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B>@>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L 0@<5=840  5;8AA  2=5A 2 M;59A:>5 CG5=85 ACI5AB25==K5 :>@@5:B82K, ?KB0OAL, 2848<>, ?@8<8@8BL 53> A 8>=89A:>9 D878:>9, ?>4 2;8O=85< :>B>@>9 >= =0E>48;AO. 3> 3;02=>5 =>2>22545=85  ?>=8<0=85 1KB8O :0: ?@>AB@0=AB25==> 15A:>=5G=>3>  1K;> 1>;55 ?0@04>:A0;L=K< 4;O 0=B8G=>3> <KH;5=8O, G5< A>548=5=85 0@<5=84>< 1KB8O 8 AD5@8G=>AB8, => A B>G:8 7@5=8O ?>74=59 4>A>:@0B8:8 A8=B57 8>=89A:>3> 8 M;59A:>3> =0?@02;5=89 2 D8;>A>D88 5;8AA0 1K; 5AB5AB25==K<, 81> 7040G0 ?>74=59 4>A>:@0B8:8 70:;NG0;0AL 2 B><, GB>1K 8=B5@?@5B8@>20BL 1KB85 :0: >A=>2C <=>3>>1@078O :>A<>A0. > MB><C ?CB8 ?>H;8 B0:65 -<?54>:;, 2 A8AB5<5 :>B>@>3> 1KB85  ;8HL <><5=B :>A<8G5A:>3> F8:;0 (AD09@>A, 70?>;=5==K9 "A2OI5==K< @07C<5=L5<") =0@O4C A <><5=B0<8 B>9 8;8 8=>9 AB5?5=8 @074@>1;5==>AB8; =0:A03>@, ?> CG5=8N :>B>@>3> <8@>2>9 C< ("=CA")  1;8609H89 0=0;>3 M;59A:>3> 1KB8O  25G5= 8 25745ACI, => ACI5AB2C5B =0@O4C A <=>3>>1@0785< ?@8@>4K, =5 >B<5=OO 53>; 5<>:@8B, 0B><K (1KB85) :>B>@>3> ACI5AB2CNB 8 4286CBAO =0 D>=5 =51KB8O-?CAB>BK. -B>B :><?@><8AA=K9 ?CBL 1K; B5< 1>;55 2>7<>65=, GB> D8;>A>D8O M;50B>2 A0<0 5I5 1K;0 =0BC@D8;>A>D859 8 2K@>A;0 87 55 ?@>1;5<0B8:8; => 1>;55 G5< :><?@><8AA>< B0:>9 ?CBL ?>A;5 ;>38G5A:8E @5D>@< 0@<5=840 AB0BL =5 <>3. !>25@H5==> 8=>9 ?>4E>4 : ?>=OB8N 1KB8O <K =0E>48< C A>D8AB>2. >@>B:89, => A2>5>1@07=K9 8 8AB>@8G5A:8 206=K9 ?5@8>4 45OB5;L=>AB8 AB0@H8E A>D8AB>2 AB0; 2@5<5=5< >A=>20B5;L=>9 ?5@5>F5=:8 F5==>AB59, :>A=C2H59AO =5 2 ?>A;54=NN >G5@54L >=B>;>388. 04> 70<5B8BL, GB> H:>;C A>D8AB>2 ?@54AB02;O;8 25AL<0 @07=K5 <KA;8B5;8, ?@845@68202H85AO 8=>340 4065 ?@>B82>?>;>6=KE 2>77@5=89. >MB><C A>D8ABK =5 ?@>B82>?>AB028;8 A2>8< >??>=5=B0< 548=>9 B5>@88, => >1ICN B5=45=F8N 2 8E ?>=8<0=88 1KB8O >1=0@C68BL 2A5 65 <>6=>. !>D8ABK ;8H0NB "548=>5 ACI55" 53> 2A5>1I=>AB8 8 =5>1E>48<>AB8, ?@8G5< =5 ?@>AB> >B@8F0NB 1KB85, 0 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 D>@<5 40NB 5<C =>2>5 B>;:>20=85. -B> =5 8A:;NG05B 2>7<>6=>AB8 BO3>B5=8O 8;8 4065 ?@8A>548=5=8O >B45;L=KE A>D8AB>2 : B>G:5 7@5=8O M;50B>2 8;8 D8A8>;>3>2. 0?@8<5@, =B8D>=B (1; 10) @0AAC6405B :0: M;50B, >@389 ?>;=>ABLN A;54C5B M;59A:>9 ;>38:5, E>BO 8 2K2>@0G8205B 55 =087=0=:C. 5=O5BAO =5 A0<0 ;>38:0 <KH;5=8O > 1KB88, 0 55 <8@>2>77@5=G5A:89 :>=B5:AB.  >B;8G85 >B D8A8>;>3>2 A>D8ABK >3@0=8G820NB C=825@A0;L=>ABL 1KB8O =5 AB>;L:> 2=5H=8<8 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 1KB8N =0G0;0<8 8 ?@8G8=0<8, B> 5ABL 8=>1KB85<, :>B>@>5 A ?>;=>9 ;>38G5A:>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABLN ?@54AB02;5=> 5<>:@8B>< :0: =51KB85, A:>;L:> 2=CB@5==8<8 48AB8=:F8O<8. 5>1E>48<>ABL CB>G=5=8O O :@8B8:8 ?>=OB8O 1KB8O, A;8H:>< 01AB@0:B=> B@0:B>202H53>AO 2 4>A>:@0B8:5, A>D8ABK 2A:@K;8 AB>;L C1548B5;L=>, GB> A MB>3> ?CB8 C65 =5 A25@=C;8 =8 <530@8:8, =8 ;0B>=, =8 @8AB>B5;L, :0: 1K =8 >B=>A8;8AL >=8 : ?>78B82=K< 2K2>40< A>D8AB>2. ;02=>5 2=CB@5==55 @0AG;5=5=85, :>B>@><C 1K;> ?>425@3=CB> ?>=OB85 1KB8O,  MB> @07J548=5=85 ;>38:8 <KH;5=8O >1 >1I5< 8 ;>38:8 <KH;5=8O > 548=8G=><. !>>B25BAB25==> >1=0@C68;>AL, GB> >15 MB8 AD5@K =5 <>3CB 1KBL >E20G5=K >4=8< ?>=OB85< 1KB8O. @>B82 548=AB20 ACI53> 2KABC?0NB @>B03>@, =B8D>=B; =5A>2?045=85 ?>=OB8O 8 548=8G=>AB8 45<>=AB@8@C5B 2 :>=F5 A2>53> @0AAC645=8O > =51KB88 >@389; ?@8=04;560I89, :0: ?>;030NB, : H:>;5 >@38O <;04H89 A>D8AB 8:>D@>= >B@8F05B 2>7<>6=>ABL C?>B@51;5=8O A2O7:8 "5ABL", ?>A:>;L:C >=0 45;05B 548=>5 <=>38< [ HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\>1@>E>B>2%20%200B53>@8O%201KB8O\\refer.htm" \l "s3" \t "_blank" 3]. !>D8ABK >B:@K;8, GB> 548=8G=>5 0;>38G=> :0: B0:>2>5: : =5<C =5?@8<5=8<> >1I55 ?>=OB85, 0 =5 >1I8E ?>=OB89 =5 1K205B. > =0;8G85 548=8G=>3> :C40 1>;55 >G5284=>, G5< >1I53>. >MB><C >B:@K20NBAO @07;8G=K5 ?CB8 @5H5=8O 0=B8=><88 >1I53> 8 548=8G=>3>  <>6=> ?@87=0BL: GB> 2A5 ACI55 548=8G=>; GB> 548=8G=>5 8;;N7>@=>; GB> 1KB85 42>9AB25==>. >74=85 480;>38 ;0B>=0 8 0?>@5B8:0 "?5@2>9 D8;>A>D88" @8AB>B5;O @0A:@>NB 25AL ;>38G5A:89 A?5:B@ MB8E 2>7<>6=>AB59. B>@>5 @0AG;5=5=85, :>B>@>5, 2?@>G5<, <>6=> @0AA<0B@820BL :0: 4@C3>9 0A?5:B ?5@2>3>,  MB> @07;8G85 ACI=>AB8 8 ACI5AB2>20=8O, 8<?;8F8B=> A>45@60I55AO 2 ?@>?>254OE A>D8AB>2. A;8 >1I55 A2O70=> A ?>=OB85<, 0 548=8G=>5  A ACI5AB2>20=85<, B> OA=>, GB> ;>3>A =5 >1;0405B C=825@A0;L=>ABLN 1KB8O 8 =5 <>65B 1KBL 2A5>1I59 <5@>9 1KB8O, B5< 1>;55 GB> ;>3>A 42C7=0G5=, GB> >B:@K; 5@0:;8B, 0 1KB85 >4=>7=0G=>, GB> >B:@K; 0@<5=84. BAN40 2K2>4 @>B03>@0: <5@0 ACI53>  G5;>25:. !C1J5:B8287<, 2K@>AH89 87 MB>3> B578A0, E>@>H> >?8A0= 8AB>@8:0<8 :C;LBC@K, => D8;>A>DA:>5 7=0G5=85 B578A0 @>B03>@0 MB8< >B=N4L =5 8AG5@?K205BAO. A;8 >B2;5GLAO >B ?;0B>=>2A:>9 :@8B8:8 A>D8AB>2, B> <>6=> 70<5B8BL 8 4@C3CN AB>@>=C 8458. 1=0@C682 >=B>;>38G5A:CN =59B@0;L=>ABL ;>38:8, :>B>@0O A>>B=>A8BAO A:>@55 A 2>7<>6=>ABLN, G5< A 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN, @>B03>@ =5 >B@8F05B, 2 ACI=>AB8, ?0@<5=84>2A:CN AD5@C 1KB8O, => A;8205B 55 A> AD5@>9 8=48284C0;L=>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O. #B25@6405BAO =5 B>, GB> G5;>25: A;0155, G5< >1J5:B82=>ABL, 0 B>, GB> ;>38:0 A;0155, G5< G5;>25G=>ABL, 81> AB0BCA ACI5AB2>20=8O ?@8405BAO 157;8G=>9 2>7<>6=>AB8 ;8HL G5;>25:><. (A?><=8<, GB> ?@54A:070=8O >@0:C;0  ?@54AB028B5;O ?>;;>=0  42C7=0G=K, 0 @50;87CNI85 8E 8AB>@8G5A:85 459AB28O >4=>7=0G=K. 45AL =0E>48B <5AB> 8 =5>1E>48<>ABL 1KB8O, 8 A2>1>40 2>;8.) "0:8< >1@07><, @>B03>@ 25@5= 8A:>==>9 >=B>;>38G5A:>9 8455 4>A>:@0B8:>2, => A<5I5=85 0:F5=B0 A :>A<>A0 =0 G5;>25G5A:CN @50;L=>ABL :0: <5AB> >1=0@C65=8O 1KB8O 3>2>@8B > =0ABC?;5=88 =>2>3> 8AB>@8:>-D8;>A>DA:>3> ?5@8>40. 1I0O 8=BC8F8O A>D8AB>2: >:>=G0B5;L=>5 @5H5=85 > ACI5< ?@8=04;568B =5 ;>38:5, 0 G5;>25:C. (N1>?KB=> A>?>AB028BL MB> CB25@645=85 A 4CE>< 3@5G5A:>3> AC4>?@>872>4AB20, :>B>@>5 1K;> 206=59H8< M;5<5=B>< >1I5AB25==>9 687=8 ?>;8A0: 70:>= A0< ?> A515 =5 <>65B 30@0=B8@>20BL A2>5 B>645AB2> A 8=48284C0;L=K< A;CG05<; MB> 45;0NB G5;>25: 8 B5, :>3> >= C1548;.) A;8 1@0BL A>D8AB8:C :0: <8@>2>77@5=85 2 F5;><, B>, :>=5G=>, C:070==K5 >=B>;>38G5A:85 B>=:>AB8 1C4CB 70A;>=OBLAO B@0:B>2:>9 G5;>25:0 :0: :>=:@5B=>3> ?@8@>4=>3> ACI5AB20: B09=0 ;8G=>AB8 ;8HL ?@>A25G8205B A:2>7L 0=B@>?>;>38G5A:89 =0BC@0;87< A>D8AB>2. >;55 B>3>, A>D8AB8:0 AB0;0 A8<2>;>< AC1J5:B8287<0, 8 2 =5<0;>9 AB5?5=8 1;03>40@O :@8B8:5 B5E <KA;8B5;59, :>B>@K5 2=CB@5==85 2>7<>6=>AB8 3C<0=8B0@=>9 @5D>@<K A>D8AB>2 ?@52@0B8;8 2 D8;>A>D8N =>2>3> B8?0. <5NBAO 2 284C !>:@0B 8 ;0B>= [ HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\>1@>E>B>2%20%200B53>@8O%201KB8O\\refer.htm" \l "s4" \t "_blank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horizesthai katholoy)" (Met. 1078b, 18-20). "...!>:@0B ?@02><5@=> 8A:0; ACI5AB2> (to ti estin) {25I8}, B0: :0: >= AB@5<8;AO 45;0BL ;>38G5A:85 C<>70:;NG5=8O, 0 =0G0;>< (arche) 4;O C<>70:;NG5=8O O2;O5BAO ACI5AB2> 25I8" (Met. XIII, 1078b, 23-25). " ?> A?@0254;82>AB8 425 25I8 =04> 1K;> 1K >B=5AB8 =0 AG5B !>:@0B0, 8=4C:B82=K5 @0AAC645=8O 8 >1@07>20=85 >1I8E >?@545;5=89 (toys tepaktikoys logoys kai to horizesthai katholoy)" (ibid. 27-29; A@.: ibid., 987b, 1-2). "> B>;L:> !>:@0B >1I8< AB>@>=0< {25I8} =5 ?@8?8AK20; >1>A>1;5==>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O 8 >?@545;5=8O<  B0:65 (ta katholoy oy chorista epoiei oyde toys horismoys)" (ibid., 1078b, 30). "= 2> 2AO:>< A;CG05 {MB> >1I55} =5 >B45;8; >B 548=8G=KE 25I59" (ibid., 1086b, 3-4). B0:, !>:@0B 70=8<0;AO CB>G=5=85< <>@0;L=KE AC645=89, ?@8G5<, 4020O >?@545;5=85 >1I5<C, =5 2K45;O; 53> :0: >A>1K9 >=B>;>38G5A:89 >1J5:B. -B> A:@><=>5 70=OB85 2K3;O48B H03>< =0704 ?> A@02=5=8N A ?>AB@>5=8O<8 ?5@2KE D8;>A>D>2. 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B><C 65 A>:@0B>2A:0O <0=5@0 25AB8 15A54C A>2A5< =5 ?>E>60 =0 480;>3, >1>30I0NI89 2A5E CG0AB=8:>2; !>:@0B ?>4G8=O5B A515 A;CH0B5;O, 2K=C6405B 53> ?@8=8<0BL @5H5=8O, 0 B>, GB> MB> ?@>8AE>48B ?@8 OA=>< A25B5 A>7=0=8O, ;8HL CA8;8205B =5>1E>48<>ABL 2K2>4>2. !>:@0B CG8; 0D8=O= A5@L57=>AB8 8 >B25BAB25==>AB8 2 A;>20E 8 45;0E, A;54>20B5;L=>, CG8; ;560I59 2 >A=>25 MB8E :0G5AB2 A2>1>45; => >= =5 AB>;L:> C15640;, A:>;L:> 70AB02;O;. "0:, =0?@8<5@, >= 70AB028; 8E 2K=5AB8 ?@83>2>@, 0 70B5< 8 :07=8BL A51O. >B C6, 459AB28B5;L=>, C@>: A<5@B5;L=>9 A5@L57=>AB8. @8=C640BL : A2>1>45  MB> =5 B>;L:> ?0@04>:A0;L=> 72CG8B, => 8 2 A0<>< 45;5 ?@>B82>@5G82>. 0 8 7=0<5=8B0O 8@>=8O, ?>E>60 ;8 >=0 =0 ?5403>38G5A:89 ?@85<, =0 ;C:02AB2>, ?CABL 4065 =5 A>2A5< 1;03>65;0B5;L=>5? A;8 40, B> ?@>?>254L !>:@0B0 >AB0=5BAO 2 @0<:0E 3C<0=8AB8G5A:>3> ?@>A25I5=8O. > 254L !>:@0B 2?>;=5 >?@545;5==> >1JOA=8; A<KA; A2>53> B578A0 "7=0N, GB> =5 7=0N", 8 MB> 8A:;NG05B ?>4>7@5=8O 2 =58A:@5==>AB8. 5@5G8A;5=85 ?;>E> A>2<5AB8<KE 0A?5:B>2 ;8G=>AB8 8 45OB5;L=>AB8 !>:@0B0 =5B@C4=> ?@>4>;68BL: :C;LB ?>4G8=5=8O 70:>=C 8 2>A?520=85 <>@0;L=>9 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8, CE>4 >B ?>;8B8G5A:>9 0:B82=>AB8 8 2K40NI0OAO @>;L 2 >1I5AB25==>9 687=8 ?>;8A0, 1;03>G5AB85 8 :07=L 70 5@5AL... > ACI5AB2C5B ;8 ?5@2>?@8G8=0 B>3> >1AB>OB5;LAB20, GB> B578A !>:@0B0 > 548=AB25 1;030 8 <KH;5=8O, 0 A>>B25BAB25==> 8 AB>OI0O 70 =8< 8=BC8F8O 1KB8O 42>8BAO ?@8 ?5@2>< 65 : =5<C ?@81;865=88? @5645 G5< ?>?KB0BLAO >B25B8BL =0 MB>B 206=K9 2>?@>A, >1@0B8< 2=8<0=85 =0 5I5 >48= ?0@04>:A: 1>@L10 70 4>AB>8=AB2> @07C<0, :>B>@CN 25; !>:@0B ?@>B82 A2>59 M?>E8 :C;LBC@=>3> @5;OB8287<0, ?>;CG8;0 ?>445@6:C A> AB>@>=K 45;LD89A:>3> 6@5G5AB20, :>B>@>5, :070;>AL 1K, =5 4>;6=> 1K;> @04>20BLAO ?> MB><C ?>2>4C. >G5<C MB>B =5>6840==K9 A>N7=8: ?@>2>73;0A8; !>:@0B0 <C4@59H8< 87 2A5E? 5;LD89A:89 ;>7C=3 "?>7=09 A51O", A2O70==K9 A 8<5=5< 45;LD89A:>3> 2;04K:8  ?>;;>=0, 1K; B0:65 @C:>2>4OI8< ?@8=F8?>< !>:@0B0 (Xenoph. Symp. I, 5). (!@. C 5@0:;8B0: "/ @07KA:0; A0<>3> A51O" (101). 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to oikeio logo), 2 >B=>H5=88 : >4=><C 2>7<>6=>-45 B>;L:> >4=> (hen ephhenos), >B:C40 ?>;CG0;>AL, GB> ?@>B82>@5G8BL =5;L7O, 40 ?>60;C9 GB> 8 3>2>@8BL =5?@024C  B>65 (me einai antilegein, sche-don de mede pseydesthai)" (Met. V, 1024b, 32-34). !>>1I05BAO B0:65, GB>, ?> <=5=8N AB>@>==8:>2 =B8-AD5=0, "4;O ACI5AB20 25I8 (to ti estin) =5;L7O 40BL >?