ࡱ> " $                     ! Ibjbj1` ]8lT G ( OT$^:   :Gl GlGlGl # GlGl3r H` tqAC(011: 67 G 81 'CD0@>2A:89 ... .@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O. #G51=>5 ?>A>185. - .: @02> 8 0:>=, 1997.  320 A. ISBN 5  7858  0019  5 #G51=>5 ?>A>185 ?>43>B>2;5=> 2K40NI8<AO @>AA89A:8< ?A8E>;>3><-?@02>254>< ?@>D5AA>@>< .@85< 0;5=B8=>28G5< 'CD0@>2A:8< 2 A>>B25BAB288 A ?@>3@0<<>9 :C@A0 .@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O 4;O 2KAH8E CG51=KE 702545=89.  :=835 @0A:@KBK B5>@5B8G5A:85 0A?5:BK =0C:8, >A=>2=>9 C?>@ A45;0= 02B>@>< =0 ?@0:B8G5A:>5 ?@8<5=5=85 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 7=0=89 2 ?>2A54=52=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 N@8AB>2. ;O ABC45=B>2, A;CH0B5;59, 0A?8@0=B>2, 04JN=:B>2, ?@5?>4020B5;59 N@848G5A:8E 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 2C7>2. 11: 67 ISBN 5  7858  0019  5 ( ... 'CD0@>2A:89, 1997 ( @02> 8 70:>=, 1997 >3;02;5=85 :  TOC \o "1-3"   PAGEREF _Toc254696223 \h 2 '!", )/  PAGEREF _Toc254696224 \h 4 ;020 I 2545=85 2 N@848G5A:CN ?A8E>;>38N  PAGEREF _Toc254696225 \h 4 1. .@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O 2 A8AB5<5 =0CG=>3> 7=0=8O  PAGEREF _Toc254696226 \h 4 2. AB>@8O @0728B8O N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388  PAGEREF _Toc254696227 \h 7 3. @54<5B, 7040G8 8 A8AB5<0 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388  PAGEREF _Toc254696228 \h 9 4. @8=F8?K N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388  PAGEREF _Toc254696229 \h 13 5. 5B>4>;>38G5A:85 >A=>2K N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388  PAGEREF _Toc254696230 \h 17 6. ;0AA8D8:0F8O <5B>4>2 ?>7=0=8O 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388  PAGEREF _Toc254696231 \h 19 ;020 II AB5AB25==>=0CG=K5 >A=>2K ?A8E>;>388  PAGEREF _Toc254696232 \h 20 1. 0728B85 ?A8E8:8  PAGEREF _Toc254696233 \h 20 2. A8E8:0 8 <>73  PAGEREF _Toc254696234 \h 23 3. 5D;5:B>@=0O B5>@8O ?A8E8:8  PAGEREF _Toc254696235 \h 25 ;020 III 0728B85 A>7=0=8O 8 ;8G=>AB8  PAGEREF _Toc254696236 \h 27 1. >=OB85 > A>7=0=88 8 ;8G=>AB8  PAGEREF _Toc254696237 \h 27 2. >;L B@C40 8 >1I5=8O 2 @0728B88 A>7=0=8O 8 ;8G=>AB8  PAGEREF _Toc254696238 \h 28 3.  AB@C:BC@5 A>7=0=8O  PAGEREF _Toc254696239 \h 30 4. $>@<K A>7=0=8O  PAGEREF _Toc254696240 \h 32 5. !>AB>O=85 A>7=0=8O  PAGEREF _Toc254696241 \h 32 ;020 IV A8E>;>38G5A:0O ?>43>B>2:0 : N@848G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8  PAGEREF _Toc254696242 \h 35 1. !8AB5<0 ?A8E8G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2  PAGEREF _Toc254696243 \h 35 2. 0<OBL G5;>25:0  PAGEREF _Toc254696244 \h 39 3. KH;5=85, 8=BC8F8O, 2>>1@065=85 2 @5H5=88 7040G  PAGEREF _Toc254696245 \h 43 4. 5GL 2 N@848G5A:>9 @01>B5  PAGEREF _Toc254696246 \h 47 5. -<>F88 8 GC2AB20 2 N@848G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8  PAGEREF _Toc254696247 \h 50 6. >;O 8 55 2>A?8B0=85  PAGEREF _Toc254696248 \h 55 ;020 V 8G=>ABL 8 N@848G5A:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL  PAGEREF _Toc254696249 \h 56 1. !>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 ;8G=>AB8  PAGEREF _Toc254696250 \h 57 2. A8E>;>38G5A:0O AB@C:BC@0 ;8G=>AB8  PAGEREF _Toc254696251 \h 58 3. >B820F8O ?>2545=8O ;8G=>AB8  PAGEREF _Toc254696252 \h 60 4. A8E>;>38G5A:85 CAB0=>2:8  PAGEREF _Toc254696253 \h 61 5. &5==>AB=K5 >@85=B0F88, 8=B5@5AK, 8450;K  PAGEREF _Toc254696254 \h 61 6. 0?@02;5==>ABL ;8G=>AB8  PAGEREF _Toc254696255 \h 62 ;020 VI !>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:85 0A?5:BK N@848G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8  PAGEREF _Toc254696256 \h 63 1. F5=:0 8=B5@5ACNI59 ;8G=>AB8  PAGEREF _Toc254696257 \h 63 2. #AB0=>2;5=85 8 @0728B85 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E :>=B0:B>2  PAGEREF _Toc254696258 \h 73 3. >;CG5=85 =5>1E>48<>9 8=D>@<0F88 >B A2845B5;59, ?>B5@?52H8E, ?>4>7@5205<KE 8 >128=O5<KE  PAGEREF _Toc254696259 \h 76 4. A8E>;>38G5A:85 0A?5:BK 2545=8O ?5@53>2>@>2 A ?@5ABC?=8:0<8  PAGEREF _Toc254696260 \h 79 ;020 VII A8E>;>38O N@848G5A:>3> B@C40  PAGEREF _Toc254696261 \h 80 1. A8E>;>38G5A:0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 B@C40 N@8AB0  PAGEREF _Toc254696262 \h 80 2. @>D5AA8>3@0<<K N@848G5A:8E ?@>D5AA89  PAGEREF _Toc254696263 \h 82 3. $>@<8@>20=85 ;8G=>AB8 ?@02>2540 2 2C75  PAGEREF _Toc254696264 \h 95 '!", !/. !#/ !%/  PAGEREF _Toc254696265 \h 96 ;020 VIII @8<8=0;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O.  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A8E>;>38O  548=AB25==0O =0C:0, A?>A>1=0O >15A?5G8BL =5 B>;L:> ?>7=0=85 ?A8E8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, => 8 C?@02;5=85 5N. ! @0728B85< >1I5AB20 55 7=0G5=85 1C45B 2A5 1>;55 2>7@0AB0BL. >B@51=>ABL >1@0I5=88 : ?A8E>;>388, 55 <5B>40<, 4>AB865=8O< 2>7=8:05B B>340, :>340 :>=:@5B=0O =0C:0, A<56=0O A ?A8E>;>3859 8;8 B5A=> A2O70==0O A =59, 2:;NG05BAO 2 @5H5=85 ?@0:B8G5A:8E 7040G. <55B MB> <5AB> 2 ?5403>38:5, <548F8=5 8 N@8A?@C45=F88. @0:B8G5A:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL, :0: ?@028;>, @50;87C5BAO 2 :>=:@5B=KE 459AB28OE :>=:@5B=KE ;N459, 8 B>, :0: MB> ?@>8AE>48B, 7028A8B 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 <5@5 >B 8E ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59. ">;L:> =5>1E>48<>ABL @5H5=8O ?@0:B8G5A:8E 7040G ?@825;0 : B><C, GB> =0 3@0=8F5 A >1I5AB2>2545=85< 2>7=8:;8 8 @072820NBAO A>F80;L=0O, MB=8G5A:0O, 8AB>@8G5A:0O 8 4@C385 >B@0A;8 ?A8E>;>388. 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A8E>;>38O A2O7K205B >1I5AB25==K5 =0C:8 8 5AB5AB25==K5, 18>;>38N 8 8AB>@8N, <548F8=C 8 ?5403>38:C, C?@02;5=85 8 N@8A?@C45=F8N 8 4@. -B8< >?@545;O5BAO 55 <5AB> 2 A8AB5<5 =0CG=>3> 7=0=8O.  >B5G5AB25==>< =0C:>2545=88 4><8=8@CNI59 O2;O5BAO >1J5:B=>->@85=B8@>20==0O A8AB5<0 :;0AA8D8:0F88 =0CG=>3> 7=0=8O, @07@01>B0==0O 0:045<8:>< .. 54@>2K<. >AB@>5=0 >=0 =0 CG5B5 ?@>F5AA>2 =5 B>;L:> 48DD5@5=F80F88, => 8 8=B53@0F88 =0C:, 8E :>>@48=0F88 8 AC1>@48=0F88, AC1J5:B82=>AB8 8 >1J5:B82=>AB8 2 8E @0728B88, >1>A>1;5==>AB8 8 <5648AF8?;8=0@=>AB8*. !8AB5<0 .. 54@>20 >B@0605B <=>3>?;0=>2K5 A2O78 <564C =0C:0<8, >1CA;>2;5==K5 3;02=K< >1@07>< 8E ?@54<5B=>9 8 >1J5:B82=>9 1;87>ABLN, <5B>40<8 8AA;54>20=8O, 8E =0?@02;5=8O<8, >@30=870F859, :>>?5@8@>20=85<, :>>@48=8@>20=85< >B45;L=KE >1;0AB59, 2A5< A;>6=K< :><?;5:A>< 2708<>>B=>H5=89 <564C B5>@5B8G5A:>9 8 ?@0:B8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN 2 CA;>28OE A>2@5<5==>3> MB0?0 @0728B8O =0CG=>3> 7=0=8O. !E5<0B8G5A:8 >=0 2K3;O48B :0: B@5C3>;L=8:, 25@H8=K :>B>@>3> 70=8<0NB 5AB5AB25==K5, >1I5AB25==K5, D8;>A>DA:85 =0C:8. E 2708<>459AB285 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO ?> ?@8=F8?C AC1>@48=0F88 8;8 @0728B8O 1>;55 2KA>:8E D>@< 87 =865AB>OI8E, 0 =5 :>>@48=0F88, >A=>20==><C =0 D>@<0;L=>-;>38G5A:>< 45;5=88 ?>=OB89. !C1J5:B828ABA:><C ?@8=F8?C 745AL ?@>B82>?>AB02;O5BAO ?@8=F8? >1J5:B82=>AB8, A>3;0A=> :>B>@><C, =0C:8 4>;6=K @0A?>;030BLAO ?>A;54>20B5;L=> 8 A2O7K20BL <564C A>1>9 ?@54<5BK, 8<8 87CG05<K5. !;54C5B >B<5B8BL 8 ?@8=F8? @0728B8O, O2;ONI89AO 254CI8< ?> >B=>H5=8N : >AB0;L=K<, 70:;NG05BAO >= 2 B><, GB> :;0AA8D8:0F8O =0C: O2;O5BAO @0A?>;>65=85< A>3;0A=> 2=CB@5==59 ?@8ACI59 8< ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 8E D>@< 42865=8O. "0:>9 ?@8=F8? :;0AA8D8:0F88 =0C: ?><>305B 871560BL @57:8E @07@K2>2 <564C =8<8, ?@54?>;0305B 2>7=8:=>25=85 <=>3>G8A;5==KE ?@><56CB>G=KE =0C: 8 48AF8?;8=**. _____________________________________________________________________________ *54@>2 .. ;0AA8D8:0F8O =0C:. ., 1985, A. 37-45. **54@>2 .. ;0AA8D8:0F8O =0C:. ., 1965. ". 2, A. 218, 467.  A8AB5<=>9 :;0AA8D8:0F88 ?A8E>;>38O @0A?>;0305BAO 2=CB@8 B@5C3>;L=8:0 8 >1@07C5B A2O78 A> 2A5<8 B@5<O 3@C??0<8 =0C:. '5@57 MB8 >A=>2=K5 3@C??K =0C: ?A8E>;>38O A2O70=0 A <548F8=>9, ?5403>38:>9, A>F8>;>3859 8 4@C38<8 =0C:0<8, 2 AD5@C 8AA;54>20=89 :>B>@KE 2E>48B G5;>25:. 0728B85 MB8E A2O759, D>@<8@>20=85 ?@><56CB>G=KE >B@0A;59 =0CG=>3> 7=0=8O, 2K@01>B:0 8E ?>=OB89=>3> 8 :0B53>@80;L=>3> 0??0@0B0 =0 1075 ?>=OB89 8 :0B53>@89 <0B5@8=A:89 =0C: ?@>8AE>48B =5 B>;L:> 2=5, => 8 2=CB@8 A0<>9 ?A8E>;>388, ?>A:>;L:C =0C:0 ?> A2>5<C ACI5AB2C 548=0. ! CG5B>< 87;>65==KE <><5=B>2 .. 54@>2 @0728; B@5C3>;L=8: =0C: 2 <=>3>3@0==8:, :>B>@K9 ?><>305B 1>;55 ?>;=> ?@54AB028BL <5AB> ?A8E>;>388 2 A8AB5<5 =0CG=>3> 7=0=8O*. B<5B8<, >4=0:>, GB> 2 ?@82545==KE 2KH5 40==KE =5 C:070=K <5AB> N@848G5A:>9 =0C:8 8 B>G:8 2708<>459AB28O A =59 ?A8E>;>388, 2 :>B>@>9 >=0 >1>7=0G0;0AL 1K :0: N@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O. AB5AB25==>, GB> N@8A?@C45=F8O 4>;6=0 =0E>48BLAO 2 1;>:5 >1I5AB25==KE =0C:. _____________________________________________________________________________ *54@>2 .. !8=B57 =0C:. @>1;5<K 8 ?>8A:8. ., 1973, A. 30. 3> 65.  <5B>4>;>38G5A:8E 2>?@>A0E ?A8E>;>388. A8E>;>38G5A:89 6C@=0;. 1982, ! 6. 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C:070==KE @01>B0E 2KA:07K20;8AL 8458 G8AB> ?@03<0B8G5A:>3> 8AA;54>20=8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 7=0=89 2 :>=:@5B=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 AC451=KE 8 A;54AB25==KE >@30=>2. >=5F XIX 8 =0G0;> XX AB>;5B8O 2 >AA88 A2O70=K A 8=B5=A82=K< @0728B85< ?A8E>;>388 8 ?A8E80B@88 8 @O40 ?@02>2KE 48AF8?;8=. =>385 CG5=K5, ?@54AB02;O2H85 MB8 =0C:8 2 B>B ?5@8>4, 70=8<0;8 ?@>3@5AA82=K5 ?>78F88 (.. !5G5=>2, .. 5EB5@52, !.!. >@A0:>2, ..!5@1A:89, .$.>=8 8 4@C385).  @57C;LB0B5 0:B82=>9 @07@01>B:8 ?@>1;5< ?A8E>;>388, ?A8E80B@88 8 ?@020 2>7=8:;0 =5>1E>48<>ABL 2 >D>@<;5=88 N@848G5A:>9, ?A8E>;>388 :0: A0<>AB>OB5;L=>9 =0CG=>9 48AF8?;8=K. .. >20;52A:89 2 1899 3>4C ?>AB028; 2>?@>A > @0745;5=88 ?A8E>?0B>;>388 8 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 8 22545=88 MB8E =0C: 2 :C@A N@848G5A:>3> >1@07>20=8O.  =0G0;5 XX AB>;5B8O 2 B5>@88 8 =0 ?@0:B8:5 2A5 1>;LH55 7=0G5=85 ?@8>1@5B0;8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 8AA;54>20=8O 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388. =0G8B5;L=>5 :>;8G5AB2> @01>B MB>3> ?5@8>40 ?>A2OI5=> 0:BC0;L=>9 ?@>1;5<5 ?A8E>;>388 A2845B5;LA:8E ?>:070=89. -B> @01>BK .. %>;G520, . . >@BC30;>20, .. 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objectus  ?@54<5B). @54AB02;O5BAO, GB> B0:>9 ?>4E>4 =54>AB0B>G=> A>25@H5=5=. >7=020B5;L=K5 >B=>H5=8O AC1J5:B0 : >1J5:BC 2>7=8:0NB :0: ?@>872>4AB25==K5 >B ?@54<5B=>-?@0:B8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. 1J5:B =5 B>645AB25= >1J5:B82=><C <8@C. >A;54=89 AB0=>28BAO >1J5:B>< ;8HL 2 A2O78 A B>9 @>;LN, :>B>@CN >= =0G8=05B 83@0BL 2 687=8 >1I5AB20. =K<8 A;>20<8, >1J5:B>< ?>7=0=8O AB0=>28BAO ;8HL ACI5AB2CNI0O =57028A8<> >B G5;>25:0 G0ABL >1J5:B82=>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, :>B>@0O 2:;NG05BAO 2 G5;>25G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL, >A208205BAO AC1J5:B>< ?@54<5B=>-?@0:B8G5A:8 8 ?>7=020B5;L=>. _____________________________________________________________________________ *52K:8= .". "5>@5B8G5A:85 8 <5B>4>;>38G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K A>F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. ., 1975,A.12. AA;54>20=85 ?@54<5B0 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?@54AB02;O5BAO =5>1E>48<K< =0G0BL A ?@54<5B0 >1H59 ?A8E>;>388. .. 5>=BL52 2 >?@545;5=88 ?@54<5B0 ?A8E>;>388 8AE>48; 87 55 M<?8@8G5A:>9 >A=>2K  O2;5=8O >B@065=8O 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. @54<5B>< ?A8E>;>388, ?> .. 5>=BL52C, 2KABC?0NB ?>@>645=85, DC=:F8>=8@>20=85 8 AB@>5=85 ?A8E8G5A:>3> >B@065=8O @50;L=>AB8, >?>A@54AB2CNI55 687=L 8=48284>2, 8;8 >B@065=85 @50;L=>AB8 2 ?@>F5AA0E 45OB5;L=>AB8 8=48284>2*. . , C@8O ?@54<5B>< ?A8E>;>388 AG8B0; ?A8E8G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL G5;>25:0, 55 70:>=K**. _____________________________________________________________________________ *5>=BL52 .. 5OB5;L=>ABL. !>7=0=85. 8G=>ABL. ., 1977, A. 12. **C@8O . . -2>;NF8>==>5 22545=85 2 ?A8E>;>38N. ., 1975, A. 3. .. ;0B>=>2 8 .. >;C152 C:07K20NB, GB> ?@54<5B>< ?A8E>;>388 O2;O5BAO ?A8E8:0 :0: >B@065=85 <>73>< @50;L=>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *;0B>=>2 .., >;C152 .. A8E>;>38O. ., 1977. A, 6. A=>2=K5 CG51=8:8 ?A8E>;>388 4;O 2C7>2 B@0:BCNB ?@54<5B ?A8E>;>388 :0: 70:>=><5@=>AB8 2>7=8:=>25=8O, @0728B8O 8 ?@>O2;5=8O ?A8E8:8 2>>1I5 8 A>7=0=8O G5;>25:0 - :>=:@5B=>-8AB>@8G5A:>9 ;8G=>AB8 2 G0AB=>AB8* 8;8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 D0:BK, 70:>=><5@=>AB8 8 <5E0=87<K ?A8E8:8**. -B>B @O4 <>6=> ?@>4>;60BL. _____________________________________________________________________________ *1I0O ?A8E>;>38O (?>4 @54. >3>A;>2A:>3> .., >20;520 .., !B5?0=>20 ..). .,1981, A.3 **1I0O ?A8E>;>38O (?>4 @54. 5B@>2A:>3> ..). ., 1986. A. 7. @8 >?@545;5=88 ?@54<5B0 >1I59 ?A8E>;>388 :0: B5>@5B8G5A:>9 4;O 2A5E ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E =0C: >B@0A;8 >B<5G05BAO <=>3> ?@>1;5<, => 8E :>;8G5AB2> 7=0G8B5;L=> 2>7@0AB05B ?@8 >?@545;5=88 ?@54<5B0 ?>7=0=8O 2 >B@0A;52KE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E =0C:0E. =8 B0:65 1078@CNBAO =0 4><8=8@CNI8E 2 ?A8E>;>388 B5>@8OE - 45OB5;L=>AB8, >1I5=8O >B@065=8O, ;8G=>AB8 8;8 A8AB5<=>3> ?