AB8=:B82=KE B5=45=F89, 2?;>BL 4> ?>;=>3> 8E ?>402;5=8O, => B0:65 8 > B><, GB> MB8 B5=45=F88 O2;ONBAO 0:B82=K<8 A8;0<8, >1>AB@5==> 2K6840NI8<8 1;03>?@8OB=KE CA;>289 8 3>B>2K<8 2>A?>;L7>- 141 20BLAO ?5@2>9 2>7<>6=>ABLN 4;O A>>B25BAB2CNI8E =5>1@0B8<KE 70?5G0B;5=89 19.  F5;>< 40==K5 >1 >B:;>=5=8OE 2 ?>;>2>< ?>25 45=88 G5;>25:0 A2845B5;LAB2CNB > A;>6=>AB8 ?>;> 2>3> 8=AB8=:B0 8 > 53> 35=5B8G5A:>9 =57025@H5==> AB8, 4>?CA:0NI59 <=>3>20@80=B=>5 >=B>35=5B8G5A:>5 @0728B85 8 ?@>O2;ONI59AO 2 ?>2KH5==>9 3>B>2=>AB8 : 70?5G0B;5=8N =5 B>;L:> ?0@B=5@0, => 8 <=>65AB20 A?5F8D8G5A:8E CA;>289 C4>2;5B2>@5=8O ?>;>2>9 ?> B@51=>AB8, :>B>@K5 2A;54AB285 MB>3>' ?@8>1@5B0NB 157CA;>2=>5 <>B820F8>==>5 7=0G5=85. 0:;NG5=85. B0:, 5A;8 87=0G0;L=> =5 >B=>A8BL AO : 8=AB8=:BC :0: : G5<C-B> ?@57@8B5;L=>-682>B=> <C, 8A:;NG0NI5<C A>F80;L=>5 @0728B85 G5;>25:0 (0;L?5@8=, 19766) 20, B> B578A >1 8E >1=0@C65=88 C G5;>25:0 ?@8>1@5B05B ?@024>?>4>1=>5 72CG0=85. 5 2=8:0O 40;55 2 ?>4@>1=>AB8, >B<5B8<, GB> 8E A;5 4K 4>AB0B>G=> >BG5B;82> >1=0@C6820NBAO 2 B>< >1<5=5 M<>F8O<8, :>B>@K9 ?@>8AE>48B ?@8 >1I5 =88, CAB0=>2;5=88 2708<>>B=>H5=89 <564C ;N4L<8 (>7<0=, 1987), 2 @0728B88 ?@>A>F80;L=>3> ?>2545 =8O (Reykowski, 1979), 2 ?@>O2;5=8OE M<?0B8G5A:>9 A?>A>1=>AB8, :>B>@0O ?@>4>;605B >AB020BLAO =5 C;>28<K< D5=><5=>< (Hickson, 1985). 065 2 :>3 =8B82=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8=>340 ?@87=05BAO, GB> ?>4>1 => 4@C38< 682>B=K<, <K @>6405<AO 2 :0:>9-B> <5@5 3>B>2K<8 : A1>@C M:A?@5AA82=KE A83=0;>2, ?>ABC?0 NI8E >B 4@C38E ?@54AB028B5;59 =0H53> 18>;>38G5A:>3> 2840 (09AA5@, 1981. !. 201).  ?>8A:5 A;54>2 8=AB8=:B0 ?>;57=> >1@0B8BLAO : 40==K< ?A8E80B@8G5A:>9 :;8=8:8, ?>A:>;L:C 2 @O45 A;CG052 1>;57=L 19 >6=> 4C<0BL, GB> ?>O2;5=85 C G5;>25:0 ?;0=0 ?@54 AB02;5=89, 4>?CA:0NI53> B0:>5 70?5G0B;5=85 =0 >A=>25 4>2>- >1@065=8O @50;L=KE A8BC0F89 8;8 2>>1I5 : =8< 157>B=>A8B5;L =>, @0AH8@8;> 2>7<>6=>ABL =55AB5AB25==>3> @0728B8O ?>;>2>3> 8=AB8=:B0. A;8 MB> B0:, B> 15AA?>@=>5 <56284>2>5 ;845@AB2> G5;>25:0 ?> G0AB8 ?>;>2KE 872@0I5=89 O2;O5BAO ?;0B>9 70 A?> A>1=>ABL : ?@>872>;L=>AB8, ?>72>;ONI59 ?@54AB02;OBL 2 >1 @075 <8@0 B>, GB> 2 @50;L=>< <8@5 5420 ;8 <>3;> 1K A;CG8BLAO. 20 >:070B5;L=>, GB> B5<0 8=AB8=:B>2 @5;838>7=> 871530 ;0AL (Harlow, Mears, 1978. . 257) 8 2 ?>78B828ABA:>9 ?A8E> ;>388, =5 AB@0402H59 D>1859 ?@8@>4=>3> C G5;>25:0.  3C<0=8AB8G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 8=AB8=:B>94=CN ?@8@>4C 107>2KE ?>B@51=>AB59 G5;>25:0 ?>4G5@:820; . . 0A;>2 (Maslow, 1954). 142 ?@82>48B : =0@CH5=8O< 8<5==> 2 AD5@5 C=0A;54> 20==>3>. 'B> :0A05BAO 8<?@8=B8=30 :0: <5E0=87<0, >15A?5 G820NI53> >=B>35=5B8G5A:>5 CB>G=5=85 >1J5:B>2 8= AB8=:B82=KE >B=>H5=89, B> >4=0 87 A0<KE 70<5B=KE >1;0AB59 53> ?@>O2;5=8O D8:A0F8O AB@0E>2 (A<. -15@;59=, 1981; Jones, 1924; Valentine, 1930). >6=> 4C<0BL, GB> @0AAB@>5==>5, =5045:20B=>5 459AB285 <5 E0=87<0 <>B820F8>==>3> 70?5G0B;5=8O ?@82>48B : 2>7=8:=>25=8N =5 B>;L:> D>189, => 8 4@C38E =02O7 G82KE A>AB>O=89, A25@EF5==KE 8459 8 B. ?. 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B0:8E A;CG0OE =01;N405BAO A2>53> @>40 4>25@85 <>B820F8>==><C >?KBC A>@>48G59 8 3>B>2=>ABL =0 MB>9 >A=>25 >1CG0BLAO. !0<0O ?@>AB0O 8 5AB5AB25==0O 8=B5@?@5B0F8O B0:8E 40==KE ?@54?>;0305B ?@87=0=85 B>3>, GB> M<>F8>=0;L=>5 A>AB>O=85 4@C38E ?@54AB028B5;59 2840 (8=>340 8 ?@54AB028B5;59 4@C38E 284>2) =5157@07;8G=> :>=:@5B=><C 8=48284C 8 459AB2C5B =0 =53> :0: ?>4:@5?;5=85. >=5G=>, B0:>5 M<>F8>=0;L=>5 70@065=85 D0:BK 2>7=8:=>25=8O =0 >A=>25 ?>4@060=8O =>2KE <>B820F8>==KE >B=>H5=89 ?>;=>ABLN =5 >1JOA=O5B: MB8< ?@>F5AA>< =5 >E20BK205BAO B08=AB25==K9 <><5=B ?5@504@5A>2:8 A>?5@568205<>3> M<>F8>=0;L=>3> A>AB>O=8O =0 ?@54<5BK, 2K7202H85 M<>F88 C 4@C38E >A>15921. "5< =5 <5=55 M<>F8>=0;L=>5 21 >6=> 4C<0BL, GB> 8<5==> MB>B B08=AB25==K9 <><5=B ^AE20BK20=8O >B=>H5=89, >1=0@C6820NI89AO 2 @07;8G=KE 2840E ?>4@060=8O, AB0; >A=>2>9 4;O >B=5A5=8O 2 :;0AA8D8:0F8>==>9 AE5<5 . . ">@?0 :0: ?>4@060=8O, B0: 8 8<?@8=B8=30 : >A>1>9 D>@<5 =0CG5=8O, >ACI5AB2;ONI53>AO ?> B8?C 8=A09B0 (Thorpe, 1963). 145 70@065=85 ?@54AB02;O5BAO =5>1E>48<K< CA;>285< 4;O A;CG052 ?>4@060=8O, >15A?5G820NI53> 2>7=8: =>25=85 <>B820F8>=.=KE >B=>H5=89 : ?@54<5B0<, ?>4 :@5?;ONI85 A2>9AB20 :>B>@KE =5 1K;8 2KO2;5=K A0<8< 8=48284><. 5 <>65B 1KBL A><=5=89 2 B><, GB> O2=> 2 D8;> 35=575 ?@>3@5AA8@>202HCN A?>A>1=>ABL : M<>F8> =0;L=><C 70@065=8N 8 ?>4@060=8N C=0A;54>20; 8 G5;>25: (A<. 04K38=0->B5, 1965; >@H=52, 1974. ;. 5; Miller, Dollard, 1962). 1 MB>< 3>2>@OB, 2 G0 AB=>AB8, A@02=8B5;L=K5 8AA;54>20=8O, >1=0@C682 H85, =0?@8<5@, GB> A?>A>1=>ABL : ?>4@060=8N C B@5E;5B=53> H8<?0=75, 2K@0I5==>3> 2 G5;>25G5A:>< >:@C65=88, 2 <=>65AB25 A8BC0F89 >1=0@C68205BAO 25AL<0 ?>4>1=> B><C, :0: 8 C B@5E;5B=53> @515=:0 (Hayes, Hayes, 1952. . 458). =0G8B5;L=0O G0ABL B> 3>, G5<C 27@>A;K5 >1CG0NB @515=:0 2 ?5@8>4, :>340 >= 5I5 =5 A?>A>15= ?>=OBL >1JOA=5=89 8 459AB2>20BL ?> A;>25A=K< C:070=8O<, D>@<8@C5BAO A 8A?>;L7> 20=85< 8<5==> 53> 3>B>2=>AB8 : ?>4@060=8N. 5 ?>A@54AB25==>-M<>F8>=0;L=>5 >1I5=85 <;045=F0 8 <0B5@8 C65 =0 ?5@2>< ?>;C3>488 687=8 =5 A2>48BAO : 42CE?>;NA=><C >1<5=C M<>F8O<8; 2 :0G5AB25 B@5BL 53> 725=0 2 =53> 2:;8=8205BAO <8@ ?@54<5B>2, 8 <0BL =5 ?@>?CA:05B A;CG0O C:070BL, GB> 2 MB>< <8@5 8= B5@5A=>, E>@>H>, AB@0H=>. G5284=>, GB> 157 A?>A>1 =>AB8 <;045=F0 : M<>F8>=0;L=><C 70@065=8N 55 CA8;8O 1K;8 1K =0?@0A=K<8. > 2B>@>< ?>;C3>488 B@5BL5 725=> AB0=>28BAO =5>1E>48<K< :><?>=5=B>< >1I5=8O (Hubley, Trevarthen, 1979), <;045=5F 0:B82 => AB@5<8BAO : >1<5=C M<>F8O<8 ?> ?>2>4C <8@0 ?@54<5B>2, GB> 70D8:A8@>20=> 2 2K45;5=88 =>2>3> MB0?0 53> 2708<>459AB28O A <0B5@LN A8BC0B82=>- 45;>2>3> >1I5=8O (8A8=0, 1986). >4@060=85 >AB05BAO 206=59H8< D0:B>@><, >? @545;ONI8< A>45@60=85 0:B82=>AB8 @515=:0 8 =0 ?>A;54CNI8E MB0?0E 53> @0728B8O. >=5G=>, 1>;55 B8?8G=> 8 70<5B=> ?@>O2;5=85 ?>4@060=8O 2 ?5@2>< 87 2K45;5==KE 2KH5 20@80=B>2 2 :0G5AB25 <5E0 =87<0, >15A?5G820NI53> ?>2B>@5=85 459AB289. "0:, ?> <5@5 @0728B8O ?@54<5B=>-<0=8?C;OB82=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, :>B>@0O A=0G0;0 ?>4G8=O5BAO ;>38:5 @C:8 8 >1J5:B0 <0=8?C;OF88, @515=>: =0G8=05B C2;5G5==> 2>A?@>872>48BL 2A5 1>;55 B>=:85 459AB28O 146 A ?@54<5B0<8 ?> ;>38:5 >1@07F0, ?>:07K205<>3> 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8 8;8 C =8E ?>4A<>B@5==>3> (-;L:>-=8=, 1978). 5 <5=55 0:B82=> ?>4@060=85 ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?> CA2>5=8N @5G8: 48=AB25==K< <5E0=87<><, ?>4:;NG0NI8< @515=:0 : O7K:>2>9 A@545, O2;O5BAO ?