@545;5=8O, B0:>5 >?@545;5=85  MB>-45 {B>;L:>} "4;8==0O @5GL" (logon makron), => :0:>20 25IL ?> A2>5<C :0G5AB2C, MB><C <>6=> 8 =0CG8BL, :0:, =0?@8<5@  ?@> A5@51@>, GB> >=> B0:>5 (ti estin), A:070BL =5;L7O, => {B>;L:>} GB> >=> ?>4>1=> >;>2C" (ibid., VIII, 1043b, 25-28). BAN40, ?> @8AB>B5;N, A;54C5B, GB> >?@545;5=85 8 ;>3>A 2>7<>6=K ;8HL 2 >B=>H5=88 A;>6=>3>, 0 8AE>4=>5 ?@>AB>5 =5>?@545;8<>. 8>35= 0M@F89 CB25@6405B, GB> =B8AD5= ?5@2K9 40; 45D8=8F8N ?>=OB8O: "logos estin ho to ti en esti delon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oikeios logos), B> <KA;L ?@52@0B8BAO 2 8<O A>1AB25==>5, 0 ?>7=0=85  2 >1>7=0G5=85, =5 4>?CA:0NI55 A2O78. !C1J5:BC 2 MB>< A;CG05 =5;L7O 1C45B 157 ?@>B82>@5G8O ?@8?8A0BL =8 >4=>3> ?@548:0B0. 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G5284=>, :8=8: <>3 1K A:070BL, GB> G5;>25: 4>;65= ?>4@060BL >B>@20==><C >B <8@0 ?>=OB8N, 0 =5 B5:CG59 @50;L=>AB8. >=5G=>, MB8:0 :8=8:>2 ?@87K205B C9B8 >B >?0A=>AB59 8 A>1;07=>2 :C;LBC@K : ?@8@>45, => A;54C5B ?><=8BL, GB> CG5=8: !>:@0B0 <>3 ?>=8<0BL ?@8@>4C C65 =5 B0:, :0: ?5@2K5 D8A8>;>38. @8@>40 G5;>25:0  2 02B>=><88 A>7=0=8O. ?@>G5<, 8 ?5@2K5 D8;>A>DK @07;8G0;8 2 ?@8@>45 70:>= AB8E88 8 70:>= <C4@>AB8: C 5@0:;8B0 <C4@>ABL 5ABL ?@5>4>;5=85 >B45;5==>AB8 >B ?@8@>4K, => 2 B> 65 2@5<O <C4@>5  >B 2A53> >B45;5==>5. 040G0 <C4@>AB8  A>1@0BLAO 2 A515. 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""5MB5B5", 345 :@8B8:C5BAO B>G:0 7@5=8O :8@5=08:>2, ;0B>= 405B A;54CNICN D>@<C;8@>2:C: "8GB> =5 5ABL A0<> ?> A515, => 2A5 2A5340 2>7=8:05B 2 A2O78 A G5<-B>, 0 ?>=OB85 "ACI5AB2>20BL" =C6=> >B>2AN4C 87JOBL [ HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\>1@>E>B>2%20%200B53>@8O%201KB8O\\refer.htm" \l "s13" \t "_blank" 13], E>BO 5I5 =5402=> <K 2K=C645=K 1K;8 8< ?>;L7>20BLAO ?> ?@82KG:5 8 ?> =52565AB2C" (1570-b). @09=89 D5=><5=0;87< :8@5=08:>2 4>?>;=O5BAO :@09=8< AC1AB0=F80;87<>< <530@8:>2. !:C?0O 8=D>@<0F8O 8AB>G=8:>2 =5 405B 2>7<>6=>AB8 ?>;CG8BL A2O7=CN :0@B8=C <530@A:>3> CG5=8O, 8 MB> B5< 1>;55 4>A04=>, GB> 53> @>;L 2 AB0=>2;5=88 ?;0B>=87<0 25AL<0 ACI5AB25==0. /A5= >1I89 ?@8=F8?, :>B>@K9 ?>72>;O5B 3>2>@8BL > A8=B575 CG5=89 0@<5=840 8 !>:@0B0. 48=>5 8 ;03> A;820NBAO 2 D8;>A>D88 <530@F52 2 01A>;NB=K9 ?@8=F8?, =5 4>?CA:0NI89 =8:0:>3> 8=>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O. ">;L:> MB> ;03> ACI5AB2C5B, 81> >=> >4=>, ?>4>1=> A515 8 >4=> 8 B> 65 (Cic. Acad. 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A;8 65 =5 A>3;0H0BLAO A =8<8, B> =5>1E>48<> ?5@5>A<KA;8BL =0H8 ?@54AB02;5=8O > A>>B=>H5=88 548=AB20 8 <=>65AB20, > A2O78 8459 8;8, ?>4>1=> 8:>D@>=C, > @>;8 A2O7:8 "5ABL" 2 >A<KA;5==>9 @5G8. =>3>G8A;5==K5 ?0@04>:AK, A>740==K5 2 <530@A:>9 H:>;5 4;O 4>:070B5;LAB20 A2>53> CG5=8O >B ?@>B82=>3>, 40NB :>A25==>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > ?>78B82=>< A>45@60=88 8E >=B>;>388. >6=> A45;0BL 2K2>4 > B><, GB> ?@8=F8?80;L=KE >B;8G89 >B M;50B87<0 745AL =5B. #8;5@ {A<.: 247} ?>:07K205B, GB> 2A5 <530@A:85 ?0@04>:AK <>3CB 1KBL A2545=K : M;59A:8< 157 >A>1KE B5>@5B8G5A:8E B@C4=>AB59. 1KG=> : ?0@04>:A0< 5=>=0 >B=>AOBAO A 1>;LH8< ?>GB5=85<, 8 MB> =5 ;8H5=> >A=>20=89, => =04> CG8BK20BL, GB> <=>385 157 B@C40 40NI85AO @5H5=8O <530@A:8E 0?>@89 =5 @5H0NB A>1AB25==> >=B>;>38G5A:8E ?@>1;5<. !:065<, CB>G=5=85 O7K:0 ?>72>;O5B 871560BL ?0@04>:A0 B8?0 "65F", => 254L 87=0G0;L=> ?@>1;5<0 1K;0 2 B><, GB> 5ABL CB25@645=8O, =0 2>?@>A >1 8AB8==>AB8 :>B>@KE =5;L7O ?@>AB> >B25B8BL "40" 8;8 "=5B", 0 MB> ?>4@K205B >1KG=>5 ?@54AB02;5=85 > @07C<=>< 2KA:07K20=88. "> 65 ?@>8AE>48B, :>340 @5H0NB <0B5<0B8G5A:8 ?8D03>@59A:CN 0?>@8N =5A>87<5@8<>AB8 8;8 75=>=>2A:89 "!B048>=" AAK;:>9 =0 >B=>A8B5;L=>ABL 42865=8O, 8;8 ?0@04>:A "CG0"  C:070=85< =0 ?>@>3 2>A?@8OB8O: A0<> @5H5=85 ;8HL ?>4B25@6405B ?0@04>:A0;L=>ABL. B=>A8B5;L=>ABL 42865=8O >1JOA=O5B A8BC0F8N, => :0: 2>7<>6=0 <KA;8<>ABL >B=>A8B5;L=>AB8? -;59A:>-<530@A:0O GC2AB28B5;L=>ABL : 0;>387<C 2<5AB5 A 8E 8=BC8F859 C<>?>AB8305<>3> 1KB8O 45;0NB 40==K5 ?0@04>:AK =5@07@5H8<K<8 4;O ?@>AB>4CH=>3> @0F8>=0;87<0.  M;;8=8AB8G5A:CN M?>EC <530@FK A>E@0=ONB A2>5 ?>=8<0=85 1KB8O, =5A<>B@O =0 B0:CN A5@L57=CN 0;LB5@=0B82C, :0:>9 1K;8 ?>74=5?;0B>=>2A:>5 8 0@8AB>B5;52A:>5 =0?@02;5=8O. >7<>6=>, GB> ?@>8AE>48B :0:0O-B> 48DDC78O <530@A:>9 8 :8=8G5A:>9 ;>38:8. "0:, =0?@8<5@, !B8;L?>= >B@8F05B "284K" (anerei kai ta eide.  Diog. L. II 119), 81>, ?>OA=O5B 0M@F89, 3>2>@8BL "G5;>25:"  7=0G8B 3>2>@8BL "=8:B>". 5=545<, CG5=8: !B8;L?>=0 8 ?@54AB028B5;L 1;87:>9 <530@8:0< M;84>-M@5B@89A:>9 H:>;K, B0:65 >B@8F0; A0<>AB>OB5;L=>5 ACI5AB2>20=85 @>4>2KE ?>=OB89. 5OA=> 87-70 >BACBAB28O :>=B5:AB0, GB> 7=0G8;> MB> >B@8F0=85  >BABC?;5=85 >B =0G0;L=KE ?@8=F8?>2 H:>;K 2:;840 8;8, =0?@>B82, :@09=89 4>3<0B87< 2 8E >BAB0820=88. > 2AO:>< A;CG05, >1@07F>< 25@=>AB8 8AE>4=>9 8=BC8F88 01A>;NB=>3> 1KB8O <>65B A;C68BL 0@3C<5=B 8>4>@0 @>=0 > =5ACI5AB2>20=88 2>7<>6=>AB8: =5GB> 459AB2C5B, :>340 >=> 459AB28B5;L=> 459AB2C5B, :>340 65 =5 459AB2C5B, B> 8 =5 <>65B 459AB2>20BL (A<.: Arist. Met. IX, 1046b). "5< A0<K< 2A5 459AB28B5;L=>5 =52>7<>6=>. A>15==>AB8 <530@A:>3> ?>=8<0=8O 1KB8O, 2 >B;8G85 >B 53> ?>=8<0=8O 4@C38<8 A>:@0B8:0<8, =5 B>;L:> 2 B><, GB> 1KB85 ?@87=020;>AL <530@8:0<8 548=AB25==>9 @50;L=>ABLN, => 8 2 B><, GB> ?>=OB85 1KB8O 1K;> C =8E C65 A8=B57><, 0 =5 ?@>AB> >4=>1>:8< >BAB0820=85< 01AB@0:F88. B:@KB8O 0@<5=840 8 !>:@0B0 ?@8ACBAB2CNB 2 CG5=88 2:;840. ". ><?5@F ?8H5B: "-;5<5=BK G5;>25G5A:>9 ;8G=>AB8 1K;8 873=0=K 87 ?@54AB02;5=8O <8@>2>3> ACI5AB20 M;50B>2. "5?5@L, : =0H5<C C482;5=8N, >=8 A=>20 A>548=8;8AL, E>BO 8 =5 >1@07>20;8 2?>;=5 687=5==CN ;8G=>ABL" {37, 2, 131}. > ?>;=>F5==K< A8=B57>< =5 <>3;0 1KBL =8 ?>78F8O <530@F52, =8 D5=><5=0;87< :8@5=08:>2, =8 28B0;87< :8=8:>2, 40 >=8 8 =5 AB@5<8;8AL : A8=B57C, ?KB0OAL A:>@55 >B<56520BLAO >B B>3>, GB> ?>;030;8 8;;N7859. 87=5A?>A>1=K9 A8=B57 1K; >ACI5AB2;5= ?;0B>=8:0<8, A>7=0B5;L=> 53> 8A:02H8<8. III. " 1. KB85 :0: M94>A K 2845;8, :0: 4>?;0B>=>2A:0O D8;>A>D8O 2K@01>B0;0 ?>=OB85 G8AB>3> 1KB8O, :0: D8;>A>DK M?>E8 3@5G5A:>3> @>A25I5=8O, CB>G=OO MB> ?>=OB85, ?@8H;8 : 2K2>4C > B><, GB> 1KB85 =5 A>2<5AB8<> =8 A <8@>< O2;5=89, =8 A G5;>25G5A:8< ACI5AB2>20=85<, 2 G5< AE>4OBAO :0: A>D8ABK, B0: 8 A>:@0B8:8. !>1AB25==>, D8;>A>D88 2 B0:>< A;CG05 45;0BL =5G53>, 8 >=0 4>;6=0 CABC?8BL <5AB> =0C:5, @5;8388, <>@0;L=><C (8;8 0<>@0;L=><C) ?@0:B8F87<C. KE>4 87 MB>3> BC?8:0 C:070; !>:@0B. AB>;:>20; MB> C:070=85 ;0B>=. ;0B>=>2A:0O M?>E0 >=B>;>388 E0@0:B5@87C5BAO >1>A=>20=85< =5>1E>48<>9 A2O78 1KB8O A 8=>1KB85<, 0 A;54>20B5;L=>, A <8@>< O2;5=89 8 A G5;>25G5A:8< <KH;5=85< (2 A25B5 A>:@0B>2A:>9 B5;5>;>388  8 A> A<KA;>< C=825@AC<0). >A:>;L:C >A52>9 :>=F5?F859 ?;0B>=87<0 1K;> CG5=85 >1 845OE, 0 845O, ?> ;0B>=C, 5ABL 1KB85 2 AB@>3>< A<KA;5 A;>20, B5<0 1KB8O O2;O5BAO 254CI59 2> 2A5E 480;>30E A@54=53> 8 ?>74=53> ?5@8>40 ?;0B>=>2A:>3> B2>@G5AB20. 07;8G=K5 0A?5:BK, 2>7<>6=>AB8 8 0?>@88 ?>=OB8O 1KB8O 1K;8 @0725@=CBK ;0B>=>< A B0:8< <=>3>>1@0785< <KA;5==KE E>4>2, :>B>@>5, ?>60;C9, 1>;LH5 =5 ?>2B>@O;>AL 2 52@>?59A:>9 8AB>@88 D8;>A>D88. 5@5G8A;8< >A=>2=K5 >=B>;>38G5A:85 8=BC8F88, B5<0B878@>20==K5 2 480;>30E ;0B>=0. @5645 2A53> MB> 2K45;5=85 >A>1>3> A;>O @50;L=>AB8, :>B>@K9 <>65B =07K20BLAO 1KB85<,  @50;L=>AB8 "C<>7@8<KE 284>2". 0;55  >:>=G0B5;L=>5 >D>@<;5=85 8A:>==>9 B5=45=F88 3@5G5A:>9 D8;>A>D88 : >B>645AB2;5=8N 1KB8O A 8AB8=>9, 4>1@>< 8 :@0A>B>9; ?>=8<0=85 M;5<5=B0@=>9 548=8FK 1KB8O  8458  :0: 0:B82=>9 B2>@G5A:>9 A8;K 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O :0: F5;8 AB@5<;5=8O 2A53> <8@0 AB0=>2;5=8O; 2KO2;5=85 8 >?8A0=85 42CE ?>3@0=8G=KE 1KB8N AD5@: AD5@K 48=>3> ;030, O2;ONI53>AO 157=0G0;L=K< =0G0;>< 1KB8O, 8 AD5@K 157284=>3> ?@>AB@0=AB20  "<0B5@88"; A8AB5<0B8G5A:>5 @0AA<>B@5=85 ?@>1;5<K 8AB8==>3> 7=0=8O :0: 1KB8O 8 701;C645=8O :0: =51KB8O; A2O7L B>;:>20=8O A0<>B>645AB25==>AB8 8458 :0: AC1AB0=F88 8 A0<>?>7=0=8O 4CH8 :0: ;8G=>AB8; A2O7L 1KB8O A> A2>1>4>9 8 =51KB8O A =5>1E>48<>ABLN; >B:@KB85 70:>=><5@=>AB59 ?@>O2;5=8O F5;L=>3> 1KB8O 2 48A:@5B=>< A<KA;5, M94>A0  2 ;>3>A5; 2K42865=85 2 =5O2=>9 D>@<5 ">=B>;>38G5A:>3> 0@3C<5=B0", >1>A=>2K20NI53> A2O7L <KA;8 A 1KB85< ("$54>="); A1;865=85 B5<K 1KB8O A ?>=OB8O<8 ?@545;0 8 15A?@545;L=>AB8 ("$8;51"); =0:>=5F, @07@01>B:0 2 "!>D8AB5" 8 "0@<5=845" CG5=8O > =5>1E>48<>AB8 2KE>40 1KB8O 70 A>1AB25==K5 ?@545;K, > =587156=>AB8 ?>@>645=8O 8=>1KB8O 8 A2O70==>9 A MB8< 480;5:B8:8 2KAH8E @>4>2 ACI53>. =>3>>1@0785 >=B>;>38G5A:8E B5< 1K;> @0725@=CB> 87 >4=>9 8=BC8F88, >AB02H59AO =587<5==>9 2> 2A5 ?5@8>4K ?;0B>=>2A:>3> B2>@G5AB20,  87 >A<KA;5=8O G8AB>3> 1KB8O :0: M94>A0. KBL  7=0G8B 1KBL M94>A><. 'B> B0:>5 M94>A? B25B8BL =0 MB>B 2>?@>A ?@O<> 8 >4=>7=0G=> =5;L7O  8 =5 B>;L:> ?> ?@8G8=0<, E>@>H> 8725AB=K< 2A5< 87CG02H8< ;0B>=0, B> 5ABL 87-70 =54>AB0B:0 8=D>@<0F88, =54>3<0B8G5A:>9 D>@<K 87;>65=8O, ?5@8>48G5A:>3> 87<5=5=8O 0A?5:B>2 @0AA<>B@5=8O 1KB8O, >BACBAB28O A8AB5<=>AB8 8 CAB>9G82>9 B5@<8=>;>388, A2>1>4=>3> ?5@5E>40 >B <8D0 : ;>38:5 8 >1@0B=>, 87-70 B@C4=>AB8 2>?@>A0, 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2. ABL 5I5 >4=0 ?@8G8=0, :>B>@0O A A0<>3> =0G0;0 <>65B ?>AB028BL =0A 2 BC?8:: >B25G0O =0 2>?@>AK "GB> MB> B0:>5?", "GB> 5ABL MB>?", <K 8<55< ?5@54 A>1>9 "MB>", 4>;6=K =09B8 2=CB@8 A51O "GB>" 8 >B>645AB28BL B> 8 4@C3>5 G5@57 "5ABL". > M94>AK ACBL A>45@60=8O 2AO:>3> "GB>" 8 ?@8=F8?K >1JOA=5=8O :0: B0:>2>3>. >MB><C ?5@54 =0<8 =5B 8 =5 <>65B 1KBL =8:0:>3> "MB>", >1JOA=OBL 65 "GB>" G5@57 "GB>" <>6=> B>;L:> :0:8<-B> :>A25==K<, 8A:;NG0NI8< B>G=>ABL, 8;8 65 A>2A5< ?@O<K< 8 ?>MB><C 8A:;NG0NI8< ?>=OB=>ABL A?>A>1><. !>1AB25==>, C ;0B>=0 <K 8 AB0;:8205<AO A MB8<8 42C<O A?>A>10<8. @0=8F0 <564C @0==8< 8 ?>74=8< 20@80=B0<8 M94>;>388 ;0B>=0  25AL<0 CA;>2=0O  <>65B 1KBL ?@>2545=0 ?> A;54CNI5<C ?@8=F8?C: 2=0G0;5 ;0B>=0 8=B5@5AC5B 2>?@>A > A>>B=>H5=88 42CE 284>2 1KB8O  8459 8 O2;5=89 2>A?@8=8<05<>3> <8@0; 70B5< 2>7=8:05B ?@>1;5<0 "B@5BL53> 2840", <0B5@88, 0 2 1>;55 >1I59 D>@<C;8@>2:5  8=>1KB8O. 1I85 G5@BK 8458 :0: 8AB8==>3> 1KB8O 8=20@80=B=K =0 >1>8E MB0?0E. KB85 >B:@K205BAO ?>=OB89=><C ?>7=0=8N :0: "?> ACB8 ACI55" (to ontos on) (Theaet. 188; Resp. 476). B A?>A>10 ?