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N18=0 (1956) ?>:070;0 A2O7L 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 0:B82=>AB8 8 A>7=0B5;L=>3> >B=>H5=8O : CG5=8N. 2B>@ =0<5G05B 3@C??K CG0I8EAO ?> A>>B=>H5=8N : CG5=8N. 2B>@ =0<5G05B 3@C??K CG0I8EAO ?> A>>B=>H5=8N MB8E <><5=B>2: 1) 0:B82=KE 8 A>7=0B5;L=> >B=>AOI8EAO : CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 CG0I8EAO, 2) A>7=0B5;L=> >B=>AOI8EAO : CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, => 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>-?0AA82=KE, 3) 8=48DD5@5=B=> >B=>AOI8EAO : CG5=8N ?@8 2KA>:>9 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 0:B82=>AB8 8, =0:>=5F, 4) CG0I8EAO, 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>-?0AA82=KE 8 157@07;8G=> >B=>AOI8EAO : CG51=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. 2B>@ ?>:07K205B @07;8G=>5 A>>B=>H5=85 2 MB8E A;CG0OE C<AB25==>3> 8 =@02AB25==>3> 2>7459AB28O 8 @07;8G=>5 A>>B=>H5=85 2;8O=89 A5<L8 8 H:>;K.  1>;LH>9 AB0BL5 . . 20=>20 BI0B5;L=> 8AA;54>20= 8 E>@>H> >A25I5= ?@>F5AA @0728B8O >B=>H5=8O : CG5=8N C H:>;L=8:0-?>4@>AB:0 (1957). @>1;5<0 H:>;L=>9 48AF8?;8=K 2A5340 1K;0 A2O70=0 A >B=>H5=8O<8 2>A?8B0==8:>2 : B@51>20=8O< H:>;K, : ?5403>30<, E>BO ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O AB>@>=0 MB>3> 2>?@>A0 =5 1K;0 4>AB0B>G=> >A25I5=0.  2>?@>A0E 2>A?8B0=8O A>25@H5==> OA=> ?@>B82>?>AB02;5=85 A2>1>4=>9 8 A>7=0B5;L=>9 48AF8?;8=K, <CHB@K 8 ?@82KG:8. >6=> B>;L:> 4>1028BL, GB> >4=>3> A>7=0=8O (2 A<KA;5 B>;L:> ?>=8<0=8O B@51>20=89) =54>AB0B>G=>, =0 GB> C:07K20; =5>4=>:@0B=> . !. 0:0@5=:>. 5>1E>48<> 459AB25==>5 >2;045=85 >A>7=0==K<8 7040G0<8. =>340 @0AA<0B@820NB >B=>H5=8O :0: AB5@5>B8?. 4=0:>, :0: 8725AB=>, 48=0<8G5A:89 AB5@5>B8?, 8;8, 8=0G5, CAB0=>2:0, ?>;=>ABLN >?@545;O5BAO ?@>H;K< >?KB><. 564C B5<, :0: MB> >BG5B;82> ?>:070; . !. 0:0@5=:>, 206=59H8< @KG03>< 2>A?8B0B5;L=>9 @01>BK O2;ONBAO ?5@A?5:B82=K5 ;8=88. !>7=0B5;L=>5 >B=>H5=85, 2K@0AB0O 87 ?@>H;>3>, >@85=B8@C5BAO =0 ?5@A?5:B82K 1C4CI53>. >MB><C =8 A> AB5@5>B8?><, =8 A CAB0=>2:>9 53> >B>645AB2;OBL =5;L7O. 8AF8?;8=0 CG0I8EAO O2;O5BAO 2K@065=85< 8E A>7=0B5;L=>3> >B=>H5=8O : H:>;5 8 55 B@51>20=8O<.  >A=>25 D>@<8@>20=8O MB>3> >B=>H5=8O ;568B >B=>H5=85 : @C:>2>4AB2C 2 H:>;5, :>B>@>5 ?@54AB02;5=> ?5@2>=0G0;L=>, B.5. 2 <;04H8E :;0AA0E, 2 ;8F5 CG8B5;O 8 @C:>2>48B5;O :;0AA0. -B>, ?>60;C9, <>6=> 1K;> 1K ?