>4E>40. 4=0:> >?@545;5=85 ?@54<5B0 >B@0A;52KE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E =0C: 2>7=8:H8E 8 @072820NI8EAO =0 ABK:0E A 4@C38<8 =0C:0<8, =52>7<>6=> 157 CG5B0 ?@54<5B>2 MB8E =0C:. 0?@8<5@, ?@8 >?@545;5=88 ?@54<5B0 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 =5>1E>48<> CG8BK20BL 8 ?@54<5B N@8A?@C45=F88. @54<5B N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 - O2;5=85 :><?;5:A=>5, B. 5. 8<55BAO 2 284C :><?;5:A=>ABL =5 B>;L:> ?@>F5AA0 8;8 B5E=>;>388 ?>7=0=8O 2 MB>9 AD5@5, => 8 A0<>3> ?@54<5B0 ?>7=0=8O. ;O 0=0;870 MB>9 ?@>1;5<K =5>1E>48<> E>BO 1K :@0B:> @0AA<>B@5BL ACI5AB2CNI85 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?>4E>4K : >?@545;5=8N ?@54<5B0 MB>9 =0C:8. 54L >B >?@545;5=8O ?@54<5B0 2 ?@O<>9 7028A8<>AB8 =0E>48BAO 25AL ?>A;54CNI89 ?@>F5AA 87;>65=8O :C@A0 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388. . . 0B8=>2 2 ?5@2KE A2>8E @01>B0E C:07K20;, GB> ?@54<5B>< AC451=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2KABC?0NB ?A8E8G5A:85 O2;5=8O, A2O70==K5 A CG0AB85< 2 C3>;>2=>< ?@>872>4AB25, 70:>=><5@=>AB8 G5;>25G5A:>9 ?A8E8:8. @8 >ACI5AB2;5=88 ?@>872>4AB20 ?> 45;C 8 2K?>;=5=88 @07;8G=KE DC=:F89 2 C3>;>2=>< ?@>F5AA5* ?@54<5B>< ?@02>2>9 ?A8E>;>388 O2;ONBAO ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 70:>=><5@=>AB8 >1I5AB25==KE >B=>H5=89 C@53C;8@>20==KE ?@02><**.  @01>B0E ?>A;54=53> 2@5<5=8 . . 0B8=>2 2 :0G5AB25 ?@54<5B0 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 2K45;O5B ?A8E8G5A:85 O2;5=8O, <5E0=87<K, 70:>=><5@=>AB8, A2O70==K5 A 2>7=8:=>25=85<, 87<5=5=85<, 8A?>;=5=85<, =0@CH5=85< 8 ?@8<5=5=85< ?@020. _____________________________________________________________________________ * 0B8=>2 . . !C451=0O ?A8E>;>38O :0: =0C:0. !>2. 3>A-2> 8 ?@02>. 1965. ! 5 A.55. ** 0B8=>2 . . !>25BA:0O AC451=0O ?A8E>;>38O. ., 1967, A. 5. @C3>9 87 >A=>2>?>;>6=8:>2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 - .. C;>2 >B<5G0;, GB> ?@54<5B>< ;N1>9 =0C:8 2A5340 O2;O5BAO 87CG5=85 >?@545;5==>9 3@C??K 70:>=><5@=>AB59.  A>>B25BAB288 A MB8<, ?@54<5B>< ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:8 O2;O5BAO 87CG5=85 70:>=><5@=>AB59 2>7=8:=>25=8O, @0728B8O 8 ?@>O2;5=8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E O2;5=89, 70:>=><5@=>AB59 D>@<8@>20=8O ?A8E8G5A:8E A2>9AB2 G5;>25:0. @8:;04=K5 >B@0A;8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:8, : :>B>@>9 >B=>A8BAO 8 N@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O (2 B5@<8=>;>388 .. C;>20 - AC451=0O ?A8E>;>38O), ?@8720=K :>=:@5B878@>20BL, C3;C1;OBL >1I85 70:>=><5@=>AB8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:8 ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : >?@545;5==K< 2840< 45OB5;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0. @54<5B>< AC451=>9 ?A8E>;>388, ?> <=5=8N MB>3> 02B>@0, O2;ONBAO >A>15==>AB8 @0728B8O 8 ?@>O2;5=8O ?A8E8G5A:8E 70:>=><5@=>AB59, A2O70==KE A ?@>F5AA>< 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?> >ACI5AB2;5=8N ?@02>AC48O*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *C;>2 .. 2545=85 2 AC451=CN ?A8E>;>38N.., 1970, A. 50 65, 3> 65. !C451=0O ?A8E>;>38O. 8=A:, 1975, A. 29 30. "@5B89 B5>@5B8: 2 >1;0AB8 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388  .. 0A8;L52 ?>;0305B, GB> ?@54<5B N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 A>AB02;ONB ?A8E8G5A:85 70:>=><5@=>AB8 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 ;8G=>AB8 G5;>25:0 2 >1;0AB8 ?@02>2KE >B=>H5=89. -B> >?@545;5=85 A2O70=> A ?>?KB:>9 >1J548=8BL 2 @0<:0E N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 420 4><8=8@CNI8E 2 A>25BA:>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?>4E>40: 45OB5;L=>AB=K9, @07@01>B0==K9 <>A:>2A:>9 H:>;>9 ?A8E>;>388, 8 ;8G=>AB=K9, CB25@645==K9 ;5=8=3@04A:>9 H:>;>9*. 4=0:> : A5@548=5 80-E 3>4>2 =0 ?5@2K9 ?;0= AB0; 2KE>48BL A8AB5<=K9 ?>4E>4, :C;LB828@C5<K9 2 0:045<8G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 =0C:5.  A2O78 A MB8< 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O 2 :0G5AB25 ?@54<5B0 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 .. 0A8;L52 2K45;O5B ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 >A=>2K ;8G=>AB8 8 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 CA;>28OE ?@02>2>3> @53C;8@>20=8O, A8AB5<C G5;>25:  ?@02>. ;02=K< 725=>< 2 MB>9 A8AB5<5 O2;O5BAO G5;>25: 8;8 ;8G=>ABL :0: AC1J5:B 45OB5;L=>AB8**. @54AB02;ONBAO ?@028;L=K<8, ?> <=5=8N 02B>@0, @0AAC645=8O !B>;O@5=:> .. >1 >@30=8G5A:>9 A2O78 2A59 AD5@K ?@020 A ?A8E>;>3859 8 =52>7<>6=>AB8 C:@5?8BL ?@02>?>@O4>:, 1>@>BLAO A ?@5ABC?;5=8O<8, =5 AG8B0OAL A ?A8E>;>38G5A:8<8 D0:B>@0<8, 81> ;N1>9 70:>= 6825B 8 459AB2C5B ;8HL B>340, :>340 ;N48 53> ?>=8<0NB, E>BOB 8 <>3CB 2K?>;=8BL***. -B>B 65 02B>@ >B<5G05B, GB> ?>A:>;L:C N@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O - ?>3@0=8G=0O >1;0ABL =0C:8, B> >=0 4>;6=0 2 N@848G5A:>9 G0AB8 ?>=8<0BL ?@54<5B B0:, :0: ?>=8<05B A2>9 ?@54<5B N@848G5A:0O =0C:0, 0 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 G0AB8 - B0:, :0: ?>=8<05B A2>9 ?@54<5B ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O =0C:0****. !>>1@065=8O > 42>9AB25==>< ?>4E>45 : ?@54<5BC N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 25AL<0 8=B5@5A=K 8 A>2?040NB A =0H8< <=5=85<. K AG8B05<, GB> ?@54<5B N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388  MB> =5 AC<<0 ?@54<5B>2 ?A8E>;>388 8 N@8A?@C45=F88, B.5. =5 ?A8E8G5A:85 O2;5=8O, ?@>F5AAK, A>AB>O=8O ?;NA 3>AC40@AB25==>-?@02>2K5 O2;5=8O, =5 >B45;L=K5 D@03<5=BK 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< >:@0A5, 0 ?A8E>;>38O 3>AC40@AB25==>-?@02>2KE O2;5=89 :0: F5;>AB=>ABL, 2 :>B>@>9 =5;L7O <5E0=8G5A:8 >B45;8BL ?A8E>;>38G5A:>5 >B N@848G5A:>3>, 0 2>7<>6=> ;8HL 2K45;5=85 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 8 N@848G5A:>9 ?>4A8AB5<, =0E>4OI8EAO 2 42865=88, @0728B88, =5?@5@K2=>9 A2O78.  MBC A2>5>1@07=CN A>2>:C?=>ABL 2:;NG0NBAO 8;8 2 ?5@A?5:B825 2:;NG0BAO ?A8E>;>38O ;8G=>AB8 2 ?@025, ?A8E>;>38O ?@02>2>3> ?>2545=8O, ?A8E>;>38O 45OB5;L=>AB8 N@848G5A:8E >@30=>2 8 ?>;=><>G=KE ;88, =045;5==KE ?@020<8 8 >1O70==>ABO<8, ;8G=>ABL N@8AB0 8 4@.  B> 65 2@5<O 2 ?@54<5B5 A ?><>ILN A8AB5<=>3> ?>4E>40 <>6=> 2K45;8BL ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 A>AB02;ONI85  ?@>F5AAK, A>AB>O=85, O2;5=8O, 45OB5;L=>ABL, ?>2545=85 ;8G=>AB8, >1I5=85 8 B, 4. 8;8 N@848G5A:85  ?@02>A?>A>1=>ABL, 455A?>A>1=>ABL, 2<5=O5<>ABL, 28=C, C<KA5;, <>B82 8 B. ?.***** _____________________________________________________________________________ *0A8;L52 .. .@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O. .,1991, A. 6. ** 0A8;L52 .. A8E>;>38O N@848G5A:>3> B@C40 8 N@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O. "0@BC, 1988, 2L?. 815, A. 90. ***!B>;O@5=:> .. KABC?;5=85 =0 ":@C3;>< AB>;5". @>1;5<K N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388. A8E>;>38G5A:89 6C@=0;. 1986. !1.".7, A.31 ****!B>;O@5=:> .. @>1;5<K 8 ?CB8 @0728B8O N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388. A8E>;>38G5A:89 6C@=0;. 1988. !5. ".9, A.77. *****>AB8F:89 .. 2545=85 2 N@848G5A:CN ?A8E>;>38N: <5B>4>;>38G5A:85 8 B5>@5B8G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K. 852, 1990, A. 90. AE>4O 87 548=AB20, 2708<>A2O78 >1J5:B0, ?@54<5B0 8 <5B>4>2 =0C:8, : 7040G0< N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 <>6=> >B=5AB8: AA;54>20=85 AB@C:BC@=KE M;5<5=B>2 ?@54<5B0 MB>9 =0C:8: ;8G=>AB8 N@8AB0, 53> 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?@02><5@=>3> 8 ?@>B82>?@02=>3> ?>2545=8O, ;8G=>AB8 70:>=>?>A;CH=>3> G5;>25:0 8 ?@02>=0@CH8B5;O, ?A8E>;>388 A>F80;L=>-?@02>2>9 @5A>F80;870F88 ?@02>=0@CH8B5;O (2 B>< G8A;5 8 2 "#), ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59 N@848G5A:>9 ?@>F54C@K 8 ?@>D8;0:B8:8 ?@02>=0@CH5=89. 7CG5=85 <5B>4>;>38G5A:8E 8 B5>@5B8G5A:8E 55 >A=>2, @07@01>B:0 <5B>48:8 8 <5B>4>2 B5>@5B8G5A:8E 8 ?@8:;04=KE 8AA;54>20=89, 040?B8@>20=85 4;O F5;59 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 <5B>48: 8 <5B>4>2, @07@01>B0==KE 2 4@C38E =0C:0E, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 2 >B@0A;52KE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E. 07@01>B:0 ?@0:B8G5A:8E @5:><5=40F89 4;O N@8AB>2-?@0:B8:>2 ?> >ACI5AB2;5=8N 8<8 ?@02>?@8<5=8B5;L=>9, ?@02>>E@0=8B5;L=>9 8 ?@02>B2>@G5A:>9 DC=:F89, A>25@H5=AB2>20=8N 8 C;CGH5=8N 8E A>1AB25==>9 @01>BK, AB8<C;8@>20=85 A>2<5AB=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, @07@01>B:0 <5B>48:8 ?@>D>@85=B0F88, ?@>D>B1>@0, ?@>D:>=AC;LB0F88 N@8AB>2, ?@>D5AA8>3@0<< 8 ?A8E>3@0<< N@848G5A:8E ?@>D5AA89 8 4@. "5>@5B8G5A:>5 8 <5B>48G5A:>5 >15A?5G5=85 CG51=>9 48AF8?;8=K .@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O 8 A2O70==KE A =5N A?5F:C@A>2. 15A?5G5=85 ?@0:B8:8 A?5F80;L=K< ?A8E>;>38G5A:8< 7=0=85<, @07@01>B:8 B5>@88 8 <5B>48:8 AC451=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 M:A?5@B87K, ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 :>=AC;LB0F88 8 B. 4. AA;54CO ?@>1;5<C ?@54<5B0, 7040G 8 A8AB5<K N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388, <K 8AE>48< 87 ?@8=F8?80;L=>3> ?>;>65=8O, GB> ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 70:>=><5@=>AB8 2 >1;0AB8 ?@02>?@8<5=8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 45;OBAO =0 425 1>;LH85 :0B53>@88: 45OB5;L=>ABL ?@02>?>A;CH=CN 8 45OB5;L=>ABL, A2O70==CN A B5<8 8;8 8=K<8 ?@02>=0@CH5=8O<8. -B8<8 <5B>4>;>38G5A:8<8 ?@54?>AK;:0<8, 0 B0:65 ?@8=F8?>< 85@0@E88 >?@545;O5BAO ?>AB@>5=85 A8AB5<K N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388, 2 :>B>@>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=> 0=0;878@CNBAO ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 70:>=><5@=>AB8 2 AD5@5 ?@02>?>A;CH=>3> ?>2545=8O 8 2 AD5@5 A>F80;L=>9 ?0B>;>388.  1I59 G0AB8 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 87;030NBAO ?@54<5B, 8AB>@8O, A8AB5<0, ?@8=F8?K, <5B>4K 8 A2O7L 55 A 4@C38<8 =0CG=K<8 48AF8?;8=0<8, 0 B0:65 >A=>2K >1I59 8 A>F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. A>15==0O G0ABL N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388, :>B>@CN G0AB> =07K20NB AC451=>9 ?A8E>;>3859, A>AB>8B 87 A;54CNI8E @0745;>2: ?@02>20O ?A8E>;>38O, :@8<8=0;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O, ?A8E>;>38O ?>B5@?52H53>, ?A8E>;>38O ?@02>=0@CH5=89 =5A>25@H5==>;5B=8E, ?A8E>;>38O ?@5420@8B5;L=>3> @0AA;54>20=8O, ?A8E>;>38O AC451=>3> ?@>F5AA0, AC451=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:0O M:A?5@B870 8 8A?@028B5;L=0O (?5=8B5=F80@=0O) ?A8E>;>38O. .@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O  MB> A0<>AB>OB5;L=0O ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O 48AF8?;8=0, 87CG0NI0O G5;>25:0 2> 2A59 ?>;=>B5. !;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> =0@O4C A @0728B85< :@8<8=0;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388, ?A8E>;>388 ?@02>=0@CH5=8O, 0 B0:65 ?A8E>;>388 ?>B5@?52H53>, ?A8E>;>388 ?@5420@8B5;L=>3> @0AA;54>20=8O 8 4@C38E ?@>1;5<, 2E>4OI8E 2 AB@C:BC@C A>15==>9 G0AB8 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388, 70 ?>A;54=85 3>4K 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 ?>;CG8;8 @0728B85 8AA;54>20=8O ?A8E>;>388 N@848G5A:>3> B@C40, 2 G0AB=>AB8 >B45;L=KE 55 AB>@>=, ?@>D5AA8>3@0<< N@848G5A:8E ?@>D5AA89, ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> >B1>@0 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 >@85=B0F88 2 >1;0AB8 N@8A?@C45=F88.  70:;NG5=85 =0< A;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> 4;O >?B8<870F88 ?@02>>E@0=8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 =5>1E>48<K: A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, ?>4@>1=>5 >?8A0=85 2A5E AB>@>= MB>9 A;>6=>9 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, ;8G=>AB=KE :0G5AB2 8 =02K:>2, 8 A 4@C3>9 - =0CG=> >1>A=>20==K5 @5:><5=40F88 > A>>B25BAB288 :>=:@5B=>9 G5;>25G5A:>9 ;8G=>AB8 >1J5:B82=K< B@51>20=8O<, ?@54JO2;O5<K< : ?@>D5AA88 N@8AB>2 ?> <5B>48:5 ?>41>@0 8 @0AAB0=>2:8 N@848G5A:8E :04@>2. 4. @8=F8?K N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 0 =5>1E>48<>ABL 2KG;5=8BL 8 >?@545;8BL >A=>2=K5 ?@8=F8?K N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 A?@0254;82> >1@0I0NB 2=8<0=85 <=>385 CG5=K5, B0: :0: A0<>AB>OB5;L=>ABL MB>9 =0C:8 ?>4B25@6405B =0;8G85 ?@8=F8?>2, =0 :>B>@KE >=0 1078@C5BAO. -B8 ?@8=F8?K, 157CA;>2=>, A2O70=K A ?@54<5B><, A8AB5<>9 8 7040G0<8 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388.  =0CG=>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 8<5NB <5AB> CB25@645=8O > B><, GB> ?@8=F8?K ?A8E>;>388  MB>, :0: ?@028;>, 55 =081>;55 2A5>1I85 70:>=K*. !;54C5B, >4=0:>, >B<5B8BL, GB> 70:>=K  MB> =5>1E>48<>5, ACI5AB25==>5, CAB>9G82>5, ?>2B>@ONI55AO >B=>H5=85 <564C O2;5=8O<8, 0 ?@8=F8?K  DC=40<5=B0;L=K5 >A=>20=8O =0C:8 8 B5>@88, ?>7=020B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. _____________________________________________________________________________ * ;0B>=>2 .. !B@C:BC@0 8 @0728B85 ;8G=>AB8. .. 1986, A. 183.  ?>402;ONI5< 1>;LH8=AB25 @01>B ?> ?A8E>;>388 8 N@8A?@C45=F88 ?@8=F8?K =0C:8 ;8HL ?5@5G8A;ONBAO. 0: ?@028;>, 02B>@K C:07K20NB ?