>7=0=8O 7028A8B E0@0:B5@ >B:@K205<>3> >=B>;>38G5A:>3> C@>2=O (Tim. 27, 51; A@.: Resp. 509, 533). 455 :0: >1J5:BC 8AB8==>3> ?>7=0=8O A>>B25BAB2CNB ?@548:0BK M;59A:>3> 1KB8O, >=0 "A0<0 ?> A515, A0<0 G5@57 A51O 548=>284=>5 25G=>ACI55" (ayto kathhayto methhaytoy monoeides aei on) (Conv. 211b). =0 =5 8A?KBK205B ?5@5<5= =8:>340, =8 2 :0:>< >B=>H5=88 8 =8:>8< >1@07>< (oyde potoydame oydamos alloiosin oydemian endechetai) (Phaed. 78). KB85 ?@>B82>AB>8B 25G=> AB0=>2OI5<CAO <8@C 2848<>AB8 B0: 65, :0: 2 4CH5 ?@>B82>AB>OB 4@C3 4@C3C <KH;5=85 8 >ICI5=85 (noesis  aisthesis). KB85 8 2848<>ABL ACI5AB2CNB A>25@H5==> @0745;L=> (choris). KB85  MB> "15AB5;5A=K5 284K" (asomata eide), :>B>@K5 ACI5AB2CNB 2 G8AB>< 2845 (eilikrinos) 2=5 ?@>AB@0=AB20, :0: 1K 2 "<KA;8<>< <5AB5" (topos noetos) (Tim. 27d; Conv. 211; Resp. 507; Tim. 28).  B>9 <5@5, 2 :0:>9 : 1KB8N 2>AE>4OB A2>9AB20 548=8G=KE 25I59, 845O A>548=O5B 2 A515 8E >1I55 (to koinon), 8 2 MB>< A<KA;5 8458 ACBL, ?> 2K@065=8N @8AB>B5;O, 548=>5 2> <=>3>< (hen epi pollon) (Met. I 9, 990b6). > 548=AB2> 1KB8O 4;O ?>7=0=8O =5 <>65B 1KBL 4>AB83=CB> >1>1I5=85<, 53> =5;L7O A =5>1E>48<>ABLN 2K25AB8 87 <=>65AB20. "@51C5BAO A:0G>:, 2K2>4OI89 =0A : ?@O<><C A>75@F0=8N ACI=>AB8 (Phaedr, 265; Resp. 537). !>>B25BAB25==> =5B ?@>AB>3> ?5@5E>40 >B 8AB8==>3> 1KB8O : <8@C AB0=>2;5=8O. 45O ;8HL >B@0605BAO 2 548=8G=KE 25I0E, =0E>4OI8EAO A 84559 2 >B=>H5=8OE ?>4@060=8O (mimesis). 5IL 5ABL :>?8O (eidolon) 8AB8==> ACI53> ?5@2>>1@070 (paradeigma), >=0 CG0AB2C5B 2 8455 (metechein) A @07=>9 AB5?5=LN ?@81;865=8O, 845O 65 2 =5:>B>@>< A<KA;5 ?@8ACBAB2C5B (paroysia) 2 25I8, ?@8A>548=O5BAO : =59 (prosgignesthai) 8;8 >B40;O5BAO. -B0 ?>4286=>ABL 8458 =0<5G5=0 2 "$54>=5". #65 2 A@54=5< ?5@8>45 B2>@G5AB20 ;0B>=0 <K =0E>48< >B;8G85 >B ?>78F88 B5E, :>3> ;0B>= =07K20; "4@C7LO<8 8459" (eidon philoi) (Soph. 248). Co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dynamis, B> 5ABL :0: A8;K 8;8 A?>A>1=>AB8 (2 B>< G8A;5 A?>A>1=>AB8 4CH8; A<.: Resp. 477), =5 O2;O5BAO, B0:8< >1@07><, @07@K2>< A @0==8< ?5@8>4><. 0 >A=>25 ?@82545==KE E0@0:B5@8AB8: M94>A0 ?>?KB05<AO 2 A0<>< 01AB@0:B=>< 2845 A45;0BL ?@5420@8B5;L=K9 2K2>4 >B=>A8B5;L=> ?>=8<0=8O 1KB8O C ;0B>=0, =5 70B@03820O ?>74=8E :>=F5?F89 1;030 8 8=>1KB8O. 1KG=K9 4;O ;0B>=0 :>=B5:AB, 2 :>B>@>< 2>7=8:05B B5<0 1KB8O, MB> ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=85 42CE <8@>2: 8AB8==> ACI53> 8 ?>AB>O==> AB@5<OI53>AO : ACI5AB2>20=8N. %0@0:B5@5= >B@K2>: 87 ""8<5O": "...4>;6=> @073@0=8G8BL 2>B :0:85 425 25I8: GB> 5ABL 25G=>5, =5 8<5NI55 2>7=8:=>25=8O 1KB85 8 GB> 5ABL 25G=> 2>7=8:0NI55, => =8:>340 =5 ACI55" (ti to on aei, genesin de oyk echon, kai ti to gignomenon men, on de oydepote) (Tim. 27d-28a), 0 B0:65 87 "$54>=0": "...<K CAB0=>28< 420 @>40 25I59  7@8<K5 8 157284=K5 (dyo eide ton onton, to men horaton, to de aeides)... 57284=K5 2A5340 =587<5==K, 0 7@8<K5 =5?@5@K2=> 87<5=ONBAO" (790).  "$8;515" CB>G=O5BAO 8E AC1>@48=0F8O: 1KB85 (oysia) 8 AB0=>2;5=85 (genesis) A2O70=K B0:, GB> 2A5 AB0=>2;5=85 2 F5;>< AB0=>28BAO @048 2A53> 1KB8O (xympasan de genesin oysias heneka gignesthai xympases) (54c). 0?@O65==K5 >B=>H5=8O <564C 2848<K< 8 =52848<K< 7040NB B>= 2A5< ?;0B>=>2A:8< @0AAC645=8O< > 1KB88, ?@8G5< B0 =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL 2848<K< <8@><, :>B>@0O 70AB02;O5B 8A:0BL 8=>9 <8@, 2>7=8:05B =5 AB>;L:> 87-70 53> B5:CG5AB8, A:>;L:> 87-70 =5A0<>4>AB0B>G=>AB8 O2;5=89. "5:CG5ABL CG5=8: @0B8;0 >ICI0; ?@545;L=> >AB@>, => ;>38G5A:8 >=0 =5 AB>;L C65 15AA?>@=0; :C40 >G5284=55 4;O =53> =5A?>A>1=>ABL GC2AB25==>3> <8@0 1KBL A>1AB25==K< >A=>20=85<. "0:8< >1@07><, C ;0B>=0 =52848<>5 >A=>20=85 2848<>3> 40=> G5@57 O2;5=8O 8 >?8AK205BAO =0 O7K:5 O2;5==>3> <8@0.  MB><, 2 G0AB=>AB8, >4=0 87 ?@8G8= B>3>, GB> 1KB85 G0AB> =07K205BAO M94>A>< 8;8 84559, E>BO "2840"-B> >=> :0: @07 8 =5 8<55B. >;>68B5;L=>5 >?8A0=85 1KB8O 2 480;>30E ;0B>=0 2>72@0I05B =0A : M;59A:><C CG5=8N 8 B5< 53> 8=B5@?@5B0F8O<, :>B>@K5 1K;8 40=K 2 ?>74=59 4>A>:@0B8:5: A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 1KB85  548=AB25==> ACI0O @50;L=>ABL, A 4@C3>9  >=> ?;N@0;8AB8G=>, 8 :064K9 53> M;5<5=B 8<55B 8=48284C0;L=CN D>@<C. 1I5?@87=0=> 2;8O=85, >:070==>5 =0 ;0B>=0 ?8D03>@59F0<8; 8=>340 C?><8=0NB =0:A03>@0, @565  5<>:@8B0. > 2A5 MB8 A>?>AB02;5=8O =5>1E>48<K :0: 4;O ?>=8<0=8O 35=578A0 CG5=8O >1 845OE (M94>;>388), B0: 8 4;O ?>=8<0=8O A?5F8D8:8 ?;0B>=87<0. 1I55 C ;0B>=0 8 4>A>:@0B8:>2 2 B><, GB> 8E CG5=8O ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 :><?@><8AA <564C M;59A:>9 >=B>;>3859 8 B@048F8>==>9 D8;>A>DA:>9 :>A<>;>3859, 4>AB8305<K9 ?@87=0=85< "42CE 284>2" (A@. 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B0:, 1KBL 84559 (8;8 M94>A><) [ HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\>1@>E>B>2%20%200B53>@8O%201KB8O\\refer.htm" \l "s14" \t "_blank" 14]  7=0G8B >B>645AB28BLAO A 1KB85<. /A=>, GB> ?@8 MB>< B5@O5BAO: 8AG570NB 2>A?@8=8<05<K5 GC2AB20<8 :0G5AB20, A2>@0G8205BAO ?@>AB@0=AB2>, >AB0=02;8205BAO 2@5<O. > GB> ?@8>1@5B05BAO? 5IL AB0=>28BAO A0<0 A>1>9, 2KE>48B 87 ?@>F5AA0, 2 :>B>@>< >=0 1K;0 :0: 1K @0ABO=CB0 2 ;8=8N, @02=0 A515 2 >4=>9 B>G:5 8 =5@02=0 2> 2A5E >AB0;L=KE. !>1@02H8AL 2 A515, 2 548=>9 B>G:5, >=0 459AB28B5;L=> ACI5AB2C5B. @548:0B aytos A>?5@=8G05B A B5@<8=>< "845O" :0: =5 <5=55 C?>B@518<K9 A?>A>1 ?5@52>40 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> :0G5AB20 8;8 ?@54<5B0 =0 >=B>;>38G5A:89 C@>25=L. "!0<>ABL", 0CB5=B8G=>ABL 25I8  206=59H55 55 ?@8>1@5B5=85 2 AD5@5 1KB8O. 48=AB2>, 25G=>ABL 8 >?@545;5==>ABL 1KB8O, 4>:070==K5 0@<5=84><, ACBL B0:65 =5>BGC6405<K5 A2>9AB20 ?;0B>=>2A:>3> M94>A0. <5AB5 A B5< ?>O2;O5BAO A2>9AB2>, ?@8ACI55 1KB8N B>;L:> 2 ?;0B>=>2A:>< 20@80=B5. 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dia ten amphisbetesin peri tesoysias pros alleloys), ">4=8 2A5 A>2;5:0NB A =510 8 87 >1;0AB8 =52848<>3> =0 75<;N... >=8 CB25@640NB, 1C4B> ACI5AB2C5B B>;L:> B>, GB> 4>?CA:05B ?@8:>A=>25=85 8 >AO70=85, 8 ?@87=0NB B5;0 8 1KB85 70 >4=> 8 B> 65..."; "B5, :B> A =8<8 2ABC?05B 2 A?>@, ?@54CA<>B@8B5;L=> 70I8I0NBAO :0: 1K A25@EC, >B:C40-B> 87 =52848<>3>, @5H8B5;L=> =0AB0820O =0 B><, GB> 8AB8==>5 1KB85  MB> =5:85 C<>?>AB8305<K5 8 15AB5;5A=K5 8458 (noeta kai asomata eide); B5;0 65... >=8, @07;030O 2 A2>8E @0AAC645=8OE =0 <5;:85 G0AB8, =07K20NB =5 1KB85<, 0 G5<-B> ?>4286=K<, AB0=>2;5=85<" (Soph. 246a-A). 5A:>;L:> ?>-8=><C 2 ""5MB5B5": "ABL ;N48, :>B>@K5 A>3;0A=K ?@87=0BL ACI5AB2CNI8< ;8HL B>, 70 GB> >=8 <>3CB F5?:> CE20B8BLAO @C:0<8, 459AB28O< 65 8;8 AB0=>2;5=8O< (@r0xeis de kai geneseis), :0: 8 2A5<C =57@8<><C, >=8 =5 >B2>4OB 4>;8 2 1KB88" (Theaet. 155e). 081>;55 25@>OB=>, GB> 8<5NBAO 2 284C :8=8:8 8 <530@8:8.  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""5MB5B5" ;0B>= AB028B 2>?@>A > B><, <>65B ;8 AG8B0BLAO 7=0=85< 8AB8==>5 2>77@5=85, ?@>OA=5==>5 A;>2>< [ HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\>1@>E>B>2%20%200B53>@8O%201KB8O\\refer.htm" \l "s16" \t "_blank" 16], 2 A2O78 A G5< @0718@05B :>=F5?F8N ":0:8E-B> ;N459" (:8=8:>2?), CB25@640NI8E, GB> ?5@2>M;5<5=BK 2A53> =5 8<5NB A>>B25BAB2CNI53> 8< ;>3>A0; 8< 4065 =5;L7O ?@8?8A0BL 1KB85 8;8 =51KB85, B0: :0: >=8 ?@>ABK, =5 8<5NB A>AB020 8, A;54>20B5;L=>, =5 ?>440NBAO >?@545;5=8N. =8 <>3CB 8<5BL B>;L:> 8<O (>C gar einai ayto alle onomazesthai) (202b). 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A=>2=K<8 >=B>;>38G5A:8<8 B5@<8=0<8 C ;0B>=0 O2;ONBAO ?@>872>4=K5 >B 3;03>;0 einai  "1KBL". @5645 2A53> MB> to on  "ACI55", 8;8 to on ontos  "8AB8==> ACI55", "459AB28B5;L=> ACI55", "?> ACB8 ACI55" (=0?@.: Phileb. 59d). @><5 G0AB> C?>B@51;O5<KE 2K@065=89 "459AB28B5;L=> ACI55" 8 "25G=> ACI55" ;0B>= 405B to on 2 4@C38E A>G5B0=8OE: "G8AB> (eilikrinos) ACI55" (Resp. 478d), "?> ?@8@>45 (pephykos) ACI55" (Resp. 490a), "A>25@H5==> (pantelos) ACI55" (Resp. 4770), "548=>284=> (monoeides) ACI55", "A0<> ?> A515 (kathhayto) ACI55" (Phaed. 78d). 06=59H89 B5@<8= A> A;>6=>9 8AB>@859 2 3@5G5A:>< 8 ;0B8=A:>< (2 M:2820;5=B5) D8;>A>DA:8E O7K:0E  oysia ("1KB85" 8;8 "ACI=>ABL"). #?>B@51;O; ;0B>= 8 53> CA8;5==K5 D>@<K, =0?@8<5@ oysia ontos oysa (Phaedr. 247A). Oysia  >48= 87 A0<KE C?>B@518B5;L=KE B5@<8=>2 ?;0B>=>2A:>3> >=B>;>38G5A:>3> A;>20@O. 3> 8AE>4=>5 7=0G5=85  "A>1AB25==>ABL", "8<CI5AB2>", "4>1@>", "1>30BAB2>", "A>AB>O=85". -B> 7=0G5=85 =5 8AG5705B 8 2> <=>38E D8;>A>DA:8E B5:AB0E, ?>MB><C 8=>340 ?@54AB02;O5B 1>;LHCN B@C4=>ABL CAB0=>2;5=85 E0@0:B5@0 53> A5<0=B8:8, B0: :0: >1K45==>5 C?>B@51;5=85 A;>20 oysia ;53:> 8AB>;:>20BL 2 4CE5 "1KB89=>9" ?@>1;5<0B8:8. C4CG8 ?@>872>4=K< >B ?@8G0AB=>9 D>@<K 3;03>;0 "1KBL" (einai), MB> ACI5AB28B5;L=>5 >7=0G05B 2 A0<>< H8@>:>< A<KA;5 "B>, GB> 8<55BAO", "B>, GB> ACI5AB25==> ACI5AB2C5B", "B>, GB> A>1AB25==> 5ABL". "<CI5AB2>", "=0;8G=>ABL" 8 "A>1AB25==>ABL"  MB> 8 7=0G8B, GB> 459AB28B5;L=> 8<55BAO 8 ?@54AB02;5=> =0;8F> :0:>5-B> A>45@60=85, A>1@0==>5 2>:@C3 53> 2;045;LF0  =5:>9 "A0<>AB8". $8;>A>DA:>5 7=0G5=85 B5@<8=0  "1KB85", "ACI=>ABL"  5AB5AB25==> 2K@0AB05B 87 MB>3> A5<0=B8G5A:>3> :CAB0. 54L AC1AB0=F80;L=>5 7=0G5=85 ?@8ACI5 A0<K< >1K45==K< 53> C?>B@51;5=8O< (A@. 8A?>;L7>20=85 "-wesen" 2 =5<5F:>< O7K:5 8;8 "-ABL" 2 @CAA:>< 4;O AC1AB0=B820F88 :0G5AB2 8;8 >1@07>20=8O >B2;5G5==KE ?>=OB89). !;>2> oysia <>6=> ?5@52>48BL 8 :0: "1KB85", B0: :0: MB> 459AB28B5;L=> ACI55, 8 :0: "ACI=>ABL", B0: :0: MB> CAB>9G820O A5@4F528=0 O2;5=8O, 8 4065 :0: existentia, 81> MB> =0;8G=>ABL 8 40==>ABL 1KB8O. >A:>;L:C "M:78AB5=F8O" =5 2K45;O;0AL 2 0=B8G=>9 D8;>A>D88 2 A0<>AB>OB5;L=CN :0B53>@8N, A>>B25BAB2CNI89 >BB5=>: A;>20 oysia A;54C5B >A>1> ?>4G5@:=CBL. 5@0AG;5=5==>ABL A<KA;>2 2 "oysia", ?>60;C9, C4>1=55 2A53> ?5@54020BL @CAA:8< A;>2>< "ACI=>ABL", 5A;8 8<5BL 2 284C =5 B>;L:> 53> C7:>H:>;L=>5 C?>B@51;5=85, => 8 A<KA;>2K5 2>7<>6=>AB8: ACI55, =0ACI=>5, ?@8ACI55, ACI5AB2CNI55, ACI5AB25==>5, 0 B0:65 ACI5AB2>, 8=48284CC<.  ?@54?@8=OB>< . $. >A52K< B5@<8=>;>38G5A:>< 8AA;54>20=88 480;>3>2 ;0B>=0 ?@>A;56820NBAO 70:>=><5@=>AB8 C?>B@51;5=8O oysia 8 =5:>B>@KE 4@C38E >=B>;>38G5A:8 7=0G8<KE 2K@065=89: esti, hos esti, to onti on [ HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\>1@>E>B>2%20%200B53>@8O%201KB8O\\refer.htm" \l "s17" \t "_blank" 17]. 