>4@060=85 (>@H=52, 1974. !. 319); 0 B0:65 2 83@5: ;O A0<KE <0;5=L:8E 45B59 ?>4@060=85 O2;O5BAO ?@028;>< 83@K. -B> 548=AB25==>5 ?@85<;5<>5 4;O =8E ?@028;>, ?>A:>;L:C 2 =0G0;5 >=8 =5 <>3CB 2K9B8 70 ?@545;K :>=:@5B=>9 682>9 <>45;8 8 @C:>2>4AB2>20BLAO 01AB@0:B=K<8 ?@028;0<8 (0;;>=, 1967. !. 71). >4@060=85-?>2B>@5=85 A;C68B @0728B8N ?@5645 2A53> ?>7=020B5;L=>9 AD5@K @515=:0, >15A?5G820O D>@<8@>20=85 =>2KE =02K:>2, C<5=89, 7=0=89. 0: >B<5G0;>AL, >=> A?>A>1AB2C5B B0:65 8 D>@<8@>20=8N <>B820F88: 459AB2CO 8 83@0O ?> >1@07FC, @515=>: >B:@K205B =>2K5 AB>@>=K 8 >B=>H5=8O 25I59, ?@028;0 8 B09=K G5;>25G5A:8E 2708<>>B=>H5=89, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 70B@03820BL 53> ?>B@51=>AB8 8 2A;54AB285 MB>3> AB0BL 8=B5@5A=K<8, ?@8OB=K<8, AB@0H=K<8, ?>;57=K<8 8 B. ?. 4=0:> 2 40==>< A;CG05 ?>4@060=85 :0: <5E0=87< 8 4@C3>9 G5;>25: :0: :>?8@C5<K9 >1@075F A>740NB ;8HL CA;>28O 8 2>7<>6=>AB8 4;O >?@545;5==>3> @0728B8O <>B820F88, B>340 :0: A0<> @0728B85 ?@>8AE>48B 1;03>40@O <5E0=87<0< A?5F8D8G5A:8E ?>B@51=>AB59. >B820F8>==>5 ?>4@060=85. >;55 >B25BAB25==0 @>;L 4@C3>3> G5;>25:0 2 ?>4@060=88, >A=>20==>< =0 M<>F8>=0;L=>< 70@065=88.  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"0:>9 2K2>4 1K;, 2 G0AB=>AB8, A45;0= 2 A:@C?C;57=>< 8AA;54>20=88 ?>4@>1=KE 02B>18>3@0 D8G5A:8E >BG5B>2 275 8A?KBC5<KE: 1>1I5==K5 GC2AB20 : ?@54<5B0< 2=5H=53> <8@0 <>3CB 2>7=8:0BL ;81> (0) 1;03>40@O ?>A@54=8G0NI59 @>;8 4@C38E ;8F, ;81> (1) :0: @57C;LB0B ?@O<>3> :>=B0:B0 A A0 <8<8 ?@54<5B0<8 (Phillips, 1937. . 299). !0<>5, ?>60;C9, C1548B5;L=>5 A2845B5;LAB2> @>;8 ?>4@060 =8O 2 @0728B88 <>B820F8>==KE >B=>H5=89 40==K5 > B0: =07K205<>< :>=D>@<=>< B8?5 ?A8E>?0B8G5A:8E >B:;>=5=89, :>B>@K5 1C4CB ?@82545=K =865. B M<>F8>=0;L=>3> 70@065=8O A;54C5B >B;8G0BL 2=5H=5 ?>4>1=K9 8 G0AB> ?0@0;;5;L=> ?@>B5:0NI89 ?@>F5AA M<>F8>=0;L=>3> A>?5@56820=8O (A<. 8;N- =0A, 1976. !. 72 73), =0 >A=>25 :>B>@>3> B>65 2>7 =8:0NB =>2K5 <>B820F8>==K5 >B=>H5=8O. >OA=8< MB> >B;8G85 =0 ?@8<5@5. 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A;8 @515=>: 3@C1> 2K@K205B 87 @C: <;04H53> =>6 =8FK, 0 2 4@C3>< A;CG05 C3@>605B 8 <0H5B MB8< >AB@K< ?@54<5B>< 2 >1;0AB8 3;07, B> M<>F8>=0;L=0O @50:F8O <0B5@8 8=>340 <>65B 1KBL A8;L=>9 8 2 ?5@ 2>< A;CG05, => 2> 2B>@>< >=0 1C45B 2A5340 1>;55 A5@L57=>9. 07=>9 <5@K 3;C18=K 1C45B B0:65 >AC645=85 452>G:8 70 B>, GB> >=0 ?>:07K205B A25@ AB=8:C O7K:, 0 2 4@C3>< A;CG05  1>;55 8=B8<=CN G0ABL B5;0, 2>7<CI5=85 ?> ?>2>4C A>25@H5==>9 @5 15=:>< :@068 B0:8< >BF><, :>B>@K9 AG8B05B MB> >1I5G5;>25G5A:>9, A2>9AB25==>9 8 5<C A;01>ABLN, 8 >BF><, =8:>340 B0:>9 A;01>AB8 4065 2 <KA;OE =5 4>?CA:02H5<. @87=0:8 ?>4;8==>AB8 M<>F89 8=BC8B82=> C;02 ;820NBAO @515=:><, >B;8G0NI8< >G5@54=K5 1C@=K5 C?@5:8 ?> ?>2>4C 53> =5?@028;L=>3> ?>2545=8O >B C:070=8O =0 =5GB> 01A>;NB=> =54>?CAB8<>5, B01C8- @>20==>5, A2OB>5. 0@065=85 A5@L57=K<8 M<>F8O <8, AB018;L=> 8 =5?@>B82>@5G82> >1=0@C68205<K<8 149 ;8F0<8 87 1;8609H53> >:@C65=8O, O2;O5BAO 206=>9 >A=>2>9 D8:A0F88 157CA;>2=KE <>B820F8>==KE >B=> H5=89 8, ?> 2A59 2848<>AB8, >=B>35=5B8G5A:8 @0==8< <5E0=87<>< 8@@0F8>=0;L=>3> ?@8=OB8O B5E A>F80;L =KE 70?@5B>2 8 =>@<, :>B>@K5 2 ?A8E>0=0;875 >1> A>1;ONBAO 2 >B45;L=CN 8=AB0=F8N A25@E-/. AO:>5 ?>4@060=85, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 <>B820F8>=- =>5, =5 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ?@>AB>3> :>?8@>20=8O A;CG09=> C2845==KE ?@8<5@>2, >1=0@C6820O 7028A8 <>ABL >B A;>682H8EAO M<>F8>=0;L=KE >B=>H5=89 >4@060=85 C @515=:0 =5 5ABL ?>4@060=85 G5<C C3>4=>, >=> >G5=L 8718@0B5;L=>. 515=>: ?>4@0605B ;N4O<, ?>;L7CNI8<AO C =53> =081>;LH8< 02B>@8B5 B><, B5<, :>B>@K5 70B@03820NB 53> GC2AB20, ?@82;5 :0NB : A515, : :>B>@K< >= ?@82O70= (0;;>=, 1967. !. 71). 0==>5 CB25@645=85 A?@0254;82> :0: 4;O CAB>9G82KE M<>F8>=0;L=KE >B=>H5=89, B0: 8 4;O A:;04K20NI8EAO 2 :>=:@5B=KE A8BC0F8OE (A<. 0?- dura, Huston, 1961). 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AB5AB 25==>, GB> ?5@2K< >1J5:B>< 4;O 845=B8D8:0F88 >1KG=> A;C60B @>48B5;8. 0==>9 AB0488 ?@>O2;5=8O <>B820F8>==>3> ?>4@060=8O 8A:;NG8B5;L=>5 7=0G5=85 ?@84020; ?A8E>0=0;87, ?@54;>682H89, ?@0240, 25AL<0 A?5F8D8G5A:CN B@0:B>2:C 4286CI8E A8; MB>3> ?@>F5AA0, A>3;0A=> :>B>@>9 @515=>: 845=B8D8F8@C5BAO =5 ?@>AB> A @>48B5;5<, 0 A ?>B5@O==K< >1J5:B>< ;N128 8;8 A 4><8=8@CNI8< ?>;>2K< :>=:C@5=B>< 8 03@5AA>@>< (A<. Freud, 1977. Ch. 9). 4=0:> ?> <5@5 ?@8>1@5B5=8O @515=:>< A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8 8 5AB5AB25==>3> A<5I5=8O 53> 8=B5@5A>2 =0 1>;55 H8@>:89, G5< A5<LO, <8@ >1J5:B>< M<>F8- 150 >=0;L=>9 ?@82O70==>AB8 AB0=>2OBAO B0:65 4@C385 ;N48 8 A25@AB=8:8 (Phillips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sch, 1956; Crutch-field, 1955). >=D>@<=>ABL. 5AL<0 ?>:070B5;5= D0:B :>=AB8-BCF8>=0;L=>9 >1CA;>2;5==>AB8 MB>9 G5@BK, > G5< A2845B5;LAB2C5B ACI5AB2>20=85 A>>B25BAB2CNI53> B8?0 ?A8E>?0B8G5A:8E >B:;>=5=89 (2 D>@<5 B0: =07K205<>9 0:F5=BC0F88 E0@0:B5@0). 0?><=8< >A=>2=K5 53> >A>15==>AB8: @54AB028B5;8 :>=D>@<=>3> B8?0 MB> ;N48 A2>59 A@54K. E 3;02=>5 :0G5AB2>, 3;02=>5 687=5==>5 ?@028;> 68BL :0: 2A5, 4C<0BL, ?>ABC?0BL :0: 2A5, AB0@0BLAO, GB>1K 2A5 C =8E 1K;> :0: C 2A5E >B >4564K 8 4><0H=59 >1AB0=>2:8 4> <8@>2>77@5=8O 8 AC645=89 ?> 682>B@5?5ICI8< 2>?@>A0<. > ?>4 2A5<8 2A5340 ?>4@07C<5205BAO ?@82KG=>5 =5?>A@54AB25==>5 >:@C65=85. B =53> >=8 =5 E>BOB =8 2 G5< >BAB0BL, => 8 =5 ;N1OB 2K45;OBLAO. ... E>@>H5< >:@C65=88  MB> =5?;>E85 ;N74 8 8A?>;=8B5;L=K5 @01>B=8:8. >, ?>?02 2 4C@=CN A@54C, >=8 ?>AB5?5==> CA20820NB 2A5 55 >1KG08 8 ?@82KG:8, <0=5@K 8 ?>2545=85, :0: 1K MB> =8 ?@>B82>@5G8;> 2A5<C ?@54K4CI5<C 2 8E 687=8 8 :0: 1K ?03C1=> =8 1K;>. <....> >=D>@<=>ABL A>G5B05BAO A ?>@078B5;L=>9 =5:@8B8G=>ABLN. A5, GB> 3>2>@8BAO 2 ?@82KG=>< 4;O =8E >:@C65=88, 2A5, GB> >=8 C7=0NB G5@57 ?@82KG=K9 4;O =8E :0=0; 8=D>@<0F88, MB> 4;O =8E 8 5ABL 8AB8=0.  5A;8 G5@57 MB>B 65 :0=0; =0G8=0NB ?>ABC?0BL A2545=8O, O2=> =5 A>>B25BAB2CNI85 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, >=8 ?>-?@56=5<C 4>;3> ?@8=8<0NB 8E 70 G8ABCN <>=5BC (8G:>, 1983. !. 178 179). >=D>@<=K9 B8? ?A8E>?0B8G5A:>9 :>=AB8BCF88 =5 >B=>A8BAO : G8A;C H8@>:> ?@87=0205<KE 2 ;8B5@0- 181 BC@5 (A<. C@L520, 8=48:8=, 1980; 5>=30@4, 1981), >4=0:> MB> 8<55B ?@>AB>5 >1JOA=5=85. >A:>;L:C ?> A2>59 ACB8 :>=D>@<=K5 ;N48 ?@>4C:B A2>59 A@54K, 157 2725H820=8O 8 ?5@5>F5=:8 ?@8=8<0NI85 >1KG =K5 4;O =55 :C;LBC@=K5 =>@<K 8 F5==>AB8, >=8 (70 8A:;NG5=85<, :>=5G=>, :@09=8E A;CG052) =5 ?