@87=0BL A>25@H5==> OA=K<, 15AA?>@=K< 8 >1I58725AB=K<. >60;C9, ?5403>38 2 1>;LH8=AB25 B0: 8 ?>=8<0NB MB>. > B0: :0: =8 2 ?5403>38:5, =8 2 ?A8E>;>388 ?>=OB85 >B=>H5=8O =5 @07@01>B0=>, B> =5;L7O =5 ?>4G5@:=CBL MB>3> 2>?@>A0.  A>>B25BAB25==> MB><C =5;L7O =5 >1@0B8BL 2=8<0=85 =0 B>, 2>-?5@2KE, GB> 48AF8?;8=8@>20==>5 ?>2545=85 >A=>20=> =0 >B=>H5=8OE; 2>-2B>@KE, =0 B>, GB> >B=>H5=8O ?@54AB02;ONB 85@0@E8G5A:CN A8AB5<C, >1J548=ONICN M<>F8>=0;L=K5 A2O78 A> H:>;>9 (?@82O70==>ABL : =59), 02B>@8B5B >B45;L=KE ?5403>3>2 8 ?5403>3>2 2 F5;><, >A>7=0=85 >1O70B5;L=>AB8 2K?>;=5=8O B@51>20=89 H:>;K, B@5=8@>2:C 2 8A?>;=5=88 ?@028; 8 B@51>20=89 8, =0:>=5F, >B=>H5=89 : CG0I8<AO 8 8E ?>2545=8N; 2-B@5BL8E, GB> D>@<K @0728B8O MB8E >B=>H5=89 7028AOB >B 2>7=8:0NI8E A ?5@2KE :;0AA>2 2708<>>B=>H5=89 <564C CG5=8:>< 8 CG8B5;5<-2>A?8B0B5;5<, <564C B@51>20=8O<8 CG8B5;O-2>A?8B0B5;O 8 ?>2545=85< CG5=8:0. 0: ?>:070; . !. 0:0@5=:>, =0 @07=KE ABC?5=OE D>@<8@>20=8O H:>;L=>3> :>;;5:B820 2A5 1>;LH55 7=0G5=85 2 D>@<8@>20=88 ?>2545=8O 8 ;8G=>AB8 >B45;L=KE CG0I8EAO ?@8>1@5B05B :>;;5:B82. 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KOA=5=85 @>;8 =0@CH5==KE >B=>H5=89 2 ?0B>35=575 =52@>70 8 2 B5@0?88 45;05B ?>=OB=K<, GB> =5@2=>?A8E8G5A:0O ?@>D8;0:B8:0 8 38385=0 =5 B>;L:> =5 <>3CB ?@>9B8 <8<> CG5B0 >A>15==>AB59 ;8G=>AB8 8 55 >B=>H5=89, => 8 AB02OB 7040G8 D>@<8@>20=8O >?@545;5==KE A2>9AB2 G5;>25:0 8 53> >B=>H5=89. #:065<, GB> 8=48284C0;87< 8 M3>F5=B@87<, 70<:=CB>ABL 8 A:@KB=>ABL, B5=45=F8>7=0O, M<>F8>=0;L=0O (:0B0B8<=0O) ?5@5@01>B:0 2?5G0B;5=89, =54>AB0B>G=> :@8B8G5A:>5 >B=>H5=85 : A515 8 A0<>;N1>20=85 O2;ONBAO =5 B>;L:> 8AB>G=8:>< ?A8E8G5A:>9 B@02<0B870F88, => 8 ?@8G8=>9 1>;57=5==>-=5045:20B=>9 ?0B>;>38G5A:8 >4=>AB>@>==59 ?5@5@01>B:8 687=5==KE B@C4=>AB59. 5 701K20O =5>1E>48<>AB8 C:@5?;5=8O D878G5A:>3> 74>@>2LO, <K 4>;6=K ?>4G5@:=CBL 206=>ABL @07@01>B:8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E <5@>?@8OB89 ?@>B82 G5@B, 0=0;>38G=KE B>;L:> GB> ?5@5G8A;5==K<. 45AL <548F8=0 B5A=> ?5@5?;5B05BAO A ?5403>38:>9 8 ?A8E>;>3859.  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"@51>20=85 CG5B0 ?A8E>;>388 1>;L=>3> ?@54AB02;O5B >4=C 87 ;CGH8E B@048F89 >B5G5AB25==>9 :;8=8G5A:>9 H:>;K, :>B>@0O 4>;6=0 @072820BLAO =0 =>2>< C@>2=5, =0 >A=>25 D878>;>388 8 ?0B>D878>;>388 2KAH59 =5@2=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0 8 =0 >A=>25 <0B5@80;8AB8G5A:>3> CG5=8O > ;8G=>AB8. !