3> @57C;LB0BK 3>2>@OB > B><, GB> D8;>A>DA:>5 7=0G5=85 @O40 2K@065=89 ?>O2;O5BAO ?>AB5?5==>, >B 480;>30 : 480;>3C, ?@8G5< 2A5340 A>A54AB2CO A >1K45==K<, "=082=>-@50;8AB8G5A:8<" A;>2>C?>B@51;5=85<. >=5G=>, =5 2A5340 <>6=> A C25@5==>ABLN :20;8D8F8@>20BL AB0BCA 2K@065=8O, 40 8 >1KG=K9 A<KA; A;>20 =8:>340 =5 <5H0; 3@5G5A:8< D8;>A>D0< 7018@0BLAO A 53> ?><>ILN =0 "=515A=K9 E@515B", => 2A5 65 AB@5<;5=85 ;0B>=0 =09B8 CAB>9G82K5 B5@<8=K 4;O 87<5=5=8O A2>8E >=B>;>38G5A:8E 8=BC8F88, >?5@5BLAO =0 <5B>48G5A:8 8A?>;L7C5<K9 =01>@ O7K:>2KE A8<2>;>2 4>AB0B>G=> ?>:070B5;L=>. 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""5 65, :B> =07K20NB 55 A859, 2>7<>6=>, ?>GB8 ?> 5@0:;8BC AG8B0NB, GB> 2A5 ACI55 42865BAO...  =0G0;>< 8 ?5@2>?@8G8=>9 >=8 AG8B0NB B>;G>: ("B>;:0N" 1C45B otheo)..." 45AL ;0B>=, 1>;LH5, G5< :B>-;81> 87 3@5G5A:8E D8;>A>D>2, C45;O2H89 2=8<0=85 C<AB25==K< @0A?@O<, 405B 87>1@065=85 70?5G0B;52H59AO 2 O7K:5 1>@L1K 8459, 87>1@065=85, A:>@55 2A53>, D0=B0AB8G5A:>5, => 2A5 65 >AB0NI55AO D0:B>< ?;0B>=>2A:>3> <KH;5=8O. 5AB8O, 1>38=O CAB>9G82>AB8 8 ?@51K20=8O, <0BL 1>3>2, 2 GL5< 8<5=8 ;0B>=C A;KH8BAO 5I5 8 "65@B2>?@8=>H5=85",  MB> 1KB85, essia. 5@2>B>;G>:, ?>@>640NI89 :>A<>A D8A8>;>3>2 A 8E "28E@O<8" 8 <8@ @5;OB828AB>2, B5:CG89 8 =5?>7=0205<K9,  MB> osia. AA;54>20B5;8, 2KOA=OO A5<0=B8:C B5@<8=0 oysia, AB@5<OBAO =09B8 70:>=><5@=>AB8 53> C?>B@51;5=8O 2 @07=K5 ?5@8>4K ?;0B>=>2A:>3> B2>@G5AB20 8 @0A:@KBL 53> 7=0G5=8O G5@57 M:2820;5=BK A>2@5<5==>9 3=>A5>;>388. 4=0:> 2K2>4K, A;54CNI85 87 8E 65 @01>B, C15640NB 2 >3@0=8G5==>AB8 B0:>3> @>40 0=0;870. @8 2A59 53> 15AA?>@=>9 ?>;57=>AB8 ?>=OB85 "1KB85" @0AA<0B@8205BAO 2 =5< ;8HL 2 @0<:0E ?@54?8A0==KE ;0B>=C ?@028;, :0: O7K:>2KE, B0: 8 ;>38G5A:8E. > A0< ;0B>= =5 8<5; >1I59 A8AB5<K C?>B@51;5=8O B>3> 8;8 8=>3> B5@<8=0 8 =0?>;=O; 53> :>=:@5B=K< 7=0G5=85< 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B :>=B5:AB0 @07<KH;5=8O 2>>1I5 8 480;>30 2 G0AB=>AB8. >;8A5<8O 8 4065 ?@O<0O 42CA<KA;5==>ABL =5 B>;L:> =5 <5H0;8 5<C 2K@060BL <KA;8, => 8 1K;8 =5?>A@54AB25==>9 <0B5@859 2>?;>I5=8O A<KA;0. -B> =5 7=0G8B, GB> O7K: ;0B>=0  15770:>==K9 ?@>872>;. !:>@55 =0>1>@>B  ?>AB>O==0O @5D;5:A8O =04 2>7<>6=>ABO<8 A;>20, 65;0=85 >AB028BL >B:@KBK<8 53> A?>A>1=>AB8 A>?@O30BLAO A @07=K<8, 8=>340 25AL<0 >B40;5==K<8 >B =5?>A@54AB25==>3>, A<KA;>2K<8 ?>@O4:0<8 ?@82>4OB : A>7=0B5;L=><C >1K3@K20=8N =5@025=AB20 A;>20 A0<><C A515 [ HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\>1@>E>B>2%20%200B53>@8O%201KB8O\\refer.htm" \l "s19" \t "_blank" 19]. 0?@8<5@, >B<5G0O G0AB>5 C?>B@51;5=85 oysia 2 A<KA;5 "8AB8=0" [ HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\>1@>E>B>2%20%200B53>@8O%201KB8O\\refer.htm" \l "s20" \t "_blank" 20], <K 2@O4 ;8 A<>65< ?@8=OBL MB>B D0:B 2 :0G5AB25 ?>OA=ONI53> 7=0G5=85 "ACI=>AB8"; 254L "8AB8=0" 2 D8;>A>D88 ;0B>=0 B0: 65 =C6405BAO 2 8AB>;:>20=88, :0: 8 "1KB85"; ?>4AB02;OO ?>=OB85 "@50;L=>ABL" 2<5AB> "1KB8O" [ HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\>1@>E>B>2%20%200B53>@8O%201KB8O\\refer.htm" \l "s21" \t "_blank" 21], <K A:>@55 CA;>6=O5< 8=B5@?@5B0F8N, >B1@0AK20O >4=8 A<KA;>2K5 >BB5=:8 8 ?@82=>AO 4@C385. >=5G=>, 2A5 MB8 ?@85<K B>;:>20=8O =5>1E>48<K, => A;54C5B A<8@8BLAO A B5<, GB> ;0B>=, BI0B5;L=> 2K18@0O A;>20 4;O <KA;59, >AB02;O5B A515 ?@02> "15A?>@O4>G=>3>" 8E C?>B@51;5=8O: oysia <>65B >B=>A8BLAO : B><C, GB>, AB@>3> 3>2>@O, 55 =5 8<55B (B> 5ABL 2848<>ABL, AB0=>2;5=85; =0?@.: Phaed. 79a), eidos  : 2=5H=>AB8, soma  : 8450;L=>AB8.  A2O78 A MB>9 >A>15==>ABLN 0BB8G5A:>3> (>B=N4L =5 B>;L:> ?;0B>=>2A:>3> A:;040 <KH;5=8O) =5 A;54>20;> 1K 3>2>@8BL A2KA>:0, GB> B0:>5-B> ?>=OB85 5I5 =5 AB0;> B5@<8=><; A:>@55 =C6=> >B40BL 4>;6=>5 <C4@>AB8 3@5:>2, >?0A02H8EAO, GB> ?>=OB85 <>65B 8< AB0BL.  B> 65 2@5<O >?@545;5==> ?@>A;568205BAO =0@0AB0=85 C ;0B>=0 8=B5@5A0 : ?@545;L=><C >1>1I5=8N B>3> 8;8 8=>3> B8?0 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 2 A;>25. A;8 2 @0==8E 480;>30E >=B>;>3870F8O 87CG05<KE :0G5AB2 8;8 4>1@>45B5;59 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO ?@8 ?><>I8 ad hoc ?@84C<0==KE >1>@>B>2, 27OBKE 87 ;5:A8:8 40==>9 15A54K (GB> 5ABL =5GB>  ti pote esti, G5@57 GB>  dia ti, kata ti), ?@8 ?><>I8 0@B8:;O (2>?@>AC ?>4;568B =5 "GB> 5ABL...", 0 "GB>9=>ABL"  >C ti esti..., allho esti to...) (Hipp. Maj. 287d), B> ?>74=55 ?>O2;ONBAO eidos, genos, typos, morphe, paradeigma, physis. Oysia 2 @0==8E 480;>30E G0AB> C?>B@51;O5BAO 2> <=>65AB25==>< G8A;5, B0: :0: @5GL 845B > ACI=>ABOE 25I59: 2 ""5MB5B5" C65 AB028BAO 2>?@>A > ACI=>AB8 :0: B0:>2>9, B> 5ABL > "1KB88": ""> >1I55 2> 2A5E 25I0E... :>B>@>5 BK =07K205HL "1KB85<" 8;8 "=51KB85<" (185A); ACI=>ABL "...>A>15==> @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO =0 2A5" (toyto gar malista epi panton parepetai) (186a).  ">AC40@AB25" oysia  MB> C65 no-?@58<CI5AB2C G8AB>5 1KB85 (V 479A, VI 4860, IX 585b-d). 082KAH85 >1>1I5=8O "!>D8AB0" (megista gene, A@548 :>B>@KE "1KB85")  B0:65 E0@0:B5@=0O B5<0 ?>74=53> ;0B>=0. >AB0282, B0:8< >1@07><, 2>?@>A > "ACI5< :0: ACI5<", ;0B>= ?@8E>48B : =5>1E>48<>AB8 8AA;54>20BL >1ICN ?@8@>4C MB>3> ?>=OB8O, =09B8 5<C A>>B25BAB285 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, 2 B>< G8A;5 :>A<>;>38G5A:>9, 8 >?@545;8BL 53> >B=>H5=8O A 4@C38<8 gene. 4. =>1KB85  480;>30E ?>74=53> ?5@8>40 ;0B>= ?@>2>48B @07=>AB>@>==89 0=0;87 ?>=OB8O 1KB8O, CB>G=OO A0<> ?>=OB85 8 @0725@BK20O A:@KBK5 2 =5< A>45@60B5;L=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8. /A=>, GB> 1KB85  MB> ?@545; AB0=>2;5=8O 25I59 "745H=53>" <8@0, GB> >=8 =C640NBAO 2 =5< :0: 2 A2>59 8AB8=5 8 >A=>25. > A0<>4>AB0B>G=> ;8 1KB85, <>65B ;8 >=> 1KBL A2>59 >A=>2>9, <>65B ;8 1KBL 548=K< 2 A515 8 :0: >B=>A8BAO :> <=>65AB2C 2=5 A51O?  "0@<5=845" @0AA<0B@8205BAO A0<0O, <>65B 1KBL, ?@8=F8?80;L=0O 87 MB8E ?@>1;5<  >B=>H5=85 548=>3>" : 8=><C.  "!>D8AB5" 8=>5 ?@>=8:05B 2 A0<> 548=AB2> 8 >1=0@C68205BAO, GB> 1KB85 =5 <>65B >AB020BLAO ?@>AB>9 >4=>@>4=>ABLN, => 4>;6=> 8<5BL 2=CB@5==NN AB@C:BC@C. "$8;51" @0A:@K205B MBC ?@>1;5<0B8:C =0 O7K:5 ?8D03>@59A:8E :0B53>@89 ?@545;0 8 15A?@545;L=>3>.  ""8<55" 40= :>A<>;>38G5A:89 0A?5:B >=B>;>388 ;0B>=0.  =0:>=5F, 2 ">AC40@AB25" A>45@68BAO CG5=85 > 157>A=>2=>9 >A=>25 1KB8O. 0AA<>B@8< 480;>38 "0@<5=84" 8 "!>D8AB" 2 B>9 <5@5, 2 :0:>9 ?>=OB85 1KB8O ?>;CG05B 2 =8E =>2K5 >?@545;5=8O. 10 480;>30 =0?@02;5=K ?@>B82 M;59A:>3> 8 =5>M;59A:>3> CG5=8O > ACI5AB2>20=88 70<:=CB>3> 2 A515 01A>;NB0.  "0@<5=845" A8AB5<0B8G5A:8 @0AA<>B@5=K 2>A5<L 4>?CI5=89 (hypothesis  ?@54?>AK;:0, >A=>20=85) >B=>A8B5;L=> 1KB8O 8;8 =51KB8O 548=>3> 8 2KB5:0NI85 87 =8E A;54AB28O 4;O A0<>3> 548=>3> 8 8=>3> [ HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\>1@>E>B>2%20%200B53>@8O%201KB8O\\refer.htm" \l "s22" \t "_blank" 22]. A>15==> 7=0G8B5;L=K 2K2>4K 87 42CE 4>?CI5=89. 5@20O ?@54?>AK;:0 AB028B 2>?@>A: "5A;8 5ABL 548=>5, B> G5< >=> <>65B 1KBL?" ;8: "<>65B ;8 548=>5 (hen) 1KBL <=>38< (polla)?". KOA=O5BAO, GB> 5A;8 5ABL 548=>5, B> >=> =5 <>65B 1KBL =8 G5<, 0 A;54>20B5;L=>, 2>>1I5 =5 <>65B 1KBL: 254L ;N10O >?@545;5==>ABL ?@52@0B8B 53> 2 <=>65AB2>. A;8 548=>5 B>;L:> 548=>, B> >=> "=8:>8< >1@07>< =5 ?@8G0AB=> 1KB8N (oydamos ara, to hen oysias metechei)" (141e). BAN40 <>6=> 70:;NG8BL, GB> 1KBL A>1>9 =52>7<>6=>, 5A;8 >3@0=8G8BLAO B>;L:> MB8<.  B> 65 2@5<O 1KBL  7=0G8B 1KBL A>1>9, 1KBL A0<>B>645AB25==K<. KE>4 87 MB>9 0=B8=><88 ;0B>= 2848B 2 @0A:@KB88 2=CB@5==59 ;>38:8 1KB8O. B>@0O ?@54?>AK;:0 4>?CA:05B, GB> 548=>5 5ABL =5 B>;L:> 548=>5, => 8 ACI5AB2CNI55 548=>5. =0;87 ?5@2>3> 4>?CI5=8O C65 ?>:070;, GB> 548=>5 8 1KB85  =5 >4=> 8 B> 65. B>@>5 >1=0@C68205B, GB> AB>8B =0< ?@87=0BL 548=>5 ACI8<, :0: 2>7=8:=5B 42>9AB25==>ABL, 81> 548=>5 A>548=O5BAO =5 A A>1>9, 0 A G5<-B> 8=K<, B> 5ABL A 1KB85<; A;54>20B5;L=>, 2>7=8:=5B <=>65AB2>, >B=>H5=85 8 2A5, GB> A MB8< A2O70=>. 48=>5 >:07K205BAO @074@>1;5==K< 87-70 1KB8O (kekermatismenon hypo tes oysias) 8 @0745;5==K< 1KB85< (hypo toy ontos dianenememenon), 2 @57C;LB0B5 G53> 2>7=8:05B <=>3>G8A;5==>5 8 =5>?@545;5==>5 <=>65AB2> (polla te kai apeira to plethos estin) (144e). KB85 2 MB>9 A8BC0F88 AB0;> @0745;ONI59, => 2 B> 65 2@5<O 8 A>548=ONI59 A8;>9, B0: :0: 548=>5 745AL, 2 >B;8G85 >B ?5@2>3> 4>?CI5=8O, ACI5AB2C5B. 06=59H8< A;54AB285< A2O78 548=>3> A 1KB85< >:07K205BAO B>, GB> 5<C <>6=> B5?5@L ?@8?8AK20BL <=>385 A2>9AB20, :>B>@K5 =5 A>2<5I0;8AL A 548=K< 2 @0<:0E ?5@2>3> 4>?CI5=8O, ?@8G5< 8<5==> 1KB85 >B:@K;> B0:CN 2>7<>6=>ABL. "">, GB> 1KB85  ?@548:0B, 8 ?@8B>< ?5@2K9 87 ?@548:0B>2, >A=>20 8 8AB>G=8: ?@548:0F88 2>>1I5,  2 MB>< CB25@645=88 70:;NG5=0 ACBL 2A59 A8AB5<K ;0B>=0" {27, 148}. K2>4 . . 0945=:>, A45;0==K9 =0 >A=>25 =5O2=KE ?;0B>=>2A:8E CAB0=>2>:, ?>;CG05B, :0: <K C2848<, ?>4B25@645=85 2 40;L=59H59 8AB>@88 ?@>1;5<K 1KB8O :0: ?@548:0B0. !;54C5B ;8HL 70<5B8BL, GB> ?>=8<0=85 1KB8O :0: AC1J5:B0 ?@548:0F88 B0:65 ?@8ACBAB2C5B 2 >=B>;>388 ;0B>=0: B0:>20 "845O" 2 @0==8E 8 A@54=8E 480;>30E. A5 @0A:@KB>5 ;0B>=>< 2 >AB0;L=KE 4>?CI5=8OE [ HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\>1@>E>B>2%20%200B53>@8O%201KB8O\\refer.htm" \l "s23" \t "_blank" 23] 20@L8@C5B 3;02=K5 8458 42CE ?5@2KE: =5>1E>48<>ABL 2KE>645=8O 548=>3> 70 A2>8 ?@545;K, =587156=>ABL ?>;030=8O 8=>1KB8O 8 2>72@0I5=8O : A515 >B 8=>3>. !CI5AB2>20=85 548=>3> 45;05B 548=>5 <=>38< 8 @07;8G5==K< 2=CB@8 A51O. <5AB5 A MB8< ?>O2;O5BAO =>20O :0B53>@8O <KH;5=8O 8 =>2K9 0A?5:B 01A>;NB0  "8=>5" (143b). ;03>40@O 8=><C 8 ?@>8AE>48B 25AL ?@>F5AA >1@5B5=8O 548=K< A>1AB25==>9 AB@C:BC@K. "0@<5=84" ?>:07K205B, :0: 8=>5, @07@CH0O 548=>5, 405B 5<C 2 B> 65 2@5<O C<>?>AB8305<>5 2=CB@5==55 CAB@>9AB2> 8 B5< A0<K< 548=AB2> 4@C3>3> B8?0, :>=:@5B=>5 548=AB2> G0AB59 2 F5;><. A>15==> 206=>, GB> @0A:@KB0 ?@8 MB>< =5>1E>48<>ABL 2KE>40 548=>3> 87 A51O: 2 =0G0;5 @0AAC645=8O 45;05BAO 2K2>4 > B><, GB> 5A;8 548=>5 548=>, B> =8G53> =5B; 2 :>=F5 2KOA=O5BAO  5A;8 548=>3> =5B, B> =8G53> =5B. KB85, GB>1K 1KBL 1KB85<, 4>;6=> ?@>9B8 ?CBL A0<>>B@8F0=8O. @8>1@5B05BAO =0 MB>< ?CB8 O2;5==>ABL ACI5AB2>20=8O, ?>7=0205<>ABL, 15A:>=5G=K5 AB@C:BC@=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 C=825@AC<0, :>B>@K9 4@>18BAO, >AB020OAL 2 :064>9 A2>59 G0AB8 @02=><>I=K< A2>5<C F5;><C (1425  1430). @8=F8?80;L=> =>2K< 2 ?