@8=F8? A8AB5<=>AB8, 548=AB20 A>7=0=8O 8 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?0@B89=>AB8 8 B. 4. A:;NG5=85 A>AB02;ONB, 2 G0AB=>AB8, <>=>3@0D8O .. ":0G5=:>* 8 B5<0B8G5A:89 A1>@=8: ?>4 @540:F859 .. =FKD5@>2>9**.  1>;LH8=AB25 65 @01>B ?> N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?@>1;5<K ?@8=F8?>2 02B>@0<8 2>>1I5 =0 70B@03820;8AL. 8HL 2 >B45;L=KE @01>B0E . . 0B8=>20, .. C;>20 8 >BG0AB8 ./. 5B5;8=0 >1>A=>2K205BAO 459AB285 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?@8=F8?>2 ?@02>AC48O (70:>==>ABL, 45<>:@0B8G=>ABL, 3C<0=87<). _____________________________________________________________________________ * ":0G5=:> .. @8=F8?K 8 :0B53>@88 ?A8E>;>388. 852, 1979. ** =FKD5@>20 .. 0B53>@88 <0B5@80;8AB8G5A:89 480;5:B8:8 2 ?A8E>;>388. ., 1988. ;O B>3> GB>1K =0< 2A5-B0:8 >?@545;8BL ?@8=F8?K N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388, =5>1E>48<> @07>1@0BLAO A MB8<>;>3859 MB>3> ?>=OB8O. @8=F8? (>B ;0B. principium  >A=>20)  F5=B@0;L=>5 ?>=OB85, ;>38G5A:>5 2K@065=85 ?>7=0=8O, >A=>2>?>;030NI0O 845O, ?@>=87K20NI0O A8AB5<C 7=0=89 8 CAB0=02;820NI0O AC1>@48=0F8N MB>3> 7=0=8O. 1I8<8 ?@8=F8?0<8 ?>AB@>5=8O ;N1>9 B5>@88, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388, O2;ONBAO ?@8=F8?K A2O78 8 @0728B8O, 8AB>@87<0, A8AB5<=>AB8 8 ?@8G8==>AB8. 0< B0:65 =5>1E>48<> @07>1@0BLAO 8 A >A=>2=K<8 ?@8=F8?0<8 480;5:B8:8, ?@>O2;ONI8<8AO 2 ;N1>< ?>7=0=88, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 2 AD5@5 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388. 1I5480;5:B8G5A:89 ?@8=F8? 2A5>1I59 A2O78 8 2708<>459AB28O, :>=5G=>, O2;O5BAO >A=>2>?>;030NI8< 8 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388.  MB>< ?@8=F8?5 2K@0605BAO <0B5@80;L=>ABL <8@0, >1CA;>2;820NI0O A2O7L 2A53> A> 2A5<, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 <564C @07;8G=K<8 D>@<0<8 42865=8O <0B5@88; 2 >A=>2C MB>3> ?@8=F8?0 ?>AB02;5=> <0B5@80;L=>5 548=AB2> <8@0*. >4 A2O7LN .. !?8@:8= ?>=8<05B >1I55 2K@065=85 7028A8<>AB8 <564C O2;5=8O<8, >B@065=85 2708<>>1CA;>2;5==>AB8 8 ACI5AB2>20=8O, 0 B0:65 8E @0728B8O. @8<5=5=85 ?@8=F8?0 2A5>1I59 A2O78 8 2708<>459AB28O 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?>72>;O5B ?>7=020BL ?@54<5B MB>9 =0C:8 2> 2708<>A2O7OE 8 2708<>459AB288 A ?@54<5B0<8 4@C38E =0C:, 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O 8<55BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL >B45;8BL 53> >B A<56=KE ?@54<5B>2, 8AA;54>20BL >B=>A8B5;L=> >1>A>1;5==> 8 :>=:@5B=>. _____________________________________________________________________________ * !?8@:8= .. A=>2K D8;>A>D88. ., 1988. A. 154. 80;5:B8G5A:8<8 ?@8=F8?0<8 ?>7=0=8O, 8<5NI8<8 206=>5 7=0G5=85, O2;ONBAO ?@8=F8?K @0728B8O 8 8AB>@87<0, :>B>@K5 >15A?5G820NB 87CG5=85 O2;5=8O A B>G:8 7@5=8O B>3>, :0: >=> :>340-B> 2>7=8:;>, :0:85 3;02=K5 MB0?K 2 A2>5< @0728B88 ?@>E>48;>, G5< AB0;> 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 8 G5< 1C45B 2 1C4CI5<. 80;5:B8G5A:>5 @0728B85 ?@54<5B0 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 E0@0:B5@87C5BAO =0?@02;5==>ABLN, ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABLN, =5>1@0B8<>ABLN, A>E@0=5=85< 4>AB83=CBKE @57C;LB0B>2, ?@55<AB25==>ABLN, >B@8F0=85<. 0 ?@>BO65=88 2A59 8AB>@88 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 :0: =0C:8, =5A<>B@O =0 >?@545;5==K5 55 ?>4J5<K 8 A?04K, G5B:> ?@>A;568205BAO 2A5 65 B5=45=F88 40;L=59H53> @0728B8O, M:A?0=A8O 55 2 A<56=K5 AD5@K 7=0=8O 8 42865=85 2?5@54. !>3;0A=> 8AB>@87<C A>F80;L=K5 O2;5=8O E0@0:B5@87CNBAO 70:>=><5@=K<, =0?@02;5==K< 8 =5>1@0B8<K< @0728B85<, ?@>3@5AA82=>9 B5=45=F859, 1>@L1>9 2=CB@5==8E ?@>B82>@5G89 =0 :064>< 40==>< MB0?5 8AB>@88.  N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?@8=F8? 8AB>@87<0 - >A=>20 8AA;54>20=8O 8AB>@88 MB>9 =0C:8, @0728B8O 55 ?@54<5B0 8 A8AB5<K, 2 G0AB=>AB8 @0728B8O 45D>@<0F88 ?A8E>;>388 ?@02>=0@CH8B5;O 8 B, 4. @8=F8? 8AB>@87<0 480;5:B8G5A:8 A2O70= A ?@8=F8?>< @0728B8O 8 2 ?A8E>;>388 >7=0G05B 42865=85 D>@< ?A8E8G5A:>3> >B@065=8O >B 18>;>38G5A:8 >1CA;>2;5==KE M;5<5=B0@=KE D>@< (>ICI5=89, M<>F89) 4> A>F80;L=> >1CA;>2;5==KE (A0<>A>7=0=8O), ?@52@0I5=85 8=48284C0;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59 2 A2>9AB20 ;8G=>AB8*.  N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 MB>B ?@8=F8? :>=:@5B878@C5BAO 2 8AA;54>20=88 MB8>;>388 ?@>B82>?@02=>3> ?>2545=8O 8=482840 8 A>F80;L=KE 3@C??, ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E A@54AB2 @5A>F80;870F88 ;8G=>AB8 ?@02>=0@CH8B5;O. ____________________________________________________________________________ * ;0B>=>2 .. !8AB5<0 ?A8E>;>388 8 B5>@8O >B@065=8O. ., 1975, A. 253 254. AB0=>28<AO 8 =0 B@5BL5< ?@8=F8?5 480;5:B8:8, 8A?>;L7C5<>< 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388, 0 8<5==> =0 ?@8=F8?5 ?@8G8==>AB8. = A2O70= A ?@8=F8?0<8 2A5>1I59 A2O78 8 @0728B8O, ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 >4=>< 87 206=59H8E 284>2 A2O78, 2 G0AB=>AB8 35=5B8G5A:>9 A2O78 O2;5=89, 2 :>B>@>9 >4=> (?@8G8=0) ?@8 >?@545;5==KE CA;>28OE ?>@>6405B 4@C3>5 (A;54AB285). @8G8==>ABL :0: ?@8=F8? ?>7=0=8O ?>72>;O5B C2845BL 2A5>1I=>ABL O2;5=89, =587156=>ABL ?>@>645=8O >4=8E 4@C38<8 8 B0:  4> 15A:>=5G=>AB8. %0@0:B5@8AB8:>9 ?@8G8==>AB8 O2;O5BAO A2O7L A> 2@5<5=5< 8 A> 2708<>459AB285<.  N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?@8=F8? ?@8G8==>AB8 >7=0G05B, GB> ?A8E8G5A:85 O2;5=8O, ?@>F5AAK 8 A>AB>O=8O G5;>25:0, ?A8E>;>38O A>F80;L=KE 3@C?? 2 AD5@5, @53C;8@C5<>9 ?@02><, O2;ONBAO 2B>@8G=K<8 >1@07>20=8O<8, ?@8G8==> >1CA;>2;5==K<8 >1J5:B82=>9 459AB28B5;L=>ABLN, 8 >B@065=85< MB>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. = ?@54?>;0305B CAB0=>2;5=85 ?@8G8=, ?>@>482H8E >B45;L=>5 O2;5=85. !G8B05BAO 206=K< ?@8=F8? ?@8G8==>AB8 2 8AA;54>20=88 ?A8E>;>388 ?@02><5@=>3> 8 ?@>B82>?@02=>3> ?>2545=8O ;8G=>AB8, D>@<8@>20=8O 55 ?@02>A>7=0=8O, N@848G5A:>3> <8@>2>77@5=8O. 0 ?A8E>;>38N ;8G=>AB8 :0: ?@02>=0@CH8B5;O, B0: 8 70:>=>?>A;CH=>3> G5;>25:0 ?>AB>O==> 2>7459AB2C5B <=>65AB2> M:>=><8G5A:8E, ?>;8B8G5A:8E, 845>;>38G5A:8E, A>F80;L=>-45<>3@0D8G5A:8E, ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 8 4@C38E D0:B>@>2. 4=8 87 =8E A?>A>1AB2CNB D>@<8@>20=8N ?>78B82=>3> >B=>H5=8O : ?@02C, ?@02>2K< =>@<0<, ?@8=OB8N 8E :0: G0AB8 2=CB@5==59 ?>78F88 ;8G=>AB8, 4@C385 <>3CB 45D>@<8@>20BL ?@02>A>7=0=85. 4=8 8 B5 65 D0:B>@K 2 B> 65 2@5<O <>3CB 459AB2>20BL @07;8G=>, ?>@>9 ?>;O@=>, 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B >A>15==>AB59 ;8G=>AB8, A8BC0F88, >1J5<0 8 2840 8=D>@<0F88, 2@5<5=8 459AB28O. 0< A;54C5B 1>;55 45B0;L=> >AB0=>28BLAO 8 =0 ?@8=F8?5 A8AB5<=>AB8 2 ?>7=0=88.  >B5G5AB25==>9 ?A8E>;>388 MB>B ?@8=F8? A2O70= A 8<5=5< .!. K3>BA:>3>, :>B>@K9 ?@8<5=O; 53> : 0=0;87C @0728B8O A>7=0=8O. &5=B@0;L=K< 2 A8AB5<=>< ?>4E>45 .!. K3>BA:>3> O2;O5BAO 2>?@>A > ?@8@>45 8 AB@C:BC@5 A>7=0=8O, 87<5=5=88 <56DC=:F8>=0;L=KE A2O759 8 >B=>H5=89 A>7=0=8O. 0720=85 ?@8=F8?0 A8AB5<=>AB8, 40==>5 .!. K3>BA:8< (AB@C:BC@=K9) A>E@0=O;>AL 2 ?A8E>;>388 4> :>=F0 70-E 3>4>2. -B>B ?@8=F8? 8=>340 =07K20NB A8AB5<=>-AB@C:BC@=K<, 0 8=>340 AB@C:BC@=>-DC=:F8>=0;L=K<. >;LHCN @>;L 2 @0728B88 A8AB5<=>3> ?@8=F8?0 2 =0H59 ?A8E>;>388 2 70 80-E 3>40E AK3@0; 254CI89 CG5=K9-?A8E>;>3 .$. ><>2. =, ?@0240, 2 A2>8E @01>B0E C?>B@51;O; B5@<8= "A8AB5<=K9 ?>4E>4", >?8@0OAL =0 4>?>;=8B5;L=K9 @O4 ?@8=F8?>2 1>;55 =87:>3> C@>2=O*. _____________________________________________________________________________ * !<.: ><>2 .$. 5B>4>;>38G5A:85 8 B5>@5B8G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K ?A8E>;>388. ., 1984, A. 92 94. @8<5=5=85 ?@8=F8?0 A8AB5<=>AB8 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 >7=0G05B B0:>9 ?>4E>4 : ?A8E8G5A:8< ?@>O2;5=8O< ;8G=>AB8 8 A>F80;L=>9 3@C??K 2 AD5@5, C@53C;8@>20==>9 ?@02><, ?@8 :>B>@>< >B45;L=K5 M;5<5=BK ?@54<5B0 ?>7=0=8O 8 8AA;54>20=8O @0AA<0B@820NBAO :0: 2708<>459AB2CNI85, 2708<>>1CA;>2;5==K5, 2708<>A2O70==K5 G0AB8 548=>3> F5;>3>. ! ?><>ILN MB>3> ?@8=F8?0, :0: ?@028;> 0=0;878@C5BAO A8AB5<0 =0C:8 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388, 2K45;ONBAO 55 =>2K5 AB@C:BC@=K5 M;5<5=BK. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, ?@8=F8? A8AB5<=>AB8 ?>72>;O5B @0AA<>B@5BL N@848G5A:CN ?A8E>;>38N, 2E>4OICN >4=>2@5<5==> 2 425 4@C385 A8AB5<K 1>;55 2KA>:>3> C@>2=O  2 ?A8E>;>38N 8 N@8A?@C45=F8N. 0==K9 ?@8=F8?, 53> F5;5=0?@02;5==0O @50;870F8O >15A?5G8205B =5?@5@K2=>5 @0728B85 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388, ?>72>;O5B C2O7K20BL =0;8G=>5 7=0=85 A 4>1KBK< 8 ?@>3=>78@C5<K<, A?>A>1AB2C5B @0728B8N A8AB5<K B0: =07K205<KE >1JOA=8B5;L=KE ?@8=F8?>2, 0 B0:65 8AE>4O 87 2708<>A2O78 ?@8=F8?>2, :0B53>@89, ?>=OB89 8 70:>=>2 MB>9 =0C:8. @54?@8=OB0O ?>?KB:0 >1>A=>20BL A?5F8D8:C ?@>O2;5=8O ?@8=F8?>2 480;5:B8:8 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 5I5 40;5:0 >B A>25@H5=AB20. 4=0:> 157 8AA;54>20=8O ?@8=F8?>2, :0B53>@89, ?>=OB89, 70:>=>2 40;L=59H0O @07@01>B:0 MB8E B5>@5B8:>-<5B>4>;>38G5A:8E ?@>1;5< N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 =52>7<>6=0.  40==>9 @01>B5 =0<8 A45;0=0 ?>?KB:0 87;>65=8O >B@0A;52KE ?@8=F8?>2, ?@8ACI8E N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388.  ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 ?5@5G5=L >B@0A;52KE ?@8=F8?>2 405BAO @07=K9. "0:, .. 0@K38=, ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : A>F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 2K45;O5B ?@8=F8?K: 1) >B@065=8O, 2) A>F80;L=>9 7=0G8<>AB8, 3) >1I5=8O, 4) @0728B8O*. #:070==0O :;0AA8D8:0F8O A> AB>@>=K CG5=KE-?A8E>;>3>2 2K7K205B ACI5AB25==K5 70<5G0=8O. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: 0@K38= .. !>F80;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O :0: =0C:0. ., 1965, A. 81 84. B<5B8<, GB> 2 >B5G5AB25==>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?@>1;5<0 >B@065=8O 8AA;54>20;0AL =5 B>;L:> ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : A>F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388.  G0AB=>AB8, ..5>=BL52, ?>4G5@:820O 206=>ABL 8A?>;L7>20=8O 480;5:B8:8 2 ?>7=0=88, 3>2>@8; > ?>=OB88 >B@065=8O 8 53> ?@8<5=5=88 2 ?A8E>;>388 2>>1I5*, .. !<8@=>2, ?>A2OB82H89 @O4 A2>8E @01>B 2708<>A2O78 ;5=8=A:>9 B5>@88 >B@065=8O 8 ?A8E>;>388, ?8A0; >1 >B@065=88 :0: >@C488 A>2@5<5==>3> ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 8AA;54>20=8O ?>7=020B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0**. _____________________________________________________________________________ * 5>=BL52 .. >=OB85 >B@065=8O 8 53> 7=0G5=85 4;O ?A8E>;>388. %@5AB><0B8O ?> ?A8E>;>388. >4.@54. 5B@>2A:>3> .. ., 1977, A.53-61. **!<8@=>2 .. 5=8=A:0O B5>@8O >B@065=8O 8 ?A8E>;>38O. 71@0==K5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 B@C4K. ., 1987, G.1, A. 26 62. @8=F8? A>F80;L=>9 7=0G8<>AB8, > :>B>@>< ?8A0; ..0@K38=, =5 @0AH8D@>2K20;AO 4065 A0<8< 02B>@><. @8=F8? >1I5=8O <>65B @0AA<0B@820BLAO :0: A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:89, 0 ?@8=F8? @0728B8O  :0: >1I5?A8E>;>38G5A:89 ;8HL ?>A;5 >?@545;5==>9 :>=:@5B870F88 O2;5=8O, 8=B5@5ACNI53> =0A. K 2KH5 C65 3>2>@8;8 > @0728B88 :0: ?@8=F8?5 480;5:B8:8, ?@8<5=O5<>< 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< ?>7=0=88.  1>;LH8=AB25 @01>B ?> B5>@88 8 <5B>4>;>388 ?A8E>;>388 MB>B ?@8=F8? B@0:BC5BAO :0: ?A8E>;>38G5A:89. @8=F8? @0728B8O 2 ?A8E>;>388 8=>340 =07K20NB 5I5 35=5B8G5A:8<. #:07K205BAO, GB> A 53> ?><>ILN ?>7=0NBAO 87<5=5=8O ?A8E8G5A:8E O2;5=89, GB> ?@028;L=0O 8 ?>;=0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 ;N1>N ?A8E8G5A:>3> O2;5=8O 2>7<>6=0 ;8HL B>340, :>340 >4=>2@5<5==> 2KOA=ONBAO E0@0:B5@=K5 53> >A>15==>AB8 2 40==K9 <><5=B, 8AB>@8O 8;8 ?@8G8=K 2>7=8:=>25=8O, 2>7<>6=K5 ?5@A?5:B82K 53> ?>A;54CNI8E 87<5=5=89*. ! CG5B>< A>45@60=8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> ?@8=F8?0 @0728B8O, 2>7<>6=>, A;54C5B =07K20BL 53> :>=:@5B870F8N 2 ?A8E>;>388 35=5B8G5A:8< ?@8=F8?><. ___________________________________________________________________________ * !<.: 1I0O ?A8E>;>38O (?>4 @54. >3>A;>2A:>3> .., >20;520 .., !B5?0=>20 ..).A.24-25 > =0H5<C <=5=8N, ?@8=F8? @0728B8O (35=5B8G5A:89 ?@8=F8?) 8<55B 206=>5 7=0G5=85 8 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388. @8<5=5=85 MB>3> ?@8=F8?0 8<55B >A>1>5 7=0G5=85 ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 A?5F80;L=KE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 7=0=89 =0 ?@0:B8:5, 2 G0AB=>AB8 4;O >?@545;5=8O <5E0=87<0 M<>F8>=0;L=>3> =0?@O65=8O, 0DD5:B82=>3> A>AB>O=8O C ?@02>=0@CH8B5;O 2 A8BC0F88 A>25@H5=8O :>=:@5B=>3> ?@02>=0@CH5=8O. B>@K< 206=K< >1I5?A8E>;>38G5A:8< ?@8=F8?><, ?@8<5=O5<K< 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388, O2;O5BAO ?@8=F8? 548=AB20 A>7=0=8O 8 45OB5;L=>AB8. -B>B ?@8=F8? ?>=8<0=8O ?@8@>4K ?A8E8G5A:>3>, :>B>@K9 2?5@2K5 2K45;8; !.. C18=HB59= (2 1934 3.),  >48= 87 206=59H8E 2 =0H59 >B5G5AB25==>9 ?A8E>;>388. = ?8A0;, GB> B@C4, 45OB5;L=>ABL, A>7=0=85 8 ?A8E8:0 B0: 2708<>A2O70=K, GB> >B:@K205BAO ?>4;8==0O 2>7<>6=>ABL :0: 1K ?@>A25G820BL A>7=0=85 G5;>25:0 G5@57 0=0;87 53> 45OB5;L=>AB8, 2 :>B>@>9 A>7=0=85 D>@<8@C5BAO 8 @0A:@K205BAO. > =0H5<C <=5=8N, A>45@60=85 MB>3> ?@8=F8?0 70:;NG05BAO 2 CB25@645=88 2708<>A2O78 8 2708<>>1CA;>2;5==>AB8 A>7=0=8O (?A8E8G5A:>3>) 8 45OB5;L=>AB8, B. 5. 