>2@5<5==>5 A>AB>O=85 ?A8E>;>388 >B=>H5=89 O2;O5BAO ;8HL =0G0;L=K< MB0?>< 55 @0728B8O. 5@54 =0<8 2AB05B @O4 ?@>1;5< B> 1>;55 B5>@5B8G5A:>3>, B> 1>;55 ?@0:B8G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0. 0 ?5@2>< ?;0=5 2>?@>AK 87CG5=8O D0:B8G5A:>3> <0B5@80;0 >1 >B=>H5=8OE ;N459 2 @07=KE CA;>28OE 8 ?@>F5AA0E 45OB5;L=>AB8  ?@5645 2A53> 2 B@C45 =0 ?@>872>4AB25, 2 1KBC  2 A5<L5, 2 H:>;5. 8B5@0BC@0. =0=L52 . . @>1;5<K D>@<8@>20=89 E0@0:B5@0. ., 1947. @E8?>2 . . 028A8<>ABL <564C 7=0=8O<8 CG0I8EAO 8 8E CG51=K<8 8=B5@5A0<8: 2B>@5D. :0=4. 48AA. ., 1958. >40;52 . .  2>A?8B0=88 =5:>B>@KE =@02AB25==KE :0G5AB2 C H:>;L=8:0 // #G. 70?. #. 1956. !214. >40;52 . .  D>@<8@>20=88 B@51>20B5;L=>AB8 : A515 C H:>;L=8:>2 // #G. 70?. #. 1955. ! 203. >6>28G . . B=>H5=85 H:>;L=8:>2 : CG5=8N :0: ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O ?@>1;5<0 // 725AB8O  !$! . 1951. K?. 36. >6>28G . ., >@>7>20 . ., !;028=0 . !. 0728B85 <>B82>2 CG5=8O C A>25BA:8E H:>;L=8:>2 // 725AB8O  !$! . 1951. K?. 36. 5@H8=8=0 . ., K10;:> . $.  2>?@>AC >1 >B=>H5=8OE 45B59 42CE ;5B // #G. 70?. #. 1956. ! 214. 3>@>2 . !.  2>?@>AC > 2>A?8B0=88 2>;52KE :0G5AB2 =0 C@>:0E D87:C;LBC@K 2 AB0@H8E :;0AA0E // #G. 70?. #. 1956. ! 214. 0G5?8F:89 . ., /:>2;520 . . >;L >A>15==>AB59 ;8G=>AB8 2 ?0B>;>388 8 B5@0?88 =52@>7>2: 4>:;04K =0 A>25I0=88 ?> 2>?@>A0< ?A8E>;>388 ;8G=>AB8. .: 74-2>  !$! , 1956. 59;835@ . ., 0=5;8= (. . B=>H5=85 CG0I53>AO : CG51=>9 @01>B5 // 5403>38G5A:>5 >1@07>20=85. 1936. ! 2. N18= . .  A2O78 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 0:B82=>AB8 8 A>7=0B5;L=>3> >B=>H5=8O H:>;L=8:0 : CG5=8N // #G. 70?. #. 1956. ! 214. 20=>2 . . A=>2=K5 ?>;>65=8O B5>@88 8=B5@5A0 2 A25B5 ?@>1;5<K >B=>H5=89 G5;>25:0 // #G. 70?. #. 1956. ! 214. 20=>2 . . 0728B85 8 2>A?8B0=85 8=B5@5A>2 CG0I8EAO AB0@H8E :;0AA>2 A@54=59 H:>;K: 2B>@5D. :0=4. 48AA. ., 1955. 20=>2 . .  @0728B88 >B=>H5=8O : CG5=8N C H:>;L=8:>2-?>4@>AB:>2 // #G. 70?. ;03>25I5=A:>3> 3>A. ?54. 8=-B0, 1957. 20=>2 . . A8E>;>38O, 1954. >20;52 . ., OA8I52 . . A8E>;>38G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 G5;>25:0. .: 74-2> #, 1957. ". 1. %0@0:B5@. 07C@A:89 . $. ;0AA8D8:0F8O ;8G=>AB59. 3., 1921. 5>=BL52 . . A8E>;>38G5A:85 2>?@>AK A>7=0B5;L=>AB8 CG5=8O // 725AB8O  !$! . 1947. K?. 7. 5>=BL52 . . G5@: @0728B8O ?A8E8:8. .: !, 1946. C@8O . . "@02<0B8G5A:0O 0D078O. .: 74-2>  !$! , 1946. 