>=8<0=88 1KB8O >:07K205BAO 2 "0@<5=845" (8 "!>D8AB5") A?>A>1=>ABL 8459 : 42865=8N 8 ?@52@0I5=8N.  =0G0;5 480;>30 !>:@0B 70<5G05B 5=>=C, GB> C4828B5;L=> 1K;> 1K >B:@KB85 A<5H5=8O 8 @07>1I5=8O 2 8450;L=>< <8@5 (xygkerannysthai kai diakrinesthai) (129e), 0 =5 2 25I5AB25==><. >A5<L 38?>B57 >ACI5AB2;ONB 65;0=85 !>:@0B0 A ?@545;L=>9 ?>;=>B>9. >=5G=>, 42865=85 8 87<5=5=85 745AL >B;8G=K >B 48=0<8:8 GC2AB25==>3> <8@0, => >=8 A2O70=K A =8<, :0: >1@075F A :>?859. 8=0<8:0 C<>?>AB8305<>3> 8<55B 4065 A2>5 C<>?>AB8305<>5 2@5<O: ?@8G0AB=>ABL : 1KB8N B@51C5B ?@8G0AB=>AB8 : B><C 8;8 8=><C <>4CAC 2@5<5=8 (1415). =B5@5A=K 2 MB>< >B=>H5=88 ?>=OB8O "24@C3" (exaiphnes) (156d) 8 "B5?5@L" (nyn) (152b), :>B>@K5, ?> ;0B>=C, O2;ONBAO 2=52@5<5==K< <><5=B>< 2@5<5=8 8 AB0=>2;5=8O, 70304>G=>9 3@0=8F59 <564C 42C<O A>AB>O=8O<8, <564C ?@>H;K< 8 1C4CI8<. 57 MB>3> ?@8ACBAB28O ?@545;0 2 AB0=>2;5=88 2@5<O =5 AB0;> 1K 2@5<5=5<. !0<> AB0=>2;5=85 =5 <>65B >ACI5AB28BL A:0G>: 2 =>2>5 :0G5AB2>.  480;>35 "!>D8AB" B5<0 8=>1KB8O 8 2708<>?@52@0I5=8O, A>ACI5AB2>20=8O 8459=>3> A>>1I5AB20 (koinonia) 40=0 2 4@C3>< 0A?5:B5. >:070B5;L=> @07;8G85 4@0<0B8G5A:8E "@0<>:" MB8E 480;>3>2: 2 "0@<5=845" 25;8:89 <KA;8B5;L 22>48B =0G8=0NI53> 480;5:B8:0 2 <8@ >=B>;>38G5A:>9 "2KAH59 <0B5<0B8:8", A0< >F5=820O A2>8 ?>AB@>5=8O :0: 83@C (G5<C, @07C<55BAO, =5 AB>8B 2?>;=5 4>25@OBL); 2 "!>D8AB5" 0=0;87 1KB8O 8 =51KB8O =0?@02;5= =0 >BKA:0=85 >?@545;5=8O A>D8AB0, 4;O G53> B@51C5BAO =09B8 >=B>;>38G5A:CN >A=>2C ;68. "5<0 1KB8O 2 "!>D8AB5" =0AKI5=0 MB8G5A:8<8 <>B820<8 8 ?5@5:;8:05BAO 2 MB>< A<KA;5 A "$54>=><" 8 "$8;51><". ;02=0O ?@>1;5<0 480;>30  COA=5=85 ?@8@>4K =51KB8O. 1AB@0:B=>5 >B@8F0=85 =51KB8O, AG8B05B ;0B>=, ?@82>48B 8 M;50B>2 8 A>D8AB>2 : >48=0:>2><C @57C;LB0BC: 8AG5705B :@8B5@89 @07;8G8O 8AB8=K 8 ;68. A5 65 >A=>2>9 4;O @5H5=8O ?@>1;5<K >:07K205BAO 0:A8><0B8:0 M;50B>2. 'C6575<5F, ?@8ABC?0O : :@8B8:5 0@<5=840, ?>4G5@:8205B, GB> =5 AB@5<8BAO ?>;=>ABLN ?@5@20BL A2O7L A2>8E @0AAC645=89 A M;59A:8<8 (241d; 242b). @5645 2A53>, @0A?CBK20O E8B@>5 A?;5B5=85 (xymploke) (240A) 1KB8O 8 =51KB8O, A;54C5B @0AA<>B@5BL "25;8G09H55 8 87=0G0;L=>5" (243d), B> 5ABL 1KB85.  "!>D8AB5"  <>65B 1KBL, 2?5@2K5 2 3@5G5A:>9 D8;>A>D88  =5 ?@>AB> @07<KH;ONB > 1KB88, => AB02OB <5B>48G5A:89 "2>?@>A": GB> 2K 65;05B5 >1>7=0G8BL, :>340 ?@>87=>A8B5 "1KB85"? (2440). ?@>25@30O =081>;55 4;O A51O >G5284=K5 701;C645=8O B5E, :B> 2KA:07K20;AO > 1KB88 (>B@8F02H8E 15AB5;5A=>5, >B@K202H8E 1KB85 >B 687=8 8 42865=8O, B> 5ABL ";N459 75<;8", A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 8 "4@C759 8459"  A 4@C3>9), ;0B>= >B:07K205BAO 4>?CA:0BL "AB@0H=>5 CB25@645=85" > B><, GB> "42865=85, 687=L, 4CH0 8 @07C< =5 ?@8G0AB=K A>25@H5==><C 1KB8N 8 GB> 1KB85 =5 6825B 8 =5 <KA;8B, =>, 2>72KH5==>5 8 G8AB>5, =5 8<5O C<0, AB>8B =5?>4286=> 2 ?>:>5" (248-2490). 'B>1K >B25B8BL =0 2>?@>A > B><, A G5< <>6=> A2O70BL 1KB85, =5>1E>48<> 2KOA=8BL A0<C A?>A>1=>ABL @>4>2 :> 2708<>459AB28N. > ;0B>=C, 2>7<>6=K B@8 20@80=B0 >B25B0: 1) @>4K =5A?>A>1=K ?@8>1I0BLAO 4@C3 : 4@C3C; 2) 2A5 ?@8>1I05BAO :> 2A5<C 8, A;54>20B5;L=>, A2>48BAO : >4=><C; 3) =5:>B>@K5 @>4K 2708<>459AB2CNB, =5:>B>@K5  =5B (251d). 5@2K9 20@80=B >?@>25@305BAO C65 B5<, GB> 157 ?@8>1I5=8O : 1KB8N 2>>1I5 =8G53> =5 1C45B ACI5AB2>20BL, 2B>@>9 ?@82545B : ?@>B82>@5G8N, => "2KAH0O =5>1E>48<>ABL ?@5?OBAB2C5B B><C, GB>1K 42865=85 ?>:>8;>AL, 0 ?>:>9 42830;AO" (252d), 8 >AB05BAO B@5B89 ?CBL  87CG5=85 >A>1>3> 8A:CAAB20 @0A?>7=020BL A>G5B05<>ABL 8;8 =5A>G5B05<>ABL @>4>2 (ta gene), =0E>48BL A2O7L, ?>72>;ONICN @>40< A<5H820BLAO (xymmignysthai), 8 ?@8G8=K 8E @0745;5=8O (tes diaireseos aitia). -B> =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: 480;5:B8G5A:>5 8A:CAAB2>, 8AB8==0O D8;>A>D8O, "=0C:0 A2>1>4=KE" (253b-d). ;0B>= =0 ?@8<5@5 3;02=KE @>4>2 405B >1@075F 480;5:B8G5A:>3> 8A:CAAB20. KOA=OO A>>B=>H5=85 1KB8O, ?>:>O, 42865=8O, B>645AB25==>3> 8 8=>3>, >= ?>:07K205B, :0: MB8 @>4K B@51CNB =5 B>;L:> A0<>B>645AB25==>AB8, => 8 >1I5=8O  ?@8BO65=8O 8;8 >BB0;:820=8O  A 4@C38<8 @>40<8. K2>4 > B><, GB> "1KB85 8 8=>5 ?@>=87K20NB 2A5 8 4@C3 4@C30" (2590), ?>42>48B 8B>3 ?>8A:0< >=B>;>38G5A:>9 >A=>2K <=>3>>1@078O. ;0B>= =0E>48B B>B A<KA;, 2 :>B>@>< <>6=> 3>2>@8BL > =51KB88, =5 =0@CH0O M;59A:>3> 70?@5B0 AG8B0BL =51KB85 1KB85<. BAB@0=OOAL >B @5H5=8O ?@>1;5<K =51KB8O :0: ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8 (to enantion) 1KB8O, >= 4>?CA:05B 2>7<>6=>ABL <KA;8BL >B=>A8B5;L=>5 =51KB85, B> 5ABL 8=>5, :>B>@>5 ?@>AB8@05BAO ?> 2A5<C ACI5<C, =0E>4OI5<CAO 2> 2708<>A2O78, @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO =0 2A5 @>4K, 2:;NG0O A0<> 1KB85, 8 2 MB>< >B=>H5=88 ?@8G0AB=>5 1KB8N (256d-5; 258d-e; 260b). 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">;L:> =0C:0 > ACI5< :0: ACI5< >1>A=>2K205B 2AO:>5 =5GB> 2 53> 1KB88, B>;L:> >=0 4>:07K205B 2 AB@>3>< A<KA;5 A;>20 (1025b8-18). @5645 G5< @07<KH;OBL > ACI5< :0: B0:>2><, =5>1E>48<> 2KOA=8BL 7=0G5=85 MB>3> ?>=OB8O. @8AB>B5;L =5>4=>:@0B=> 70O2;O5B, GB> > ACI5< 3>2>@8BAO 2 @07;8G=KE 7=0G5=8OE (to on legetai pollachos, =0?@., 1028a10). = 2?5@2K5 405B A5<0=B8G5A:89 0=0;87 ?>=OB8O, 8 MB> =5>4=>:@0B=> A;C68B 5<C 107>9 4;O @5H5=8O ?0@04>:A>2 ?@54H5AB2CNI59 >=B>;>388, 2 G0AB=>AB8 M;59A:>9.  B> 65 2@5<O >= 2A5340 A2>48B <=>3>>1@0785 : >A=>2=K< 7=0G5=8O<, 0 ?>A:>;L:C >=8 <>3CB ACI5AB2>20BL, 5A;8 5ABL 548=K9 A<KA; ?>=OB8O, B> @8AB>B5;L ?>4G5@:8205B, GB> 2A5 65 <=>3>>1@0785 A:07K205<>3> >B=>A8BAO : G5<C-B> 548=><C  pros hen (1003032-b12; A<. B0:65 2AN 3 3;. 11 :=838). A=>2=K5 7=0G5=8O ACI53> B0:>2K (V,7; B0:65 1026034-b): 1) ?@82E>4OI55 (ta symbebekota), B> 5ABL A;CG09=K5, =5A>1AB25==K5 :0G5AB20 25I8; 2) ACI55 2 A<KA;5 8AB8=K 8 =5-ACI55 2 A<KA;5 ;68; 3) @07=K5 284K :0B53>@89: A:>;L:> :0B53>@89, AB>;L:> 8 B8?>2 2KA:07K20=8O > ACI5<; 4) ACI55 2 2>7<>6=>AB8 8 ACI55 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. "> 548=>5, : :>B>@><C A2>4OBAO 7=0G5=8O ACI53>,  MB> ACI=>ABL. 0:8< >1@07>< ?@>8AE>48B B0:>5 A2545=85, <K C2848< =5A:>;L:> ?>765. !59G0A 206=> >B<5B8BL, GB> 2>?@>A > B><, GB> 5ABL "ACI55 :0: ACI55", @8AB>B5;L A2>48B : ?@>1;5<5 ACI=>AB8 (oysia). -B0 ?>78F8O E0@0:B5@=0 4;O 2A53> :;0AA8G5A:>3> ?;0B>=87<0, 5A;8 B0: <>6=> =0720BL B@8C<28@0B ;0B>=0, @8AB>B5;O 8 ;>B8=0; >=0 CB25@6405B, GB> 1KBL  7=0G8B 1KBL A<KA;>2>9 >?@545;5==>ABLN 8, A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, >1;040BL 70:>=G5==>9 A<KA;>2>9 >?@545;5==>ABLN  7=0G8B 1KBL. " B>, GB> 874@52;5, 8 =K=5, 8 2A5340 A>AB02;O;> ?@54<5B 8A:0=89 8 2A5340 @>640;> 70B@C4=5=8O,  2>?@>A > B><, GB> B0:>5 ACI55,  MB>B 2>?@>A A2>48BAO : 2>?@>AC  GB> ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 ACI=>ABL?" (1028b3-5). >?@>A > ACI=>AB8 @0AA<0B@8205BAO @8AB>B5;5< =5 B>;L:> 2 "5B0D878:5", => 8 5420 ;8 =5 2> 2A5E A>G8=5=8OE. >=F5=B@8@>20==K< 87;>65=85< 53> 273;O4>2 =0 ACI=>ABL O2;ONBAO VII 8 VIII :=838 "5B0D878:8" 8 5 3;. "0B53>@89".  ?>8A:0E ACI=>AB8 @8AB>B5;L @C:>2>4AB2C5BAO B@5<O :@8B5@8O<8: <KA;8<>ABL, A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL 8 A?>A>1=>ABL 1KBL =>A8B5;5< ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB59. @5B5=45=B0<8 =0 AB0BCA ACI=>AB8 2KABC?0NB <0B5@8O, 548=8G=0O 25IL, 284 8 @>4, AB8E88 8 G8A;0, => =8GB> 87 MB>3>, :0: 2KOA=8; @8AB>B5;L, =5 >B25G05B 2 ?>;=>9 <5@5 2A5< :@8B5@8O< A@07C. !CI=>ABLN 2 ?>;=>F5==>< A<KA;5 A;>20 <>65B 1KBL =0720= ;8HL #< (noys). 0:>2 65 ?CBL @8AB>B5;O : MB><C 2K2>4C? 7 2A5E @>4>2 ACI53> A0<K< ?5@2K< ACI8< (?5@2K< 2> 2A5E >B=>H5=8OE) 1C45B ACI=>ABL, 81>, :0: CB25@6405B @8AB>B5;L, B>;L:> >=0 A?>A>1=0 ACI5AB2>20BL A0<>AB>OB5;L=> 8 >B45;L=> (VII, l, 1028a).  ACI=>AB8 3>2>@OB 2 G5BK@5E >A=>2=KE 7=0G5=8OE: GB>9=>ABL (to ti en einai), >1I55 (katholoy), @>4 (genos) 8 AC1AB@0B, 8;8 ?>4;560I55 (hypokeimenon).  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"0B53>@89": ACI=>ABL 2A5340 AC1J5:B 2KA:07K20=89, >=0 =5 O2;O5BAO ?@548:0B>< 8 =5 <>65B =0E>48BLAO 2 4@C3>9 ACI=>AB8. 7 B@5E 7=0G5=89 AC1AB@0B0 <0B5@8O =5 <>65B ?@5B5=4>20BL =0 8<O ACI=>AB8, ?>B><C GB> >=0 =5 2 A>AB>O=88 ACI5AB2>20BL A0<>AB>OB5;L=> 8 =5 <>65B 1KBL "MB>ABLN", 0 MB> >1O70B5;L=> A2>9AB25==> ACI=>AB8; A>548=5=85 <0B5@88 8 D>@<K  =5GB> 2B>@8G=>5 8 ?>B><C B>65 =5 ACI=>ABL; A0<0 65 D>@<0 3>@074> 1;865 : ACI=>AB8 (1029026-34). $>@<0 5ABL GB>9=>ABL 8 ?5@20O ACI=>ABL 25I8 (1032b1-2), ?5@20O 2 B>< A<KA;5, GB> O2;O5BAO 55 =5?>A@54AB25==K< A<KA;>< (2>>1I5 @8AB>B5;L C?>B@51;O5B 2K@065=8O "?5@2>5", "2B>@>5", "?>A;54=55" 2 A2O78 A >=B>;>38G5A:8<8 ?>=OB8O<8  B0:, :0: 48:BC5B :>=B5:AB). =0G5=85 GB>9=>AB8 8 A2O70==KE A =59 48AB8=:F89 <>6=> ?@54AB028BL A;54CNI8< >1@07><. 'B>9=>ABL >B25G05B =0.2>?@>A "GB> B0:>5?" 8 ACI5AB2C5B C B5E 25I59, C :>B>@KE <>65B 1KBL >?@545;5=85. "0: 65 :0: 1KB85 2 ?@O<>< A<KA;5 ?@8ACI5 B>;L:> ACI=>AB8, 0 >AB0;L=><C ?@8ACI5 2 :>A25==>< A<KA;5, B0: 8 GB>9=>ABL ?@O<> 8 ?5@28G=> ?@8ACI0 ACI=>AB8, 0 >AB0;L=><C  ;8HL 2 =5:>B>@>< >B=>H5=88. ?@545;5=85 5ABL >1>7=0G5=85 GB>9=>AB8, 55 ;>38G5A:>5 2K@065=85 (logos). 'B>9=>ABL  MB> ?>A;54=55 284>2>5 >B;8G85, MB> B>, GB> 25IL 5ABL A0<0 ?> A515.  MB8< 45D8=8F8O<, 40==K< 2 A54L<>9 :=835, <>6=> 4>1028BL >4=C 87 ?OB>9: GB>9=>ABL  ?@545; ?>7=0=8O 25I8, 0 7=0G8B, ?@545; A0<>9 25I8 (102208-10). (>4@>1=K9 0=0;87 @07=KE 0A?5:B>2 GB>9=>AB8 A<. C . $. >A520: {60, 4, 111-140}.) 'B>9=>ABL, B0:8< >1@07><, A5@L57=K9 ?@5B5=45=B =0 720=85 ACI=>AB8: >=0 >1;0405B <KA;8<>ABLN; MB> 4065 <KA;8<>ABL :0: B0:>20O. # =55 5ABL 8725AB=0O AB5?5=L A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8, 81> >=0 =5 7028A8B >B <0B5@88: GB>9=>ABL  MB> ACI=>ABL 157 <0B5@88. > 8<5==> ?>B><C, GB> MB> GC640O <0B5@80;L=>AB8 @50;L=>ABL, >=0 =5 <>65B 1KBL 8AB8==>9 ACI=>ABLN. !CI=>ABL, :0: <K C2848<, 5ABL 2 =5:>B>@>< A<KA;5 GB>9=>ABL, 0 8<5==> ?5@2>GB>9=>ABL, => GB>9=>ABL 5I5 =5 5ABL ACI=>ABL, 0 ;8HL ?@8=04;568B 59. 5;> 2 B><, GB> >=0 70:0=G8205B @>4>284>2CN ?8@0<84C, C?8@0NICNAO A2>59 25@H8=>9 2 ACI=>ABL :>=:@5B=>9 25I8, 8 O2;O5BAO ?>A;54=8< 8=48284C0;878@CNI8< @07;8G85<, => 2A5 65 =5:>B>@>9 >1I=>ABLN. =0 =5 <>65B AB0BL =>A8B5;5< ?@>B82>?>;>6=KE =0G0;, B> 5ABL AC1AB@0B><. KAH0O ACI=>ABL B>65 ;8H5=0 <0B5@88, => =5 ;8H5=0 >B=>H5=8O : =59, 81> ?