45OB5;L=>ABL >1CA;02;8205B D>@<8@>20=85 A>7=0=8O, ?A8E8G5A:8E A2O759, ?@>F5AA>2, A2>9AB2, 0 >=8, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, >ACI5AB2;ONB @53C;OF8N, G5;>25G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, O2;ONBAO CA;>285< 55 045:20B=>3> 2K?>;=5=8O*. 4=8 8 B5 65 42865=8O <>3CB >1>7=0G0BL @07;8G=K5 ?>ABC?:8, 8 @07;8G=K5 42865=8O  >48= 8 B>B 65 ?>ABC?>:**. _____________________________________________________________________________ * C18=HB59= !.. @>1;5<K >1I59 ?A8E>;>388. ., 1973, A.22-28 ** C18=HB59= !.. A=>2K >1I59 ?A8E>;>388. ., 1946, A.14-16 =0G8B5;L=K9 2:;04 2 @07@01>B:C A2O78 ?A8E8:8 8 45OB5;L=>AB8 2=5A 8725AB=K9 ?A8E>;>3 . . 5>=BL52, :>B>@K9 C:07K20;, GB> ?@8 87CG5=88 @0728B8O ?A8E8:8 G5;>25:0 A;54C5B 8AE>48BL 87 0=0;870 @0728B8O 53> :>=:@5B=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. @8 B0:>< ?>4E>45 <>65B 1KBL 2KOA=5=0 @>;L 2=5H=8E CA;>289 2 687=8 G5;>25:0, 8E A2O7L A 53> 7040B:0<8, ?>=OB0 254CI0O @>;L 2>A?8B0=8O 2>7459AB2CNI53> 8<5==> =0 45OB5;L=>ABL G5;>25:0, 53> >B=>H5=85 : 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 8 ?>MB><C >?@545;ONI53> 53> ?A8E8:C, A>7=0=85*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *5>=BL52 .. 5OB5;L=>ABL. !>7=0=85. 8G=>ABL. ., 1977, A.13 @8=F8? 548=AB20 A>7=0=8O 8 45OB5;L=>AB8 A2>5 40;L=59H55 @0728B85 ?>;CG8; 2 B@C40E .. 0?>@>6F0, .. 8=G5=:>, .. "8E><8@>20 8 4@.  N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 A ?><>ILN >1>7=0G5==>3> 2KH5 ?@8=F8?0 548=AB20 A>7=0=8O 8 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=CN 45OB5;L=>ABL N@8AB0 8;8 ?@>B82>?@02=CN 45OB5;L=>ABL ?@02>=0@CH8B5;O <>6=> ?>=8<0BL :0: CA;>285 2>7=8:=>25=8O, D0:B>@ D>@<8@>20=8O 8 >1J5:B ?@8;>65=8O A>7=0=8O G5;>25:0. ! ?><>ILN MB>3> ?@8=F8?0 <>6=>, 87CG0O ?@>B82>?@02=>5 ?>A5;5=85, 45OB5;L=>ABL, 2KOA=8BL 2=CB@5==85 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 <5E0=87<K A>25@H5==>3> ?@02>=0@CH5=8O, ?>=OBL <>B82K 8 F5;8 ?@02>=0@CH8B5;O. B ?@8=F8?0 548=AB20 A>7=0=8O 8 45OB5;L=>AB8 ..;0B>=>2 >B?>G:>20; ?@8=F8? 548=AB20 ;8G=>AB8 8 45OB5;L=>AB8, :>B>@K9 ?@8<5=O; ?@8 87CG5=88 ;8G=>AB8 :C@A0=B>2 0280F8>==KE CG8;8I, =0 >A=>20=88 :>B>@>3> ?>;CG8; ?>4B25@645=85 B>3>, GB> G5< 1>;LH5 45OB5;L=>ABL >1A;54C5<>3> AE>4=0 ?> A2>59 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 AB@C:BC@5 A CA;>28O<8 ?>;5B0, B5< 1>;55 4>AB>25@=> ?>72>;O5B AC48BL > 53> ;8G=>AB=KE :0G5AB20E. @8=F8? 548=AB20 ?>7=0=8O 8 ;8G=>AB8 MB>B CG5=K9 B0:65 2K2>48B 87 107>2>3> ?@8=F8?0 548=AB20 A>7=0=8O 8 45OB5;L=>AB8.  G0AB=>AB8, >= ?8H5B, GB>, 3>2>@O > A>7=0=88, <K 2A5340 ?>4@07C<5205< A>7=0=85 :>=:@5B=>9 ;8G=>AB8, 0 3>2>@O > 45OB5;L=>AB8, =5 4>;6=K 701K20BL 2A5 8725AB=>5 =0< > A>7=0=88. .. ;0B>=>2, 2K45;82 C:070==K5 2KH5 ?@8=F8?K 87 107>2>3>, 2 40;L=59H5< A8=B578@C5B 8E 8 ?@54;0305B A2>9 =>2K9 ?@8=F8?  548=AB20 A>7=0=8O, ;8G=>AB8 8 45OB5;L=>AB8, D>@<C;8@CO 53> A;54CNI8< >1@07><: ...A>7=0=85 :0: 2KAH0O 8=B53@0;L=0O D>@<0 ?A8E8G5A:>3> >B@065=8O, ;8G=>ABL  O2;ONI0OAO G5;>25:>< :0: =>A8B5;5< A>7=0=8O, 45OB5;L=>ABL :0: D>@<0 2708<>459AB28O G5;>25:0 A <8@><, 2 :>B>@>9 G5;>25: 4>AB8305B A>7=0B5;L=> ?>AB02;5==>9 F5;8, ACI5AB2CNB, ?@>O2;ONBAO 8 D>@<8@CNBAO 2 A2>5< =5 B>645AB25, 0 B@8548=AB25, >?@545;O5<>< 2708<>459AB28O<8 A> A<5=>9 8E ?@8G8==>-A;54AB25==KE A2O759 *. 1 MB>< ?8HCB 8 4@C385 CG5=K5-?A8E>;>38**. _____________________________________________________________________________ *;0B>=>2 .. !8AB5<0 ?A8E>;>388 8 B5>@8O >B@065=8O. ., 1975, A. 255 256. **1C;LE0=>20-!;02A:0O .. 5OB5;L=>ABL 8 ?A8E>;>38O ;8G=>AB8. .,1980, A.260 @8 40;L=59H59 4>@01>B:5 8 4>AB0B>G=>< >1>A=>20=88 MB>3> ?@8=F8?0 <K =0E>48<, GB> <>6=> 1C45B AB028BL 2>?@>A > 53> 8A?>;L7>20=88 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388. K B0:65 AG8B05<, GB> 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 4>;65= ?@8<5=OBLAO 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5==K9 2 N@848G5A:8E =0C:0E ?@8=F8? 3C<0=87<0 :0: <>@0;L=>-MB8G5A:0O AB>@>=0 ?>7=0=8O, ?@87=0NI0O F5==>ABL G5;>25:0 :0: ;8G=>AB8, 53> ?@02> =0 A2>1>4C, AG0ABL5, @0728B85 8 ?@>O2;5=85 A2>8E A?>A>1=>AB59. 02=>?@0285  ACI5AB25==K9 M;5<5=B 45<>:@0B88. ! =8< A2O70= ?@8=F8? @025=AB20, A>AB>OI89 2 B><, GB> =@02AB25==K5, ?@02>2K5 8 4@C385 B@51>20=8O 4>;6=K @0A?@>AB@0=OBLAO =0 2A5E ;N459 =57028A8<> >B 8E >1I5AB25==>3>, 4>;6=>AB=>3> ?>;>65=8O 8 CA;>289 687=8. '5;>25G=>ABL B0:65 :>=:@5B878@C5B ?@8=F8? 3C<0=87<0 ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : ?>2A54=52=K< 2708<>>B=>H5=8O< ;N459 8 2:;NG05B @O4 206=KE :0G5AB2  A>GC2AB285, C2065=85 : ;N4O<, 4>25@85 : =8<, G5AB=>ABL 8 A:@><=>ABL. -B8 =@02AB25==>-?@02>2K5 B@51>20=8O :0A0NBAO ;N1>3> ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 8AA;54>20=8O, 0 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 2 >A>15==>AB8, ?>A:>;L:C >B @57C;LB0B>2 ?>A;54=53> <>65B 7028A5BL ?@028;L=>ABL @5H5=8O AC40, 4@C3>3> ?>;=><>G=>3> >@30=0, 284 8 @07<5@ ?@8<5=O5<KE A0=:F89 8 B. 4. 06=K< 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 O2;O5BAO 8 ?@8=F8? :><?;5:A=>AB8. >A:>;L:C A0<0 MB0 =0C:0 8=B53@0B82=0O, B> 8 ?>7=0205<K5 5N O2;5=8O =5>1E>48<> @0AA<0B@820BL :><?;5:A=>. 50;870F8O MB>3> ?@8=F8?0 >7=0G05B =5>1E>48<>ABL @0728B8O <5648AF8?;8=0@=KE A2O759 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388, 55 2708<>459AB28O A ?A8E>;>38G5A:8<8 8 N@848G5A:8<8 =0C:0<8. @8=F8? :><?;5:A=>AB8 1078@C5BAO =0 845OE ..=0=L520 8 .$.><>20 > :><?;5:A=>< 87CG5=88 G5;>25:0*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *=0=L52 .. 71@0==K5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 B@C4K. ., 1980, ". 1, A. 56; ><>2 .$. !8AB5<0 =0C: > G5;>25:5. A8E>;>38G5A:89 6C@=0;. 1987, ! 1. ". 8, A. 9 12. 06=>5 7=0G5=85 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388, ?> =0H5<C <=5=8N, 8<55B ?@8=F8? 0:B82=>AB8 ?>7=0NI53> AC1J5:B0. :B82=>ABL G5;>25:0 >?@545;O5BAO A0<>9 53> ?@8@>4>9, B5<, GB> >= 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?>7=0=8O >1O70B5;L=> 8<55B 2 284C A2>N :>=5G=CN F5;L, =5 B>;L:> 2>A?@8=8<05B 8 ?5@5@010BK205B 8=D>@<0F8N, ?@8=8<05B @5H5=85, => 8 >1O70B5;L=> 459AB2C5B, 8<55B : MB><C ;8G=>5 >B=>H5=85. >;L :>=:@5B=>3> N@8AB0, A>3;0A=> ?@8=F8?C 0:B82=>AB8, A>AB>8B =5 2 B><, GB>1K 1KBL ?@>AB> ?@840B:>< A8AB5<K, 2 :>B>@CN 2E>48B, 0 2 B><, GB>1K >ACI5AB2;OBL 0:B82=K5 DC=:F88. 1I85 ?@8=F8?K ?>7=0=8O 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 <>3CB :>=:@5B878@>20BLAO 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 8E 2840, 2 G0AB=>AB8 B5>@5B8G5A:>3> 8;8 ?@0:B8G5A:>3> C@>2=O  =0CG=>3> 8;8 M<?8@8G5A:>3>. "0:, 2 ?@0:B8G5A:><, ?@8:;04=>< ?>7=0=88, =0?@8<5@, 2> 2@5<O AC451=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 M:A?5@B87K <>3CB 8A?>;L7>20BLAO ?@8=F8?K: 70:>==>AB8; >1J5:B82=>AB8; ?>;=>BK 8 >1>A=>20==>AB8 70:;NG5=8O M:A?5@B87K; A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8 8 0:B82=>AB8 M:A?5@B0 2 ?@>2>48<>< 8AA;54>20=88; @073@0=8G5=8O DC=:F89 M:A?5@B0 8 4@C38E CG0AB=8:>2 ?@>F5AA0*; ;8G=>9 >B25BAB25==>AB8 M:A?5@B0. "0:0O M:A?5@B=0O ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O >F5=:0 4>;6=0 1KBL ?>;CG5=0 >B ?@87=0==KE 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 A?5F80;8AB>2, 8 <K MB> AG8B05< ?@028;L=K< 8 F5;5A>>1@07=K<. _____________________________________________________________________________ * 8A8G5=:> .., &8@:0;L .. A?>;L7>20=85 A?5F80;L=KE 7=0=89 2 A;54AB25==>9 8 AC451=>9 ?@0:B8:5. 852, 1987, A. 68 73. 5. 5B>4>;>38G5A:85 >A=>2K N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 5B>4>;>38G5A:>9 >A=>2>9 2A5E ?@8:;04=KE =0C:, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388, O2;O5BAO D8;>A>D8O. -B> >1AB>OB5;LAB2>,  ?>4G5@:8205B .."C30@8=>2,  2KB5:05B 87 ?>;>65=8O D8;>A>D88 A@548 4@C38E =0C:, 0 8<5==>: D8;>A>D8O O2;O5BAO 8B>3><, >1>1I5=85< 2A53> ?@54H5AB2CNI53> @0728B8O =0C:8 8 ?@0:B8:8. -B> >1AB>OB5;LAB2> 45;05B D8;>A>D8N B5>@5B8G5A:>9 >A=>2>9, 8459=K< DC=40<5=B>< 2A5E A>F80;L=KE =0C:*. $8;>A>D8O ?><>305B @5H0BL @O4 206=59H8E ?@>1;5<, A@548 :>B>@KE ?@5645 2A53> AB>8B =0720BL 2>?@>AK > ?@8@>45, C@>2=OE ?A8E8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O 8 > :>=F5?F88 G5;>25:0 8 ;8G=>AB8. ____________________________________________________________________________ *"C30@8=>2 .. 0:>=K >1J5:B82=>3> <8@0, 8E ?>7=0=85 8 ?@8<5=5=85. .,1954, A. 98 .@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O @0728205BAO =0 ABK:5 42CE =0C:  ?A8E>;>388 8 N@8A?@C45=F88, :>B>@K5, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, =5?>A@54AB25==> A2O70=K A G5;>25:>< :0: ;8G=>ABLN 8 G;5=>< >1I5AB20. 5B>4>;>38G5A:0O >A>15==>ABL N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> F5=B@ BO65AB8 2 ?>7=0=88 ?5@5=>A8BAO =0 ;8G=>ABL :0: AC1J5:B 45OB5;L=>AB8. "0:8< >1@07><, 5A;8 ?@02> 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L 2K45;O5B 2 G5;>25:5 ?@02>=0@CH8B5;O, B> N@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O 8AA;54C5B G5;>25:0 2 ?@02>=0@CH8B5;5, A2845B5;5, ?>B5@?52H5< 8 B.4. A8E8G5A:>5 A>AB>O=85 B0: 65, :0: 8 CAB>9G82K5 >A>15==>AB8 E0@0:B5@0 8 ;8G=>AB8 ?>B5@?52H53>, ?@02>=0@CH8B5;O, A2845B5;O, @0728205BAO 8 ?@>B5:05B =5 8=0G5, :0: ?>4G8=OOAL >1I5?A8E>;>38G5A:8< 8 ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:8< 70:>=0<. !?5F8D8:0 ?@54<5B0 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 70:;NG05BAO 2 A2>5>1@0788 2845=8O MB8E A>AB>O=89, 2 8AA;54>20=88 8E ?@02>2>3> 7=0G5=8O 2 ?@>F5AA5 CAB0=>2;5=8O 8AB8=K, 2 ?>8A:0E =0CG=> >1>A=>20==KE <5B>4>2 A=865=8O 2>7<>6=>AB8 =0@CH5=88 ?@02>2KE =>@< ?CB5< ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 :>@@5:F88 MB8E A>AB>O=89, @02=> :0: 8 A2>9AB2 ;8G=>AB8 ?@02>=0@CH8B5;59. K40NI89AO A>25BA:89 ?A8E>;>3 ..=0=L52 ?8A0;, GB> 2A52>7@0AB0NI55 <=>3>>1@0785 0A?5:B>2 G5;>25:>7=0=8O  A?5F8D8G5A:>5 O2;5=85 A>2@5<5==>AB8, A2O70==>5 A ?@>3@5AA>< =0CG=>3> ?>7=0=8O 8 53> ?@8;>65=85< : @07;8G=K< >1;0ABO< >1I5AB25==>9 ?@0:B8:8, GB> ?@>1;5<0 G5;>25:0 AB0=>28BAO >1I59 4;O 2A59 =0C:8 2 F5;><, GB> 4;O =0CG=>3> 87CG5=8O G5;>25:0 E0@0:B5@=K 2A52>7@0AB0NI85 48DD5@5=F80F8O, A?5F80;870F8O >B45;L=KE 48AF8?;8=, B5=45=F8O : >1J548=5=8N @07;8G=KE =0C:, 0A?5:B>2 8 <5B>4>2 8AA;54>20=8O 2 :><?;5:A=KE A8AB5<0E, : ?>AB@>5=8N A8=B5B8G5A:8E E0@0:B5@8AB8: G5;>25G5A:>3> @0728B8O*. _____________________________________________________________________________ * =0=L52 ..  ?@>1;5<0E A>2@5<5==>3> G5;>25:>7=0=8O. ., 1977, A. 5-6. A;8 2 A0<>< >1I5< 2845 >E0@0:B5@87>20BL A>AB>O=85 A>2@5<5==>3> =0CG=>3> 7=0=8O 8 D>@<8@CNI85AO =0 MB>9 >A=>25 <5B>4>;>38G5A:85 ?>B@51=>AB8, B>, 2848<>, =04> ?@5645 2A53> :>=AB0B8@>20BL, GB> =0CG=>5 7=0=85 AB0;> 1>;55 3;C1>:8< 8 A;>6=K<, <=>3>C@>2=52K< 8 <=>3><5@=K<. <5==> MB8< A2>9AB20< 8 2<5AB5 A B5< ?>B@51=>ABO< @0728B8O A>2@5<5==>3> =0CG=>3> 7=0=8O 8 A>>B25BAB2CNB >A=>2=K5 =0?@02;5=8O A8AB5<=>3> ?>4E>40. .@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O <>65B CA?5H=> @072820BLAO 8 @5H0BL :><?;5:A AB>OI8E ?5@54 =59 7040G B>;L:> 1;03>40@O A8AB5<=><C ?>4E>4C. ;O N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 ?@>4C:B82=> ?@8<5=5=85 >4=>3> 87 ?@8=F8?>2 A8AB5<=>3> 0=0;870  85@0@E88 A8AB5<, ACBL :>B>@>9 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> ;N10O A8AB5<0 @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: G0ABL 4@C3>9, 1>;55 H8@>:>9 A8AB5<K, 0 55 M;5<5=BK  :0: A0<>AB>OB5;L=K5 A8AB5<K. -B>B ?@8=F8? ?>72>;O5B, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 0:F5=B8@>20BL 2=8<0=85 =0 <=>3>C@>2=52>9 >@30=870F88 87CG05<>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, 0 A 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, ?@54AB02;O5B 2>7<>6=>ABL A>A@54>B>G8BL 8AA;54>20=85 =0 >?@545;5==>< :0G5AB25==> A2>5>1@07=>< O2;5=88*. _____________________________________________________________________________ * !<.: 0A8;852 .. .@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O. .,1991, A. 30. 4=8< 87 <5B>4>;>38G5A:8E ?@8=F8?>2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 O2;O5BAO ;8G=>AB=K9 ?>4E>4. .@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O 2A5340 8<55B >1J5:B>< 8AA;54>20=8O ;8G=>ABL, ?>A:>;L:C 8<5==> : =59 04@5A>20=0 A8AB5<0 ?@02>2KE =>@<. -B> ?>72>;O5B ?>AB@>8BL AB@C:BC@C ;8G=>AB8 8 2K45;8BL B0:85 55 M;5<5=BK, :>B>@K5 O2;ONBAO 7=0G8<K<8 2 :@8<8=>35==KE A8BC0F8OE, 2 @07;8G=KE AB>@>=0E ?@02>>E@0=8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?@8 @07@01>B:5 AB@0B5388 @5A>F80;870F88 ?@02>=0@CH8B5;59 8 B.4. 4=0 87 206=KE 7040G N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388  2K45;5=85 2=CB@5==8E ;8G=>AB=KE ?@54?>AK;>:, :>B>@K5 2> 2708<>459AB288 A >?@545;5==K<8 2=5H=8<8 D0:B>@0<8 <>3CB A>740BL 4;O 40==>9 ;8G=>AB8 :@8<8=>35==CN A8BC0F8N, B. 5. 2K45;5=85 :@8<8=>35==KE ;8G=>AB=KE :0G5AB2 8 ?@54?>AK;>:.  MB>9 A2O78 >A>1CN F5==>ABL ?@8>1@5B05B @0728B85 254CI59 2 >B5G5AB25==>9 =0C:5 >1I5?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 B5>@88  B5>@88 45OB5;L=>AB8. N10O 45OB5;L=>ABL 2:;NG05B F5;L, CA;>28O, 2 :>B>@KE >=0 40=0, A?>A>1K 8 A@54AB20 55 4>AB865=8O, <>B82, @048 :>B>@>3> G5;>25: AB@5<8BAO : 4>AB865=8N >?