@82;5 :0NB : A515 2=8<0=8O, =8G5< >A>1K< =5 2K45;OOAL A@548 >:@C60NI8E22; 1>;55 B>3>, 2 20@80=B5 =5?;> E8E ;N459 8 8A?>;=8B5;L=KE @01>B=8:>2 >=8, <>6 => 4C<0BL, A>AB02;ONB :>ABO: B>3>, GB> =07K205BAO =>@<>9.  >B;8G85 >B 4@C38E B8?>2 ?A8E>?0B8G5 A:8E >B:;>=5=89 :>=D>@<=K5 ;N48 ?@>872>4OB 2?5 G0B;5=85 8A:;NG8B5;L=> A>F80;L=>9, 0 =5 ?@8@>4=>9 45B5@<8=8@>20==>AB8 8E @0728B8O, ?@8G5< 5A;8 8<5BL 2 284C A>45@60B5;L=CN AB>@>=C 8E F5==>AB59, 0 =5 <5E0=87<K, =0 >A=>25 :>B>@KE MB8 F5==>AB8 D>@<8@CNBAO, B> B0:>5 2?5G0B;5=85 O2;O5BAO A>25@ H5==> 25@=K<. !2845B5;LAB2CO > ?@8@>4=>< ?@>8AE>645=88 <5 E0=87<0 <>B820F8>==>3> ?>4@060=8O, 40==K5 > :>= D>@<=>< B8?5 0:F5=BC0F88 E0@0:B5@0 3>2>@OB B0:65 > 1>;LH8E @07;8G8OE <564C ;N4L<8 ?> 2K@065==> AB8 C =8E MB>9 >A>15==>AB8, :>B>@0O 7028A8B :0: >B :>=AB8BCF8>=0;L=>9 ?@54@0A?>;>65==>AB8, B0: 8 >B CA;>289 2>A?8B0=8O, A3;06820NI8E 8;8 70>AB@O NI8E 0:F5=BC8@>20==K5 G5@BK. >=D>@<=K9 B8? ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 :@09=89 ?>;NA @0A?@545;5=8O ;N459 ?> MB>9 >A>15==>AB8. @>B82>?>;>6=><C ?> ;NAC =081>;55 A>>B25BAB2C5B H87>84=K9 B8? ?A8E> ?0B89, C :>B>@>3>, =0?@8<5@, @50:F8O M<0=A8?0F88 <>65B ;53:> >1>@0G820BLAO A>F80;L=>9 =>=:>=D>@<- =>ABLN =53>4>20=85< ?> ?>2>4C ACI5AB2CNI8E ?@028; 8 ?>@O4:0, =0A<5H:0<8 =04 @0A?@>AB@0=5= =K<8 8450;0<8, 8=B5@5A0<8, 7;>?KE0B5;LAB2>< ?> ?>2>4C ..>BACBAB28O A2>1>4K" (8G:>, 1983. !. 138).  C<5@5==>9 2K@065==>AB8 :>=D>@<=>ABL ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 5AB5AB25==>5 CA;>285 4;O <>B820F8>==>3> @0728B8O ;N459, >15A?5G820NI55, 2 G0AB=>AB8, 2708- 22 -B>B B8? >B=>A8B5;L=> @54:> ?>?0405B 2 ?>;5 7@5=8O ?A8E80B@0. 848<>, 5A;8 687=L =5 B@51C5B 1>;LH>9 381:>AB8, ;8G=>9 8=8F80B82K, C<5=8O 1KAB@> >@85=B8@>20BLAO 2 AB@5<8B5;L=> <5=ONI59AO >1AB0=>2:5, 040?B0F8O 1K205B 2?>;=5 C4>2;5B2>@8B5;L=>9 (8G:>, 1981. !. 88). 152 <>A2O70==>ABL 8 A8=E@>=870F8N MB>3> ?@>F5AA0 C >B45;L=KE ;8F. @>O2;5=8N 8 70:@5?;5=8N :>=D>@<=KE G5@B <>65B A?>A>1AB2>20BL >1I0O =52@>B870F8O G5;>25:0, 53> 1>O7=L 1KBL A0<>1KB=K<, =5?>E>68< =0 4@C38E, ?@8=OBL >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 A2>1>4=>5 A0<>>?@545;5=85. 0==0O 70I8B=0O DC=:F8O :>=D>@<87<0, 87102;ONI0O >B B@52>38 >48=>G5AB20 1;03>40@O ?@54?>GB5=8N AB0=40@B=KE F5==>AB59 8 2K1>@C B0:>9 65, :0: C <=>38E, AC4L1K, >A>15==> ?>4G5@:820;0AL -. $@><<><: ...'5;>25: ?5@5AB05B 1KBL A0<8< A>1>9, >= ?>;=>ABLN CA208205B B>B B8? ;8G=>AB8, :>B>@K9 5<C ?@54;030NB <>45;8 :C;LBC@K, 8 ?>;=>ABLN AB0=>28BAO B0:8<, :0: 4@C385, 8 :0:8< >=8 53> >6840NB C2845BL. ...'5;>25:, :>B>@K9 C=8GB>68; A2>5 8=48284C0;L=>5 / 8 AB0; 02B><0B><, 845=B8G=K< A <8;;8>=0<8 4@C38E 02B><0B>2 2>:@C3 =53>, =5 8A?KBK205B 1>;LH5 GC2AB20 >48=>G5AB20 8 B@52>6=>AB8. 4=0:> F5=0, :>B>@CN >= ?;0B8B, 25;8:0 MB> ?>B5@O A0<>3> A51O (1986. !. 173). AA;54>20=8O ?>:070;8, GB> AB@0E C25;8G8205B A8BC0B82=CN :>=D>@<=>ABL: 8A?KBC5<K5, :>B>@K5 =0E>48;8AL ?>4 C3@>7>9 C40@0 B>:><, >1=0@C6820;8 2 M:A?5@8<5=B5 1>;LHCN 3>B>2=>ABL =5:@8B8G=> @0745;OBL <=5=85 3@C??K ?> A@02=5=8N A ;N4L<8, C40@0 B>:>< =5 >68402H8<8 (Darley, 1966). >7<>6=>, GB> E@>=8G5A:89 AB@0E A?>A>1AB2C5B C25;8G5=8N :>=D>@<=>AB8 :0: A2>9AB20 G5;>25:0 8 4065 F5;>9 ?>?C;OF88. -<>F8>=0;L=K5 ?@>F5AAK, ;560I85 2 >A=>25 <>-3820F8>==>3> ?>4@060=8O, >BG5B;82> @5D;5:A8@C3>B-:O 2 CG5=88 . !?8=>7K. !;54CNI85 53> B5>@5<K 3>-M>@OB > 2A5>1I59 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 A2O70==>AB8 ;N459: ^>>1@060O, GB> ?>4>1=K9 =0< ?@54<5B, : :>B>@><C 4K =5 ?8B0;8 =8:0:>3> 0DD5:B0, ?>425@305BAO :0:>-OC-;81> 0DD5:BC, <K B5< A0<K< ?>425@305<AO ?>4>1=><C 65 0DD5:BC (1917. !. 477); K 1C45< 30:65 AB@5<8BLAO 45;0BL 2A5 B>, =0 GB> ;N48, ?> 00H5<C 2>>1@065=8N, A<>B@OB A C4>2>;LAB285<, [=0>1>@>B 1C45< 871530BL 45;0BL B>, >B G53>, ?> 0H5<C 2>>1@065=8N, ;N48 >B2>@0G820NBAO !. 479). >=5G=>, ;N482708<>70@060NBAO =5 B>;L:> 459AB28O<8, => 8 >B=>H5=8O<8: A;8 <K 2>>1@0605<, GB> :B>-;81> ;N18B, 65;05B 8;8 =5=02848B GB>-;81> B0:>5, GB> <K A0<8 ;N18<, 65;05< 8;8 =5=0- 153 2848<, B> B5< ?>AB>O==55 <K 1C45< MB> ;N18BL 8 B. 4. 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A. 30), 53> ?@8;>65=85 : D0:B0< @50;L=>9 687=8. 5 CB>G=5=K >B;8G8B5;L=K5 ?@87=0:8 B0:8E A4283>2, ?>72>;ONI85 >?>7=020BL 8E A@548 ?>4>1 =KE O2;5=89. >:065< MB> =0 8A?>;L7C5<>< . . 5>=BL52K< ?@8<5@5. 5@2>:;0AA=8:, 87=0G0;L=> CA068205<K9 70 ?@8 3>B>2;5=85 C@>:>2 CA;>285< =5 A45;05HL C@>:8 =5 ?>945HL 83@0BL, G5@57 =545;N-4@C3CN =0G8=05B A048BLAO 70 70=OB8O ?> A>1AB25==>9 8=8F80B825, >1 =0@C6820O 708=B5@5A>20==>ABL 2 ?>;CG5=88 E>@>H8E >B<5B>:. $>@<0;L=>, ?> 2=5H=8< ?@87=0:0< MB>B ?@8<5@ :0: 1K A>>B25BAB2C5B D5=><5=C A42830 <> B820 =0 F5;L: ?@83>B>2;5=85 C@>:>2 :0: F5;L, =0 2O70==0O 27@>A;K< 2 :0G5AB25 CA;>28O 4;O @50;870 F88 83@>2>3> <>B820, G5@57 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O ?@8>1 @5B05B =57028A8<>5 >B =53> <>B820F8>==>5 7=0G5=85. > 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 B0:>9 A4283 745AL =5 ?@>8AE>48B, 0 ?@8<5@ 8;;NAB@8@C5B >1KG=>5 @0728B85 CG51=>9 <>B820F88, 2 :>B>@>< 83@>2>9 <>B82 2K- 156 ?>;=O5B O2=> A;CG09=CN @>;L: 27@>A;K9 <>3 A B0:8< 65 CA?5E>< CA048BL @515=:0 70 C@>:8, 8A?>;L7CO ;N1>5 4@C3>5 2>7=03@0645=85 8;8 =0:070=85. 065BAO, GB> 8<5==> B0: MB>B ?@8<5@, 87=0G0;L=> ?@82>48<K9 4;O 8;;NAB@0F88 A42830, 2 8B>35 8=B5@?@5B8@C5B 8 A0< 02B>@: 515=>: =0G8=05B A B>3>, GB> 4>1@>A>25AB=> 3>B>28B C@>:8, 8<5O 2 284C A:>@55 ?>9B8 83@0BL.  @57C;LB0B5 65 MB> ?@82>48B : 3>@074> 1>;LH5<C: =5 B>;L:> : B><C, GB> >= ?>;CG05B 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>9B8 83@0BL, => 8 : E>@>H59 >B<5B:5. @>8AE>48B =>2>5 >?@54<5G820=85 53> ?>B@51=>AB59 (1972. !. 513). 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"0:85 AB>;:=>25=8O A?>A>1=K >AB028BL A0<K5 7=0G8<K5 A;54K 2 <>B820F8>==>< @0728B88 G5;>25:0, ?@8G5< 157>B=>A8B5;L=> : <>B820< 87=0G0;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. =0, :0: 8 C?><8=02H55AO 2KH5 ?>4@060=85-?>2B>@5=85, ;8HL A>7405B 2>7<>6=>ABL 4;O B0:>3> @0728B8O, => F5;8:>< 53> =5 >?@545;O5B, :0: =5 >?@545;O5B, =0?@8<5@, <C7K:0 8;8 A?>@B 2K1>@0 A?CB=8:0 687=8 4065 5A;8 2AB@5G0 A =8< A>AB>O;0AL 1;03>40@O MB8< 70=OB8O<. !;CG08 B0:>3> ?>1>G=>3> @0728B8O 2 45OB5;L=>AB8 <>B820F88, ?@54?>;030NI53> 0:BC0;870F8N 8 ?>4:;NG5=85 2=5H=8E 4;O =55 ?>B@51=>AB59, ?@8=F8?80;L=> >B;8G0NBAO >B A;CG052 2=CB@845OB5;L=>AB-=KE <>B820F8>==KE A4283>2, >7=0G0NI8E ?5@540GC <>B82>< A2>53> 7=0G5=8O ?@><56CB>G=>9 F5;8 8 ?@8>1@5B5=85 5N >B=>A8B5;L=>9 DC=:F8>=0;L=>9 02B>=><=>AB8. 