>@>6405B AB0=>2;5=85 B0: 65, :0: 8 1KB85. ;02K 13 8 16 VII 4>:07K20NB, GB> 8 4@C385 B8?K 8450;L=>3> =5 <>3CB 1KBL ACI=>ABLN. 1I55 2A5340 5ABL A2>9AB2> 8 ?>MB><C =5 <>65B =8 1KBL ?5@2>5 ACI=>AB8, =8 1KBL 55 M;5<5=B><. 8 548=>5, =8 ACI55 B0:65 =5 <>3CB 1KBL ACI=>ABLN. 8GB> 2KA:07K205<>5 :0: >1I55 =5 <>65B 1KBL ACI=>ABLN, >1I55 =5 ACI5AB2C5B >B45;L=> >B 548=8G=KE 25I59, ACI=>ABL ?@8ACI0 B>;L:> A515 8 B><C, C G53> >=0 ACI=>ABL. > 548=>5 8 ACI55  A0<K5 >1I85 87 2A5E >1I=>AB59, 8 ?>MB><C >=8 =5 <>3CB 1KBL >A=>2>9 8=48284C0F88, 157 :>B>@>9 =5B ACI=>AB8. ?@>G5<, ?> A@02=5=8N A =0G0;><, M;5<5=B>< 8 ?@8G8=>9 >=8 2 1>;LH59 <5@5 ACI=>ABL (1040b21-22). >>1I5, ?> @8AB>B5;N, 745AL 45;> >1AB>8B =5 B0: >G5284=>, :0: A 4@C38<8 >1I=>ABO<8.  ?5@5G8A;5=88 >=B>;>38G5A:8E ?@>1;5< MB>B 2>?@>A =0720= A0<K< B@C4=K< (99603-5), ?@8G5< C:070=>, GB> ACI=>ABLN 25I59, 548=>5 8 ACI55 AG8B0;8 ?8D03>@59FK 8 ;0B>=.  IV, 2 @8AB>B5;L 2>72>48B MBC ;8=8N : 0@<5=84C 8 :@8B8:C5B M;59A:89 B578A > 1KB88. 0 8 2 VII, 16 :@8B8:0 ?@54AB02;5=89 > 548=>< 8 ACI5< :0: ACI=>AB8 A2>48BAO : ?>;5<8:5 A B5>@859 8459. 45AL @8AB>B5;L 8<55B 45;> =5 ?@>AB> A 701;C645=85<, 0 A ?@8=F8?80;L=K< ?@>B82>AB>O=85< :>=F5?F88, A :>B>@>9 >= E>B5; @07<56520BLAO B5< @5H8B5;L=55, G5< 1;865 >=0 1K;0 : 53> A>1AB25==>9 B5>@88. @>1;5<0 >A;>6=O5BAO 5I5 8 B5<, GB> @8AB>B5;L OA=> >A>7=05B A?5F8D8G=>ABL :0B53>@89 ACI53> 8 548=>3>. 48=>5 8 ACI55 =5 <>3CB 1KBL @O4><, 81> 8=0G5 284>2K5 >B;8G8O MB8E @>4>2 =5 A<>3;8 1K =8 1KBL 548=K<8, =8 1KBL 1KB85<, 254L @>4 =5 A:07K205BAO > 2840E (998b20-28). >72@0I0OAL : MB><C 2>?@>AC 2 1001a-b, @8AB>B5;L 4>102;O5B, GB>, =5 ?@87=020O 548=>5 8 ACI55 :0: B0:>2K5, <K >B25@305< 2A5 >AB0;L=K5 B8?K >1I=>AB8 8 G8A;0, 2 :>=5G=>< 65 AG5B5 45;05<" 2A5 =5?>7=0205<K<, B0: :0: >1I55, 8 B>;L:> >=>,  ?@54<5B 7=0=8O. A;8 65 ?@87=0BL A0<> ?> A515 ACI55 8 A0<> ?> A515 548=>5, B> =5;L7O 1C45B >1JOA=8BL, :0: 2>7=8:05B GB>-B> >B =8E >B;8G=>5, 81> 548=AB2> 8 1KB85 ?@8ACI8 2A5<C. 7 MB8E @0AAC645=89 8 B>3>, GB> ACI55 8 548=>5 =5 ACBL @>4K, =0?@0H8205BAO 2K2>4 > =5?@8<5=8<>AB8 :0B53>@89 >1I53> 8 8450;L=>3> : 40==K< ?>=OB8O<. >>;>38O @07JOA=O5B, :0:8< >1@07>< @8AB>B5;L @5H8; MB> ?@>B82>@5G85. @5420@8B5;L=> <>6=> 70<5B8BL, GB> >B25B =0 2>?@>A ?>B5=F80;L=> A>45@68BAO 2 A0<>9 ?>AB0=>2:5 2>?@>A0: 2>?@>A > ACI5< A2>48BAO @8AB>B5;5< : 2>?@>AC > ACI=>AB8, ?>MB><C B>, GB> 7=0G8B "1KBL", <K C7=0Q< 2<5AB5 A> A<KA;>< ACI=>AB8. @8AB>B5;L ?@O<> C:07K205B =0 B>, GB> ACI =>ABL 5ABL =5 1KB85 2 B>< 8;8 8=>< >B=>H5=88, 0 G8AB>5 1KB85 (1028030). > 2AO:>< A;CG05 OA=>, GB> =8 ACI55, =8 ACI=>ABL =5 O2;ONBAO @>4><. "5 <5AB0, 345 @8AB>B5;L 3>2>@8B > "ACI=>AB8 :0: @>45 ACI53>" 8;8. :0: > "=5:>B>@>< 548=>< @>45" (De an. 412a-b; Phys. 189al4), O2;ONBAO, >G5284=>, =5AB@>38< C?>B@51;5=85< B5@<8=>2  O2;5=85 70C@O4=>5 2 D8;>A>DA:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 @5F88. %0@0:B5@=>, GB> @8AB>B5;L AB@5<8;AO >B>645AB28BL, E>BO 8 A >3>2>@:0<8, ACI55 8 548=>5 (1003b22-35; B0:65 %, 3) [ HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\>1@>E>B>2%20%200B53>@8O%201KB8O\\refer.htm" \l "s32" \t "_blank" 32]. # =8E >4=0 ?@8@>40, ?>A:>;L:C 8E ?@8102;5=85 : 2KA:07K20=8N =8G53> =5 <5=O5B 2 ?>A;54=5<, :>;8G5AB2> 8E 284>2 >48=0:>2>, >48=0:>2> >B=>H5=85 : ACI=>AB8, 8 2>>1I5 >=8 A>?CBAB2CNB 4@C3 4@C3C. B0:, ?0@04>:A0;L=K< >1@07>< ACI5<C 8 548=><C =5 =0H;>AL <5AB0 2 0@8AB>B5;52A:>9 :;0AA8D8:0F88 =8 A@548 @>4>2, =8 A@548 ACI=>AB59.  "=0;8B8:5" @8AB>B5;L @0AA<0B@8205B 5I5 >48=-0A?5:B MB>3> 2>?@>A0: >B=>H5=85 ACI5AB2>20=8O : 4>:070B5;LAB2C 8 >?@545;5=8N (3;. 2-3, 7-10 "B>@>9 0=0;8B8:8"). 'B>9=>ABL 25I8 @8AB>B5;L >B=>A8B : AD5@5 >?@545;8<>3>, ACI5AB2>20=85 65  : AD5@5 4>:070B5;LAB20. 5>1E>48<>, "GB>1K ?>A@54AB2>< 4>:070B5;LAB20 > G5< 1K B> =8 1K;>, 8A:;NG0O ACI=>ABL, 4>:07K20;>AL, GB> >=> 5ABL; 1KB85 65 =8 4;O G53> =5 5ABL ACI=>ABL, 81> ACI55 =5 5ABL @>4" (Anal. post. 92b11). "578A > B><, GB> 1KB85 =8 4;O G53> =5 5ABL ACI=>ABL (to de einai oyk oysia oydeni) (ibid.), @5H8B5;L=> @072>48B >1;0AB8 4>:070B5;LAB20, 345 >4=> ?@8?8AK205BAO 4@C3><C, 8 >?@545;5=8O, 345 =5GB> >B=>A8BAO B>;L:> : A515 A0<><C (ibid., 90b). ?@545;5=85 :0A05BAO ACI=>AB8 25I8, 4>:070B5;LAB2> 65 ?@8=8<05B 8 ?@54?>;0305B ACI=>ABL 70@0=55. !CI=>AB8  MB> =0G0;0, 0 =0G0;0 4>;6=K 1KBL =54>:07C5<K<8, GB>1K =5 ?>;CG8;>AL 15A:>=5G=>3> 4@>1;5=8O =0G0; =0 4@C385 =0G0;0. ;O >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 =5 <>3CB ACI5AB2>20BL >4=>2@5<5==> 8 4>:070B5;LAB2> 8 >?@545;5=85 (9106-12). ;8 <K ?>ABC;8@C5< ACI=>ABL, 3>2>@8B @8AB>B5;L, 8;8 A2O7K205< ACI=>AB8 2 AD5@5 ACI5AB2>20=8O. !CI5AB2>20=85, B0:8< >1@07><, 459AB28B5;L=> =5 O2;O5BAO >1I8<, 8;8 @>4><. >60;C9, <>6=> A:070BL 2<5AB5 A B5<, GB> ACI5AB2>20=85  A0<>5 >1I55 87 2KA:07K205<>3> >1> 2A5<, => "A0<>5" 1C45B 745AL >1>7=0G0BL ?5@5E>4 2 8=>5 :0G5AB2>: ACI5AB2>20=85  CA;>285 A2O78 ACI=>AB59. BAN40 OA=>, ?>G5<C "5ABL" <>65B 2K?>;=OBL DC=:F88 A2O7:8 2 AC645=88. /A=> B0:65, GB> 87 ACI5AB2>20=8O =5;L7O 2K25AB8 ACI=>ABL. 4=0:> >1@0B=0O A2O7L, ?> @8AB>B5;N, =5 B>;L:> 2>7<>6=0, => 8 =5>1E>48<0: 87 ACI=>AB8 A;54C5B ACI5AB2>20=85 (11,8) 2 B>< A<KA;5, GB>, 7=0O ACBL ?@54<5B0, <K 7=05<, GB> >= B0: 8;8 8=0G5 ACI5AB2C5B. @82545==K5 @0AAC645=8O 87 "=0;8B8:8" <>6=> A>?>AB028BL A >4=8< 87 7=0G5=89 ACI53> ?> @8AB>B5;N, 7=0G5=85< 8AB8=K. AB8=0 2>7=8:05B, :>340 1KB85 =07K20NB 1KB85<, 0 =51KB85 =51KB85<, :>340 65 1KB85 =07K20NB =51KB85<, 0 =51KB85 1KB85<, 2>7=8:05B ;>6L (1011b26-27). >MB><C ;>6=>5 8 8AB8==>5 =5 =0E>4OBAO 2 25I0E, >=8 ACBL @57C;LB0B A2O7K20=8O (pen synthesin) 8 @07J548=5=8O (peri diairesin), :>B>@K5 ACI5AB2CNB ;8HL 2 <KA;8, 8 2 :0G5AB25 =5:>B>@>3> A>AB>O=8O <KA;8 (tes dianoias ti pathos) >B;8G0NBAO >B ACI53> A0<>3> ?> A515 (1027b18-102805).  MB>< A<KA;5 "1KBL"  7=0G8B 1KBL A2O70==K< 8 A>AB02;OBL >4=>, 0 "=5 1KBL"  7=0G8B =5 1KBL A2O70==K< 8 A>AB02;OBL 1>;LH5, G5< >4=> (1051b12-13). ;O 25I59 =5A>AB02=KE, =0E>4OI8EAO 2=5 A2O78, MB> ?@028;> ACI5AB25==> 87<5=O5BAO, => 4;O >1KG=>9 A8BC0F88 >=> C=825@A0;L=>. >?>;=O5B "5B0D878:C" B@0:B0B "1 8AB>;:>20=88". <5=0 8 3;03>;K, 3>2>@8BAO 2 =5<, A0<8 ?> A515 =5 8<5NB 7=0G5=8O 8AB8==>AB8 8;8 ;>6=>AB8, ?>:0 : =8< =5 ?@8102;O5BAO "1KBL" 8;8 "=5 1KBL" (16010-18). "KBL 8;8 =5 1KBL =5 >1>7=0G5=8O ?@54<5B0, B0: 65, :>340 A:065HL ACI55 ?@>AB>, A0<> ?> A515, 81> A0<> ?> A515 >=> =8G53> =5 7=0G8B 8 ;8HL C:07K205B =0 =5:CN A2O7L, :>B>@CN, >4=0:>, =5;L7O <KA;8BL 157 A>AB02;O5<KE" (16b22-25). B0:, ACI55  MB> =5 @>4, =5 284 8 =5 8=48284. !0<> ?> A515 >=> 8 =5 ACI=>ABL. !CI55, B0: 65 :0: 8 548=>5, A :>B>@K< >=> ?@0:B8G5A:8 A;8205BAO, O2;O5BAO CA;>285< A2O78 8 AD5@>9 ?@>O2;5=8O 8AB8=K 8 ;68. 070;>AL 1K, @8AB>B5;L >BABC?05B 2 MB>< >B=>H5=88 >B 0=B8G=>9 B@048F88 >=B>;>3870F88 8AB8=K 8 55 A2O78 A 4>1@><, >= 4065 ?@O<> C:07K205B =0 >H81>G=>ABL >B>645AB2;5=8O 1;030 A 8AB8=>9, 0 7;0 A ;>6LN (Met. 1027b26), 70<5G0O, GB> 8AB8=0  MB> A>AB>O=85 <KA;8. 0 A0<>< 45;5 B@048F8O >AB05BAO 2 A8;5, => @50;87C5BAO =0 4@C3>< >=B>;>38G5A:>< C@>2=5. 5@=>, GB>. 87 ACI53> =8G53> =5;L7O 2K25AB8, GB> >=> =8G53> =5 7=0G8B 8 =8G53> =5 4>102;O5B : B><C, GB> C65 5ABL 2 ?@8@>45 1KB8O, 2K?>;=OO @>;L A2O78. > ACI55 >B=>A8BAO : ACI=>AB8 =5 B0:, :0: : =59 >B=>AOBAO 284K 8 @>4K: ACI55  ?CAB0O ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL ACI=>AB8, => B5< A0<K<  55 2>7<>6=>ABL.  ACI=>AB8 ACI5AB2>20=85 =0E>48B A2>N 459AB28B5;L=>ABL [ HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\>1@>E>B>2%20%200B53>@8O%201KB8O\\refer.htm" \l "s33" \t "_blank" 33]; >AB020OAL 65 2>7<>6=>ABLN ACI=>AB8, >=> O2;O5BAO CA;>285< A2O78, B> 5ABL "?>;5<" 8AB8=K 8 ;68, A2O7:>9 2 AC645=88.  A0<>< 1KB88 =5B =8 8AB8=K, =8 ;68, => 8E 8AB>G=8:><, B0: 65 :0: 8 2>7<>6=>ABLN 4;O C<0 =0E>48BLAO 2 A>>B25BAB2CNI5< A>AB>O=88 >:07K20=8O ;68 8;8 8AB8=K, O2;O5BAO B0 ?CAB0O AD5@0 ACI53>, :>B>@CN-@8AB>B5;L =5 >B>645AB28; =8 A >1I8<, =8 A 548=8G=K<. A?><=8< ?@>1;5<C ?@548:0F88, 70B@>=CBCN 2. @0745;5 > ;0B>=5. "0< 1K;> ?@>F8B8@>20=> 2KA:07K20=85 . . 0945=:> > B><, GB> 1KB85, ?> ;0B>=C,  ?@548:0B 8 >A=>20 ?@548:0F88. >78F8N @8AB>B5;O . . 0945=:> A@02=8205B A :0=B>2A:8< B578A>< > B><, GB> 1KB85 =5 <>65B 1KBL ?@548:0B>< {A<.: 27, 265-266}. 59AB28B5;L=>, =8 ACI55, =8 ACI=>ABL =5 <>3CB 1KBL =8G5<C ?@8?8A0=K :0: A2>9AB2> 8;8 :0G5AB2>: ACI55  ?>B><C, GB> >=> 5ABL ;8HL 2>7<>6=>ABL. A0<>3> 0:B0 A>548=5=8O :0G5AB2; ACI=>ABL  ?>B><C, GB> >=0 5ABL 459AB28B5;L=>ABL, :>B>@>9 ?@8ACI5 2A5 >AB0;L=>5 :0: 55 A2>9AB20. "578A 0=B0 A>25@H5==> B>645AB25= B><C 0A?5:BC =5?@548:0B82=>AB8, :>B>@K9 >B=>A8BAO : ACI5<C.  2A5 65 <K <>65< ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> @07;8G8O <564C ?;0B>=>2A:>9 8 0@8AB>B5;52A:>-:0=B>2A:>9 B>G:0<8 7@5=8O ;560B ?> 1>;LH59 G0AB8 2 AD5@5 2K@065=8O 8458, 0 1>;55 3;C1>:85 A;>8 MB8E CG5=89 =5 8A:;NG0NB A>3;0A>20=8O, 0 B> 8 ?@O<>3> A>2?045=8O. 54L 4;O ;0B>=0 1KB85  =5 70C@O4=K9 ?@548:0B, :>B>@K9 ?@8A>548=O5BAO : ?>=OB8N =0@O4C A> <=>38<8 4@C38<8, 0 ?5@2>?@548:0B, ?>@>640NI89 A2>8< =0;8G85< <8@ 8=>3> 8, A;54>20B5;L=>, 2?5@2K5 @0745;ONI89 ACI=>ABL 8 55 ACI5AB2>20=85, 0 5A;8 84B8 >1@0B=K< ?CB5<  40NI89 2>7<>6=>ABL 8E A>548=5=8O. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, @8AB>B5;L 8 0=B, 8A:;NG0O 1KB85 87 G8A;0 ?@548:0B>2, >AB02;ONB 70 =8< 1>;55 2KA>:89 AB0BCA: 1KB85 =5 5ABL @50;L=K9 ?@548:0B, => >=>  AC1J5:B. KB85 A MB>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O =5;L7O 2K25AB8 87 01AB@0:B=>9 8450;L=>AB8, >=> =5GB> 1>;LH55, G5< <KA;L; => <KA;L B5< =5 <5=55  MB> 1;8609H55 8=>1KB85 ACI=>AB8, MB> ?>B5=F80;L=>5 1KB85. 5 2AO:0O <KA;L <>65B AB0BL 0:BC0;L=K< 1KB85<, => 2 ?@8=F8?5 MB> 4>ABC?=> <KH;5=8N. 0725 =5 B0: C ;0B>=0? 530@A:8< ?>?KB:0< >B>645AB28BL 1KB85 8 8450;L=>ABL ;0B>= ?@>B82>?>AB028; =5<0;> 0@3C<5=B>2, >B>645AB2;5=85 1KB8O 8 AC1J5:B82=>9 M<?8@88 <KH;5=8O C A>D8AB>2 B0:65 1K;> @0A:@8B8:>20=> ;0B>=><. ;865 2A53> : =5<C, :>=5G=>, @8AB>B5;L. 5;L7O C?CA:0BL 87 2840 =5AE>65ABL 8E CG5=89, => =04> CG8BK20BL 8 B>, GB> <=>385 :>=F5?F88 ;0B>=0 >D>@<;5=K :0: C:070=85 8 >1I55 >?@545;5=85 B>9 8;8 8=>9 ?@>1;5<0B8:8; @8AB>B5;L 65 405B :>=:@5B=CN @07@01>B:C 8 8=B5@?@5B0F8N ?@>1;5<K. >MB><C =5 2A5340 <>6=> A@02=820BL B5:ABK 157 ?