@545;5==>9 F5;8 8 :>B>@K9 A0< 2KABC?05B 2 :0G5AB25 >B40;5==>9 F5;8, 8, =0:>=5F, @57C;LB0B 45OB5;L=>AB8. ..;0B>=>2 405B A;54CNI55 >?@545;5=85 45OB5;L=>AB8: '5;>25G5A:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL 8;8, GB> O2;O5BAO A8=>=8<><, A>7=0B5;L=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL  MB> B0:0O D>@<0 2708<>A2O78 A> A@54>9, 2 :>B>@>9 G5;>25: >ACI5AB2;O5B A>7=0B5;L=> ?>AB02;5==CN F5;L... !B@C:BC@0 ;N1>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 <>65B 1KBL C;>65=0 2 B0:CN >1ICN AE5<C: F5;L  <>B82  A?>A>1=>AB8  @57C;LB0B*. _____________________________________________________________________________ * ;aBo=o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GB> 65? >AB0B>G=> 1C45B ?>2B>@8BL >48= ;8HL 72C:  8 C A>10:8 2>A?@>872545BAO B0 65 @50:F8O: B5 65 42865=8O @B0 8 B> 65 8AB5G5=85 A;N=K. 10 MB8 D0:B0 >48=0:>2> B>G=K 8 ?>AB>O==K.  >10 >=8 4>;6=K 1KBL >1>7=0G5=K >4=8< 8 B5< 65 D878>;>38G5A:8< B5@<8=>< @5D;5:A... ...>AB>O==CN A2O7L 2=5H=53> 035=B0 A >B25B=>9 =0 =53> 45OB5;L=>ABLN >@30=87<0 70:>==> =0720BL 157CA;>2=K< @5D;5:A><, 0 2@5<5==CN  CA;>2=K< @5D;5:A><... @5<5==0O =5@2=0O A2O7L 5ABL C=825@A0;L=59H55 D878>;>38G5A:>5 O2;5=85 2 682>B=>< <8@5 8 2 =0A A0<8E.  2<5AB5 A B5< >=> 65 8 ?A8E8G5A:>5  B>, GB> ?A8E>;>38 =07K20NB 0AA>F80F859, 1C45B ;8 MB> >1@07>20=85 A>548=5=89 87 2A52>7<>6=KE 459AB289, 2?5G0B;5=89, 8;8 87 1C:2, A;>2 8 <KA;59*. _____________________________________________________________________________ * 02;>2 .. >;=. A>1@. A>G. ". 3, :=. 2, A. 322 325. 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B B>3>, :0:>20 AB5?5=L C7=020=8O A>>1I05<KE A2545=89, 1C45B 7028A5BL 8 B>G=>ABL, ?@028;L=>ABL ?>:070=89*. 0: ?@028;>, C7=020=85 1K205B @07;8G=>9 AB5?5=8  >B A;01>3> GC2AB20 7=0:><AB20 A 2>A?@>872>48<K< <0B5@80;>< 4> ?>;=>9 C25@5==>AB8 2 53> B>G=>AB8. !;54C5B ?>MB><C ?><=8BL, GB> A0<>>F5=:0 A2845B5;5<, ?>B5@?52H8<, ?>4>7@5205<K< 8 >128=O5<K< ?>:070=89 =5 2A5340 <>65B A>>B25BAB2>20BL 459AB28B5;L=>AB8.  N@848G5A:>9 ?@0:B8:5 8725AB=K A;CG08, :>340 ?>:070=8O, B>G=>ABL :>B>@KE :070;0AL =5A><=5==>9, 2?>A;54AB288 >:07K20;8AL >H81>G=K<8. 5>1E>48<> CG8BK20BL, GB> C7=020=85 8=>340 A>7405B 8;;N78N 4>AB>25@=>3> 7=0=8O, 2K7K205B ;>6=CN C25@5==>ABL 2 ?@>G=>< 70?><8=0=88 <0B5@80;0, 2=5H=>AB8 G5;>25:0, ?@82>4O : 4>1@>A>25AB=><C 701;C645=8N. _____________________________________________________________________________ * >@=5520 .., @4K=A:89 !.!., >75=1;8B !./. "0:B8:0 4>?@>A0 =0 ?@5420@8B5;L=>< A;54AB288. ., 1958,A. 33. @8 ?@>2545=88 4>?@>A0 A;54>20B5;N 8 AC4L5 =C6=> C<5BL @0718@0BLAO 2 8=48284C0;L=KE @07;8G8OE ?0<OB8 A2845B5;O, ?>B5@?52H53>, ?>4>7@5205<>3>, >128=O5<>3>. =48284C0;L=>ABL ?0<OB8 ;8G=>AB8 ?@>O2;O5BAO, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 2 >A>15==>ABOE 55 ?@>F5AA0, B> 5ABL 2 B><, :0: >ACI5AB2;ONBAO 70?><8=0=85, A>E@0=5=85 8 2>A?@>872545=85, 0 A 4@C3>9  2 >A>15==>ABOE A>45@60=8O ?0<OB8, B> 5ABL 2 B><, GB> 70?><8=05BAO. #:070==K5 425 AB>@>=K ?0<OB8, ?>-@07=><C A>G5B0OAL, 45;0NB ?0<OBL :064>3> G5;>25:0 8=48284C0;L=>9 2 A<KA;5 55 ?@>4C:B82=>AB8.  ?@>F5AA0E ?0<OB8 8=48284C0;L=K5 @07;8G8O 2K@060NBAO 2 A:>@>AB8, >1J5<5, B>G=>AB8, ?@>G=>AB8 70?><8=0=8O 8 3>B>2=>AB8 : 2>A?@>872545=8N, :>B>@K5 >?@545;ONBAO 18>;>38G5A:8<8 >A>15==>ABO<8, CA;>28O<8 687=8, 2>A?8B0=8O 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. >B>2=>ABL ?0<OB8 4>?@0H8205<>3> : 2>A?@>872545=8N B0:65 1C45B 7028A5BL >B 7=0=89 8 687=5==>3> >?KB0.  7028A8<>AB8 >B F5;8 45OB5;L=>AB8 70?><8=0=85 <>65B =>A8BL =5?@>872>;L=K9 8;8 ?@>872>;L=K9 E0@0:B5@. @8 ?@>872>;L=>< 70?><8=0=88 ?@>8AE>48B >A<KA;820=85 >1@070, >B1>@ 8 >1>1I5=85 3;02=>3> 2 =5<, 0 5A;8 MB> =5>1E>48<>, 8=D>@<0F8O 70CG8205BAO. @8 =5?@>872>;L=>< 65 70?><8=0=88 70:@5?;5=85 2?5G0B;5=8O ?@>8AE>48B :0: 1K A0<> A>1>9, 157 CA8;8O A> AB>@>=K 2>A?@8=8<0NI53>. .@848G5A:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL ?>:07K205B, GB> =5?@>872>;L=>5, :0: 8 ?@>872>;L=>5, 70?><8=0=85 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 >15A?5G8205B ?@028;L=>5 2>A?@>872545=85 =C6=>9 8=D>@<0F88 =0 4>?@>A5. =48284C0;L=K5 @07;8G8O ?0<OB8 <>3CB ?@>O2;OBLAO 8 2 B><, GB> >48= G5;>25: E>@>H> 70?><8=05B 40BK, F8D@K, 4@C3>9  8<5=0 ;N459, B@5B89  F25B0 :@0A>: 8 B. 4. !;54C5B, >4=0:>, >B<5B8BL, GB> ACI5AB2C5B ;N48, ?0<OBL :>B>@KE 2A5340 @01>B05B 157>B:07=>, 157 A@K2>2, ?@><0E>2 8 8A:065=89,  B0:8E A;CG0OE, 4;O B>3> GB>1K 4>18BLAO <0:A8<0;L=>9 ?>;=>BK 2>A?@>872545=8O, A;54>20B5;N 206=> A45;0BL ?@028;L=K9 2K1>@ 2@5<5=8 4>?@>A0 A2845B5;O, ?>B5@?52H53>, ?>4>7@5205<>3> 8 >128=O5<>3>. @0:B8:0 ?>:07K205B, GB> G5< 1;865 ?> 2@5<5=8 4>?@>A A2845B5;O, ?>B5@?52H53>, ?>4>7@5205<>3> 8 >128=O5<>3> : B><C D0:BC, :>B>@K9 >= >A25I05B, B5< 1>;LH5 25@>OB=>ABL ?>;=>BK 8 4>AB>25@=>AB8 2 ?>:070=8OE. 0 >A=>20=88 8AA;54>20=89 ?A8E>;>3>2 <>6=> A45;0BL 2K2>4, GB> C:@5?;5=85 ?0<OB8 A2O70=> A 2>A?8B0=85< 2>;8, 2=8<0=8O, =01;N40B5;L=>AB8, ?@8<5=5=8O >A<KA;5==KE ?@85<>2 70CG820=8O. >6=> @5:><5=4>20BL A;54CNI85 ?@85<K @0728B8O ?0<OB8: 1. >2B>@5=85 70CG5==>3>. 725AB=>, GB> . 0@:A ?>AB>O==> 70=8<0;AO ?>2B>@5=85< 4065 B>3>, GB> 8< 1K;> E>@>H> CA2>5=>. # =53> 1K;0 ?@82KG:0 ?>A;5 ?@>4>;68B5;L=KE ?5@5@K2>2 ?5@5G8BK20BL A2>8 70?8A=K5 B5B@048 8 >B<5G5==K5 2 :=830E <5AB0 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 70:@5?8BL 8E 2 A2>59 ?0<OB8. = 87>I@O; A2>N ?0<OBL A N=KE ;5B, 2KCG820O ?> A>25BC 535;O =087CABL AB0BL8 =0 =57=0:><>< O7K:5*. 01>B=8: N@848G5A:>9 ?@>D5AA88 4>;65= ?5@8>48G5A:8 >A2560BL 2 ?0<OB8 2A5, GB> 1K;> 8< CA2>5=> 2 ?@>F5AA5 45OB5;L=>AB8 (?5@5G8BK20BL 8 ?5@5;8ABK20BL 8AB>G=8:8, ?@>4C<K20BL ?>;CG5==CN 8=D>@<0F8N 8 B. 4.). _____________________________________________________________________________ * &8B. ?> :=.: 5:5;8A . "2>8 2>7<>6=>AB8, G5;>25:. ., 1973, A. 90. 2. &5;5=0?@02;5==K5 C?@06=5=8O. A5 284K ?0<OB8 <>6=> @0728BL ?CB5< A?5F80;L=KE C?@06=5=89: 0) 70CG820=85 F8D@>2>3> <0B5@80;0; 1) 70CG820=85 ?@>7K 8 AB8E>2; 2) 70?><8=0=85 >1@07>2.  ?>A;54=5< A;CG05 <>6=> @5:><5=4>20BL <5B>4 8725AB=>3> EC4>6=8:0 9207>2A:>3>.  ?@8<5@C, =0 ?@>3C;:5 2K 70;N1>20;8AL ?>@0782H8< 20A ?597065<. 'B>1K 70?5G0B;5BL 53> 2 ?0<OB8, =04> 273;O=CBL =0 ?59706 2=8<0B5;L=> =5A:>;L:> @07 ?>4@O4, 70:@K20O 8 >B:@K20O 3;070 8 A@02=820O ?@8 MB>< B>, GB> 2K 2848B5, A B5<, GB> 2K ?@54AB02;O5B5, :>340 20H8 3;070 70:@KBK. >AB5?5==> 7@8B5;L=>5 2?5G0B;5=85 1C45B AB0=>28BLAO 2A5 ?>;=55 8 O@G5. A;8 20< ?>=04>18BAO 2 AG8B0==K5 A5:C=4K >F5=8BL >1AB0=>2:C 8;8 70?><=8BL 1>;LH>9 >1J5< 7@8B5;L=>9 8=D>@<0F88, =02K:8 70?><8=0=8O, ?@8>1@5B5==K5 A ?><>ILN MB>3> <5B>40, 20< >G5=L ?@83>4OBAO. 3. "@5=8@>2:0 =01;N40B5;L=>AB8. 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KH;5=85 :0: ?A8E8G5A:89 ?@>F5AA 2A5340 =0?@02;5=> =0 2A:@KB85 3;C18==KE A2O759, :>@5=OI8EAO 2 >1J5:B82=>9 @50;L=>AB8. KH;5=85< =07K205BAO ?@>F5AA >B@065=8O 2 A>7=0=88 G5;>25:0 ACI=>AB8, 70:>=><5@=KE A2O759 8 >B=>H5=89 <564C 25I0<8 8 O2;5=8O<8 ?@8@>4K 8 >1I5AB20. KH;5=85 2>7=8:05B =0 >A=>25 ?@0:B8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 87 GC2AB25==>3> ?>7=0=8O 8 40;5:> 2KE>48B 70 53> ?@545;K. => 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL N@8ABC ?>7=0BL B0:85 AB>@>=K >1J5:B82=>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, :>B>@K5 A:@KBK >B 53> 3;07. KH;5=85 ?@>B5:05B =0 O7K:>2>9 >A=>25. !;>20 A>740NB =5>1E>48<CN <0B5@80;L=CN >1>;>G:C <KA;8. '5< ;CGH5 ?@>4C<0=0 :0:0O-;81> <KA;L, B5< OA=55 >=0 2K@0605BAO 2 A;>20E, 8, =0>1>@>B, G5< G5BG5 A;>25A=0O D>@<C;8@>2:0, B5< 3;C165 <KA;L. KH;5=85,  ?8A0; .. 02;>2,  =8G53> 4@C3>3> =5 ?@54AB02;O5B, :0: 0AA>F80F88, A?5@20 M;5<5=B0@=K5, AB>OI85 2 A2O78 A 2=5H=8<8 ?@54<5B0<8, 0 ?>B>< F5?8 0AA>F80F89. =0G8B, :0640O <0;5=L:0O ?5@20O 0AA>F80F8O  MB> 5ABL <><5=B @>645=8O <KA;8*. KA;L G5;>25:0 D>@<C;8@C5BAO 2 >1@070E, ?>=OB8OE 8 AC645=8OE. !C645=8O 1K20NB >1I8<8, G0AB=K<8 8 548=8G=K<8. =8 >1@07CNBAO 42C<O >A=>2=K<8 A?>A>10<8: 1) =5?>A@54AB25==>, :>340 2 =8E 2K@060NB B>, GB> 2>A?@8=8<05BAO; 2) >?>A@54>20==>  ?CB5< C<>70:;NG5=89 8;8 @0AAC645=89**. _____________________________________________________________________________ *02;>2 .. >;=. A>1@. A>G. 74. 2, B. 3. .,1951, A. 232. **!<.: 1I0O ?A8E>;>38O (?>4 @54. 5B@>2A:>3> ..). ., 1986, A. 327. @>F5AA <KH;5=8O  MB> ?@5645 2A53> 0=0;87, A8=B57 8 >1>1I5=85. =0;87  MB> 2K45;5=85 2 >1J5:B5 B5E 8;8 8=KE 53> AB>@>=, M;5<5=B>2, A2>9AB2, A2O759, >B=>H5=89 8 B.4. 0?@8<5@, 0=0;878@CO ?>2545=85 >128=O5<>3> ?> C3>;>2=><C 45;C, A;54>20B5;L <KA;5==> 45;8B MB> ?>2545=85 ?> :0:8<-B> :@8B5@8O< =0 >B45;L=K5 G0AB8. 1J548=5=85 2K45;5==KE 0=0;87>< :><?>=5=B>2 F5;>3> 5ABL A8=B57.  ?@>F5AA5 A8=B570 ?@>8AE>48B A>548=5=85, A>>B=5A5=85 B5E M;5<5=B>2, =0 :>B>@K5 1K; @0AG;5=5= ?>7=0205<K9 >1J5:B. =0;87 8 A8=B57 2A5340 2708<>A2O70=K. 5@07@K2=>5 548=AB2> <564C =8<8 >BG5B;82> 2KABC?05B C65 2 ?>7=020B5;L=>< ?@>F5AA5. !@02=5=85 A>AB>8B 2 A>?>AB02;5=88 <564C A>1>9 ?@54<5B>2, O2;5=89, 8E A2>9AB2 8 >B=>H5=89. "0:, GB>1K @5H8BL 2>?@>A > B><, O2;O5BAO 8;8 =5 O2;O5BAO :>=:@5B=>5 ;8F> ?>4>7@5205<K< ?> :>=:@5B=><C C3>;>2=><C 45;C, =C6=> @0AG;5=8BL ?>2545=85 40==>3> 8=482840 =0 >B45;L=K5 ?@87=0:8  459AB28O 8 A;8G8BL 8E ?> 2>7<>6=>AB8 A MB0;>==K<8 ?@87=0:0<8 MB>3> ?@5ABC?;5=8O. KO2;5==>5 A>2?045=85 8;8 =5A>2?045=85 ?@87=0:>2 A;C68B >A=>2>9 4;O ?@8=OB8O @5H5=8O.  E>45 >1>1I5=8O 2 A@02=8205<KE ?@54<5B0E  2 @57C;LB0B5 8E 0=0;870  2K45;O5BAO =5GB> >1I55. -B8 >1I85 4;O @07;8G=KE >1J5:B>2 A2>9AB20 1K20NB 42CE 284>2: 1) >1I85 :0: AE>4=K5 ?@87=0:8 8 2) >1I85 :0: ACI5AB25==K5 ?@87=0:8. !;54>20B5;L=>, 2AO:>5 ACI5AB25==>5 A2>9AB2> O2;O5BAO <564C B5< 8 >1I8< 4;O 40==>9 3@C??K >4=>@>4=KE ?@54<5B>2, => =5 =0>1>@>B: =5 2AO:>5 >1I55 (AE>4=>5) A2>9AB2> O2;O5BAO ACI5AB25==K< 4;O 40==>9 3@C??K >1J5:B>2. 1I85 ACI5AB25==K5 ?@87=0:8 2K45;ONBAO 2 E>45 8 2 @57C;LB0B5 C3;C1;5==>3> 0=0;870 8 A8=B570. B<5B8<, GB> 70:>=><5@=>AB8 0=0;870, A8=B570 8 >1>1I5=8O ACBL >A=>2=K5 2=CB@5==85 A?5F8D8G5A:85 70:>=><5@=>AB8 <KH;5=8O.  A>2@5<5==>9 ?A8E>;>388 2K45;ONB 2 >A=>2=>< B@8 2840 <KH;5=8O: 1)=03;O4=>-459AB25==>5; 2)=03;O4=>->1@07=>5; 3)>B2;5G5==>5 (B5>@5B8G5A:>5) <KH;5=85*. _____________________________________________________________________________ * !<. ?>4@>1=55.: 0728B85 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E DC=:F89 27@>A;KE ;N459. ., 1972, A- 189; 1I0O ?A8E>;>38O. >4 @54. 0:045<8:0 5B@>2A:>3> .. ., 1986, A. 342 - 343. 03;O4=>-459AB25==>5 (?@54<5B=>5) <KH;5=85 ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 ?@0:B8G5A:>9 687=8 G5;>25:0. => A>?CBAB2C5B 5<C =0 2A5E ABC?5=OE @0728B8O: G5;>25: :0: 1K D878G5A:8 @C:0<8 0=0;878@C5B 8 A8=B578@C5B >1J5:BK A2>59 45OB5;L=>AB8, A2>5 ?>2545=85. 1@0I5=85 : A>15A54=8:C, A;54>20=85 ?@8<5@C, ?>:07 459AB289 8;8 @0AA:07 > =8E 2A5340 A2O70=K A =03;O4=>-459AB25==K< <KH;5=85<. 0728B85 B0:>3> 2840 <KH;5=8O >G5=L 206=> 4;O 8A?>;=5=8O 42830B5;L=>9 8;8 >?5@0B>@A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 N@8AB0-?@0:B8:0. 03;O4=>->1@07=>5 <KH;5=85 2KABC?05B 2 A8BC0F8OE, :>340 G5;>25: =0G8=05B <KA;8BL =03;O4=K<8 >1@070<8, 2>7=8:H8<8 @0=LH5. 0?@8<5@, ?@8 ?@>2545=88 A;54AB25==KE 459AB289, >14C<K20O <0@H@CB 42865=8O : F5;8 ?> 3>@>4C, A;54>20B5;L 2 =03;O4=KE >1@070E ?@54AB02;O5B A515 2A5 2>7<>6=K5 ?CB8 42865=8O. = 0=0;878@C5B :064K9 87 =8E 8, A@02=820O ?@>BO65==>ABL, =0?@O65==>ABL 42865=8O B@0=A?>@B0 8 ?5H5E>4>2 2 >?@545;5==K5 G0AK, <KA;5==> @5H05B ?@>1;5<=CN 7040GC. '5< 1>;LH5 8 ?>4@>1=55 A2545=8O > 40==>< 3>@>45, <8:@>@09>=5, C;8F5, 4><5, :20@B8@5, 345 A>25@H5=> ?@5ABC?;5=85, B5< O@G5 ?5@54 A;54>20B5;5< 1C4CB ?@>O2;OBLAO >1@07K A8BC0F89, B5< 1>;55 ?@028;L=>5 >= A<>65B ?@8=OBL @5H5=85. 1@07=>5 <KH;5=85 A?>A>1AB2C5B ?@>3=>78@>20=8N ?>2545=8O ?>4>7@5205<KE ?> C3>;>2=><C 45;C ;8F, ?><>305B >1CG5=8N A ?><>ILN =03;O4=KE ?>A>189, >1;53G05B A>AB02;5=85 0=0;8B8G5A:8E 4>:C<5=B>2, >17>@>2, =0CG=KE 4>:;04>2. 0728B>5 >1@07=>5 <KH;5=85 A?>A>1AB2C5B @50;870F88 7040G :><<C=8:0B82=>9, C?@02;5=G5A:>9 8 ?>7=020B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 N@8AB0-?@0:B8:0. B2;5G5==>5 (B5>@5B8G5A:>5) <KH;5=85 2KABC?05B =081>;55 O@:> B0<, 345 4;O A>25@H5=8O <KA;5==KE >?5@0F89 B@51C5BAO 8A?>;L7>20BL 01AB@0:B=K5 ?>=OB8O, B5>@5B8G5A:85 7=0=8O. "0:>5 <KH;5=85 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 3;02=K< >1@07>< =0 >A=>25 ;>38G5A:8E @0AAC645=89. -B> <KH;5=85 ?><>305B N@8ABC COA=8BL A;>6=K5 :0B53>@88 >1I5AB25==KE =0C: 8 >?5@8@>20BL 8<8 2 ?@>F5AA5 >1I5=8O.  ?@0:B8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 =8 >48= G5;>25:, 5AB5AB25==>, =5 ?>;L7C5BAO :0:8<-B> 284>< <KH;5=8O 2 G8AB>9 D>@<5, @01>B=8: N@848G5A:>3> B@C40 2 MB>< =5 O2;O5BAO 8A:;NG5=85<. @0:B8G5A:>5 <KH;5=85 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 8 4>AB8305B >?@545;5==>3> @57C;LB0B0 ?CB5< >1I8E <KA;8B5;L=KE >?5@0F89 (0=0;870, A8=B570, >1>1I5=8O, A@02=5=8O, 01AB@038@>20=8O 8 :>=:@5B870F88) 5I5 8 :;0AA8D8:0F88,A8AB5<0B870F88, AB@C:BC@8@>20=8O*. @8 2A5 MB>< ?@0:B8G5A:>5 <KH;5=85 8<55B B2>@G5A:89 E0@0:B5@. _____________________________________________________________________________ !<. ?>4@>1=55: >5==0O ?A8E>;>38O. ., 1972, A. 131 132; A8E>;>38O. >4 @54. C48:0 .. ., 1974, A. 171 175. @0B:> >AB0=>28<AO =0 :0G5AB20E B2>@G5A:>3> <KH;5=8O. @>1;5<=K9 E0@0:B5@ ?