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ewin, 1951. . 152). 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Lewin, 1951; Nowlis, 1941). @O <K< ?>:070B5;5< A>E@0=5=8O =0<5@5=89 A;C68;> 8E 2K?>;=5=85 8A?KBC5<K< 8;8 701K20=85 (8@5=10C<, 1979; 528=, 1979). >A25==K< 70?><8=0=85 8A?KBC5<K< >A>15==>AB59 ?@5@20==>3> 459AB28O (5930@-=8:, 1979). >;LH>5 2=8<0=85 C45;O;>AL 2KO2;5=8N 164 CA;>289, A:07K20NI8EAO =0 A>E@0=5=88 =0<5@5=89, 2 G0AB=>AB8 A?>A>1=>AB8 :2078?>B@51=>AB59 @07@O48BLAO 2A;54AB285 A>25@H5=8O B0: =07K205<KE 70<5I0NI8E 459AB289, =0?@02;5==KE =0 F5;8, :>B>@K5 2 B>< 8;8 8=>< >B=>H5=88' AE>4=K A F5;LN 87=0G0;L=>3> =0<5@5=8O. @>2545==K5 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 8AA;54>20=8O 2A:@K;8 1>;LH>5 G8A;> :>=:@5B=KE D0:B>2 8 7028A8<>AB59, E0@0:B5@87CNI8E ?@>O2;5=85 =0<5@5=89 8 :2078?>B@51=>AB59. 5 2=8:0O 2 G0AB=>AB8, >B<5B8<, GB> 2 F5;>< >=8 :@><5 C1548B5;L=>9 45<>=AB@0F88 ACI5AB2>20=8O MB8E A8BC0B82=KE <>B82 0F8>==KE >1@07>20=89 ?>:070;8 ?@5645 2A53> 8E 8A:;NG8B5;L=CN 48=0<8G=>ABL, A?>A>1=>ABL 2708<>459AB2>20BL (.:><.<C=8F8@>20BL) <564C A>1>9, B5@OBL A8;C 8 2>AAB0=02;820BLAO 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B <=>65AB20 CA;>289, G0AB> 8A?KBC5<K< =5 >A>7=0205<KE.  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"> 65 A0<>5 <>6=> A:070BL > 1>;LH59 A;>6=>AB8, <=>3>20@80=B=>AB8 >B40;5= =>3> 1C4CI53>; N=>H0 >B ?@54AB>OI53> 3>40 <>65B 640BL <=>38E ?>2>@>B>2 AC4L1K, 4;O ?>68;>3> G5;> 25:0 MB>B >B@57>: 2@5<5=8 <>65B >7=0G0BL B>;L:> >G5@54=>9 H03 2 871@0==>< =0?@02;5=88 687=8. ;86=OO '8 40;L=OO 2@5<5==0O ?5@A?5:B820 =0E> 4OBAO A:>@55 2A53> 2 @07=KE >1;0ABOE C?><8=02H5 3>AO 3@0485=B0 @50;L=>AB8, GB> ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 1>;L H59 M<>F8>35==>AB8, =5?>A@54AB25==>9 ?>1C48B5;L =>AB8 1;86=8E A>1KB89 (>@DC=:5;L, 1967), >4=0:> 87-70 =587CG5==>AB8 MB>3> 3@0485=B0 CB25@640BL GB>- ;81> >?@545;5==>5 2 53> >B=>H5=89 B@C4=>. >;55 206=K< ?@54AB02;O5BAO AE>4AB2> CA;>289, >?@545;ONI8E ?@8=OB85 G5;>25:>< 1;86=8E 8 40;L =8E =0<5@5=89. 59AB28B5;L=>, =57028A8<> >B B>3>, >14C<K205B ;'8 G5;>25: ?@54AB>OI89 45=L, =545;N 8;18 3>4, >= =587156=> 2>A?@8=8<05B A51O =0E>4O I8<AO 2 >?@545;5==>9 687=5==>9 'A8BC0F88, >B@060 5<>9 2 >1@075 <8@0. 3> ?>B@51=>AB8 ?@>5F8@CNB AO 2 B0:CN A8BC0F8N 2 2845 <=>3>G8A;5==KE A;>682H8EAO : B><C <><5=BC :>=:@5B=KE <>B.820F=- >==KE >B=>H5=89, >B:@K20NI8E F5==>ABL, 65;0B5;L =>ABL =5 B>;L:> =0;8G=KE ?@54<5B>2 8 O2;5=89, => 8 2>7<>6=KE 8E 87<5=5=89. 1@07 1C4CI53> ?@54 AB02;O5B .A>1>9 B0:>5 65 <>B820F8>==>5 ?>;5 A> A2>8<8 20;5=B=>ABO<8, 10@L5@0<8, 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 ?@82;5:0B5;L=K<8 F5;O<8, :0: 8 >1@07 =0AB>OI53>. 708<>459AB285 >1@07CNI8E MB> ?>;5 A8; @0=68@C 5B ?> AB5?5=8 65;0B5;L=>AB8 B5 8;8 8=K5 ?>ABC?:8, A>1KB8O, 2K1>@K, @5H5=8O, 2>7<>6=K5 =0 ;N1>9 B>G :5 687=5==>9 ?5@A?5:B82K. 4=0:> A0<> ?> A515 2708<>459AB285 <>B820F8>=-=KE >B=>H5=89 @5H05B AC4L1C G5;>25:0 @0725 B>;L:> 168 2 A;CG05 A8;L=>9, ?>402;ONI59 @07C< AB@0AB8. . 528= =54>>F5=820; 7=0G5=8O 0:B82=>AB8 AC1J5:B0, ?@>F5AA>2, =0720==KE . . NBB5=>< :>3=8B82=>9 @07@01>B:>9 ?>B@51=>AB59 (Nuttin, 1964) 24. 564C B5< MB0 0:B82=>ABL ?>@>9, >A>15==>' ?5@54 206=K<8 687=5==K<8 2K1>@0<8, 1K205B 25AL<0 8=B5=A82=>9 8 A;>6=>9. @8=8<0O @5H5=85 2 >B=>H5=88 =5:>B>@>9 >B40;5==>9 F5;8, G5;>25: 4>;65= 2KOA=8BL 8 >F5=8BL :0: >1J5:B82=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 8 CA;>28O 55 4>AB865=8O, B0: 8 A>1AB25==K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 A?>A>1=>AB8, C<5=8O, B@C4>;N185 8 B. ?.25 >B>2=>ABL 4@C38E ;N459 ?><>GL 8;.8 2>7<>6=K5 ?@5?OBAB28O A 8E AB>@>=K, M=5@35B8G5A:85, 2@5<5==K5, D8=0=A>2K5 ?>B5@8, :>B>@K5 ?>2;5G5B 4>AB865=85 F5;8, 8 <=>3> 4@C38E >1AB>OB5;LAB2 4>;6=K 1KBL ?> <5@5 2>7<>6=>AB8 157>H81>G=> CGB5=K ?5@54 ?@8=OB85< @5H5=8O. 0<5@5=85 4>AB830BL >?@545;5==CN F5;L, 2>7=8:0NI55 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?@8=OB>3> @5H5=8O, O2;O5BAO, B0:8< >1@07><, A;54AB285< =5 B>;L:> @0A:;040 8 A>>B=>H5=8O <>B820F8>==KE A8; 2> 2@5<5==>9 ?5@A?5:B825 >1@070 <8@0, => 8 ?>7=020B5;L=>3> CB>G=5=8O 8 >A<KA;5=8O F5;>AB=>9 687=5==>9 A8BC0F88, >E20BK20NI59 B>, GB> 5ABL, 8 B>, 2> GB> >=> 4>;6=> ?@52@0B8BLAO, =0;8G=>5 8 2>7<>6=>5.  >1>1I5==>< 2845 45OB5;L=>ABL G5;>25:0 ?> ?;0=8@>20=8N A2>59 687=8 <>6=> 87>1@078BL :0: ?@>-A<0B@820=85 2@5<O >B 2@5<5=8 @07;8G=KE :0: 1>;55, B0: 8 <5=55 >B40;5==KE 7>= 687=5==>9 ?5@A?5:B82K 8 <=>3>:@0B=>5 @5H5=85 2 @07=KE <0AHB010E, >4=0:> >4=>9 8 B>9 65 7040G8 :0:8< >1@07>< ?@8 <8=8<0;L=KE CA8;8OE <0:A8<0;L=> ?@>428=CBLAO 2 #4>2;5B2>@5=88 A2>8E ?>B@51=>AB59. >B820F8O >B:@K205B 2 >1@075 <8@0 65;0B5;L=>5, 8=B5;;5:B, 7=0=8O, >?KB  2>7<>6=>5. !>3;0A>2K20O >4=> A 4@C- 24 =B53@0F8O ?>B@51=>AB59 2 F5;>AB=>< ?@>O2;5=88 ;8G=>AB8 >7=0G05B, GB> >=8 ACI5AB2CNB C G5;>25:0 8 2;8ONB =0 53> ?>2545=85 =5 2 D>@<5 >157;8G5==KE M=5@35B8G5A:8E :0G5AB2, 0 2 2845 ?5@A>=0;878@>20==KE ?;0=>2 8 7040G (Nuttin, 1957. . 195). 25 ...4=> 87 CA;>289 =>@<0;L=>3> DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O G5;>25:0  MB> ?@028;L=>5 @0A?>7=0=85 A2>8E >1J5:B82=KE ?>B@51=>AB59 8 D>@<C;8@>2:0 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E 7040G =0 >A=>25 7=0=8O A8BC0F88 8 A>1AB25==KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 (Obuchowski, 1985. S. 109). 169 38<, G5;>25: <>65B ?@8=8<0BL 8 ?5@5?@8=8<0BL @5 H5=8O @0AG5B;82> 8;8 8=BC8B82=>, A 1>;LH8< 8;8 <5=LH8< @8A:><, A0<>AB>OB5;L=> 8;8 >1@0I0OAL 70 A>25B0<8, 65AB:> 8;8 0;LB5@=0B82=>, >4=0:> 2 ;N 1>< A;CG05 ?@8=OB85 @5H5=8O >7=0G05B D>@<8@>20 =85 =0<5@5=8O, B. 5. =0?@02;5==>3> =0 1C4CI55 ?>1C645=8O, 8<5NI53> ?@>872>4=>5 >B F5;>AB=>9 687=5==>9 A8BC0F88 <>B820F8>=?>5 7=0G5=85. 0: A;54AB285 F5;>AB=>9 A8BC0F88 2>7=8:0NB =5 B>;L:> G0AB=K5 =0<5@5=8O  ?@>G8B0BL :=83C, =0=5AB8 :><C- B> 2878B, => 8 DC=40<5=B0;L=K5 =0?8A0BL :=83C, >1J5E0BL <8@, ?@8>1@5AB8 >?@545;5==CN ?@>D5AA8N, 8<5BL <=>3> 45B59. 06=> ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> ?> CA;>28O<, 4286CI8< A8;0< 8 <5E0=87<0< D>@<8@>20=8O =0<5@5=8O @07 =>9 DC=40<5=B0;L=>AB8 8 2@5<5==>9 >B=5A5==>AB8 2>7=8:0NB AE>4=K< >1@07><. 59AB28B5;L=>, 345 2 F5?>G:5 8;8 85@0@E88 ?@8=OBKE =0<5@5=89, A>AB02 ;ONI8E, ?> ACB8, ?;0= 687=8, <>65B 1KBL ?@>AB02 ;5=0 G5@B0, @0745;ONI0O 8E =0 @07=K5 :;0AAK? 0 :0:>5 :>;8G5AB2> ACB>: 2?5@54 >B =0AB>OI53> <><5= B0 4>;6=> 1KBL =0?@02;5=> =0<5@5=85 4;O B>3>. GB> 1K >B=>A8BL 53> : 1;86=8< 8;8 40;L=8<? 