@5420@8B5;L=>3> >1>A=>20=8O A>87<5@8<>AB8 B5E D>@<, 2 :>B>@KE 2K@065=> A>45@60=85. 'B> :0A05BAO A0<>9 ?@>1;5<K 1KB8O :0: ?@548:0B0, B> <>6=> 70<5B8BL, GB> D>@<C;8@>2:8 ;0B>=0, @8AB>B5;O 8 0=B0 B5< :>=B@0AB=55, G5< 1>;55 A?5F80;L=CN 7040GC @5H05B 8E :>=B5:AB. A;8 65 A@02=820BL B5 G0AB8 8E A8AB5<, :>B>@K5 BO3>B5NB : A8=B57C, B> 2KOA=8BAO, GB> =0 C@>2=OE, 345 ACI=>ABL 8 ACI55 A>2?040NB, ?@>1;5<0 ?@548:0F88 A=8<05BAO: 35=>;>38O ;0B>=0, =>>;>38O @8AB>B5;O, B5;5>;>38O 0=B0 2 ?@8=F8?5 A>3;0ACNBAO 157 48AA>=0=A>2, E>BO 3>2>@8BL > 30@<>=88 1K;> 1K A;8H:>< A<5;>, 5A;8 B>;L:> =5 A:070BL A;>20<8 MD5AA:>3> <C4@5F0: "B09=0O 30@<>=8O A8;L=55 O2=>9". 3. !CI=>ABL 8 2>7<>6=>ABL K 2KOA=8;8, G5< 4>;6=0 1KBL ACI=>ABL 8 ?>G5<C =8GB> 87 @0AA<>B@5==>3> 2KH5 5N =5 O2;O5BAO. > GB> 65 A>>B25BAB2C5B B5< :@8B5@8O<, :>B>@K5 2K428=C; 4;O ACI=>AB8 @8AB>B5;L? >A:>;L:C A0< >= AG8B05B, GB> ACI=>ABLN <>6=> 1KBL 2 @07=>9 AB5?5=8, ?>?KB05<AO ?@81;878BLAO : =59, 2>AE>4O >B =87H8E ABC?5=59 : 2KAH8<. ;O MB>3> =5>1E>48<>, =0:>=5F, >1@0B8BLAO : 42C< A0<K< 206=K< :0B53>@8O< "5B0D878:8": 2>7<>6=>AB8 8 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. -B8 ?>=OB8O A B5< A?5F8D8G5A:8< A<KA;><, :>B>@K9 ?@8405B 8< @8AB>B5;L, 83@0NB 2 53> D8;>A>D88 @>;L 3;02=>3> 8=AB@C<5=B0 4;O @07@5H5=8O 2A5E 0=B8=><89 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O >1>7=0G0NB =081>;55 >1I85 >=B>;>38G5A:85 AD5@K, ?>4>1=> ?;0B>=>2A:><C @07;8G5=8N <8@0 1KB8O 8 <8@0 AB0=>2;5=8O. 865 <K A?5F80;L=> 709<5<AO 2KOA=5=85< 8E 7=0G5=8O, 0 ?>:0 >B<5B8<, GB> 4;O @5H5=8O ?@>1;5<K ACI=>AB8 =04> @0AA<>B@5BL 55 2 42CE 0A?5:B0E: 2>-?5@2KE, ACI=>ABL 2 A2O78 A @07=K<8 C@>2=O<8 <0B5@80;L=>AB8 8;8 >ACI5AB2;O5<>9 2>7<>6=>AB8; 2>-2B>@KE, ACI=>ABL :0: 459AB28B5;L=>ABL 157 <0B5@88 8 =5@50;87>20==KE 2>7<>6=>AB59, B> 5ABL 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5 #<-CA, <KA;OI89 A0<>3> A51O. B25@30O =0 @07=KE >A=>20=8OE 2A5 B>, GB> <>65B :070BLAO ACI=>ABLN, => =5 A>>B25BAB2C5B 55 :@8B5@8O<, @8AB>B5;L C:07K205B =0 @07=CN AB5?5=L 1;87>AB8 : 8A:><><C, ?@8ACICN 2840< @50;L=>AB8.  5 3;. "0B53>@89" 40=K A>>B25BAB2CNI85 @07JOA=5=8O: 2 3;02=>< 8 ?5@28G=>< A<KA;5 ACI=>ABLN =07K205BAO B>, GB> 2A5340 O2;O5BAO ?>4;560I8< 8 =8:>340  A:07C5<K<, 2B>@8G=K<8 ACI=>ABO<8 =07K20NBAO @>4K 8 284K, : :>B>@K< ?@8=04;568B ?5@28G=0O ACI=>ABL; =0?@8<5@, 40==K9 :>=:@5B=K9 G5;>25: 5ABL ?5@20O ACI=>ABL ?> >B=>H5=8N :> 2B>@8G=K<  "G5;>25:C" 8 "682><C ACI5AB2C". 7 2B>@KE ACI=>AB59 284  1>;LH5 ACI=>ABL, G5< @>4, B0: :0: >= 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L >?@545;O5B A?5F8D8:C ?5@2>9 ACI=>AB8; :@><5 B>3>, >= <>65B 1KBL ?>4;560I8< 4;O @>40, E>BO 4;O ?5@2>9 ACI=>AB8 >=  A:07C5<>5. >>1I5 @>4K 8 284K <>3CB =07K20BLAO ACI=>ABO<8, ?>B><C GB> B>;L:> >=8, :@><5 ?5@28G=>9 ACI=>AB8, ACBL ?>4;560I85, E>BO 8 2 >B=>A8B5;L=>< A<KA;5. '5< 1;865 : ?5@2>9 ACI=>AB8, B5< 1>;55 =0@0AB05B 2 @>4>284>2>9 85@0@E88 :>=:@5B=>ABL 8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL. > 2 >?@545;5==>< A<KA;5 =5;L7O 1KBL ACI=>ABLN 2 1>;LH59 8;8 <5=LH59 AB5?5=8. !CI=>ABLN <>6=> 8;8 1KBL, 8;8 =5 1KBL; 5A;8 ACI=>ABL 40==>3> ?@54<5B0  "G5;>25:", B> MB>  G5;>25: =5 2 1>;LH59 <5@5, G5< 4@C385 8;8 >= A0< 2 @07=>5 2@5<O (3b34-4010).  <5@5 ACI=>AB8, B0:8< >1@07><, <>6=> 3>2>@8BL ;8HL ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : C@>2=O< >1I=>AB8, A@02=820O 284 8 @>4, => 2=CB@8 :;0AA0 ACI=>AB59 >4=>3> C@>2=O @07;8G85 AB5?5=59 =52>7<>6=>. /A=> B0:65, GB> >1I55 2 F5;>< 40;5:> >B ACI=>AB8, 0 548=8G=>5 2 :0:><-B> A<KA;5 A>2?0405B A =59. >4>1=K< 65 >1@07>< A>>B=>AOBAO >?@545;8<>ABL 8 =5>?@545;8<>ABL ?@54<5B0: G5< 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 COA=8<0 GB>9=>ABL 25I8, B5< 1;865 >=0 : ACI=>AB8, G5< 1>;LH5 @0AB2>@5= A<KA; 25I8 2 <0B5@88, B5< >=0 40;LH5 >B ACI=>AB8. 0:>=5F, @5H0NI0O 3@040F8O AB5?5=59  MB> @07;8G5=85 25I59 ?>. <5@5 8E A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8: >B=>A8B5;L=>5  <5=55 2A53> ACI=>ABL (XIV, 1), 8AB8==0O ACI=>ABL A0<>4>AB0B>G=0 8 ACI5AB2C5B 1;03>40@O A515 A0<>9.  A25B5 ?@82545==KE :@8B5@852 ACI=>AB8 <>65B ?>:070BLAO =5>6840==K< :@8B5@89 ?@>AB>BK. 5@28G=0O ACI=>ABL 4>;6=0 1KBL ?@>AB>9 (1072032-34); => =5 ?@>B82>@5G8B ;8 MB> ?@8=F8?C =0@0AB0=8O :>=:@5B=>AB8 ?> <5@5 ?@81;865=8O >B >1I53> : ACI=>AB8? -B> 206=0O C @8AB>B5;O (>A>15==> 4;O ?>=8<0=8O =>>;>388) G5@B0 AB@C:BC@K ACI53>. !;>6=>ABL, A 53> B>G:8 7@5=8O, 5I5 =5 405B A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8 8 :>=:@5B=>AB8; A;>6=>ABL  MB> 2A5340 2B>@8G=>ABL, A>AB02;5==>ABL 87 01AB@0:B=KE M;5<5=B>2, 0 A;54>20B5;L=>, >B=>A8B5;L=>ABL. !CI=>ABL ?@>AB0O (haple) A0<>AB>OB5;L=0 8 ?>MB><C 0 :>=5G=>< AG5B5 :>=:@5B=0; 254L >=0 70405B >B=>H5=8O <564C G0ABO<8 A;>6=>3>, A0<0 >AB020OAL 2=5 A>AB020; A;>6=>5 >1J548=O5BAO 2>:@C3 =55 4;O 55 >?@545;5=8O, 8 8<5==> ?>MB><C >=0 :>=:@5B=55 A2>8E ?@548:0B>2.  MB>< ?@8G8=0 B>3>, GB>, C?@>I0OAL, ?@54<5B (0 ?@>AB>B0, ?>OA=O5B @8AB>B5;L, MB> A2>9AB2> 25I8, 0 =5 55 <5@0, :0: =0?@8<5@ 548=>5) (ibid.) ?@81;8605BAO : ACI=>AB8. ( MB>< 65 A<KA;5 3>2>@8;8 =5>?;0B>=8:8 >1 "C?@>I5=88" 4CH8, A;820NI59AO A 2KAH8<8 8?>AB0AO<8; @5GL ?@8 MB>< H;0 =5 >1 >?CAB>H5=88 8;8 >154=5=88 4CH8, => > =0@0AB0=88 ;8G=>AB=>3> =0G0;0.) ! 48=0<8:>9 ?@81;865=8O : ACI=>AB8 A2O70=0 B0:65 A;54CNI0O 0=B8=><8O. A;8 8AB8==0O ACI=>ABL ?@>AB0 8 =5 A>AB02;5=0 87 >1I53>, B> >=0 =5>?@545;8<0; =>, A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, >?@545;5=85 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L >B=>A8BAO : B><C, GB> 5ABL ACI=>ABL (1039014-24). 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'B>9=>ABL, >B=>AOI0OAO : 548=8G=>9 25I8 :0: 55 8=48284C0;L=>5 >?@545;5=85, B0:65 =5A0<>AB>OB5;L=0, ?>A:>;L:C O2;O5BAO 8450;L=K< 0A?5:B>< 548=8G=>9 25I8. >>1I5 2 548=8G=KE 25I0E =0 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL <>65B ?@5B5=4>20BL ;8HL ?@8@>40 (1043b17-22); B>;L:> MB0 A0<>4286CI0OAO ?>@>640NI0O A8;0 ACI5AB2C5B =57028A8<> >B A;CG09=KE, 548=8G=KE ?>@>645=89. A:CAAB25==K5 65 B5;0, :>B>@K5 =5 ?@8G0AB=K 682>9 ?@8@>4=>9 >1I=>AB8, 8<5NB A>25@H5==> =5A0<>AB>OB5;L=CN GB>9=>ABL. 'B>9=>ABL =5 2?>;=5 A>2?0405B A ACI=>ABLN, ?>B><C GB> ACI=>ABL 5ABL 1KB85, >1;040NI55 GB>9=>ABLN. ">;L:> C ;8H5==KE <0B5@88 ?@54<5B>2 GB>9=>ABL 8 1KB85 GB>9=>AB8 A>2?040NB, =0?@8<5@ >4=> 8 B> 65 :@8287=0 8 1KB85 :@8287=>9 (1073b1-7). "5< A0<K< 2K@8A>2K205BAO =0?@02;5=85 ?>8A:0 ACI=>AB8. -B> 4>;6=0 1KBL ACI=>ABL, =5 =C640NI0OAO 2 <0B5@88. =0;87 ?>=OB8O ?5@28G=>9 ACI=>AB8 8 2A53> B>3>, GB> ?@81;8605BAO : =59 A @07=>9 AB5?5=LN A>>B25BAB28O, ?>42>48B =0A : >B25BC =0 2>?@>A "GB> 5ABL ACI=>ABL?": ACI=>ABLN <>65B 1KBL B>;L:> ACI=>ABL.  B> 65 2@5<O >3@0=8G8BLAO B0:>9 B02B>;>3859 <>6=> 1K;> 1K 2 >B=>H5=88 ACI53>, 254L ACI55, ?> @8AB>B5;N,  01AB@0:B=0O 2A5>1I=>ABL, =5 O2;ONI0OAO =8 @>4><, =8 ACI=>ABLN, 0 ?>B><C A:070BL "ACI55 5ABL ACI55" 1K;> 1K 4>AB0B>G=> :>@@5:B=>. > ACI=>ABL :0: B0:>20O >B;8G05BAO >B ACI53> A2>59 :>=:@5B=>ABLN 8, 1>;55 B>3>, >=0  ?@545; :>=:@5B=>AB8, ?>B><C GB> 2A5 =5 A>2?040NI55 A ACI=>ABLN A;C68B 4;O 55 >?@545;5=8O, :0: A:07C5<>5 4;O ?>4;560I53>. =0G8B, >A>7=0=85 =5A2>48<>AB8 ACI=>AB8 =8 : G5<C, :@><5 A0<>9 ACI=>AB8, <>65B 1KBL ;8HL ?@5420@8B5;L=K<, E>BO 8 206=K<, @57C;LB0B><. A5, GB> <K CA?5;8 C7=0BL > ACI=>AB8, =>A8B B0:>9 65 ?@5420@8B5;L=K9 E0@0:B5@. -B> 2 >A=>2=>< =530B82=K5 >?@545;5=8O: ACI=>ABL =5 5ABL =8 8450;L=>5, =8 <0B5@80;L=>5, =8 ?@54<5B=>-25I5AB25==>5; >=0 =5 <>65B 1KBL =8 >B=>A8B5;L=K<, =8 A;CG09=K<, =8 ?@8;030B5;L=K<; ACI=>ABL :0: B0:>20O =5 7=05B AB5?5=8 8 <5@K; >=0 =5 <>65B 87<5=OBLAO 2 4@C3>5, => ;8HL 2>7=8:05B 8 8AG5705B (Met. 1068al0-12); C ACI=>AB8 2 =5:>B>@>< A<KA;5 =5 <>65B 1KBL >?@545;5=8O; C ACI=>AB8 =5B ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8, 0 ?>A:>;L:C =5B ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8, B> =5B 8 42865=8O (Phys. 225b). 1JOA=O5BAO B0:>9 >B@8F0B5;L=K9 0A?5:B =0H8E 7=0=89 > ACI=>AB8 B5<, GB> <K @0AA<0B@820;8 55 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L :0: <><5=B GC2AB25==>-O2;ONI53>AO <8@0, B> 5ABL, =0 O7K:5 @8AB>B5;O, <8@0 <0B5@88 8 2>7<>6=>AB8. > MB> ;8HL >48= 87 0A?5:B>2 C=825@AC<0. !CI55 42>9AB25==>, ditton to on (1069b15). A5 87<5=O5BAO 87 ACI53> 2 2>7<>6=>AB8 2 ACI55 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, metaballei pan ek toy dynamei ontos eis to energeia on (ibid.). 5>1E>48<> ?>MB><C @0AA<>B@5BL 2>?@>A > ACI=>AB8 2 53> 48=0<8G5A:>< 0A?5:B5. 2>9AB25==>ABL ACI53> @8AB>B5;L @0A:@K205B 3@C??>9 ?>=OB89, 83@0NI8E 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 206=CN @>;L 2 53> CG5=88. -B>  D>@<0, <0B5@8O, 2>7<>6=>ABL, 459AB28B5;L=>ABL 8 M=B5;5E8O. "0B5@8O" 8 "D>@<0" (2 AB@>3>< A<KA;5 B5@<8=0) ?@8<5=ONBAO @8AB>B5;5< : >1>7=0G5=8N ?@>F5AA>2 2>7=8:=>25=8O 8 2708<>?5@5E>40 ?@54<5B>2; 2A5, GB> =5 ?>425@65=> 87<5=5=8N, =5 8<55B <0B5@88 (1044b27-29). $>@<0 (morphe, eidos) ?@8405B A<KA;>2CN AB@C:BC@C 8 A>1AB25==> 1KB85 :064><C ?@54<5BC. 0B5@80;L=>5 A>AB>8B 87 42CE =0G0;: <0B5@88 8 ;8H5==>AB8 (steresis), B0: GB> A8AB5<0 "D>@<0  <0B5@8O" A>45@68B B@8 =0G0;0: D>@<5 ?@>B82>AB>8B ;8H5==>ABL :0: 55 ?>;=0O ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL, =51KB85; ?>A@54=8:>< 8 AC1AB@0B>< 4;O =8E A;C68B <0B5@8O, :>B>@0O, 2 >B;8G85 >B ;8H5==>AB8, 2 =5:>B>@>< A<KA;5 <>65B 1KBL =0720=0 ACI=>ABLN (Met. 1069b33-34; Phys. 192a3-7). (@8AB>B5;L >A>1> ?>4G5@:8205B 206=>ABL A2>59 48AB8=:F88 <0B5@88 8 ;8H5==>AB8 2 Phys. 1, 9.) >=OB8O 2>7<>6=>AB8 8 459AB28B5;L=>AB8  A0<K5 >1I85 8 <5B>4>;>38G5A:8 7=0G8<K5 :0B53>@88 "5B0D878:8". >7<>6=>ABL (dynamis, GB> =0 ;0B8=A:>< ?5@54020;>AL 42C<O B5@<8=0<8: potentia 8 possibilitas)  MB> A8;0-A?>A>1=>ABL, ?@54@0A?>;>65==>ABL, 25@>OB=>ABL, 8=>1KB85. > =5:>B>@>9 AB5?5=8 >=0 A>2?0405B A <0B5@859. 59AB28B5;L=>ABL (energeia)  MB> >ACI5AB2;5=85 2>7<>6=>AB8, M=B5;5E8O (entelecheia)  55 >ACI5AB2;5==>ABL, 8A?>;=5==>ABL, 4>AB865=85 F5;8, AB@5<;5=85< : :>B>@>9 1K;> ?>B5=F80;L=>5 A>AB>O=85. ABL 25@A8O, ?> :>B>@>9 2 0CB5=B8G=>< 2845 MB> ?>=OB85 2K3;O45;> :0: endelecheia, B> 5ABL ?>AB>O=AB2>, =5?@5@K2=>ABL (A<. >1 MB>< C CM=A0 {204, 404-405}). @8AB>B5;L G0AB> C?>B@51;O5B "M=5@38N" 8 "M=B5;5E8N" :0: B5@<8=K A >4=8< B>645AB25==K< A<KA;><. "$>@<0" G0AB8G=> A>2?0405B A MB8<8 B5@<8=0<8. 