0:0@5=:> . !. 71@0==K5 ?5403>38G5A:85 A>G8=5=8O. 6-5 874. =. 4. .: 74-2>  !$! , 1949. OA8I52 . . "8?>;>38O @01>G59 <>;>4568 // 01>G0O <>;>456L :0: >=0 5ABL. .: 74-2> @81>9, 1930. OA8I52 . . 8G=>ABL 8 B@C4 0=><0;89=>3> @515=:0 // "@C4K 8=AB8BCB0 ?> 87CG5=8N <>730. 1936. K?. VI. OA8I52 . . @>1;5<0 >B=>H5=89 2 ?A8E>;>388 8=48284C0;L=KE @07;8G89 // @>1;5<K ?A8E>;>388. .: 74-2> #, 1948. OA8I52 . . A8E8G5A:85 DC=:F88 8 >B=>H5=8O // #G. 70?. #. ., 1949. ! 119. OA8I52 . . @>1;5<K ?A8E>;>388 G5;>25:0 2 A25B5 CG5=8O .. 02;>20 >1 >B=>H5=88 >@30=87<0 : A@545 // #G. 70?. #. 1953. ! 147. OA8I52 . .  7=0G5=88 ?A8E>;>388 4;O <548F8=K // >?@>AK ?A8E>;>388. 1956. ! 3. 02;>2 . . @>10 D878>;>38G5A:>3> ?>=8<0=8O =02O7G82>3> =52@>70 8 ?0@0=>98 // >;=. A>1@. A>G. 2-5 874. ". 3. =. 2. 1957. !. 257. ;>B=8:>20 . .  @>;8 >A>15==>AB59 ;8G=>AB8 8 55 >B=>H5=89 2 @0728B88 =52@0AB5=88 // #G. 70?. #. 1956. ! 214. >7=020B5;L=K5 8=B5@5AK 8 CA;>28O 8E D>@<8@>20=8O 2 45BA:>< 2>7@0AB5 // 54. . . >6>28G // 725AB8O  !$! . 1955. K?. 73. !;028=0 . !. >;L A5<L8 2 D>@<8@>20=88 >B=>H5=8O H:>;L=8:0 : CG5=8N 2 H:>;5 // 725AB8O  !$! . 1951. K?. 36. !<8@=>2 . . A8E>;>38O 70?><8=0=8O. .: 74-2>  !$! , 1948. "5?;>2 . . 1I0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 8=B5@5A0: A8E>;>38O: C:>2>4AB2> 4;O ?548=AB8BCB>2/ >4 @54. . . >@=8;>20, . . !<8@=>20. ., 1948. '0A>2 . . =CH5=85 :0: <5B>4 ;5G5=8O =52@>7>2 // @>1;5<K :;8=8G5A:>9 ?A8E>=52@>;>388. ., 1957. (=8@<0= .. >;;5:B82 :0: 687=5==>5 CA;>285 D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8 H:>;L=8:0: >:;04K =0 A>25I0=88 ?> 2>?@>A0< ?A8E>;>388. .: 74-2>  !$! , 1956. -A0C;>2 . $.  D>@<8@>20=88 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=KE 8=B5@5A>2 AB0@H8E H:>;L=8:>2 // #G. 70?. #. 1956. ! 214. >=OB85 ;8G=>AB8 2 0A?5:B0E =>@<K 8 ?0B>;>388. >=OB85 ;8G=>AB8 >B=>A8BAO : >1;0AB8 <=>38E =0C:: D8;>A>DA:8E, >1I5AB25==>-8AB>@8G5A:8E, N@848G5A:8E, ?5403>38G5A:8E, ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 8 <548F8=A:8E.  >1;0AB8 D8;>A>D88 157 =53> =5;L7O >1>9B8AL ?@8 @0AA<>B@5=88 >A=>2=KE >=B>;>38G5A:8E ?@>1;5<. 54L ?@>1;5<0 ACI=>AB8 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 =5 >3@0=8G8205BAO 2>?@>A>< >1 >A=>25 ACI5AB2CNI53> (<0B5@88), 0 B@51C5B B0:65 @5H5=8O 2>?@>A0 > A2O78 <0B5@88 A A>7=0=85<, 0 ?>A;54=55  =5 B>;L:> DC=:F8O <>730, => 8 >A=>2=>5 A2>9AB2> ;8G=>AB8. >7=0BL 459AB28B5;L=>ABL  7=0G8B, ?