8 D>@ <0;L=KE, =8 ?@8=F8?80;L=KE >A=>20=89 4;O B0:>3> :@8B5@8O =5B, 8 D0:B8G5A:8 =0<5@5=8O @07=>9 C40 ;5==>AB8 A>AB02;ONB >4=>@>4=K9 :>=B8=CC<. > MB> 7=0G8B, GB> =0<5@5=85 ?>A2OB8BL @515=:C, 682>?8A8 8;8 ?@>42865=8N =5:>B>@>9 8458 1;8609H55 2>A :@5A5=L5, ;5B=89 >B?CA: 8;8 2AN >AB02HCNAO 687=L O2;5=8O ?@8 2A59 @07=><0AHB01=>AB8 ?A8E> ;>38G5A:8 M:2820;5=B=K5. A:;NG8B5;L=CN @>;L A>7=0B5;L=> ?@8=8<05<KE =0<5@5=89 2 687=8 G5;>25:0 ?>4G5@:8205B . 1C- E>2A:89, 2 :>=F5?F88 :>B>@>3> MB8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 >1@07>20=8O =07K20NBAO 7040G0<8 8 E0@0:B5@87CNB AO :0: >A=>20 B5>@88 40;L=59 <>B820F88; ?> A;> 20< MB>3> 02B>@0, >4=0 87 206=59H8E, 5A;8 B>;L:> =5 A0<0O 206=0O 45B5@<8=0=B0 DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O G5;>25:0  MB> 53> 7040G8, B> ?>;>65=85 25I59, 4>AB865=85 :>B>@>3> >= ?@8=8<05B :0: A2>5, 2KB5:0NI55 87 A>1AB25==KE =0<5@5=89 (Obuchowski, 198o. S. 109).  @01>B0E ?>;LA:>3> ?A8E>;>30 @07@010BK20NBAO 2>?@>AK >1 >@30=870F88 A8AB5<K 7040G-=0<5@5=89 (2 8AA;54>20=8OE 27@>A;K9 G5;>25: >1KG=> 170 C:07K205B >B 8 4> 30 B0:8E 7040G; B0< 65. !. 259), B8?0E A2O78 <564C =8<8, @>;8 A8AB5<K 7040G 2 @0728B88 ;8G=>AB8 8 4@. 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'5< 2>>@C605B ?@54?>;>65=85 > @>4AB25==>AB8 40;L=8E 8 1;86=8E =0<5@5=89, GB> >=> 4>102;O5B 2 ?>=8<0=85 A>1AB25==> G5;>25G5A:>9 <>B820F88? @5645 2A53> >=> >7=0G05B, GB> ?@54AB02;5=8O . 528=0 > :2078?>B@51=>ABOE 8 =0<5@5=8OE 8<5NB 1>;55 H8@>:>5 7=0G5=85 8 ?@8<5=5=85, G5< B>, :>B>@>5 8< B@048F8>==> >B2>48BAO 2 ;8B5@0BC@5. 2078?>B@51=>ABL 2 :0G5AB25 F5;5=0?@02;5==> AB@5<OI53>AO : 171 @07@O4:5 8 :><<C=8F8@CNI53> =0?@O65=8O O2;O5BAO D5=><5=>< =5 B>;L:> A>1AB25==> A8BC0B82=>3> @07 28B8O <>B820F88, A>E@0=ONI8<AO :0: 1K ?> 8=5@F88 8 2;8ONI8< =0 ?>2545=85 2 ?@545;0E 1;8609H8E 4=59. @>O2;OOAL 2 >1@075 1C4CI53>, B0:85 =0?@O 65=8O, 2>7=8:0NI85 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?@8=OBKE =0<5@5 =89, A?>A>1=K A>E@0=OBLAO ;N1>5 =0<5G5==>5 2@5<O, ?>1C640O G5;>25:0 : 4>AB865=8N :@C?=><0AHB01 =KE F5;59 8, ?> 2A59 2848<>AB8, B>65 :><,<C=8F8@CO A;>6=K< >1@07><. > CB25@645=8N . . 5930@=8:, 5A;8 ?5@525AB8 B5@<8=>;>38N 528=0 =0 A>2@5 <5==K9 O7K:, B> A =5:>B>@>9 =0BO6:>9 <>6=> A:0 70BL, GB> 528= ?@542>AE8B8; 845N >1 85@0@E8G5 A:>< ?>AB@>5=88 :2078?>B@51=>AB59 (1981. !. 34). >6=> '4>1028BL, GB> MB0 85@0@E8O =5 8AG5@?K205BAO =0<5@5=8O<8 =0 1;8609H55 2@5<O, 0 >E20BK205B 2AN 687=5==CN ^ ?5@A?5:B82C >1@070 <8@0. !>3;0A=> . 1CE>2A:><C, 8=48284C0;L=0O A8AB5<0 7040G-=0 <5@5=89 :@><5 A>1AB25==> 85@0@E8G5A:>9 <>65B 8<5BL 5I5 @07@>7=5==CN, ;8=59=CN, =5?>;=CN 8 ?A524>85@0@E8G5A:CN >@30=870F8N (Obuchowski, 1985. 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"0:>5 ?>=8<0=85 ?@>8AE>645=8O <>B82>2 G5;>25:0 ?>:07K- 185 205B A?>A>1 8E >?>A@54AB2>20=8O 8=B5;;5:B>< 8 ?>4G5@:8205B 8E ?@>872>4=>ABL >B F5;>AB=>9 687=5==>9 A8BC0F88, 0 B0:65 A2O70==CN A MB8< >B=>A8B5;L=CN CAB>9G82>ABL 8 DC=:F8>=0;L=CN 02B>=><=>ABL, ?>B5=F80;L=CN 70<5=O5<>ABL 0;LB5@=0B82=K<8 687=5==K<8 F5;O<8. 2078?>B@51=>AB8, >1@07C5<K5 ?@8=OB85< 40;L=8E =0<5@5=89, ?@>4>;68B5;L=>5 A>E@0=5=85 A>>B25BAB2CNI53> 8< <5B0=0?@O65=8O (Obuchowski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"&/ !#&/ #65 C 682>B=KE, =0?@8<5@ 2 :>=D;8:B=KE A8BC0F8OE, >BG5B;82> =01;N405BAO 8 87CG05BAO 2 A?5F80;L=KE 8AA;54>20=8OE (Broadhurst, 1964; Elder 0. >., 1961; Murray, Berkun, 1955) 7028A8<>ABL ?>2545=8O >B =5A:>;L:8E 2708<>459AB2CNI8E ?>1C645=89, 254CI8E ?@>8AE>645=85 >B @07=KE ?>B@51=>AB59. # G5;>25:0 >4=>2@5<5==>5 ?@>O2;5=85 8 459AB285 <>B820F8>==KE D0:B>@>2 @07;8G=>3> ?@>8AE>645=8O ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ?@0:B8G5A:8 ?>AB>O==K9 D>= 687=8. >MB><C 0:BC0;L=>9 O2;O5BAO =5 A0<0 ?> A515 :>=AB0B0F8O ?>;8<>B828@>20==>AB8 G5;>25G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 0 ?@>1;5<0 55 D>@< 8 <5E0=87<>2. 8B5@0BC@0 ?> MB><C 2>?@>AC A>45@68B 4>AB0B>G=> @07=>>1@07=K9 <0B5@80;. $5=><5= ?>;8<>B820F88 @>1;5<0 ?>;8<>B820F88 B>;L:> A2>8< =0720=85< O2;O5BAO A>2@5<5==>9; ?@8<5@>< B>3>, 2 :0:8E B5@<8=0E >=0 >1AC640;0AL 2 :>=F5?F8OE ?@>H;>3>, <>3CB A;C68BL A;54CNI85 A;>20 . . #H8=A:>3>: ...>;LH8=AB2> 65;0=89 2 G5;>25:5 =5 ?@>ABK5 65;0=8O, 2>7=8:H85 87 >4=>3> :0:>3>-;81> AB@5<;5=8O, => 65;0=8O A;>6=K5, 2>7=8:H85 87 @07=KE AB@5<;5=89, :>B>@K5 A>548=8;8AL 2<5AB5 :0:8<-=81C4L >4=8< >1H8@=K< ?@54AB02;5=85< 8;8 >1H8@=>N A8AB5<>9 ?@54AB02;5=89 8<5==> ?>B><C, GB> @07=K5 AB>@>=K MB>3> ?@54AB02;5=8O, 8;8 @07=K5 G;5=K MB>9 A8AB5<K ?@54AB02;5=89 C4>2;5B2>@ONB =5A:>;L:8<, @07;8G=K< AB@5<;5=85< G5;>25:0 (1950. ". 9. !. 507).  A>2@5<5==>9 B5@<8=>;>388 MB8 A;>20 >7=0G0N 3, GB> ...?>2545=85 G0I5 2A53> 1K205B ?>;8<>B828@>20==K<. ...N1>5 ?>2545=85 >1=0@C68205B B5=45=F8N : 45B5@<8=8@>20==>AB8 A:>@55 =5A:>;L:8<8 8;8 2A5<8 107>2K<8 ?>B@51=>ABO<8 >4=>2@5<5==>, G5< 548=AB25==>9 87 =8E (Maslow, 1943. . 390). !>3;0A=> . . >6>28G, ...=5 B>;L:> >4=0 8 B0 65 ?>B@51- 187 =>ABL <>65B 2>?;>I0BLAO 2 @07;8G=KE >1J5:B0E, => 8 2 >4=>< 8 B>< 65 >1J5:B5 <>3CB 2>?;>I0BLAO A0<K5 @07=>>1@07=K5 2708<>459AB2CNI85, ?5@5?;5B0NI85AO, 0 8=>340 8 ?@>B82>@5G0I85 4@C3 4@C3C ?>B@51=>AB8. 0?@8<5@, >B<5B:0 2 :0G5AB25 <>B820 CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 <>65B 2>?;>I0BL 2 A515 8 ?>B@51=>ABL 2 >4>1@5=88 CG8B5;O, 8 ?>B@51=>ABL 1KBL =0 C@>2=5 A2>59 A>1AB25==>9 A0<>>F5=:8, 8 AB@5<;5=85 702>520BL 02B>@8B5B B>20@8I59, 8 65;0=85 >1;53G8BL A515 ?>ABC?;5=85 2 2KAH55 CG51=>5 702545=85, 8 <=>385 4@C385 ?>B@51=>AB8 (1972. !. 27). !E>4=KE ?@54AB02;5=89 ?@845@6820NBAO . . $8;8??>2 (1968)27, (. . 'E0@B8H28;8 (1974), . . >20;52 (1981) 28, . !. 03C= (1983), . . <540475 (19846) 29 8 4@. 4=0:> =5;L7O =5 A>3;0A8BLAO A 2K2>4>< . . <540475, A>3;0A=> :>B>@><C ...E>BO CB25@645=8O > ?>;8<>B828@>20==>AB8 45OB5;L=>AB8 2AB@5G0NBAO >G5=L G0AB>, >=8, :0: ?@028;>, 8<5NB 45:;0@0B82=K9 E0@0:B5@ (!. 89). 5GL 845B > B><, GB> ?@8=F8? ?>;8<>B820F88, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, =5 >A?0@8205BAO, A 4@C3>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=> =5 @50;87C5BAO:  A>25BA:>9 ?A8E>;>388 4> ?>A;54=53> 2@5<5=8 =01;N40;0AL A;54CNI0O :0@B8=0: 1>;LH8=AB2> 8AA;54>20B5;59, ?@87=020O ?>;8<>B828@>20==>ABL G5;>25G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 (5>=BL52, 1975; C18=HB59=, 1946), 87CG0;8 MBC 45OB5;L=>ABL B0:, :0: 5A;8 1K 8<5;AO >48=, >B45;L=> 27OBK9, 4><8=8@CNI89 2 40==>9 A8BC0F88 <>B82; 8=K<8 A;>20<8, ?@8 ?