>4E>40 : 87CG05<K< O2;5=8O<  MB> :0G5AB2> B2>@G5A:>3> <KH;5=8O ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 C<5=88 =09B8 2>?@>AK, ?>4;560I85 2KOA=5=8N, 8AA;54>20=8N, =09B8 ?@>1;5<=CN A8BC0F8N B0<, 345 <=>38< :065BAO, GB> 55 =5B, GB> 2A5 2 @0AA;54C5<>< 45;5 >G5=L ?@>AB>. @>1;5<=K9 E0@0:B5@ <KH;5=8O A;54>20B5;L, =0?@8<5@, 8A?>;L7C5B =0 ABK:5 @5:>=AB@C:B82=>9 8 ?>8A:>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. 8=0<8G=>ABL <KH;5=8O  A?>A>1=>ABL 1KAB@>, B2>@G5A:8 >@85=B8@>20BLAO 2 @0AA;54C5<>< 45;5, 2K45;8BL, =0 GB> 8<5==> =C6=> >1@0B8BL 1>;LH5 2=8<0=8O 8 >B G53> A;54C5B >B2;5GLAO, 1KAB@>B0 >E20BK20=8O @0AA;54C5<>9 A8BC0F88 8 >?@545;5=85 >A=>20=89, :>B>@K<8 =C6=> @C:>2>4AB2>20BLAO 2 ?>A;54CNI5< @0728B88 25@A88. -B> :0G5AB2> <KH;5=8O ?><>305B 8 2 B0:>< A;54AB25==>< 459AB288, :0: 4>?@>A. ?5@0B82=>ABL <KH;5=8O  2:;NG5=85 C<AB25==KE >?5@0F89 (=01;N40B5;L=>AB8, 2>>1@065=8O), :>B>@K5 2 8AA;54>20=88 25I5AB25==KE 4>:070B5;LAB2 8 @07;8G=KE N@848G5A:8E D0:B>2 =081>;55 7=0G8<K; >?5@0B82=>ABL <KH;5=8O >B=>A8BAO 8 : ?>8A:>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 A;54>20B5;O, >15A?5G820O @07C<=>5 A>G5B0=85 =01;N40B5;L=>AB8, 2>>1@065=8O 8 8=BC8F88. (8@>B0 <KH;5=8O  MB> ?@>4C:B82=>ABL B2>@G5A:>9 @01>BK ?@8 @5H5=88 <=>38E ?@>1;5<. 0==>5 :0G5AB2> >A>15==> =5>1E>48<> A;54>20B5;O< 8 AC4LO, @0AA;54CNI8< 8;8 @0AA<0B@820NI8< E>7O9AB25==K5 ?@5ABC?;5=8O, 345 =C6=K 1>;LH0O @07=>AB>@>==>ABL, @0F8>=0;L=>5 ?@8<5=5=85 7=0=89, C<5=89 8 >?KB0 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?>7=020B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. ;C18=0 <KH;5=8O ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 2KO2;5=88 ACI5AB25==KE A2>9AB2, A2O759 8 >B=>H5=89 <564C ?@54<5B0<8 8 O2;5=8O<8. >=:@5B=K< 2K@065=85< 3;C18=K <KH;5=8O O2;O5BAO A>G5B0=85 0=0;870 8 A8=B570. ;C18=0 <KH;5=8O B5A=> A2O70=0 A 8718@0B5;L=>ABLN. '5< C65 ?@>1;5<0, O2;5=85, B5< 1>;LH5 A2>9AB2, 45B0;59 <>6=> @0AA<>B@5BL ?@8 55 87CG5=88. 1>A=>20==>ABL 2 2K42865=88 25@A89 ?> @0AA;54C5<><C 45;C  2 8E @5H5=88, A<5;>ABL, >@838=0;L=>ABL 8 >1>A=>20==>ABL >B;8G=K >B 48A:C@A82=>3> <KH;5=8O B5<, GB> MB8 :0G5AB20 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?>7=0=8O ?@54H5AB2CNB ;>38:5, >A>15==> =0 ?5@2KE MB0?0E @0AA;54>20=8O. "0:, A;54>20B5;L, >1;040O MB8<8 :0G5AB20<8, 3>@074> A:>@55 A>AB028B 25@>OB=CN 25@A8N ?@8 ?5@51>@5 20@80=B>2, G5< 4@C3>9, :>B>@K9 =5 >1;0405B MB8<8 :0G5AB20<8. >38G=>ABL <KH;5=8O  MB> @0728B85 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 <KA;8B5;L=>3> ?@>F5AA0, AB@>3>ABL 8 ?@>=8F0B5;L=>ABL 4>:070B5;LAB20, C<5=85 A45;0BL >1>1I0NI85 2K2>4K 87 >1H8@=KE 8 @07=>>1@07=KE N@848G5A:8E D0:B>2. @8B8G=>ABL 8 =5?@5427OB>ABL (>1J5:B82=>ABL) <KH;5=8O  AB5@65=L <KA;8B5;L=>3> ?@>F5AA0 @01>B=8:0 N@848G5A:>3> B@C40, 157 :>B>@>3> >= =5 <>65B CAB0=>28BL 8AB8=C. !?5F8D8G5A:>9 >A>15==>ABLN B2>@G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2 @5H5=8O 7040G O2;O5BAO ?@8ACBAB285 2 =8E 8=BC8F88. =BC8F8N >1KG=> @0AA<0B@820NB :0: A?5F8D8G5A:89 <5B>4 ?>7=0=8O, ?@8 :>B>@>< 2>7=8:05B 8;;N78O ?@O<>3> CA<>B@5=8O 8A:><>3> 2K2>40. ! ?><>ILN 8=BC8F88 8AB8=0 >B:@K205BAO @07C<C G5;>25:0 ?CB5< ?@O<>3> CA<>B@5=8O 157 8A?>;L7>20=8O ;>38G5A:8E >?@545;5=89 8 4>:070B5;LAB2 :0: ?@><56CB>G=KE 725=L52 ?>7=0=8O. -DD5:B82=>ABL ?@8=OB88 8=BC8B82=KE @5H5=89 7028A8B >B <=>38E D0:B>@>2. 45AL >A>15==> 2065= >?KB AC4L8 8 A;54>20B5;O, 8E 7=0=8O, C<5=8O, =02K:8. >;LHCN @>;L 83@05B B0:65 8E ?A8E8G5A:>5 A>AB>O=85. !>AB>O=85 1>4@>AB8, ?>4J5<0 A:07K205BAO ?>;>68B5;L=> =0 35=5@8@>20=88 8=BC8B82=KE @5H5=89, 8, =0>1>@>B, AB@0E, ?>402;5==>ABL, @0AB5@O==>ABL =872>4OB 8=BC8F8N 4> C@>2=O 15A?@54<5B=>3> 3040=8O. =BC8F8O, :@><5 B>3>, A2O70=0 A 8=48284C0;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 G5;>25:0: >4=8 ;N48 A:;>==K 459AB2>20BL 2> <=>38E A;CG0OE 87 ;>38:8 D0:B>2, 4@C385 >G5=L G0AB> ?>;030NBAO =0 8=BC8F8N. 4=0:> 2> 2A5E A;CG0OE >A=>2>9 8=BC8F88 O2;O5BAO >?KB, 8 55 A8;K 8 A;01>ABL :>@5=OBAO 2 ?@>H;>< >?KB5. %0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:85 A2>9AB20 ;8G=>AB8 8 AB@C:BC@0 55 <>B82>2 7028AOB B0:65 >B AB5?5=8 >1J5:B82=>AB8 55 >B=>H5=89 : 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, >?KB0 ?>7=0=8O <8@0 8 >1I53> @0728B8O 8=B5;;5:B0*. 0 ?@0:B8:5 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 A;54>20B5;L =5 CG8BK205B :0:>3>-B> >4=>3> D0:B0 2> 2A5E 25@A8OE, B0: :0: 2 45;5 8<5NBAO <=>3>G8A;5==K5 ?@87=0:8 O2;5=89, :>B>@KE >= 2 40==K9 <><5=B =5 >A>7=05B. _____________________________________________________________________________ * =0=L52 ..  ?@>1;5<0E A>2@5<5==>3> G5;>25:>7=0=8O. ., 1977, A. 360. !;54C5B >B<5B8BL, >4=0:>, GB> @0F8>=0;L=K5, A>7=0B5;L=> >@30=87>20==K5 459AB28O A;54>20B5;O =0 MB>< MB0?5 83@0NB ACI5AB25==CN @>;L 4;O 8=BC8F88. ! ?><>ILN 8E <>6=> >?@545;8BL 8 >G5@B8BL @09>= ?>8A:0, A:>=F5=B@8@>20BL B2>@G5A:>5 <KH;5=85. :07K205BAO 745AL 8 =5>A>7=0==>5 @5H5=85 ?@>1;5<=>9 A8BC0F88, 8 ?@87=0:8 M;5<5=B>2, 87 :>B>@KE AB@>8BAO 55 @5H5=85. <5==> MB8, ?5@2>=0G0;L=> =5 >A>7=0205<K5 ?@87=0:8 M;5<5=B>2 ?@>1;5<=>9 A8BC0F88 =0?@02;ONB ?@>F5AA ?> ?@028;L=><C ?CB8, 0 =5>6840==>5 4;O A;54>20B5;O =0E>645=85 ?@028;L=>3> ?CB8 O2;O5BAO 2=5H=8< ?@>O2;5=85<, 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 8=BC8F859*. 0 ?@0:B8:5 459AB28B5;L=> =570<5G5==>5 A2>9AB2> 25I8 8;8 O2;5=8O ?@8 ?>4@>1=>< 0=0;875 >:07K205BAO ?>4A:070==K< 87 4@C3>9 A8BC0F88, O2;5=8O, C2845==KE A;54>20B5;5<. '0I5 2A53> A;54>20B5;L =5 >A>7=05B MBC ?>4A:07:C  @5H5=85 7040G8 4;O =53> :065BAO =5>6840==K<. >;LH8=AB2> ?A8E>;>3>2 =5 >B@8F05B, GB> @5H5=85 B2>@G5A:>9 7040G8 8=BC8B82=K< ?CB5< ?@>E>48B 15AA>7=0B5;L=> 8;8 ?>4A>7=0B5;L=>**. _____________________________________________________________________________ * !<.: A8E>;>38O <KH;5=8O. >4 @54. 0BNH:8=0 .. ., 1965. **>=><0@52 /.. A8E8:0 8 8=BC8F8O. ., 1967, A. 240. !;54C5B A>3;0A8BLAO A .. 0A8;L52K<, :>B>@K9 AG8B05B, GB> 2 AD5@5 A>7=0=8O 8=BC8B82=>5 @5H5=85 ?@>O2;O5BAO ?@8 >?@545;5==KE CA;>28OE.  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"0:, @04>AB8 ?@>B82>AB>8B 3>@5, ;N128  =5=028ABL, :>;;5:B8287<C  M3>87< 8 B. ?. <5AB5 A B5< >4=8 8 B5 65 M<>F88 8 GC2AB20 <>3CB ?5@56820BLAO G5;>25:>< A @07;8G=>9 3;C18=>9, 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B 2K7202H8E 8E ?@8G8= 8 >A>15==>AB8 45OB5;L=>AB8, A>25@H05<>9 ;8G=>ABLN. ;O M<>F89 8 GC2AB2 E0@0:B5@=> 8 B>, GB> ;8G=>AB=0O 8 >1I5AB25==0O >F5=:8 8A?KBK205<KE G5;>25:>< ?5@56820=89 <>3CB ?@8 >?@545;5==KE CA;>28OE =5 A>2?040BL. $878>;>38G5A:>9 >A=>2>9 M<>F89 8 GC2AB2 O2;ONBAO A;>6=K5 2708<>459AB28O ?@>F5AA>2, ?@>B5:0NI8E :0: 2 >@30=87<5 2 F5;><, B0: 8 2 <>73C (?>4:>@:5, 2535B0B82=>9 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<5 8 2 :>@5 3>;>2=>3> <>730). @8 MB>< A>>B=>H5=85 45OB5;L=>AB8 :>@K 8 ?>4:>@:8 2 M<>F8OE 8 GC2AB20E @07;8G=>. .. 02;>2 3>2>@8; ?> MB><C ?>2>4C: ".. M<>F8O  MB> 5ABL @01>B0 8=AB8=:B0, 0 GC2AB2>  3>@5GL, ?5G0;L 8 B. 4.  MB> C65 AB0BLO 4@C30O, MB> A2O70=> A 70B@C4=5=85< 45OB5;L=>AB8 1>;LH8E ?>;CH0@89, GC2AB20 A2O70=K A A0<K< 25@E=8< >B45;><, 8 2A5 >=8 ?@82O70=K :> 2B>@>9 A83=0;L=>9 A8AB5<5"*. _____________________________________________________________________________ * 02;>2 .. >;=. A>1@. A>G. ". 3, :=. 2, A. 403. 7<5=5=8O, ?@>8AE>4OI85 2 >@30=87<5 ?@8 B5E 8;8 8=KE M<>F8OE 8 GC2AB20E, ?5@540NBAO 2 :>@C 8 4@C385 >B45;K 3>;>2=>3> <>730, 2;8ONB =0 ?@>B5:0=85 =5@2=KE ?@>F5AA>2, ?>;>682H8E =0G0;> M<>F88 8 GC2AB2C. A>1> 206=CN @>;L 2 C?@02;5=88 M<>F8O<8 8 GC2AB20<8 8 8E 2=5H=8< 2K@065=85< 83@05B 2B>@0O A83=0;L=0O A8AB5<0, B> 5ABL >1@07CNI85AO 2 :>@5 3>;>2=>3> <>730 =5@2=K5 A2O78 ?>4 2;8O=85< A;>20.  40==>< A;CG05 AD5@0 G5;>25G5A:8E ?5@56820=89 7=0G8B5;L=> @0AH8@O5BAO, M<>F88 8 GC2AB20 =0G8=0NB @072820BLAO ?>4 2;8O=85< >1I5AB25==KE CA;>289, ?@8>1@5B0NB A>F80;L=K9 E0@0:B5@. !;>2> ?>72>;O5B G5;>25:C CA20820BL M<>F8>=0;L=K9 >?KB 4@C38E ;N459, A>45@60=85 8 D>@<C 2K@065=8O M<>F89 8 GC2AB2. ! 53> ?><>ILN G5;>25: <>65B >A>7=020BL 8 @53C;8@>20BL A2>8 ?5@56820=8O, ?>4G8=OBL 8E B@51>20=8O< 4>;30, >:07K20BL 2;8O=85 =0 M<>F88 8 GC2AB20 4@C38E ;N459 8 B. 4. -<>F88 8 GC2AB20 >B;8G0NBAO 1>;LH8< @07=>>1@0785<. A5 >=8 ?>4@0745;ONBAO =0 425 3@C??K: 0:B82878@CNI85 45OB5;L=>ABL  AB5=8G5A:85 8 ?>402;ONI85, C3=5B0NI85 687=545OB5;L=>ABL  0AB5=8G5A:85. 4=0:> >4=> 8 B> 65 GC2AB2> 8;8 M<>F8O <>3CB 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B >1AB>OB5;LAB2 0:B82878@>20BL 8;8 ?>402;OBL 45OB5;L=>ABL G5;>25:0. 0?@8<5@, @04>ABL, 2K720==0O ?>>I@5=85< @C:>2>48B5;O, C >4=>3> A>B@C4=8:0 N@848G5A:>3> B@C40 O2;O5BAO AB8<C;>< : 40;L=59H59 4>1@>A>25AB=>9 @01>B5, 0 =0 4@C3>3> 459AB2C5B 45<>18;87CNI5, <5H05B A>A@54>B>G8BLAO =0 @0AA;54>20=88 :>=:@5B=>3> C3>;>2=>3> 45;0. ;8O=85 M<>F89 8 GC2AB2 =0 687=545OB5;L=>ABL G5;>25:0 =5;L7O =5 CG8BK20BL 2 2>A?8B0B5;L=>9 @01>B5 A A>B@C4=8:0<8 ?@02>?@8<5=8B5;L=KE 8 ?@02>>E@0=8B5;L=KE >@30=>2.  ?@>F5AA5 @0728B8O G5;>25:0 =0 ?@0:B8:5 A;>68;8AL A8AB5<K ?>;>68B5;L=KE 8 >B@8F0B5;L=KE M<>F89*. _____________________________________________________________________________ * C: .. -<>F88 8 GC2AB20,  1972. A. 18 20. >;>68B5;L=K5 M<>F88: C4>2;5B2>@5=85, @04>ABL, 2>AB>@3, ;8:>20=85, 3>@4>ABL, 2>AE8I5=85, A0<>4>2>;LAB2>, C25@5==>ABL, C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL A>1>9, C2065=85, 4>25@85, A8<?0B8O, =56=>ABL, ;N1>2L, 1;03>40@=>ABL, A?>:>9=0O A>25ABL, >1;53G5=85, 157>?0A=>ABL, 7;>@04AB2> 8 4@. B@8F0B5;L=K5 M<>F88: 3>@5 (A:>@1L), =5C4>2>;LAB285, B>A:0, ?5G0;L, A:C:0, >BG0O=85, >3>@G5=85, B@52>30, 8A?C3, AB@0E, C60A, 60;>ABL, A>AB@040=85, @07>G0@>20=85, >1840, 3=52, ?@57@5=85, =53>4>20=85, =5?@8O7=L, 7028ABL, =5=028ABL, 7;>ABL, @52=>ABL, A><=5=85, @0AB5@O==>ABL, A<CI5=85, ABK4, @0A:0O=85, C3@K75=85 A>25AB8, >B2@0I5=85 8 B.4. 0: 284=>, @0745;5=85 M<>F89 =0 ?>;>68B5;L=K5 8 >B@8F0B5;L=K5 ?@>2545=> 8A:;NG8B5;L=> ?> ?@8=F8?C C4>2>;LAB28O 8 =5C4>2>;LAB28O, >;>68B5;L=K5 M<>F88, 2>7459AB2CO =0 =5@2=CN A8AB5<C, A>459AB2CNB >74>@>2;5=8N >@30=87<0, 0 >B@8F0B5;L=K5  53> @07@CH5=8N, 254CB : @07;8G=K< 701>;520=8O<*. _____________________________________________________________________________ * 1I0O ?A8E>;>38O. >4 @54. 5B@>2A:>3> .. 8 4@. ., 1986, A. 371.  687=8 G5;>25:0 =0720==K5 2KH5 M<>F88 A>740NB C ;8G=>AB8 @07;8G=K5 D>@<K M<>F8>=0;L=KE A>AB>O=89: =0AB@>5=85, AB@0ABL 8 0DD5:B. 0AB@>5=85  MB> A0<>5 @0A?@>AB@0=5==>5 M<>F8>=0;L=>5 A>AB>O=85, E0@0:B5@87CNI55AO A;01>9 8=B5=A82=>ABLN, 7=0G8B5;L=>9 4;8B5;L=>ABLN, =5OA=>ABLN 8 157>BG5B=>ABLN ?5@56820=89. .@8AB-?@0:B8: 4>;65= C<5BL C?@02;OBL A2>8< =0AB@>5=85< 8, 5A;8 =C6=>, A>74020BL >?@545;5==>5 =0AB@>5=85 C >1J5:B0 2>7459AB28O. ;O MB>3> 5<C =04> 7=0BL ?@8G8=C 8 >1AB>OB5;LAB20, :>B>@K5 2K7K20NB =0AB@>5=85. E A:;04K205BAO 2 >A=>2=>< G5BK@5: >@30=8G5A:85 ?@>F5AAK (1>;57=L, CB><;5=85 A>740NB ?>=865==>5 =0AB@>5=85; 74>@>2L5, ?>;=>F5==K9 A>=, D878G5A:0O 0:B82=>ABL ?>4=8<0NB =0AB@>5=85); 2=5H=OO A@540 (3@O7L, HC<, A?5@BK9 2>74CE, @074@060NI85 72C:8, =5?@8OB=0O >:@0A:0 ?><5I5=8O CEC4H0NB =0AB@>5=85; G8AB>B0, C<5@5==0O B8H8=0, A25689 2>74CE, ?@8OB=0O <C7K:0, A>>B25BAB2CNI0O >:@0A:0 ?><5I5=8O C;CGH0NB =0AB@>5=85); 2708<>>B=>H5=8O <564C ;N4L<8 (?@825B;82>ABL, 4>25@85 8 B0:B A> AB>@>=K >:@C60NI8E 45;0NB G5;>25:0 1>4@K< 8 687=5@04>AB=K<; 3@C1>ABL, 157@07;8G85, =54>25@85 8 15AB0:B=>ABL C3=5B0NB =0AB@>5=85); <KA;8B5;L=K5 ?@>F5AAK (>1@07=K5 ?@54AB02;5=8O, 2 :>B>@KE >B@060NBAO ?>;>68B5;L=K5 M<>F88, A>740NB ?>4J5< 2 =0AB@>5=88; >1@07K, A2O70==K5 A >B@8F0B5;L=K<8 M<>F8O<8, C3=5B0NB =0AB@>5=85). !B@0ABL  A8;L=>5 8 3;C1>:>5 4;8B5;L=>5 M<>F8>=0;L=>5 A>AB>O=85. !B@0ABL  MB> M=5@38G=> AB@5<OI0OAO : A2>5<C ?@54<5BC ACI=>AB=0O A8;0 G5;>25:0*. =0 0:B82878@C5B MB> 45OB5;L=>ABL, ?>4G8=O5B A515 2A5 53> <KA;8 8 ?>ABC?:8, <>18;87C5B 53> =0 ?@5>4>;5=85 B@C4=>AB59, =0 4>AB865=85 ?>AB02;5==KE F5;59: AB@0ABL : ;N18<><C 45;C ?>72>;O5B 4>AB8GL 8A:;NG8B5;L=KE CA?5E>2, AB@0ABL : 1>@L15 ?>@>6405B <C65AB2>, 15AAB@0H85. 4=0:> AB@0ABL <>65B :0: D>@<8@>20BL ;8G=>ABL, B0: 8 @07@CH0BL 55. _____________________________________________________________________________ * &8B. ?> := : 8:8D>@>20 .!. -<>F88 2 =0H59 687=8. ., 1974, A. 25. DD5:B  M<>F8>=0;L=>5 ?5@56820=85, ?@>B5:0NI55 A 1>;LH>9 8 @57:> 2K@065==>9 8=B5=A82=>ABLN. A>15==>AB8 0DD5:B0: 0) 1C@=>5 2=5H=55 ?@>O2;5=85; 1) :@0B:>2@5<5==>ABL; 2) 157>BG5B=>ABL ?>2545=8O G5;>25:0 2> 2@5<O MDD5:B0; 3) 48DDC7=>ABL ?5@56820=8O (0DD5:B 70E20BK205B ;8G=>ABL F5;8:><, 55 C<, GC2AB20 8 2>;N). 01>B=8: N@848G5A:>3> B@C40 4>;65= 7=0BL, GB> 2 ?@8=F8?5 ;N1K5 M<>F88 <>3CB 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B >1AB>OB5;LAB2 CA8;820BLAO 8 4>E>48BL 4> 0DD5:B0. 'C2AB20 2 >B;8G85 >B M<>F89 E0@0:B5@87CNBAO >A>7=0==>ABLN 8 ?@54<5B=>ABLN. K45;ONB =87H85 GC2AB20-?5@56820=8O 8 2KAH85 GC2AB20-?5@56820=8O. 07;8G0NB B@8 3@C??K GC2AB2: =@02AB25==K5, MAB5B8G5A:85 8 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 (?>7=020B5;L=K5)*. ____________________________________________________________________________ * A8E>;>38O. >4. @54. C48:0 .. ., 1974, A. 201 204; 1I0O ?A8E>;>38O. >4 @54. 