>7=0BL =5 B>;L:> >A=>2=K5 M;5<5=BK <8@>740=8O, => 8 A;>6=59H85 ?@>4C:BK @0728B8O <0B5@88, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 G5;>25G5A:CN ;8G=>ABL. !2545=85 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 : AC<<5 55 M;5<5=B>2 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 <5E0=8AB8G5A:CN >H81:C, :>B>@0O G@520B0 >A>15==> ?03C1=K<8 ?>A;54AB28O<8 ?@8 87CG5=88 ;8G=>AB8. 8G=>ABL =5 @07;0305BAO =0 G0AB8, >=0  >@30=8G5A:>5 F5;>5, 2 :>B>@>< <>6=> 2K45;8BL B5 8;8 8=K5 AB>@>=K ;8HL 4;O C4>1AB20 0=0;870 =0 >?@545;5==>9 53> AB0488. 8G=>ABL 8<55B @07;8G=K5 A2>9AB20, => =5 A2>48BAO : >B45;L=K< A2>9AB20< 8;8 : 8E A>2>:C?=>AB8. @>1;5<0 ;8G=>AB8 206=0 8 2 3=>A5>;>38G5A:>< ?;0=5. @54AB02;5=85 > ?>7=0205<>AB8 ?A8E8G5A:>3> 8 B>3>, GB> O2;O5BAO 2KAH8< 2 =5<  A>7=0=8O :0: >A=>2=>3> A2>9AB20 ;8G=>AB8, G0I5 2A53> A;C68B C1568I5< 4;O 03=>AB8F87<0. 1JO2;5=85 =5?>7=0205<>AB8 A0<>3> AC1J5:B0 (?@5?>4=>A8<>5 >1KG=> ?>4 284>< <=8<>3> >1J5:B8287<0) 2545B =5 B>;L:> : 8A:;NG5=8N AC1J5:B0 87 :@C30 ?>7=0=8O, => 8 : 8A:065=8N 2A53> ?@>F5AA0 ?>7=0=8O, ;8H05B =0CG=>9 >A=>2K ?@>1;5<C 53> 045:20B=>AB8 (>B@065=8O AC1J5:B0 AC1J5:B><). $8;>A>DA:>5 @0AA<>B@5=85 ?@>1;5<K ;8G=>AB8 =5>1E>48<> 5I5 8 ?>B><C, GB> 745AL >B:@K205BAO =081>;55 ?;>4>B2>@=0O 2>7<>6=>ABL 4;O 87CG5=8O @O40 <0;>@07@01>B0==KE D8;>A>DA:8E ?@>1;5<, :0A0NI8EAO B0:8E :0B53>@89, :0: :>=:@5B=>5 8 A;>6=>5, 2B>@8G=>5 8 AC1J5:B82=>5. 5B0D878G5A:0O D8;>A>D8O @0AA<0B@8205B 8450;L=>5 8 <0B5@80;L=>5 :0: 2708<>8A:;NG0NI85 ?@>B82>?>;>6=>AB8, ?@8G5< ;8HL >4=>9 87 =8E ?@8?8AK205BAO 1KB85. 80;5:B8G5A:89 65 <0B5@80;87< ?@87=05B @50;L=>ABL >158E, => AG8B05B <0B5@80;L=>5 ?5@28G=K<, 0 8450;L=>5 2B>@8G=K<, ?@>872>4=K<. 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K?>;=5=85 <>@0;L=KE B@51>20=89 2 :@09=8E M:AB@5<0;L=KE CA;>28OE, 4065 ?@8 C3@>75 A>1AB25==>9 3815;8, O2;O5BAO 35@>8G5A:>9 =>@<>9 4>;30, 8E =0@CH5=85 2 >1I5AB25==> A@54=8E CA;>28OE O2;O5BAO ?@5ABC?;5=85<. E =0@CH5=85 >B=>A8B5;L=> 74>@>2K<8 2 8=48284C0;L=>-M:AB@5<0;L=KE CA;>28OE O2;O5BAO 2>?@>A>< 48A:CAA8>==K<. 45AL 2>?@>AK @5H0NBAO @07;8G=> 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B N@848G5A:8E :>45:A>2 @07;8G=KE AB@0=, >1AC645=85 :>B>@KE =5 2E>48B 2 7040G8 40==>9 @01>BK B0: 65, :0: 8 CG8BK205<>5 =0<8 @07;8G85 2 ?>=8<0=88 MB8G5A:8E ?@8=F8?>2 8 2>>1I5 845>;>388. 8B5@0BC@0. 5EB5@52 . ., )5;>20=>2 . .  >1>A=>20=8N 35=5B8G5A:>9 @5D;5:A>;>388 // >2>5 2 @5D;5:A>;>388 8 D878>;>388 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K. .-., 1925. ".5. !. 116 132. $83C@8= . ., 5=8A>20 . .  ?5@2KE A>G5B0B5;L=KE @5D;5:A0E C 45B59 // @>1;5<K 35=5B8G5A:>9 @5D;5:A>;>388. .: 54387, 1929. 0A0B:8= . . 0==85 CA;>2=K5 @5D;5:AK 2 >=B>35=575 G5;>25:0. ., 1948. 575;; . 5B>48:0 4803=>AB8:8 C<AB25==>3> @0728B8O @515=:0 >B @>645=8O 4> H5AB8 ;5B. ., 1930. 02;>2 . . >;=>5 A>1@0=85 A>G8=5=89. .-., 1951. ".3. =. 2, 3;. 48 8 51. 20=>2-!<>;5=A:89 . . G5@:8 ?0B>D878>;>388 2KAH59 =5@2=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. ., 1952. "5?;>2 . . @>1;5<K 8=48284C0;L=KE @07;8G89. ., 1961. "8?>;>38G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 2KAH59 =5@2=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0 / >4 @54. .  "5?;>20. 1956 1964. 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dler A. Menschenkenntniss. Leipzig, 1929. Allport G. W. Attitude in readings in attitude theory and measurement. N.-Y., 1967. Cooper J. ., Pollock D. The identification of prejudical attitudes by the galvanic skin response. N.-Y., 1967. Osgood C. E., Tannenbaum P. H. Attitude theory and measurement. N.-Y., 1967. Rogers K., Kinget M. Psychotherapie et relations humaines. Louvaim, 1965. Schwarzo. Psychogenese und Psychotherapie korperlicher Symptome. Wien, 1925.  A2O78 ?@>1;5< ?A8E>;>388 >B=>H5=8O 8 ?A8E>;>388 CAB0=>2:8. 1. 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'B> :0A05BAO ?>=OB8O >B=>H5=8O 2 70@C156=>9 ?A8E>;>388, B> ?>4ABC? : =5<C =0<5G0;AO 2 @01>B0E ?A8E>0=0;8B8G5A:>3> =0?@02;5=8O, ?@58<CI5AB25==> 4;5@0. BG5B;82CN 2K@065==>ABL >=8 ?>;CG8;8 2 @01>B0E ?>A;54>20B5;L=8FK ?>A;54=53> . (B@0AA5@ (V. Strasser, 1916). (8@>:>5 @0728B85 ?>;CG8;> ?>=OB85 8=B5@?5@A>=0;L=KE >B=>H5=89 2 B@C40E . !. !0;;825=0 (. S. Sullivan, 1953) 8 53> ?>A;54>20B5;59. >=5G=>, =8 A <5B>4>;>38G5A:>9, =8 A <5B>48G5A:>9 AB>@>=K @07@01>B:0 C:070==K<8 02B>@0<8 ?@>1;5<K >B=>H5=89 =5 <>65B =0A C4>2;5B2>@8BL, ?>MB><C <K :>A=5<AO 55 2 ?>78B82=>< ?;0=5 2 >B5G5AB25==>9 ;8B5@0BC@5, 2 =59@>D878>;>38G5A:><, 18>?A8E>;>38G5A:>< 8 >1J5:B82=> ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< ?;0=5. 0: 8725AB=>, . . 02;>2 3>2>@8; > B><, GB> 2KAH0O =5@2=0O, 8;8 ?A8E8G5A:0O, 45OB5;L=>ABL CAB0=02;8205B B>=G09H85 >B=>H5=8O >@30=87<0 : 2=5H=5<C <8@C. . . 