@>2545=88 M<?8@8G5A:8E 8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE 8AA;54>20=89 ?A8E>;>38 ?@54?>G8B0;8 @01>B0BL A >4=>7=0G=K<8 <>B820<8 (0;<K:>20, 0478E>2A:89, 1988. !. 37). 59AB28B5;L=>, ?@8=F8?C ?>;8<>B820F88 1>;55 >B25G0;> 1K ?>=8<0=85 2 :>=F5?F88 . . 5>=BL520 ?@>F5AA0 D>@<8@>20=8O <>B820 :0: >?@54<5G820=OO 2 =5< @O40 ?>B@51=>AB59, 0 =5 >B45;L=>9 ?>B@51=>AB8, O 27 ..."0 8;8 8=0O ?>B@51=>ABL >1@07C5BAO =5 =0 1075 :0:>9-;81> =C64K, 0 =0 1075 A;>6=>3> ?5@5?;5B5=8O C65 8<5NI8EAO C G5;>25:0 ?>B@51=>AB59 (!. 20). 28 =>65AB25==>ABL <>B82>2 70:;NG05BAO =5 B>;L:> 2 B><, GB> @50;870F8O >4=>9 8 B>9 65 ?>B@51=>AB8 A2O70=0 >1KG=> ( F5;>9 A>2>:C?=>ABLN >4=>@>4=KE <>B82>2, => 8 2 B><, GB> ? 2545=85 8 45OB5;L=>ABL ?>1C640NBAO, =0?@02;ONBAO 8 @5> B' @CNBAO >1KG=> @07=>@>4=K<8 <>B820<8 (!. 36). 29 ...=>385 D>@<K ?>2545=8O G5;>25:0 8<5NB A;>6=K9. ?>;8?>B@51=>AB=K9 A>AB02 (!. 92). 188 A>>B25BAB25==> >?@545;5=85 <>B820 =5 :0: ?@54<5B0 ?>B@51=>AB830, 0 :0: ?@54<5B0 ?>B@51=>AB59. -B> =5A:>;L:> 87<5=8;> 1K 87>1@0605<CN 2 40==>9 :>=F5?F88 >1ICN :0@B8=C <>B820F88, 8A:;NG0O, 2 G0AB=>AB8, ?@O<>;8=59=>ABL A>>B=5A5=8O ?>B@51=>AB59 8 45OB5;L=>AB59 (A@. <540475, 19840), A>45@60ICNAO, =0?@8<5@, 2 A;>20E: 50;L=> 65 <K 2A5340 8<55< 45;> A >A>15==K<8 45OB5;L=>ABO<8, :0640O 87 :>B>@KE >B25G05B >?@545;5==>9 ?>B@51=>AB8 AC1J5:B0, AB@5<8BAO : ?@54<5BC MB>9 ?>B@51=>AB8, C30A05B 2 @57C;LB0B5 55 C4>2;5B2>@5=8O (5>=BL52, 1975. !. 102). ?@>G5<, ?@54AB02;5=85 >1 >4=>7=0G=>< A>>B25BAB288 <564C 45OB5;L=>ABLN 8 '?>B@51=>ABLN .2>7<>6=>, => ?@8 CA;>288, 5A;8 ?@87=0BL, GB> D>@<8@>20=85 =>2>3> ?>;8?>B@51=>AB=>3> <>B820F8>==>3> >B=>H5=8O >7=0G05B 2>7=8:=>25=85 =>2>9 ?>B@51=>AB8: ...=5 ?>B@51=>AB8 =0E>4OB A2>9 ?@54<5B, 0 2>7=8:=>25=85 ?@54<5B0 ?>B@51=>AB8 8 5ABL ?@>8AE>645=85 A0<>9 ?>B@51=>AB8 (<540475, 19840. !. 37). "0:>5 ?@87=0=85 D0:B8G5A:8 ;568B 2 >A=>25 2K45;5=8O B0: =07K205<KE A>F8>35==KE ?>B@51=>AB59  2 CG515, B@C45, EC4>65AB25==>< B2>@G5AB25 8 B. ?. 4=0:> MB> 7=0G8B, GB> 2 >A=>25 >A>15==KE 45OB5;L=>AB59 ;560B =5 B5 65 A0<K5 ?>B@51=>AB8, :>B>@K5 >?@54<5B8;8AL 2 8E <>B820E, 8=K<8 A;>20<8, GB5 >?@54<5G820NBAO 2 <>B82K >4=8 ?>B@51=>AB8  8AE>4=K5, C65 ACI5AB2CNI85, @>640NBAO 65 2 @57C;LB0B5 MB>3> G@572KG09=>3> 0:B0, 4@C385 2B>@8G=K5 (8;8 1>;55 2KA>:8E ?>@O4:>2), ?@>872>4=K5.  B0:>< ?>=8<0=88 B578A . . 5>=BL520 @0728B85 ?>B@51=>AB59 ?@>8AE>48B G5@57 @0728B85 8E >1J5:B>2 (1971. !. 6) E0@0:B5@87C5B @0728B85 =5 B>;L:> >B45;L=KE ?>B@51=>AB59 (CA2>5=85 =>2KE 284>2 ?8I8 >7=0G05B @0728B85 A0<>9 ?8I52>9 ?>B@51=>AB8), => 8 2A59 8E A8AB5<K: ?8I520O ?>B@51=>ABL 2<5AB5 A> <=>38<8 4@C38<8 2=>A8B A2>9 2:;04 2 @0728B85 <>B820F8>==>3> >B=>H5=8O : B@C4C, B0: :0: >= O2;O5BAO CA;>285< 8E C4>2;5B2>@5=8O. 30 @54<5B ?>B@51=>AB8  <0B5@80;L=K9 8;8 8450;L=K9, /2AB25==> 2>A?@8=8<05<K9 8;8 40==K9 B>;L:> 2 ?@54AB02;5=88, 2 <KA;5==>< ?;0=5  <K =07K205< <>B82>< 45OB5;L=>AB8 (1971. !. 13). 189 54>AB0B>G=K9 CG5B ?@8=F8?0 ?>;8<>B820F88 E0@0:B5@5= 4;O 8AA;54>20=89 <>B820F88 2 @0<:0E D0:B>@=>3> (A<. 81@8E, @;>2, 1977), :>3=8B82=>3> (A<. 03><54--<8=>2, 0A8;L52, 1986) ?>4E>4>2 : MB>9 ?@>1;5<5, 8 B0: =07K205<>3> A8BC0F8>=87-<0 2 8AA;54>20=8OE ;8G=>AB8 (Bowers, 1973; Michel, 1968, 1973). 4=0 87 B8?8G=KE M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE AE5<, 8A?>;L7C5<KE 2 MB8E 8AA;54>20=8OE, A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> =5:>B>@>5 ?>2545=85, ?>1C6405<>5 A?5F8D8G5A:8< <>B82><, @538AB@8@C5BAO 2 @07;8G=KE A8BC0F8OE, =5<8=C5<> 2=>AOI8E 2 ?>2545=85 A2>8 ?>@>9 ACI5AB25==K5 :>@@5:F88. 57C;LB0BK B0:8E 8AA;54>20=89 87;030NBAO 2 D>@<5, >?@545;O5<>9 AE5<>9 M:A?5@8<5=B0: =0@O4C A >?8A0=85< ?>2545=8O, ?>1C6405<>3> =5:>B>@K< <>B82>< (4>AB865=8O, ?><>I8, 03@5AA88 8 4@.), ?@8;0305BAO ?5@5G5=L A8BC0F8>==KE D0:B>@>2, 2;8ONI8E =0 ?@>O2;5=85 <>B820; 2 B5>@5B8G5A:>< ?;0=5 >1AC6405BAO 2>?@>A > 2708<>459AB288 ;8G=>AB=KE (<>B82K, 48A?>78F88) 8 A8BC0B82=KE D0:B>@>2 (A<. %5:E0C75=, 1986; Atkinson, Birch, 1978). 4=0:> ?>2545=85 ?>1C640NB =5 D0:B>@K, 0 <>-B820F8>==K5 ?@>F5AAK, 8 5A;8 M:A?5@8<5=BK D8:A8@CNB 87<5=5=85 ?>2545=8O 2 >?@545;5==KE A8BC0F8OE, B> MB> 7=0G8B, GB> 2 =8E 0:BC0;878@CNBAO A?5F8D8G5A:85 <>B820F8>==K5 >B=>H5=8O, :>B>@K5, 2708<>459AB2CO A 87CG05<K< <>B82><, 2=>AO3 :>@@5:F88 2 ?>2545=85. !?>A>1=>ABL A8BC0F88 0:B82878@>20BL <>B820F8N =5 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 '=8G53> =5>1KG=>3>. O4 ?>B@51=>AB59 ?> A2>59 ACB8 O2;ONBAO M:7>35==K<8, ?> B5@<8=>;>388 . . 5@@5O (Murray, 1964) @50:B82=K<8, ?@54?>;030NI8<8 0:BC0;870F8N 8<5==> 2=5H=8<8 D0:B>@0<8.  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A>15==> >BG5B;82> D5=><5= ?>;8<>B820F88 ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 <=>3>G8A;5==KE 8AA;54>20=8OE 2K1>@0 F5;59, ?@>2545==KE 2 @0<:0E ?@>1;5< >68405<>9 F5==>AB8, C@>2=O ?@8BO70=89, <>B820F88 4>AB865=89 8 4@. (A<. %5:E0C75=, 1986. ;. 5, 9). >B820F8->==>5 2708<>459AB285, ;560I55 |b >A=>25 B0:>3> @>40 2K1>@>2, 70D8:A8@>20=>, =0?@8<5@, 2 B0:>< B5@<8=5, :0: @57C;LB8@CNI0O 20;5=B=>ABL, >B@060NI5< B>B D0:B, GB> 8B>3>2>5 ?>1C645=85 : F5;8 O2;O5BAO AC<<0@=K<, 2>7=8:0NI8< =0 >A=>25 55 <>B820F8>=-=>3> 7=0G5=8O, 25@>OB=>AB8 >6840=8O CA?5E0 8 >B45;L=> =5CA?5E0 (Lewin 0. >., 1946). K45;5=> <=>3> 4@C38E <><5=B>2, ?>:07K20NI8E A;>6=>ABL A8BC0B82=>3> <>B820F8>==>3> 2708<>459AB28O. "0:, 6. . 59=>@>< (Raynor, 1969) 1K;0 @07@01>B0=0 <>45;L, A>3;0A=> :>B>@>9 G5;>25: ?@8 2K@01>B:5 >B=>H5=8O : F5;8 CG8BK205B =5 B>;L:> =5?>A@54AB25==K5, => 8 >B40;5==K5 ?>A;54AB28O 55 4>AB865=8O, GB>, 2?@>G5<, >G5284=> 8 =01;N405BAO, =0?@8<5@, 2 @07;8G=>< >B=>H5=88 ABC45=B>2 : >B45;L=K< 87CG05<K< ?@54<5B0<. 4=0:> 8 MB8 8AA;54>20=8O ?> <5@5 2>7<>6=>AB8 871530NB A>;8<>B820F8>==>9 B@0:B>2:8 ?>;CG05<KE D0:B>2, >1=0@C6820O B5=45=F8N >1AC640BL 8E 2 @;<-:0E 87>;8@>20==KE B5<, 2 G0AB=>AB8 B0:>3> <>B820F8>==>3> :>=3;><5@0B0, :0:>9 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 <>B82 4>AB865=89 (Atkinson, Raynor, 1974, 1978). 54L F5;8, 4>AB8305<K5 G5;>25:><, <>3CB 8<5BL A0<>5 @07;8G=>5 <>B820F8>==>5 7=0G5=85. >=5G=>, >=8, >A>15==> CA?5E8-=5CA?5E8 2 8E 4>AB865=88, 7=0G8<K ;O G5;>25:0 =5 B>;L:> A0<8 ?> A515, => 8 :0: 70B@03820NI85 53> 0<18F88, 2>2;5:0NI85 M3> (Costel-1>, 1964; Ferguson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urray, 1964), H8@>:>3> ?@87=0=8O 87-70, :0: <>6=> 4C<0BL, D0:B8G5A:8 ACI5AB2CNI53> :>=B8=CC<0 <>B820F8>2=KE >1@07>20=89 ?> ?@87=0:C :>=:@5B=>AB8->1I=>AB8. "5< =5 <5=55 2 =5O2=>< 2845 40==>5 @07;8G5=85, :0: 1K 2K45;ONI55 C@>2=8 AB@0B538G5A:>9 8 B0:B8G5A:>9 <>B820F88, ?