0B5@8O 5ABL 2>7<>6=>ABL, M94>A 65  M=B5;5E8O (he men hyle dynamis, to deidos entelecheia) (De an. 412a). "KB85 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8  C M94>A0... 2 2>7<>6=>AB8 65  C <0B5@88" (energeia men gar to eidos... dynamei de he hyle) (Met. 1071a8-9,10). $>@<0 8 <0B5@8O  MB> B0 >1;0ABL 2>7<>6=>3> 8 459AB28B5;L=>3>, 2 :>B>@>9 2 :0G5AB25 A>AB02=>3> (to synolon) ACI5AB2C5B ">?@545;5==>5 =5GB>", 25IL, => MB0 >1;0ABL 8 :>A<>;>38G5A:8 8 >=B>;>38G5A:8 >3@0=8G5=0, 70 ?@545;0<8 3@0=8FK ?>=OB8O D>@<K 8 <0B5@88 <>3CB C?>B@51;OBLAO ;8HL A >3>2>@:0<8 [ HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\>1@>E>B>2%20%200B53>@8O%201KB8O\\refer.htm" \l "s34" \t "_blank" 34]. @8<5=8B5;L=> : ACI=>AB8 @07;8G5=85 2>7<>6=>AB8 8 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 >7=0G05B, GB> 8AB8==>5 1KB85, B> 5ABL oysia, =5;L7O =09B8, =5 CG8BK20O 42>9AB25==>AB8 2A53> ACI53>. >7<>6=>ABL 8 459AB28B5;L=>ABL =5 ?@>AB> A>ACI5AB2CNB 2 548=>< <8@5, => ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 420 >=B>;>38G5A:8 @07;8G=KE <8@0.  <8@5 2>7<>6=>AB8 <0:A8<0;L=>5 ?@81;865=85 : ACI=>AB8 ?@54AB02;5=> 548=8G=>9 >ICI05<>9 25ILN 8 55 ?>440NI59AO >?@545;5=8N GB>9=>ABLN. <5==> MB>B >1J5:B BO3>B55B : B><C, GB>1K 1KBL A5@548=>9 <0B5@80;L=>9 8 8450;L=>9 :@09=>AB59, A0<>AB>OB5;L=K< 1KB85< 8 =>A8B5;5< ?@548:0B>2. > 2A5 65 548=8G=0O 25IL  MB> 5I5 =5 >ACI5AB2;5==>ABL, 0 ;8HL 2>7<>6=>ABL ACI=>AB8. =0 A2O70=0 A <0B5@859 8 ?>MB><C =5 <>65B ?@58A?>;=8BLAO A2>9AB20<8 ACI=>AB8. =0 =5 2?>;=5 <KA;8<0, B0: :0: GB>9=>ABL 5ABL B>;L:> >48= 55 0A?5:B; >=0 =5 2?>;=5 A0<>AB>OB5;L=0, ?>A:>;L:C 2A5340 O2;O5BAO M;5<5=B>< <=>65AB20. @><5 B>3>, >=0 =5 <>65B 1KBL 8AB8==K< ?>4;560I8<: E>BO 25IL =5 1K205B ?@548:0B><, >=0 =5 5ABL 8 ?>4;8==K9 AC1J5:B, ?>B><C GB> 2A5340 4;O G53>-=81C4L O2;O5BAO A@54AB2><, 0 =5 F5;LN. 5IL =8:>340 =5 1K205B B>645AB25==>9 A515, MB> ;8HL ?>B5=F80;L=>5 55 A>AB>O=85; 0:BC0;L=>5 548=AB2> 25I8 8 55 A<KA;0 40=> 2 D>@<5 8;8 GB>9=>AB8; =>, ?>A:>;L:C D>@<0 =0 C@>2=5 GC2AB25==>9 @50;L=>AB8 2A5340 ?@>O2;O5BAO G5@57 4@C3>5 8 =8:>340 =5 ACI5AB2C5B 2 A515 A0<>9, 25IL =5 <>65B AB0BL ?>;=>F5==>9 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN. >A?@8=8<05<K5 548=8G=>AB8, 3>2>@8B @8AB>B5;L, =045;5=K <0B5@859, ?@8@>40 :>B>@>9 4>?CA:05B 8 1KB85 8 =51KB85 (1039b28-30). >MB><C >=8 <>3;8 1K 1KBL, 0 <>3;8 1K 8 =5 1KBL; 4@C38<8 A;>20<8, >=8 A;CG09=K. "0:8< >1@07><, 2KOA=O5BAO 548=AB25==K9 ?CBL : @5H5=8N >A=>2=>3> 2>?@>A0 "5B0D878:8"  GB> 5ABL ACI55 :0: ACI55. B25B>< 1C45B =0E>645=85 @50;L=>AB8, :>B>@0O ;8H5=0 <0B5@88 =5 ?>B><C, GB> >=0, ?>4>1=> @>4>284>2K< 01AB@0:F8O<, ?@>872>4=0 8 7028A8<0 >B <0B5@80;L=>3> AC1AB@0B0, => 2 A8;C A>1AB25==>9 A0<>4>AB0B>G=>AB8. =K<8 A;>20<8, MB0 @50;L=>ABL 4>;6=0 1KBL ?5@28G=55, G5< ?@>B82>AB>O=85 D>@<K 8 <0B5@88. AB5AB25==>, GB> 2 B0:>< A;CG05 >=0 =5 1C45B =8 2 :0:>< A<KA;5 2>7<>6=>ABLN 8;8 =5>ACI5AB2;5==>ABLN, => 1C45B ?>;=>9 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN. '5@BK B0:>9 @50;L=>AB8 O2AB25==> 2K@8A>2K20;8AL ?@8 0=0;875 ACI=>AB8, >ACI5AB282H59AO 2 <0B5@88, B> 5ABL ?@8 @0AA<>B@5=88 B5E B8?>2 @50;L=>AB8, :>B>@K5 ?@81;860;8AL : ACI=>AB8, 1C4CG8 ACI=>ABLN 2 2>7<>6=>AB8: <K C65 7=05<, GB> >=0 4>;6=0 1KBL <KA;8<>9, F5;L=>9, A0<>AB>OB5;L=>9, ?@>AB>9 8  A0<>5 3;02=>5  4>;6=0 1KBL ?>4;560I8<, AC1J5:B>< 4;O ?@548:0B>2, => =8:>8< >1@07>< =5 A:07C5<K< 4;O G53> 1K B> =8 1K;>.  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'0AB> 53> @5H0;8 ?>A@54AB2>< =5>?@545;5==>3> ?@8?8AK20=8O 1>3C 2A5E 2KAH8E ?@548:0B>2, => B>, GB> 1K;> 2>7<>6=> 4;O ?>MB8G5A:>3> O7K:0, A>74020;> ;>38G5A:85 B@C4=>AB8 4;O D8;>A>D88. ;02=K< >@85=B8@>< 4;O B5>;>3>2 A;C68; B5:AB 181;59A:>9 :=838 "AE>4", D@070 87 :>B>@>9 "7 5A<L !CI89" (3, 14) ?>AB>O==> :><<5=B8@>20;0AL. ">, GB> 2A;54 70 8;LA>=>< AB0;8 =07K20BL <5B0D878:>9 "AE>40"  B@0:B>2:0 1KB8O :0: 548=AB25==>3> 4>ABC?=>3> <KH;5=8N >1@070 1>30,  >?@545;8;> =081>;55 ?@85<;5<K9 @57C;LB0B A>548=5=8O >=B>;>388 8 B5>;>388. 4=0:> 871560BL A5@L57=KE 0=B8=><89 ?@8 MB>< =5 C40;>AL. ">B 65 @835= ?@54;0305B A;54CNI55 ?>=8<0=85: 2 B><, :B> A:070; > A515 "!CI89", CG0AB2C5B 2A5 ACI5AB2CNI55 (De princ. 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A2O78 A MB8< =5 OA=0 53> B@0:B>2:0 AE. 3, 14. 8;LA>= ?>;0305B, GB> 1C:20;L=>5 ?>=8<0=85 23CAB8=>< MB>3> B5:AB0 4>AB0B>G=> OA=> >B45;O5B 53> >B ;>B8=0 {A<.: 151, 70}. @5<5@, =0?@>B82, AG8B05B 4>:070==K< A>2?045=85 023CAB8=>2A:>9 8 =5>?;0B>=8G5A:>9 8=BC8F88 1KB8O 2 40==>9 B@0:B>2:5 {A<.: 182, 391}. =45@A>= {113} 2>>1I5 ?>A2OI05B A2>N @01>BC 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 <5@5 4>:070B5;LAB2C B>3>, GB> A1;865=85 23CAB8=0 A =5>?;0B>=87<>< 8A:0605B ACBL 53> D8;>A>DA:>3> <5B>40. > 53> <=5=8N, essentia 2 ?>=8<0=88 23CAB8=0  MB> ?@>>1@07 B><8ABA:>3> Ens, B> 5ABL :0B53>@8O A M:78AB5=F80;L=K< A<KA;><. %C15@ AG8B05B, GB> 2 >=B>;>388 23CAB8=0 01A>;NB=>5 1KB85 :0: summa essentia A=8<05B 0=B8G=CN 48DD5@5=F80F8N M94>A>2 8 01A>;NB0 8 2K428305B =>2CN A8AB5<C >B=>H5=89, :>B>@0O =5 >1O70B5;L=> 4>;6=0 @0AA<0B@820BLAO A B>G:8 7@5=8O 3@5G5A:>9 D8;>A>D88 {A<.: 163, 124-146}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oysia); ?>MB><C 65 548=>5 : 1KB85 A>2?040NB 2 01A>;NB5.  B> 65 2@5<O 2 @0<:0E B@8=8B0@=KE ?>AB@>5=89 23CAB8=0 1KB85 70=8<05B <5AB> 1>30->BF0 (esse, vivere, intelligere)  MB> >1CA;>2;5=>, A:>@55 2A53>, B>9 65 ?@8G8=>9: AB@5<;5=85< =09B8 <KA;8<K5 A2O78 <564C 4CH>9 8 01A>;NB><. 5;> 2 B><, GB> ?A8E>;>38G5A:>5 CG5=85 23CAB8=0 AB@>8B >1@07 4CE>2=>9 8 4CH52=>9 AB@C:BC@K G5;>25:0 ?> 0=0;>388 A B@>8G=>ABLN 01A>;NB0: esse, nosse, velle; mens, notitia, amor; memoria, intelligentia, voluntas. CH0 8<55B 2=CB@8 A51O >A=>2C A2O78 A 2KAH8< 548=AB2><, B> 5ABL A esse A2O70=K mens 8 memoria. A>15==> 8=B5@5A=>, GB> ?0<OBL 83@05B 745AL @>;L 1KB89=>3> 0A?5:B0 4CH8. A:;NG8B5;L=> 206=CN @>;L 2 AB0=>2;5=88 A@54=525:>2>9 >=B>;>388 AK3@0;8 B@C4K >MF8O.  B5@<8=>;>38G5A:89 0??0@0B, 8 53> ?>=OB89=K5 48AB8=:F88 AB0;8 ?@54<5B>< 708<AB2>20=89 8 :><<5=B0@852. >A:>;L:C 65 >MF89 A>7=0B5;L=> ?KB0;AO A8=B578@>20BL ?;0B>=87<, 0@8AB>B5;87< 8 E@8AB80=A:CN B5>;>38N, 53> @07@01>B:8 >A>15==> 8=B5@5A=K. %0@0:B5@=> 53> >B>645AB2;5=85  =>@<0B82=>5 4;O A@54=8E 25:>2  1KB8O, 1;030 8 548=AB20, A>2?040NI8E 2 1>35 8, :0: MB>, 2848<>, ?>=8<0; >MF89, B>645AB25==KE 5<C. @82545< ?>:070B5;L=K5 @0AAC645=8O >MF8O [ HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\>1@>E>B>2%20%200B53>@8O%201KB8O\\refer.htm" \l "s38" \t "_blank" 38]: ">3 B0:65 5ABL oysia 8 essentia: 254L >= 5ABL, 8, 1>;55 B>3>,  >= 5ABL B>B, >B :>3> ?@>8AE>48B 2AO:>5 1KB85. = 5ABL oysiosis  subsistentia (ACI5AB2CNI55), 81> >= subsistat (ACI5AB2C5B), =5 =C640OAL =8 2 G5< {4;O B>3>, GB>1K ACI5AB2>20BL}. = 5ABL B0:65 hypostasis, ?>A:>;L:C hyphistatai  O2;O5BAO AC1AB0=F859" (Cont. Eut. 3). 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C=A !:>B =0AB08205B =0 B><, GB> 1KB85 8<55B >48= A<KA; :0: =0 C@>2=5 A>B2>@5==>3> <8@0, B0: 8 =0 C@>2=5 1>30. !0<0 ?> A515 ACI=>ABL  MB> =5?>;=>F5==>5 ACI5AB2>20=85; esse reale 8<5NB ;8HL >ACI5AB282H85AO ACI=>AB8. >?;AB>= ?>4G5@:8205B, GB> 2 48AB8=:F88 5=@8E0 C=A !:>B 2845; 8AB>G=8: 5@5B8G5A:>9 8458 25G=>3> B2>@5=8O 8 ?>;030=85 >B;8G=>3> >B 1>30 =5>1E>48<>3> 1KB8O {138, 2, 511}. !> A2>59 AB>@>=K, C=A !:>B AB@5<8;AO 4>:070BL, GB> =8:0:>5 :>=5G=>5 1KB85 =5 >1;0405B =5>1E>48<>ABLN, ?@8ACI59 15A:>=5G=><C 1KB8N 1>30. 7 15A:>=5G=>3> 1KB8O =5;L7O A =5>1E>48<>ABLN 2K25AB8 :>=5G=>5, >1@0B=>5 65 2>7<>6=>. :B B2>@G5A:>9 2>;8  >1O70B5;L=K9 ?>A@54=8: <564C ?>;=>F5==K< 8 CI5@1=K< 1KB85<. @>4>;60O AB>9:CN B@048F8N A@54=525:>2>9 >=B>;>388 (A<. > =59: {2, 30-56}), C=A !:>B @07;8G05B A>AB>O=8O 1KB8O, ;8HL >BG0AB8 5<C B>645AB25==K5 (passiones disjunctae), 8 2708<>70<5=8<K5 A 1KB85< A>AB>O=8O (passiones convertibiles), B> 5ABL 548=>5, 8AB8==>5 8 4>1@>5. > A MB8< A2O70=> =5B@048F8>==>5 ?> @57:>AB8 @07;8G85 1KB8O 8 2>;8. >;O@=CN :>=F5?F8N =0E>48< C -:E0@B0. 025@H0NI85 A@54=525:>2CN >=B>;>38N <KA;8B5;8  C=A !:>B 8 -:E0@B  A>A@54>B>G8;8 2 A2>8E :>=F5?F8OE :0: 8B>38 AE>;0AB8:8, B0: 8 ?@>>1@07K 1C4CI8E >=B>;>38G5A:8E >B:@KB89. =>3>5 87 B>3>, GB> ?@8?8AK20NB 8< :0: =>2>22545=85, 8<55B A>;84=CN B@048F8N 2 AE>;0AB8:5 8 <8AB8:5. > 3;02=>5 B>, GB> ?@8 2K42865=88 A2>8E 8459 MB8 <KA;8B5;8 8<5;8 ?5@54 A>1>9 459AB28B5;L=> =>2K5 7040G8. !:>B87< 8 >::0<87< 2K42830NB 2>AE>4OICN : @8AB>B5;N 845N 8=48284C0;L=>AB8 01A>;NB=>3> 1KB8O, 0 A;54>20B5;L=>, 845N 53> =5?>4G8=5==>AB8 >1I8< 70:>=0< @0F8>=0;L=>AB8. 5C40G=> >?@545;5=85 8E D8;>A>D88 :0: "2>;N=B0@87<0". >;O 8 8=48284C0;L=>ABL, A 8E B>G:8 7@5=8O, =5 ?>@K20;8 A2O7L A 1KB85< 8 =5 ?@82>48;8 : ?@>872>;C, => A:>@55 >1>A=>2K20;8, ?>4>1=> ?;0B>=>2A:><C 548=><C, ACI=>ABL 8 ACI5AB2>20=85. 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KB85, ?> -:E0@BC, ?>;=>ABLN B>645AB25==> A 1>3>< 8 ?>B><C C65 =5 <>65B 1KBL @0F8>=0;L=K< A;>5< 1>30 8;8 53> 2>;59 : B2>@G5AB2C. @8 MB>< >=> 2A5 65 >AB05BAO 1KB85<, GB> >B:@K205B 2>7<>6=>AB8 53> 8@@0F8>=0;870F88. >=OB85 gotheit [ HYPERLINK "file:///C:\\WINDOWS\\ 01>G89%20AB>;\\!\\:=838%204;O%2048A:0\\181\\>1@>E>B>2%20%200B53>@8O%201KB8O\\refer.htm" \l "s40" \t "_blank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possest 8;8 ipsum posse. "He <>65B 1KBL 4@C3>3> AC1AB0=F80;L=>3> 8;8 ACI=>AB=>3> =0G0;0, 1C4L B> D>@<0;L=>3> 8;8 <0B5@80;L=>3>, :@><5 A0<>9 ?> A515 2>7<>6=>AB8" {71, 2, 430}. "ABL B>;L:> B>, GB> <>65B 1KBL. !;54>20B5;L=>, 1KB85 =8G53> =5 ?@8102;O5B : 2>7<>6=>AB8 1KBL" {B0< 65, 427}. @8>@8B5B possest (8;8 "2>7<>6=>AB8-1KB8O") ?>72>;O5B 8:>;0N ?>AB028BL 01A>;NB 2KH5 1KB8O 8 =51KB8O, A45;0BL 53> B>G:>9 A>2?045=8O ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB59. @8AB>B5;L 4>AB830; B0:>3> @57C;LB0B0 ?@8 ?><>I8 :0B53>@88 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, ?@>B82>?>AB02;OO 55 2>7<>6=>AB8. > 8:>;09 A;54C5B 70 ;>B8=>< 8 ;0B>=><, ?@8<5=O2H8< : 01A>;NBC ?>=OB85 dynamis 2 A<KA;5 2KAH59 A8;K-A?>A>1=>AB8.  B> 65 2@5<O possest A>E@0=O5B 7=0G5=85 01A>;NB=>3> 1KB8O :0: D>@<K D>@< 8 8AB>G=8:0 2A5E >?@545;5==KE 284>2 1KB8O {B0< 65, 175-176}. 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