5EB5@52 @0AA<0B@820; ?5@28G=CN 45OB5;L=>ABL 8 A>>B=>H5=85 >@30=87<0 A> A@54>9 8 ?@54;>68; >1J5:B82=K9 B5@<8=  A>>B=>A8B5;L=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL (1923. !. 14 15). 10 C:070==KE 02B>@0 2 MB>< ?;0=5 A;54>20;8 A>2@5<5==>9 8< D878>;>388, @0745;O2H59 687=L >@30=87<0 =0 687=L ?8B0=8O, 8;8 2535B0B82=CN, 8 687=L >B=>H5=89, 8;8 687=L ?A8E8G5A:CN (8H0). 45AL <K C?><8=05< >1 MB>< ;8HL 4;O B>3>, GB>1K ?>4G5@:=CBL A2O7L ?A8E>;>388 >B=>H5=89 A D878>;>3859. 4=0:> 2 >B5G5AB25==>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?>=OB85 >B=>H5=85 ?>;CG8;> 8725AB=>ABL ;8HL A> 2@5<5=8 B@C4>2 70<5G0B5;L=>3> ?A8E>;>30, M:A?5@8<5=B0B>@0 8 M<?8@8:0 . $. 07C@A:>3>, @07282H53> CG5=85 >1 M:7>?A8E8:5 :0: >B=>H5=88 G5;>25:0 : A2>59 A@545. 065 2 :@C?=59H5< A>2@5<5==>< B@C45 ?> ?A8E>;>388 A=>2K >1I59 ?A8E>;>388 (!. . 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Adler, 1930) B5@<8= ?>78F88, E>BO 8 ?@>B82>?>AB02;O5BAO 8< 48A?>78F88, => >G5=L 1;87>: ?>=OB8N =0?@02;5==>AB8. !C?5@>@48=0F8O 2:;NG05B >B=>H5=8O 8 CAB0=>2:C 2 H8@>:CN A8AB5<C. #:06C ?@5645 2A53> ?>=OB8O E0@0:B5@0.  E0@0:B5@ 2E>48B 8 CAB0=>2:0, 8 >B=>H5=85, => 1K;> 1K A;>6=> F5;>AB=>5 8=B53@0;L=>5 A8=B5B8G5A:>5 ?>=OB85 E0@0:B5@0 >B>645AB2;OBL A 48=0<8G5A:8< AB5@5>B8?><, CAB0=>2:>9 8;8 >B=>H5=85<. K @0AA<>B@5;8 @O4 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8 206=KE ?>=OB89. #B>G=5=85 8 48DD5@5=F80F8O ?>=OB89 O2;O5BAO 206=K< <><5=B>< =0CG=>3> @0728B8O. >;030N, GB> 40==0O AB0BLO 8<55B 7=0G5=85, 3;02=K< >1@07><, 2 MB>< ?;0=5. 8B5@0BC@0. 0AA8= . $. @>1;5<K 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3>. ., 1968. 5EB5@52 . . 1I85 >A=>2K @5D;5:A>;>388 G5;>25:0. 2-5 874. 3., 1923. !. 14 15. 0@:A . 8 -=35;LA $. !>G. 2-5 874. ".3. !. 29. C18=HB59= !. . A=>2K >1I59 ?A8E>;>388. .: #G?54387. 1946. -:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 8AA;54>20=8O ?> ?A8E>;>388 CAB0=>2:8. "18;8A8, 1958. Adler A. Praxis und Theorie der Individual-Psychogie, 4 Auflage, Munchen, 1930. Stern W. 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AB5AB25==K9 M:A?5@8<5=B ?>;CG8; C =0A H8@>:>5 ?@87=0=85, => 53> ?@0:B8G5A:>5 ?@8<5=5=85 >1@0B=> ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=> MB><C H8@>:><C ?@87=0=8N.  CA;>28OE H:>;K, 2 CA;>28OE ?@>872>4AB20 8 2 :;8=8:5 4065 8 <5B>48G5A:8 =54>AB0B>G=> A>25@H5==>5 53> ?