>4@07C<5205BAO 2 @O45 :>=F5?F89 (0BO5-20, 1983). @>B82>?>AB02;5=85 <>B82>2 @07=>9 >1I=>AB8 >?@024K205BAO B5C D0:B><, GB> <564C =8<8 =5B ?@O<>3> A>>B25BAB28O, B0: :0: 2 ?@>F5AA5 :>=:@5B870F88 1>;55 >1I85 <>B82K ?5@5?;5B0NBAO, 45;0O 45OB5;L=>ABL, >B25G0NICN :>=:@5B=K< <>B820<, ?>;8<>B828@>20==>9. "0:, 701>B0 > A2>59 A>10:5 <>65B >B25G0BL >1>1I5==><C <>B82C ;N128 : 682>B=K< 8 2<5AB5 A B5< 7040G5 2>A?8B0=8O 45B59, >E@0=K :20@B8@K, =5>1E>48<>AB8 A>25@H0BL ?>;57=K5 4;O 74>@>2LO ?@>3C;:8 8 4@. . . >4>=>2, ?@54;>682H89 @07;8G0BL =5?>A@54AB25==> ?>1C640NI85 45OB5;L=>ABL ?@545;L=K5 8 AB>OI85 70 =8<8 70?@545;L=K5 <>B82K, A2O70==K5 A 55 A>F80;L=K< 7=0G5=85<, ?8A0;: 0?@545;L=K5 <>B82K A2O7K20NB >B45;L=K5, G0AB> >G5=L @07=K5 :>=:@5B=K5 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 >?@545;5==K5 :><?;5:AK...  B> 65 2@5<O :0640O :>=:@5B=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL 8 A> AB>@>=K >1I5AB20, 8 A> " AB>@>=K ;8G=>AB8 <>B828@C5BAO =5 >4=8< 70?@545;L=K< <>B82><, 0 >?OBL-B0:8 F5;>9 8E  A2O7:>9" (1984. !. 127). "0:8< >1@07><, ?@8 :>=:@5B870F88 >1>1I5==KE <>B820F8>==KE >B=>H5=89 ?@>8AE>48B :0: 8E A2>53> @>40 4825@35=F8O, @0AA5820=85 ?> @07=K< <>B820<, B0: 8 >1@0B=K9 ?@>F5AA 8E :>=25@35=F88, D>:CA8@>2:8. 0B5@80;, :>B>@K9 >1AC640;AO 2 @0<:0E ?@>1;5< <>B820F8>==>3> >?>A@54AB2>20=8O 8 D>@<8@>20=8O 40;L=8E =0<5@5=89, ?>72>;O5B CB25@640BL, GB> B0:>5 ?5@5?;5B5=85 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 A0<K9 >1KG- 7 * 195 =K8 8 5AB5AB25==K9 ?@>F5AA 2 @0728B88 <>B820F8>= =>9 AD5@K G5;>25:0. 4=0 87 :;0AA8D8:0F8>==KE AE5<, @07;8G0NI0O 284K ?>;8<>B820F88 ?@8 :>=:C@8@CNI8E <>B820E A;54C5B 87 ?>;CG82H59 H8@>:CN 8725AB=>ABL :;0AA0 D8:0F88 :>=D;8:B=KE A8BC0F89 . 528=0, 2K45;ONI59 B@8 B8?0 >4=>2@5<5==>3> 459AB28O ?@>B82>?>;>6=KE ?>1C645=89 (Lewin, 1935. Ch. 4; Miller, 1946).  A8BC0F88 B8?0 ?@81;865=85 871530=85, :>340, =0?@8<5@, G5;>25: @5H05B 2>?@>A, >1@0I0BLAO ;8 70 ?><>ILN : =5?@8OB=><C 4;O =53> ;8FC, >4=0 8 B0 65 F5;L >1;0405B 4;O AC1J5:B0 8 ?>78B82=>9, 8 =530B82=>9 F5==>ABLN, 4@C38<8 A;>20<8 8<55B 0<1820;5=B=>5 <>B820F8>==>5 7=0G5=85.  42CE 4@C38E A;CG0OE AC1J5:B >:07K205BAO ?5@54 2K1>@>< <564C =5A:>;L:8<8 F5;O<8, 8<5NI8<8 ?>78B82=>5 (A8BC0F8O ?@81;865=85 ?@81;865=85) 8;8 =530B82=>5 (A8BC0F8O 871530=85 871530=85) 7=0G5=85, B. 5. :>340 >= 4>;65= 2K1@0BL >4=> 87 0;LB5@=0B82=KE 1;03 8;8 7>;. 06=> ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> ?>;8<>B828@>20==K< 2 MB8E A;CG0OE O2;O5BAO =5 B>;L:> 0:B 2K1>@0, => 8 ?>A;54CNI55 ?>2545=85, F5;L :>B>@>3> :@><5 A>1AB25==>3> <>B820F8>==>3> 7=0G5=8O ?@8>1@5B05B 53> 8 >B >B25@3=CB>9 0;LB5@=0B82K. A>15==> >BG5B;82> MB> 284=> 2 A;CG05 :>=D;8:B0 871530=85 871530=85, 2 :>B>@>< 2K1@0==>5 <5=LH55 7;> 8<55B 7=0G5=85 87102;5=8O >B 1>;LH53> 7;0. K45;O5BAO G5B25@BK9 B8? :>=D;8:B=>9 A8BC0F88 (42>9=>3> ?@81;865=8O 871530=8O), 2 :>B>@>9 ?5@54 AC1J5:B>< AB>8B 2K1>@ <564C 0<1820;5=B=K<8, B. 5. >4=>2@5<5==> 8 ?>78B82=K<8 8 =530B82=K<8, F5;O<8, =0?@8<5@, ?@8>1@5B0BL ;8 E>@>H89, => 4>@>3>9 8;8 ?;>E>9, 70B> 45H52K9 B>20@. =, >G5284=>, O2;O5BAO 1>;55 A;>6=K< 8 A>G5B0NI8< 2 A515 >A>15==>AB8 B@5E ?@54K4CI8E B8?>2. ;O ?>=8<0=8O 2708<>459AB28O :>=:C@8@CNI8E 8;8 :>=D;8:B=KE ?>1C645=89 206=K< O2;O5BAO 2K428=CB>5 . !.'03C=>< (1983) ?>;>65=85 > F5=5 45OB5;L=>AB8 B5E ?>B5@OE 8 70B@0B0E M=5@388, 2@5<5=8, A@54AB2 8 4@C38E @5AC@A>2, :>B>@KE B@51C5B 55 2K?>;=5=85. 5GL 845B > D5=><5=5, A :>B>@K< ...<K AB0;:8205<AO ?>AB>O==>: 5A;8 45=L38 ?>B@0G5=K =0 >4=> 87 1;03, B> 8E =5 E20B05B =0 ?>:C?:C 4@C38E; 5A;8 2@5<O ?>B@0G5=> =0 >4=C 3@C??C 45;, B> 53> =5 196  E20B05B =0 4@C385; 5A;8 2K =5402=> >1@0I0;8AL : =5 >G5=L 1;87:><C G5;>25:C A >4=>9 ?@>AL1>9, B> : =5<C =5;L7O A@07C 65 A=>20 >1@0I0BLAO 70 ?><>ILN; 5A;8 <=>3> A8; 8 M=5@388 ?>B@0G5=> =0 @01>B5, B> 4><0 C65 =5 C405BAO B@C48BLAO A ?>;=>9 >B40G59 (!. 63). "0:8< >1@07><, ?>B@51=>AB8 G5;>25:0 =0E>4OBAO 2 :>=:C@8@CNI5< >B=>H5=88 =5 B>;L:> 2 1C:20;L=> :>=D;8:B=KE A8BC0F8OE, ?@8 >4=>2@5<5==>9 0:BC0;870F88 ?@>B82>@5G0I8E ?>1C645=89, => B0:65 87-70 B>3>, GB> ...>1J5< 1>;LH8=AB20 @5AC@A>2, :>B>@K< @0A?>;0305B G5;>25: 4;O 45OB5;L=>AB8, <5=LH5, G5< AC<<0@=K9 >1J5< ?>B@51=>AB59 2 MB8E @5AC@A0E (!. 62 63). 7-70 MB>3> >1AB>OB5;LAB20 @5H5=85 C4>2;5B2>@8BL =5:>B>@CN ?>B@51=>ABL >7=0G05B 02B><0B8G5A:89 >B:07 >B C4>2;5B2>@5=8O @O40 4@C38E. !;54C5B ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> <>B820F8>==>5 7=0G5=85 70B@0B, :>B>@KE B@51C5B C4>2;5B2>@5=85 ?>B@51=>AB8, ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 =5 B5>@5B8G5A:89 :>=AB@C:B, 0 @50;L=K9 ?A8E8G5A:89 D5=><5=, 0:B82=> CG0AB2CNI89 :0: 2 ?@>F5AA0E ?@8=OB8O @5H5=89, B0: 8 2 ?>A;54CNI59 45OB5;L=>AB8. 065 =5=C6=0O F5;L <>65B ?>;CG8BL ?>1C48B5;L=>5 7=0G5=85 ?@8 >A>7=0=88, GB> >=0 4>AB05BAO ?@0:B8G5A:8 40@><, 0 @04>ABL >B =C6=>3> ?@8>1@5B5=8O <>65B A5@L57=> ><@0G0BLAO <KA;LN > B><, 2> GB> >=> >1>H;>AL. 0A?@>AB@0=5==>ABL 8 A?5F8D8G=>ABL 2708<>459AB28O <>B820F8>=-=KE ?>1C645=89 ?> ;8=88 D0:B>@0 F5=K 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?>72>;O5B @0AA<0B@820BL 53> 2 :0G5AB25 >A>1>9 D>@<K ?>;8<>B820F88.  >B=>H5=88 45OB5;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0 MB> 7=0G8B, GB> >=0 ...2 >1I5< A;CG05 O2;O5BAO =5 B>;L:> ?>;820;5=B=K<, => 8 0<1820;5=B=K< ?@>F5AA><, A>G5B0NI8< ?>;57=K5 8 2@54=K5 0A?5:BK,, :0G5AB20 1;030 8 F5=K 70 =53> (!. 66). 4=> 87 ?>A;54AB289 40==>3> ?@54AB02;5=8O A>AB>8B 2 @07;8G5=88 <>B82>2-?>1C48B5;59 8 <>B82>2-B>@<>7>2 45OB5;L=>AB8 (5;O520 8 4@., 1988).  2>?@>A5 > ?>;8<>B820F88 ?@8 2708<>A>459AB2CNI8E <>B820E 2 A>25BA:>9 ?A8E>;>388 H8@>:>5 ?@87=0=85 ?>;CG8;> 2K45;5=85 >A>1>3> :;0AA0 <>B82>2-AB8<C;>2 (5>=BL52, 1975. !. 202), ?>4:;NG0NI8EAO : >B45;L=K< 725=LO< (459AB28O<) 2K?>;=O5<>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 >15A?5G820NI8E 4>?>;=8B5;L=>5 ?>1C645=85 8<5==> MB8E 725=L52.  @>;8 <>B82>2-AB8<C;>2 2KABC?0NB ;N1K5 ?>>I@5=8O 8;8 =0:070- 197 =8O, A2O70==K5 A ?@><56CB>G=K<8 F5;O<8 8 @57C;LB0B0<8 45OB5;L=>AB8, =0?@8<5@ >B<5B:8 2 CG515. @54AB02;5=85 > <>B820E-AB8<C;0E 87>1@0605B A;>6=K5 284K G5;>25G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 :0: ?@>F5AA, <>B828@C5<K9 >4=>2@5<5==> :>=5G=>9 F5;LN {B0: =07K205<K<8 A<KA;>>1@07CNI8<8 <>B820<8) 8 <=>3>G8A;5==K<8 ?>1>G=K<8 8AB>G=8:0<8 ?>1C645=8O, 4>?>;=8B5;L=> ?>4B0;:820NI8<8 >B45;L=K5 H038 2 55 =0?@02;5=88. >;55 ?>;=0O AE5<0 A>>B=>H5=8O @07;8G=KE <>B82>2 2 ?