5B@>2A:>3> .. ., 1986, A. 366 377. @02AB25==K5 GC2AB20 >B@060NB >B=>H5=85 G5;>25:0 : B@51>20=8O< <>@0;8. !8AB5<0 =@02AB25==KE GC2AB2 @>AA89A:>3> G5;>25:0 A>AB>8B 87 GC2AB20 A?@0254;82>AB8, G5AB8, 4>;30, >B25BAB25==>AB8, ?0B@8>B87<0, A>;840@=>AB8. @02AB25==K5 GC2AB20 B5A=> A2O70=K A <8@>2>77@5=85< G5;>25:0, 53> C15645=8O<8, ?><KA;0<8, ?@8=F8?0<8 ?>2545=8O. -AB5B8G5A:85 GC2AB20 2>7=8:0NB C ;N459 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?5@56820=8O :@0A>BK 8;8 157>1@078O 2>A?@8=8<05<KE >1J5:B>2, 1C4L B> O2;5=8O ?@8@>4K, ?@>872545=8O 8A:CAAB20 8;8 ;N48, 0 B0:65 8E ?>ABC?:8 8 459AB28O.  >A=>25 MAB5B8G5A:8E GC2AB2 ;568B 2@>645==0O ?>B@51=>ABL G5;>25:0 2 MAB5B8G5A:>< ?5@56820=88. >AB>O==> A>?@>2>640O G5;>25G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL, MAB5B8G5A:85 GC2AB20 AB0=>2OBAO 0:B82=K<8 42830B5;O<8 G5;>25G5A:>3> ?>2545=8O.  45OB5;L=>AB8 N@8AB0 MAB5B8G5A:85 GC2AB20 83@0NB A2>5>1@07=CN @>;L :0B0;870B>@>2 ?>2545=8O. A>15==> 1>;LH>5 7=0G5=85 >=8 ?@8>1@5B0NB 4;O :><<C=8:0B82=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8: G5;>25:, A?>A>1=K9 >B:;8:=CBLAO =0 MAB5B8G5A:85 ?5@56820=8O A>15A54=8:0, :0: ?@028;>, ?@8>1@5B05B 02B>@8B5B 8 C2065=85. =B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 GC2AB20 A2O70=K A ?>7=020B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN G5;>25:0. =8 2>7=8:0NB 2 ?@>F5AA5 >ACI5AB2;5=8O 3=>AB8G5A:>9 8 8AA;54>20B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. 7 2A53> <=>3>>1@078O 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=KE GC2AB2 >A=>2=K<8 AG8B0NBAO GC2AB2> OA=>AB8 8;8 =5G5B:>AB8 <KA;8, C482;5=8O, =54>C<5=8O, 4>304:8, C25@5==>AB8 2 7=0=88, A><=5=8O. =B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 GC2AB20, >1;040O 4286CI59 A8;>9 G5;>25G5A:>3> ?>7=0=8O, CA8;820NB ?>@>482H85 8E ?>B@51=>AB8 : ?>7=0=8N, AB8<C;8@CNB M<>F88 G5;>25:0*. _____________________________________________________________________________ * !<.: 1I0O ?A8E>;>38O. >4 @54. 5B@>2A:>3> .. ., 1986, A. 381 383. A;8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL ?@>B5:05B CA?5H=>, 2 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 AD5@5 @01>B=8:0 N@848G5A:>3> B@C40 A>7405BAO A>AB>O=85 M9D>@88 (?>2KH5==0O >682;5==>ABL, @073>2>@G82>ABL), =0G8=0NB ?@5>1;040BL ?>;>68B5;L=K5 M<>F88.  =0>1>@>B, 2 A;CG05 =5C40G8 C =53> ?>O2;ONBAO =5C25@5==>ABL, 1>O7=L, B@52>30 8 8=>340 4065 AB@0E. A5 MB> 457>@30=87C5B ?>2545=85 <>;>4>3> A?5F80;8AB0-N@8AB0. # >?KB=KE @01>B=8:>2 N@848G5A:>3> B@C40, 2 A>25@H5=AB25 2;045NI8E A2>59 ?@>D5AA859, B0:>3>, :0: ?@028;>, =5 ?@>8AE>48B. 5>1KG09=K5 8 4>AB0B>G=> A;>6=K5 A8BC0F88, >AB@K5 :>=D;8:BK, 2 E>45 :>B>@KE A>25@H0NBAO ?@02>=0@CH5=8O, 2 @O45 A;CG052 A?>A>1AB2CNB @0728B8N C G5;>25:0 B0:8E ?A8E8G5A:8E A>AB>O=89 (3=52, 0DD5:B, AB@0E 8 4@.), :>B>@K5 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 4>AB0B>G=> G0I5 AB0=>2OBAO ?@54<5B>< =0CG=>3>, G5< 2 4@C38E >1;0ABOE ?A8E>;>388. 4=0:> MB8 A>AB>O=8O B0: 65, :0: 8 CAB>9G82K5 >A>15==>AB8 E0@0:B5@0 8 ;8G=>AB8 ?@02>=0@CH8B5;O, @072820NBAO 8 ?@>B5:0NB =5 8=0G5 :0: ?>4G8=OOAL >1I5?A8E>;>38G5A:8< 8 ?A8E>D878G5A:8< 70:>=0<. !?5F8D8:0 ?@54<5B0 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 70:;NG05BAO 2 A2>5>1@0788 2845=8O MB8E A>AB>O=89, 2 8AA;54>20=88 8E ?@02>2>3> 7=0G5=8O, 2 >F5=:5 8E :@8<8=>35==>AB8, 2 ?>8A:0E =0CG=> >1>A=>20==KE <5B>4>2 A=865=8O 2>7<>6=>AB8 =0@CH5=89 ?@02>2KE =>@< ?CB5< ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 :>@@5;OF88 MB8E A>AB>O=89, @02=> :0: 8 A2>9AB2 ;8G=>AB8 ?@02>=0@CH8B5;59.  ?@0:B8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 M<>F8>=0;L=0O 0:B820F8O 2>7=8:05B, :0: ?@028;>, 2 :@8B8G5A:85 <><5=BK ?@>F5AA0 @5H5=8O B0:B8G5A:8E 7040G 8 A2O70=0 A 2KO2;5=85< ?@028;L=>3> =0?@02;5=8O ?>8A:>2.  B0:85 <><5=BK 45OB5;L=>ABL >1KG=> E0@0:B5@87C5BAO >G5=L 1KAB@>9 @50:F859 2 ?@8=OB88 @5H5=89. 1I0O >@85=B8@>2:0 2 F5;><, ?@5420@8B5;L=0O >F5=:0 8 O2;ONBAO DC=:F859 M<>F89 :0: A?5F8D8G5A:>3> 7=0=8O.  M<>F8>=0;L=>9 >F5=:5 2>7=8:05B ?5@2K9, 5I5 =5 A>2A5< OA=K9 >1@07 1C4CI53> 548=AB20 >ICI5=89 8 2>A?@8OB8O.  >1I5=88 A;54>20B5;O 8 AC4L8 A CG0AB=8:0<8 C3>;>2=>3> ?@>F5AA0 M<>F88 8 GC2AB20 83@0NB >A>1CN @>;L.  G0AB=>AB8, 157 =8E 1K;> 1K =52>7<>6=> 4>AB865=85 :>=B0:B0 A 4>?@0H8205<K<8, 2 >A>15==>AB8 2 :>=D;8:B=KE A8BC0F8OE. 4=0:>, O2;OOAL =5>1E>48<K<8 8 =587156=K<8, M<>F88 8 GC2AB20 2 @0AA;54>20=88 8 @0AA<>B@5=88 C3>;>2=>3> 45;0 83@0NB =5 B>;L:> ?>;>68B5;L=CN @>;L. 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frusration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persona) >1>7=0G0;> <0A:C (@CAA:>5 ;8G8=0), :>B>@CN =04520; 0:B5@ 2 B50B@5, 0 70B5< A0<>3> 0:B5@0 8 53> @>;L. # @8<;O= MB> A;>2> C?>B@51;O;>AL A C:070=85< A>F80;L=>9 DC=:F88 8;8 @>;8: ;8G=>ABL >BF0, ;8G=>ABL >128=8B5;O, ;8G=>ABL AC4L8 8 B. 4. @8 C?>B@51;5=88 A;>20 ;8G=>ABL ?>2A5<5AB=> AB0;8 ?>4@07C<520BL @>;L, :>B>@CN 83@05B 2 >1I5AB25 B>B 8;8 8=>9 G5;>25:. 07;8G0NB 425 @07=>284=>AB8 @>;59: :>=25=F80;L=K5 8 <56;8G=>AB=K5*. _____________________________________________________________________________ * !<. ?>4@>1=55 ?> 40==>9 ?@>1;5<5: =0=L52 .. 1I85 2>?@>AK A>F8>;>38G5A:>9 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 B5>@88 ;8G=>AB8.  :=.:  ?@>1;5<0E A>2@5<5==>3> G5;>25:>7=0=8O. ., 1977,A. 229-252. >=25=F80;L=K5 @>;8 ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 AB0=40@B878@>20==K5 ?@020 8 >1O70==>AB8  >B5F, <0BL, AK=, =0G0;L=8:, @C:>2>48B5;L 8 B. ?. B=>H5=8O <564C ;N4L<8, 70:;NG5==K5 2 MB8E @>;OE, ;560B =0 ?>25@E=>AB8, 8 =5B =8G53> ;53G5, G5< >H818BLAO, 8AB>;:>2K20O ?> =8< 8AB8==>5 A>45@60=85 8=B5@5ACNI59 =0A ;8G=>AB8. 070;>AL 1K, @07 ?5@54 B>1>9 =0G0;L=8:, :>B>@><C ?>4G8=ONBAO 4@C385, B>, A;54>20B5;L=>, >= =045;5= :0:8<8-B> :0G5AB20<8, :>B>@K5 45;0NB 53> ;845@><. 4=0:> MB> 40;5:> =5 2A5340 B0:. A;8 <K, =0?@8<5@, 7=0:><8<AO A :0:>9-=81C4L A5<L59, B> 02B><0B8G5A:8 >1@0I05<AO : >BFC :0: : 3;025 A5<59AB20, 8 745AL <K B0:65 G0AB> >H8105<AO. 87=5==K5 =01;N45=8O 8 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:07K20NB, GB> >B5F <>65B 83@0BL >G5=L <=>3> @>;59: ?>;L7CNI89AO 4>25@85<, G5AB>;N15F, B@C4O30, 157>B25BAB25==K9 8 B. 4. 45AL <K =01;N405< =0;8G85 4@C3>3> 2840 @>;59. -B> <56;8G=>AB=K5 @>;8.  >B;8G85 >B :>=25=F80;L=KE <56;8G=>AB=K5 @>;8 2KABC?0NB 2 2845 ?@02 8 >1O70==>AB59, 2K?>;=5=85 :>B>@KE 7028A8B >B 8=48284C0;L=KE >A>15==>AB59 G;5=>2 3@C??K. 5A<>B@O =0 A2>5 >D8F80;L=>5 ?>;>65=85, >B5F, =0?@8<5@, <>65B =5 1KBL 3;02>9 A5<L8. 45AL 405B > A515 7=0BL A>F80;L=K9 AB0BCA ;8G=>AB8, B> 5ABL A>F80;L=>5 ?>;>65=85 G5;>25:0 2 >1I5AB25. @C3>9, =081>;55 206=>9 53> A>AB02;ONI59 O2;O5BAO AC1J5:B82=0O >F5=:0 ;N4L<8 G;5=0 A2>53> :@C30. 06=>ABL =0720==>3> D5=><5=0 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> =0 53> >A=>25 D>@<8@C5BAO A0<>>F5=:0 ;8G=>AB8, ;560I0O 2 >A=>25 GC2AB20 A>1AB25==>3> 4>AB>8=AB20. N48 A @0728BK< GC2AB2>< A>1AB25==>3> 4>AB>8=AB20 >B;8G0NBAO ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABLN 459AB289. =8 A?@02;ONBAO A> A2>8<8 2=CB@5==8<8 :>=D;8:B0<8, ?>402;ONB A:;>==>AB8, :>B>@K5 4>AB02;ONB 8< =5C4>1AB2>, ?@>O2;ONB 2KA>:89 A0<>:>=B@>;L. -B> C@02=>25H5==K5, B0:B8G=K5, A?>:>9=K5 8 =57028A8<K5 ;N48. N48 A =87:8< C@>2=5< GC2AB20 A>1AB25==>3> 4>AB>8=AB20 >1;040NB ?@>B82>?>;>6=K<8 :0G5AB20<. # B5E 8 C 4@C38E 2 A2O78 A MB8< D>@<8@CNBAO A?5F8D8G5A:85 :0G5AB20 A0<>A>7=0=8O. !0<>A>7=0=85  MB> ?@5645 2A53> >A>7=0=85 A51O 2 :0G5AB25 CAB>9G82>9, 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 >?@545;5==>9 548=8FK, A>E@0=ONI59 A2>N =57028A8<>ABL 8 F5;>AB=>ABL 2 @07;8G=KE A8BC0F8OE. !0<>A>7=0=85  MB> >1@07 /, CAB0=>2:0 ?> >B=>H5=8N : A0<><C A515. 064K9 G5;>25:, 5A;8 C =53> =>@<0;L=> DC=:F8>=8@C5B A0<>7=0=85, 2 :0:>9-B> AB5?5=8 >A>7=05B A2>8 4>AB>8=AB20 8 =54>AB0B:8, ?@87=05B A2>8 >H81:8. A;8 65 >= >B:07K205BAO >B MB>3> ?>;=>ABLN 8;8 E>BO 1K G0AB8G=>, B>, GB>1K ?>445@60BL A2>9 C@>25=L A0<>A>7=0=8O, 22>48B 2 459AB285 <5E0=87<K ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 70I8BK. 45O ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 70I8BK,  ?8H5B .$. 0AA8=,  >B@078;0 A>25@H5==> @50;L=CN 8 206=CN AB>@>=C ?A8E8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8... A8E>;>38G5A:0O 70I8B0 O2;O5BAO =>@<0;L=K<, ?>AB>O==> ?@8<5=O5<K< ?A8E>;>38G5A:8< <5E0=87<><...*. _______________________________________________________________________ * 0AA8= .$.  A8;5 / 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 70I8B5. >?@>AK ?A8E>;>388, 1969, !2, A. 124. 0 D>@<8@>20=85 ;8G=>AB8 >:07K20NB 2;8O=85 :0: 45;>2K5, B0: 8 ;8G=K5 >B=>H5=8O. >=:@5B=0O A>F80;L=0O >1I=>ABL, 2 ?@545;0E :>B>@>9 ;N48 =5?>A@54AB25==> :>=B0:B8@CNB <564C A>1>9 (A5<LO, A>B@C4=8:8 :0D54@K 8 B.?.), =07K205BAO <0;>9 3@C??>9. 081>;55 @0728B0O A>F80;L=0O 3@C??0  :>;;5:B82. A=>2=>5 =07=0G5=85 A>F80;L=>9 3@C??K  F5;5=0?@02;5==>5 @53C;8@>20=85 <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89 4;O @50;870F88 8=B5@5A>2 3@C??K.  A>F80;L=>9 3@C??5 8=48284 =0E>48BAO 2 >B=>H5=8OE =5 B>;L:> A 4@C38< 8=48284><, => 8 A <=>65AB2>< G;5=>2 3@C??K. >;>65=85 G5;>25:0 2 3@C??5, 53> ?@020 8 >1O70==>AB8 >?@545;ONB AB0BCA ;8G=>AB8. >2545=85 ;8G=>AB8 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 53> >1I5AB25==K< AB0BCA>< =07K205BAO A>F80;L=>9 @>;LN. @C??0 A2>8<8 B@51>20=8O<8 <>65B CA8;820BL 8;8 >A;01;OBL >B45;L=K5 A2>9AB20 ;8G=>AB8.  A2>59 <8:@>A@545 G5;>25: 2ABC?05B 2 =5?>A@54AB25==K5 ;8G=K5 :>=B0:BK, 2>7=8:0NB <56;8G=>AB=K5 >B=>H5=8O, :>B>@K5 7028AOB =5 B>;L:> >B =@02AB25==>-?A8E>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59 ;N459, => 8 >B 8E A>F80;L=>3> AB0BCA0. N48 G0AB> B>@<>7OB 2 A515 B5 ?@>O2;5=8O, :>B>@K5 ?@>B82>@5G0B 3@C??>2><C <=5=8N. -B> O2;5=85 =07K205BAO :>=D>@<=>ABLN (>B ;0B. A;>20 con-formis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"0:0O A?>A>1=>ABL ?>O2;O5BAO C ;N459 2 @57C;LB0B5 4;8B5;L=>3> >1I5=8O 4@C3 A 4@C3><. @0:B8:>9 CAB0=>2;5=>, GB> ;8F0, ?>AB>O==> =0E>4OI85AO 2 >1I5=88, 157>H81>G=> ?@542>AE8I0NB ?>2545=85 4@C3 4@C30. -<?0B8O  MB> A?>A>1=>ABL ?@>GC2AB2>20BL ?5@56820=8O 4@C3>3> G5;>25:0. @>F5AA B0:>3> 2GC2AB2>20=8O >1KG=> =5 >A>7=05BAO. -<?0B8O 405B ;N4O< 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>7=020BL C 4@C38E ;N459 <=>385 =52KA:070==K5 8;8 A:@K205<K5 =0<5@5=8O. !?>A>1=>ABL ;N459 : M<?0B88, :0: 8 ;N10O 4@C30O >1I0O A?>A>1=>ABL, 7028A8B >B A?5F8D8G5A:8E 7040B:>2 8 A>>B25BAB2CNI53> 2>A?8B0=8O. >A25==> M<?0B8O ?>72>;O5B AC48BL, =0A:>;L:> A>15A54=8: <O3>: 8;8 AC@>2, A?>:>5= 8;8 ?>AB>O==> =0?@O65=, C25@5= 8;8 =5 C25@5= 2 A515 8 B. 4. 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"0:>9 A?>A>1=>ABLN, =0?@8<5@, >1;040NB H87>84K ?5@54 >1>AB@5=85< 1>;57=8 (?@54H87>D@5=8G5A:89 ?5@8>4). -B> B0:65 E0@0:B5@=> 4;O GC2AB28B5;L=KE 8 B2>@G5A:8E =0BC@. 0: 8 ;N1CN 4@C3CN A?>A>1=>ABL, M<?0B8N <>6=> @072820BL A?5F80;L=K<8 C?@06=5=8O<8. @>F5AA >F5=:8 ;8G=>AB8 =0G8=05BAO A ?5@2>3> 2?5G0B;5=8O. 5@2>5 2?5G0B;5=85 2 A2>59 >A=>25 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 >1I55 2>A?@8OB85 >1J5:B0. 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AB5AB25==>, ?5@2>5 2?5G0B;5=85 B08B 2 A515 2>7<>6=>ABL >H81:8, :>B>@0O A2O70=0 A @O4>< D0:B>@>2. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: C18= .., 'CD0@>2A:89 ... 1I5=85 8 =0H59 687=8. ., "#, 1992, A. 49. 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"0H:5=B. 1986, A. 30 34. >A:>;L:C 2A5 ?5@5G8A;5==K5 8AB>G=8:8 >H81>: 8<5NB <5AB> 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8, ?> =0H5<C <=5=8N, =04> @0AA<>B@5BL, E>BO 1K :@0B:>, ?@8G8=K MB8E >H81>:. @8G8=K >H81>: 2>A?@8OB8O 8 >F5=:8 ;8G=>AB8 A2O70=K, 2>-?5@2KE, A >A>15==>ABO<8 ;8G=>AB8 2>A?@8=8<05<KE, 2>-2B>@KE, A =5?@54=0<5@5==K< 8;8 ?@54=0<5@5==K< 2;8O=85< 2>A?@8=8<05<KE =0 2>A?@8=8<0NI53> 8, 2-B@5BL8E, A >A>15==>ABO<8 ;8G=>AB8 2>A?@8=8<0NI53>. 45AL A;54C5B >B<5B8BL :0: 8=48284C0;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 ;N459, :>B>@K5 <K 2>A?@8=8<05<, B0: 8 8E 459AB28O A F5;LN ?@542>AE8I5=8O A2>59 >F5=:8 8 >1<0=0 =01;N40B5;O. =48284C0;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 2>A?@8=8<05<KE. N48 2>A?@8=8<0NBAO ?>-@07=><C. 4=8 :0: 1K >B:@KBK 4;O 2>A?@8OB8O, > =8E 2A5340 ;53:> A>AB028BL ?5@2>5 2?5G0B;5=85. @C385 70:@KBK, > =8E G0AB> B@C4=> A:070BL GB>-;81> >?@545;5==>5. #A;>2=> 2K45;ONB =5A:>;L:> B8?>2 ;N459. 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"0:>5 =01;N45=85 C65 402=> ?@8<5=O5BAO 2 A>F8>;>38G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=8OE, >=> H8@>:> 8A?>;L7C5BAO :0: 8=>AB@0==K<8, B0: 8 @>AA89A:8<8 CG5=K<8*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.:. 5:F88 ?> <5B>48:5 :>=:@5B=KE A>F80;L=KE 8AA;54>20=89. ., 1973; (5?0=LA:89 /. -;5<5=B0@=K5 ?>=OB8O A>F8>;>388. 5@. 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A5 <5B>4K 0=0;870 4>:C<5=B>2 45;OB =0 B@048F8>==K5 8 D>@<0;87>20==K5.  ?5@2K< >B=>A8BAO 0=0;87 A<KA;0 B5:AB0, :> 2B>@K<  0=0;87, 2K45;5=85 8 >1@01>B:0 548=8F 8=D>@<0F88. >2>;L=> MDD5:B82=K< 745AL AG8B05BAO :>=B5=B-0=0;87. !CI=>ABL 53> A>AB>OB 2 2K45;5=88 2 B5:AB5 =5:>B>@KE :;NG52KE 548=8F A>45@60=8O (?>=OB89, AC645=89, A;>2), ?>4AG5B5 G0AB>BK 8E C?>B@51;5=8O, >?