@8<5=5=85 40;>, 405B 8 40AB =5A><=5==> 206=K5 D0:BK. 7;>65==>5 A>>1@065=85, 40;5:> =5 >A25I0O 2A5E AB>@>= 2>?@>A0, B5< =5 <5=55 AB028B C65 2 =0G0;5 =0H59 A8AB5<0B8G5A:>9 @01>BK 2 >1;0AB8 ?>B@51=>AB59 7040G8, @5H5=85 :>B>@KE, :0: <K ?KB0;8AL ?>:070BL, ?@54AB02;O5BAO B5>@5B8G5A:8 206=K<. <5AB5 A B5< 5420 ;8 <>6=> A><=520BLAO 2 B><, GB> ?5403>38G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O 8 ?@0:B8:0, =5 B>;L:> 2>A?8B0B5;L=0O, => 8 >1@07>20B5;L=0O, =C640NBAO 2 @07@01>B:5 ?A8E>;>388 ?>B@51=>AB59, B0: :0: 2=5H=85 CA;>28O 8 2=5H=85 B@51>20=8O B>;L:> B>340 >:07K20NB ?>;>68B5;L=>5 2;8O=85, :>340 ?@52@0I0NBAO 2> 2=CB@5==85 8<?C;LAK ?>2545=8O. 8B5@0BC@0. =0=L52 . . ICI5=85 8 ?>B@51=>AB8 // #G. 70?. #. 1957. !244. CA52 . . :CA>20O @5F5?F8O :0: 8=48:0B>@ A>AB>O=8O >@30=87<0 // !>25BA:0O =52@>-?A8E80B@8O. 1941. ".6. 20=>2 . . 0728B85 8 2>A?8B0=85 8=B5@5A>2 CG0I8EAO AB0@H8E :;0AA>2 A@54=59 H:>;K: 2B>@5D. 48AA. :0=4. ., 1955. 0:0@>2 . . 0640 :0: A;>6=K9 157CA;>2=K9 @5D;5:A // $878>;. 6C@=0; !!! . 1955. !3. OA8I52 . . @>1;5<K ?A8E>;>388 G5;>25:0 2 A25B5 CG5=8O .. 02;>20 >1 >B=>H5=88 >@30=87<0 : A@545 // #G. 70?. #. 1953. !147. OA8I52 . . @>1;5<0 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> B8?0 2 A25B5 CG5=8O . . 02;>20 // #G. 70?. #. 1954. !185. Adler A. Uber d. nervosen Charakter. Halle, 1922. Lewin K. Vorsatz Wille u. Bedurfniss. 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X. 5:G552 (1947), . . =0=L52 (1955).  MB8E 8AA;54>20=8OE =5>1E>48<> CA8;5=85 48DD5@5=F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E AB>@>= 8 CG5B B>3>, GB> 8AA;54>20=8O GC2AB28B5;L=>AB8 >1J5:B82=> >?8@0NBAO =0 2K@065=85 A5=A>@=>-0=0;870B>@=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 A:2>7L ?@87<C @5G52>9 ?5@5@01>B:8 2 A2O78 A @>;LN 2B>@>9 A83=0;L=>9 A8AB5<K. 1J5:B82=>5 8AA;54>20=85 A5=A>@8:8 4>;6=> 25AB8AL >4=>2@5<5==> 8 A>>B25BAB25==> 2 42CE ?;0=0E: ?@>872>;L=>-@5G52><  AC1J5:B82=>< 8 =5?@>872>;L=>-2535B0B82=>< (A<.: . . OA8I52, 1929; . .. 5@HC=8, 1945, 1954). 5;L7O =5 CG5ABL, GB> A>2@5<5==0O M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:0O B5E=8:0, H8@>:> 8A?>;L7CNI0O 2>7<>6=>AB8 M;5:B@>=8:8 8 :8=>B5E=8:8 4;O @538AB@0F88 B>=G09H8E 42830B5;L=KE (18>D878G5A:8-2535B0B82=KE) 8 @5G52KE @50:F89 2 A2O78 A @07;8G=K<8 2>7459AB28O<8, 7=0G8B5;L=> @0AH8@O5B 2>7<>6=>AB8 >1J5:B82=>3>, B>G=>3> 8 @07=>AB>@>==53> 8AA;54>20=8O. 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