>1C645=88 A;>6=KE 284>2 45OB5;L=>AB8 1K;0 ?@54;>65=0 . . >4>=>2K< (1978. ;. 2.1; 1984). !>3;0A=> MB>9 AE5<5 45OB5;L=>ABL ?>1C6405BAO A;54CNI8< A>AB02>< ?@545;L=KE <>B82>2: ...!) C4>2>;LAB285 >B A0<>3> ?@>F5AA0 45OB5;L=>AB8 ... ; 2) ?@O<>9 @57C;LB0B 45OB5;L=>AB8 (A>740205<K9 ?@>4C:B, CA208205<K5 7=0=8O 8 B. 4.)  ; 3) 2>7=03@0645=85 70 45OB5;L=>ABL (70@?;0B0, ?>2KH5=85 ?> 4>;6=>AB8, A;020 8 B. 4.)  ; 4) 871560=85 A0=:F88, :>B>@0O 3@>78B 2 A;CG05 C:;>=5=8O >B 45OB5;L=>AB8 8;8 =54>1@>A>25AB=>3> 55 8A?>;=5=8O; 45?@820F8O AB@0E0 =0:070=8O  (1984. !. 127). 064K9 87 MB8E <>B82>2, ?@54AB02;ONI8E, ?> ACI5AB2C, @07;8G=K5 D>@<K <>B820F88, <>65B 2=>A8BL @07=K9 C45;L=K9 2:;04 2 AC<<0@=CN <>B820F8N 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?@8G5< :0: ?>78B82=K9, B0: 8 =530B82=K9. 1>7=0G82 :>;8G5AB25==CN <5@C B0:>3> 2:;040 ?@8 ?><>I8 CA;>2=KE F8D@>2KE 8=45:A>2, <>6=> nOj ;CG8BL D>@<0;87>20==>5 2K@065=85 <>B820F8>==>9 AB@C:BC@K :>=:@5B=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. 0?@8<5@, D>@<C;0 2 >71-2 2 >B=>H5=88 B@C4>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 >7=0G05B, GB> @01>G5<C ?@>F5AA B@C40 4>AB02;O5B 70<5B=>5 =5C4>2>;LAB285, : @57C;LB0B0< B@C40 >= @02=>4CH5=, => 53> <>B828@C5B 2>7=03@0645=85 70 @01>BC 8 =5A:>;L:> <5=LH5 =5?@8OB=K5 ?>A;54AB28O 55 =52K?>;=5=8O. 1>7=0G5==K5 . . >4>=>2K< @07;8G=K5 D>@<K ?>1C645=8O 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 B>< 8;8 8=>< 2845 2K45;O;8AL 8 >1AC640;8AL 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5. 5B@C4=> 2845BL AE>4AB2> <564C A>>B=>H5=85< ?5@2>9 (, ) 8 ?>A;54=59 (, ) ?0@K 2K45;5==KE <>B82>2 8 @07;8G5=85< 2=CB@5==59 8 2=5H=59 <>B820F88 (/@>H52A:89, 1971; Reykowski, 1970. S. 119^, 2 4@C3>9 B5@<8=>;>388 8=B@==A82=>9 8 198 M:AB@8=A82=>9 (%5:E0C75=, 1986. ;. 12). 45O 2K45;5=8O ?@>F5AAC0;L=>3> () 8 @57C;LB0B82=>3> ( ) :><?>=5=B>2 2=CB@5==59 <>B820F88 ?5@5:;8:05BAO A @07;8G5=85< . N;5@>< (1924. 36; Biihier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C=4B0. !;8O=85 GC2AB2 K2>4, A45;0==K9 ?@8 >1AC645=88 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> ?@>F5AA0 8 CB25@640NI89, GB> A8BC0B82=0O 48=0<8:0 M<>F89 ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 >B@065=0 2 A>2@5<5==KE :>=F5?F8OE34, A>E@0=O5B A8;C 8 2 >B=>H5=88 A?5F8D8G5A:>3> 0A?5:B0 8E 48=0<8:8 2708<>459AB28O 8 A;8O=8O >4=>2@5<5==> 8;8 =5?>A@54AB25==> @C3 70 4@C3>< ?5@568205<KE M<>F89 2 1>;55 A;>6=K5 >1@07>20=8O. !:07K20NBAO ?>A;54AB28O ?@>4>;68B5;L=> 3>A?>4AB2>202H8E 2 ?A8E>;>388 M<>F89 B@048F89, ?>4 2;8O=85< :>B>@KE 2=8<0=85 C45;O;>AL ?@58<CI5AB25==> ?>2545=G5A:8< 8 D878>;>38G5A:8< 0A?5:B0< ?@>1;5<K (5;L3>@=, CD1>@@>C, 1966; Candland, 1962; Lund, 1942; Tobach, 1969), M<>F88 @0AA<0B@820;8AL :0: 15A?@8@>4=K5 ?@><56CB>G=K5 ?5@5<5==K5 (Brown, Farber, 1951; Young, 1959) 8;8 34 @><5 C65 C:070==KE @01>B A<.: Arnold, 1960; Candland 0. >., 1977; Gerstmann, 1963; Plutchik, 1980; Plutchik, Kellerman, 1980; Young, 1943. 205 2>>1I5 CAB@0=O;8AL 87 ?A8E>;>388 (Duffy, 1968-Meyer, 1933).  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KH5 ?@82>48;8AL ?@8<5@K A;>6=59H53> .?@>F5AA0 2708<>459AB28O 8 A;8O=8O B0:>3> @>40 ?5@56820=89, A>?@>2>640NI53> MAB5B8G5A:>5 2>A?@8OB85. >B820F8O A?>A>1=0 ?>4:;NG0BLAO =0 ;N1>< MB0?5 MB>3> ?@>F5AA0, ?>78B82=> 8;8 =530B82=> >:@0H820O :0: ?@><56CB>G=K5, B0: 8 :>=5G=K5 53> 8B>38.  4065 5A;8 =5:>B>@K5 ?@><56CB>G=K5 GC2AB25==K5 ?@>4C:BK 8<5NB C65 A;>682H55AO, D8:A8@>20==>5 <>B820F8>2=>5 7=0G5=85, 8E A>G5B0=85 A?>A>1=> ?@825AB8 : =>2><C, 2>7<>6=> =5?>2B>@8<><C <>B820?8>==><C 7=0G5=8N 2A53> :><?;5:A0. > MB>9 ?@8G8=5 :064K9 A;CG09 =0A;0645=8O :@0A>B>9 '<>65B >B;8G0BLAO G5<-B> >A>1K< 8 2> 2AO:>< A;CG05 =5 4>;65= ?@54AB02;OBLAO 2 2845 236 B>G:8 =0 H:0;5 C4>2>;LAB28O 354>=8G5A:>3> ?@>AB@0=AB20. !0<0 '2>7<>6=>ABL 0:BC0;870F88 '?@8AB@0AB=KE ?5@56820=89 A@54AB20<8 8A:CAAB20, ?@8G5< 8=>340 2 CA;>28OE A<5=K <>40;L=>AB8 2>7459AB289 (>A>15==> O@:> '2 <C7K:5), 3>2>@8B > ?@82O70==>AB8 MB8E ?5@56820=89 : G5<C-B> ?@52@0I5==><C, >B>@20==><C >B >1J5:B82=>9 .2=5H=59 >D>@<;5==>5"!. 'B> 45;05B H0@6 8;8 :0@8:0BC@C 1>;55 2K@078B5;L=K<8, G5< @50;8AB8G5A:>5 87>1@065=85 B5;0 8;8 ;8F0? 5 >G8I5==>5 ;8 >B A>?CBAB2CNI8E ?><5E 0:F5=B8@>20=85 8<5==> B5E G5@B, :>B>@K5 2 5AB5AB25==>< 2K@065=88 D>@<8@CNB A?5F8D8G5A:89 GC2AB25==K9 8=20@80=B?  =5 O2;ONBAO ;8 MB8 8=20@80=BK, 4;O :>B>@KE H0@6 2KABC?05B 2 @>;8 A25@E=>@<0;L=>3> :;NG52>3> @074@068B5;O (=525@>OB=> 2>;52>9 ?>41>@>4>:, >A8=0O B0;8O 8 B. ?.), 2 ?@8=F8?5 B5<8 65 >1@07>20=8O<8, :>B>@K5 ?><>B0NB, =0?@8<5@, @515=:C ?>=8<0BL <>-B820F8>==>5 7=0G5=85 ?@825B;82>3> 273;O40 8;8 =0E<C@5==KE 1@>259 7=0G8B5;L=> @0=LH5, G5< >= AB0=>28BAO A?>A>1=K< >A<KA;820BL 8 @5D;5:A8@>20BL O7K: <8<8:8? A>1CN @07=>284=>ABL 2708<>459AB28O <>B820F8->==KE >B=>H5=89 A 4@C38<8 :><?>=5=B0<8 ?>;O AC1J5:B82=KE ?5@56820=89 A>AB02;ONB A;CG08 2>7=8:=>25=8O M<>F8>=0;L=KE @50:F89 A CA;>285< CG5B0 :>=B5:AB0 A8BC0F88. 5GL 845B > @0A?@>AB@0=5==><, E>BO O2=> =54>AB0B>G=> >A<KA;5==>< D5=><5=5. 0: ?@028;>, D@CAB@8@C5B 8 2K7K205B, =0?@8<5@, 3=52 =5 ?@>AB> =5CA?5E, =54>AB83=CB0O F5;L, 0 =5?@542>AE8I5==K9 =5CA?5E, GB> >7=0G05B CG0AB85 2 2>7=8:=>25=88 MB>9 @50:F88 <><5=B0, ?@82=>A8<>3> 87 ?@>H;>3>; 2>7<CI05B 8;8 >A:>@1;O5B =5 ?@>AB> ?@57@8B5;L=0O CE<K;:0, 0 CE<K;:0, 04@5A>20==0O 8<5==> =0<, : B><C 65, A>3;0A=> . !?8=>75, 5A;8 <K =5 AG8B05<, GB> 2 B0:>< >B=>H5=88 : =0< A0<8 ?>28==K. @><5 B>3>, >F5=:0 <8<8G5A:>3> 2K@065=8O ;8F0 >:07K205BAO 7028A8<>9 >B =01;N405<>3> @O4>< ;8F0: B=>A8B5;L=> =59B@0;L=>5 ;8F> :065BAO 3@CAB=K<, :>340 ?@54JO2;O5BAO @O4>< A 1>;55 25A5;K< ;8F><, 8 25A5;K<  @O4>< A 1>;55 3@CAB=K< ;8F>< (Russell, Fehr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ull, 1938). >;5 AC1J5:B82=KE ?5@56820=89 ?@54AB02;O5BAO 2?>;=5 ?>4E>4OI8< >A=>20=85< 4;O :>=:@5B=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2, >15A?5G820NI8E @07;8G=>5 <>B820F8>==>5 >B=>H5=85 : >4=>9 8 B>9 65 F5;8. -B>B D5=><5= >1=0@C68205BAO B0:65 C 682>B=KE (Hull, 1932), GB> ?>72>;O5B @0A?@>AB@0=OBL B578A > 2>7<>6=>9 ?@82O70==>AB8 <>B820F8>==KE >B=>H5=89 : >?@545;5==K< 35HB0;LB0< AC1J5:B82=KE ?5@56820=89 B0:65 =0 4>G5;>25G5A:CN ?A8E8:C. 59AB28B5;L=>, GB> ?><>305B, =0?@8<5@, H8<?0=75 87 42CE ;>B:>2, =0 :064>< 87 :>B>@KE =0E>4OBAO 425 AB>?:8 ;><B8:>2 H>:>;040 (2 :>;8G5AB25 4> 5), 2 90% A;CG052 ?@028;L=> 2K1@0BL B>B, =0 :>B>@>< ?> AC<<5 ;><B8:>2 H>:>;040 >:07K205BAO 1>;LH5 (Rumbaugh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