@545;5=88 8E A>G5B05<>AB8 4@C3 A 4@C3><, 0 B0:65 A >1I8< A>45@60=85< B5:AB0*. "5E=8:0 :>=B5=B-0=0;870 A2>48BAO : @O4C >?5@0F89, 3;02=K<8 87 :>B>@KE O2;ONBAO 1) 2K45;5=85 548=8F 0=0;870; 2) >B1>@ 548=8F 0=0;870 2 B5:AB5; 3) AB0B8AB8G5A:0O >1@01>B:0. ________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: 5B>4K A>F80;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388. . 1977, A. 43 60; 5:F88 ?> <5B>48:5 :>=:@5B=KE A>F80;L=KE 8AA;54>20=89. ., 1972. 081>;55 >B25BAB25==0O G0ABL ?@>F54C@K  2K45;5=85 548=8F 0=0;870. B =55 7028A8B CA?5E 2A59 40;L=59H59 >F5=>G=>9 @01>BK. 0G8=05BAO @01>B0 A >?@545;5=8O :0B53>@89, B> 5ABL :;NG52KE ?>=OB89, :>B>@K5 A>>B25BAB2CNB 7040G0< :>=:@5B=>9 >F5=:8. "0:, 5A;8 =5>1E>48<> ?> 8<5NI8<AO 2KA:07K20=8O< 2KO28BL F5==>AB=K5 >@85=B0F88 87CG05<>3> ;8F0, B> @01>G8<8 :0B53>@8O<8 745AL <>3CB 1KBL A>F80;L=K5 =>@<K, ;>O;L=>ABL, ?>;8B8G5A:85 8 M:>=><8G5A:85 273;O4K, <8@>2>77@5=85. -B8< :0B53>@8O< =5>1E>48<> =09B8 045:20B=K5 2K@065=8O 2 O7K:5 8AA;54C5<>3> B5:AB0, >=8 8 1C4CB 548=8F0<8 0=0;870.  ?@0:B8:5 :>=B5=B-0=0;870 C?>B@51;ONB AB0=40@B=K5 548=8FK: A;>2>, B5@<8=, A8<2>;, AC645=85. 081>;55 C?>B@518B5;L=K<8 548=8F0<8 O2;ONBAO A;>2> 8 A8<2>;. B1>@ 2 B5:AB5 548=8F 0=0;870. @>F54C@0 >B1>@0 70:;NG05BAO 2 >BKA:0=88 2 B5:AB5 2A5E 2K@065=89, >B@060NI8E A<KA; 548=8FK 0=0;870,  B5:AB5 MB> <>3CB 1KBL B5@<8=K, 8<5=0 A>1AB25==K5, CAB>9G82K5 A;>2>A>G5B0=8O. !B0B8AB8G5A:0O >1@01>B:0.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O @07@01>B0=K <=>3>G8A;5==K5 <5B>48:8 >1@01>B:8 40==KE :>=B5=B-0=0;870. (8@>:> 8A?>;L7CNBAO G0AB>B=K5 8 ?@>F5=B=K5 @0A?@545;5=8O, @07=>>1@07=K5 :>@@5;OF88 8 8=45:AK, B01;8FK, 3@0D8:8 8 B. 4.*  N@848G5A:>9 ?@0:B8:5 ?@8 >1@01>B:5 8=D>@<0F88 =0 ?5@2KE ?>@0E <>6=> >3@0=8G8BLAO 1>;55 >1I8< ?>4E>4><. 5AL<0 ?>;57=0O 8=D>@<0F8O <>65B 1KBL ?>;CG5=0 =0 >A=>25 40==KE > G0AB>B5 C?>B@51;5=8O 548=8F 0=0;870, CAB0=>2;5=8O ?@>?>@F89 <564C 8E >B45;L=K<8 3@C??8@>2:0<8, 8E 2708<=>9 2AB@5G05<>AB8 8 7028A8<>AB8. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: 5B>4>;>38G5A:85 8 <5B>48G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K :>=B5=B-0=0;870. .-., 1973. @>F54C@0 :>=B5=B-0=0;870 B@51C5B <=>3> 2@5<5=8 8 >?@545;5==KE CA;>289, ?>MB><C >=0 >?@024K205B A51O ;8HL ?@8 ?@>2545=88 =0CG=KE 8AA;54>20=89. 8>3@0D8G5A:89 <5B>4. 7CG5=85 >1J5:B0 N@848G5A:>3> 8=B5@5A0 O2;O5BAO 8AA;54>20=85< ?@>F5AA0 D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8 2 CA;>28OE >?@545;5==>9 M?>E8, =0F88, :;0AA0, A>F80;L=>3> A;>O. !<KA; 18>3@0D8G5A:>3> <5B>40 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 A>AB>8B 2 87CG5=88 687=5==>3> ?CB8 ;8G=>AB8. -B>, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 8AB>@8O 687=8 G5;>25:0, 0 A 4@C3>9  A>F80;L=0O D>@<0 53> 8=48284C0;L=>3> @0728B8O*. 87=5==K9 ?CBL G5;>25:0 ?@>;5305B 2 CA;>28OE <8:@>A@54K, :>B>@0O O2;O5BAO AD5@>9 <56;8G=>AB=KE >B=>H5=89. 7 :><?;5:A0 2708<>459AB2CNI8E 2 <8:@>A@545 >1AB>OB5;LAB2 A:;04K205BAO >1@07 687=8 =5?>A@54AB25==>3> >:@C65=8O, :>B>@K9 >B@0605BAO 2 8=48284C0;L=>< >?KB5 87CG05<>9 ;8G=>AB8. _____________________________________________________________________________ *>38=>20 .. 8>3@0D8G5A:89 <5B>4 2 ?A8E>;>388 8 A<56=KE 48AF8?;8=0E. 2B>@5D. :0=4. 48AA5@B0F88. ., 1975. !B@C:BC@0 687=5==>3> ?CB8 8<55B A2>8 D07K 8 35=5B8G5A:85 ?5@5E>4K <564C =8<8. <5==> =0 ABK:0E D07 8 ?5@5E>40E ?@>8AE>4OB 206=59H85 687=5==K5 ?5@5<5=K. #AB0=>2;5=85 2@5<5=8 ?5@5E>4>2 >B D07K 8 D075 2 687=8 87CG05<>3> ;8F0 8 =0;>65=85 MB8E ?5@8>4>2 =0 A>1KB8O 687=8 =0F88 (3@C??K) <>3CB 40BL :;NG : ?>=8<0=8N >A>15==>AB59 ?A8E>;>388 MB>3> ;8F0, : >1JOA=5=8N 53> ?>2545=8O*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: 040=>2 .. 0AB5@AB2> 45;>2>3> 2708<>459AB28O. ., 1989, A. 24. "5>@8O 8 ?@0:B8:0 ?>701K20NB, GB> 87CG5=85 687=5==>3> ?CB8 G5;>25:0 F5;5A>>1@07=> =0G8=0BL A B@5E;5B=53> 2>7@0AB0. 8G=>ABL G5;>25:0, :0: 8725AB=>, D>@<8@C5BAO 2 >A=>2=>< =0 ?@>BO65=88 B@5E ?OB8 ;5B 687=8. "@5E;5B=89 2>7@0AB A2O70= A =081>;55 @0==8<8 ?5@56820=8O<8 45BAB20, A =0G0;>< >A>7=0=8O A2>53> /.  MB>B ?5@8>4 G5;>25: 2?5@2K5 2AB@5G05BAO A A0<8< A>1>9, C =53> =0G8=05B A:;04K20BLAO >B=>H5=85 : A515. 45AL 1>;LHCN @>;L 83@0NB @>48B5;8, :>B>@K5, =0E>4OAL 2 CA;>28OE =5 7028A8<>9 >B @515=:0 A>F80;L=>9 A8BC0F88, 70:;04K20NB 2 =53> >?@545;5==K5 8450;L=K5 ?@>3@0<<K, O2;ONI85AO 4;O @515=:0 "<>AB><" >B ?@>H;>3> : 1C4CI5<C. -B8 ?@>3@0<<K, ?@5;><;OOAL G5@57 M<>F8>=0;L=K9 <8@ 45B59, >:07K20NB 1>;LH55 2;8O=85 =0 2>A?@8OB85 ;8G=>ABLN <8@0 2 45BA:>< A04C, H:>;5, 2C75, 2 ?>2A54=52=>9 687=8. 5B>4 B5AB>2. A8E>;>38O 2 A2>5< ?@8:;04=>< 7=0G5=88 H8@>:> 8A?>;L7C5B @07;8G=K5 B5ABK 4;O >F5=:8 2=8<0=8O, A5=A><>B>@=KE @50:F89, ?0<OB8, <KH;5=8O, @5G8. -B8 B5ABK 40NB 2>7<>6=>ABL 2 A8AB5<5 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> >B1>@0 >F5=8BL @0728B85 ?A8E8G5A:8E DC=:F89 ;8G=>AB8 8 >?@545;8BL :0=4840B>2 4;O >1CG5=8O ?> >?@545;5==>9 A?5F80;L=>AB8. ! ?><>ILN B5AB>2 :064K9 8=48284C0;L=> <>65B >F5=8BL A2>8 A?>A>1=>AB8 8 =0<5B8BL A8AB5<C C?@06=5=89 4;O @0728B8O =C6=>3> 5<C :0G5AB20 E0@0:B5@0. "5ABK ?>72>;ONB B0:65 >F5=8BL 8 =5:>B>@K5 ?0@0<5B@K ;8G=>AB8.  ?>A;54=85 3>4K ?>O28;>AL <=>3> @07;8G=KE B5AB>2, =0?@02;5==KE =0 >F5=:C ;8G=>AB8. 18;85 B5AB>2, A?@0254;82> >B<5G05B .. ;59E5@, >1JOA=O5BAO @07;8G85< ?>4E>40 : A0<><C 87CG5=8N ;8G=>AB8, A2>5>1@0785< 8=B5@5A0 8AA;54>20B5;59 8 =0?@02;5==>ABLN =0 @07;8G=K5 ;8G=>AB=K5 ?@>O2;5=8O*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: ;59E5@ .. ;8=8G5A:0O ?0B>?A8E>;>388. "0H:5=B, 1976, A. 134.  A>2@5<5==>9 ?A8E>;>388 =081>;LH55 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 ?>;CG8;8 B5ABK >F5=820=8O, ?@>65:B82=K5 B5ABK 8 ;8G=>AB=K5 >?@>A=8:8. =>385 87 >F5=>G=KE 8 ?@>65:B82=KE B5AB>2 <>3CB A CA?5E>< 8A?>;L7>20BLAO 4;O >F5=:8 ;8G=>AB8 2 N@848G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, =C6=> B>;L:> 2=5AB8 2 ?@>F54C@C 8E ?@8<5=5=8O ;8HL >4=> 87<5=5=85: 8=D>@<0F8N 4;O >F5=:8 ?> B5ABC A>18@0BL =5 ?@O<K<, 0 :>A25==K< ?CB5<. @>I5 2A53> MB> 45;0BL ?@8 >F5=:5 ;8G=>AB8 A ?><>ILN ;8G=>AB=KE >?@>A=8:>2. 8G=>AB=K5 >?@>A=8:8 ?>AB@>5=K A CG5B>< AB@5<;5=8O G5;>25:0 : A0<>>F5=:5. !@548 >?@>A=8:>2 =081>;LHCN ?>?C;O@=>ABL ?@8>1@5; B5AB " #" 2 :>B>@K9 2:;NG5=> 384 CB25@645=8O. > >B25B0< >1A;54C5<>3> > ?@85<;5<>AB8 8;8 =5?@85<;5<>AB8 4;O 53> ;8G=>AB8 ?@54JO2;5==KE CB25@645=89 A>AB02;O5BAO ?@>D8;L ;8G=>AB8, 45;0NBAO 2K2>4K > 55 ?A8E>;>388. =0;>38G=> ?>AB@>5=K >?@>A=8:8 "59;>@0 8 975=:0. ?@>A=8: "59;>@0 >?@545;O5B C@>25=L B@52>6=>AB8 ;8G=>AB8, 0 975=:0  70<:=CB>ABL, >1I8B5;L=>ABL 8 M<>F8>=0;L=CN =5C@02=>25H5==>ABL. ?@>A=8: 975=:0 B0:65 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL >?@545;8BL B8? 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F5=:0 40==KE > ;8G=>AB8.  >A=>2C A8AB5<0B870F88 40==KE > ;8G=>AB8, 8=B5@5ACNI59 @01>B=8:0 N@848G5A:>3> B@C40, 4>;6=K 1KBL ?>;>65=K: 1) ?@8=F8? 87CG5=8O ;8G=>AB8 2 45OB5;L=>AB8; 2) ?@8=F8? F5;L=>AB8 ;8G=>AB8 8 3) ?@8=F8? :>=:@5B=>-8AB>@8G5A:>3> ?>4E>40. @8=F8? 87CG5=8O ;8G=>AB8 2 45OB5;L=>AB8 =0F5;8205B =0A =0 0=0;87 45OB5;L=>AB8 87CG05<>3> G5;>25:0 8 =0 A>?>AB02;5=85 MB>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 A 53> 2KA:07K20=8O<8, 0 B0:65 =0 8AA;54>20=85 D>@<K 45OB5;L=>AB8. @8=F8? F5;L=>AB8 ?@8 87CG5=88 8 >F5=:5 ;8G=>AB8 B@51C5B CG8BK20BL =5 :0:CN-=81C4L >B45;L=CN G5@BC 8;8 @50:F8N 87CG05<>3> G5;>25:0, 0 A>2>:C?=>ABL G5@B, @50:F89, :0G5AB2, A2>9AB2 8 >B=>H5=89. .. '5@=KH52A:89 AG8B0;, GB> =04> @0AA<0B@820BL :064CN AB>@>=C 45OB5;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0 :0: 45OB5;L=>ABL... 2A53> 53> >@30=87<0 >B 3>;>2K 4> =>3 2:;NG8B5;L=>*. ________________________________________________________________________ * '5@=KH52A:89 .. =B@>?>;>38G5A:89 ?@8=F8? 2 D8;>A>D88. ., 1944. A. 83. "0:0O A8AB5<0 459AB289 ?> 4>1K20=8N =5>1E>48<>9 8=D>@<0F88 70;>65=0 2 "!E5<5 87CG5=8O ;8G=>AB8". @8=F8? :>=:@5B=>-8AB>@8G5A:>3> ?>4E>40 : >F5=:5 8=B5@5ACNI59 =0A ;8G=>AB8 ?@54?>;0305B 87CG5=85 8AB>@88 687=8 >F5=8205<>3>, 53> @>AB0 8 @0728B8O, 0 B0:65 CA;>289, 2 :>B>@KE >= A>F80;878@>20;AO. 2. #AB0=>2;5=85 8 @0728B85 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E :>=B0:B>2 A8E>;>38G5A:89 :>=B0:B  MB> ?@>F5AA CAB0=>2;5=8O, @0728B8O 8 ?>445@60=8O 2708<=>3> BO3>B5=8O >1I0NI8EAO. #A?5H=>ABL CAB0=>2;5=8O 8 @0728B8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> :>=B0:B0 2> <=>3>< >1CA;>2;5=0 30@<>=89 G5;>25G5A:8E >B=>H5=89, @0728B85< ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E A2O759 <564C >1I0NI8<8AO. A;8 ;N48 ?@>=8:0NBAO 8=B5@5A>< 8;8 4>25@85< 4@C3 : 4@C3C, <>6=> 3>2>@8BL, GB> <564C =8<8 CAB0=>28;AO ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 :>=B0:B. 0728B85 :>=B0:B0 <564C ;N4L<8 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< ?;0=5 ?@>E>48B B@8 AB0488: 1) 2708<=>5 >F5=820=85; 2) 2708<=0O 708=B5@5A>20==>ABL; 3) >1>A>1;5=85 2 4804C. @>A;568205BAO MB> >G5=L E>@>H> =0 :0:><-=81C4L 25G5@5, :>;;5:B82=>< 2KE>45 2 B50B@ 8 B. ?. @8 >F5=820=88 8<55B <5AB> 2=5H=55 2>A?@8OB85 4@C3 4@C30 8 D>@<8@>20=85 ?5@2>3> 2?5G0B;5=8O. AB@5B82H8AL 4@C3 A 4@C3><, ;N48 ?>4A>7=0B5;L=> ?@>3=>78@CNB 8AE>4 :>=B0:B0. 57C;LB0B>< 2708<=>3> >F5=820=8O O2;O5BAO 2ABC?;5=85 2 >1I5=85 ;81> >B:07 >B =53>. 0;55 CG0AB=8:8 >1I5=8O 45;0NB >AB>@>6=K5 H038 : A1;865=8N. >7=8:05B 708=B5@5A>20==>ABL 4@C3 4@C3><, A>:@0I05BAO >1<5= 8=D>@<0F859 A 4@C38<8 ;8F0<8. 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A=>2=>5 2=8<0=85 =04> >1@0B8BL 8 =0 0A>F80;L=CN @>;L >1J5:B0 2 >1I5AB25. 01>B=8: N@848G5A:>3> B@C40 4>;65= ?>:070BL A2>5<C >1J5:BC, GB> >= 2=8<0B5;L=> 53> A;CH05B: ?5@8>48G5A:8 A<>B@5BL 3>2>@OI5<C 2 3;070, :820BL 3>;>2>9 8 45;0BL A>>B25BAB2CNI85 65ABK, :0: 1K ?>4:@5?;OO A;>20 8 2K2>4K >1J5:B0. "5?5@L, >AB0282 <0=8?C;OB82=CN AB>@>=C 2>7459AB28O, >1@0B8<AO : :0G5AB20< ;8G=>AB8 8 B5< ?@85<0<, :>B>@K5 @50;L=> =5>1E>48<K.  >4=>9 87 A2>8E :=83 0: ?@8>1@5B0BL 4@C759 8 >:07K20BL 2;8O=85 =0 ;N459 . 0@=538 >?8AK205B H5ABL A?>A>1>2 ?>=@028BLAO ;N4O<*: _______________________________________________________________________ *0@=538 . 0: ?@8>1@5B0BL 4@C759 8 >:07K20BL 2;8O=85 =0 ;N459. 5@. A 0=3;. ., 1989, A. 28.  @073>2>@5 2A5340 ?@>O2;O9B5 8A:@5==89 8=B5@5A : A>15A54=8:C. '0I5 C;K109B5AL. '5;>25:, =5 8<5NI89 C;K1:8 =0 ;8F5, =5 4>;65= >B:@K20BL A2>59 ;02:8,  3;0A8B 4@52=5:8B09A:0O ?>A;>28F0.  @073>2>@5 A G5;>25:>< G0I5 C?>B@51;O9B5 53> 8<O. 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A;8 20< ?@54AB>8B 45;>2>5 >1I5=85, B> ?5@2>5 8 >A=>2=>5 ?@028;> 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> =04> ?@>872>48BL 2?5G0B;5=85 45;>2>3> G5;>25:0 B. 5. GB>1K B0:>2K< 20A 2>A?@8=8<0;8 (MB> :><?5B5=B=>ABL, 45<>:@0B87<, @0A?>;>65==>ABL : G5;>25:C, ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL 8 B. 4.). 0 MB> 8 =04> A51O =0AB@0820BL.  4@C65A:>< >1I5=88 206=K >B:@KB>ABL, >B7K2G82>ABL, @0745;5=85 F5==>AB59, A>GC2AB285, A?>A>1=>ABL 40BL 2>2@5<O A>25B 8 >:070BL ?>445@6:C.  :0: 1KBL, 5A;8 ?@54AB>8B 70254><> =5?@8OB=K9 @073>2>@, G0AB> 2AB@5G0NI89AO C @01>B=8:>2 N@848G5A:>3> B@C40? 45AL B0:85 :0G5AB20, :0: >B:@KB>ABL 8 8A:@5==>ABL, <>3CB 1KBL 2>A?@8=OBK (A 8=>9 ?>78F88 ?0@B=5@0) :0: ?@>O2;5=85 A;01>AB8 8 :0?8BC;OF8O.  MB>< A;CG05 =0 20A 1C45B >:07K20BLAO ?@O<>5 402;5=85, GB>1K 2K CABC?8;8 8;8 ?>4G8=8;8AL. 45AL =081>;55 206=>5 :0G5AB2>  C<5BL ?>:070BL ?@8 2A5< @07;8G88 ?>78F89 8 @0AE>645=88 B>G5: 7@5=8O 3>B>2=>ABL ?>=OBL A>15A54=8:0 8 >1AC48BL 53> 0@3C<5=BK, ?@>45<>=AB@8@>20BL =5?@5427OB>ABL. %C4H89 A?>A>1 A?>@0  MB> 45<>=AB@8@>20BL A8;C A>1AB25==>3> /*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: C18= .., 'CD0@>2A:89 ... 1I5=85 2 =0H59 687=8. ., 1992, A. 48. >7=0=85 G5;>25:0 8 ?>=8<0=85 53>  4;8B5;L=K9 ?@>F5AA, :>B>@K9 ?@>B5:05B 8 2 E>45 =0G02H53>AO >1I5=8O 8 =5 7025@H05BAO, :>340 >1I5=85 70:>=G8;>AL. 3. >;CG5=85 =5>1E>48<>9 8=D>@<0F88 >B A2845B5;59, ?>B5@?52H8E, ?>4>7@5205<KE 8 >128=O5<KE @0:B8:0 ?>;CG5=8O 8=D>@<0F88 <5B>4>< 2K254K20=8O A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, GB> 2 MB>< ?@>F5AA5 @5H0NI0O @>;L >B2>48BAO D0:B>@0< ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> ?>@O4:0.  1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 CA?5E 745AL 7028A8B >B C<5=8O G5;>25:0 CAB0=02;820BL A A>15A54=8:>< ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 :>=B0:B 8 2 ?@>F5AA5 >1I5=8O 2>7459AB2>20BL =0 53> A>7=0B5;L=K5 8 15AA>7=0B5;L=K5 AD5@K ?A8E8:8. "0:>5 2>7459AB285 >:07K205BAO A @07=K<8 F5;O<8. 4=0 87 =8E  ?>1C48BL A>15A54=8:0 A>>1I8BL A2545=8O, :>B>@K<8 >= =5 E>B5; 1K =8 A :5< 45;8BLAO. 1I5?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 >A=>2>9, =0 1075 :>B>@>9 2>7<>6=> ?>;CG5=85 8=B5@5ACNI59 =0A 8=D>@<0F88, O2;O5BAO B5>@8O 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3>. !<KA; 2K254K20=8O 8=D>@<0F88 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB>1K, >?8@0OAL =0 >1I85 70:>=><5@=>AB8 ?A8E8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 AC1J5:B0 =0H53> 8=B5@5A0, ?>1C48BL 53> : ?5@540G5 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 D>@<5 @01>B=8:C N@848G5A:>3> B@C40 8=D>@<0F88. >A:>;L:C MB>B AC1J5:B, :0: ?@028;>, A>7=0B5;L=> ?5@540BL MBC 8=D>@<0F8N =5 E>G5B, 53> =5>1E>48<> ?>1C48BL : =5>A>7=0==>9 55 ?5@540G5. 5AA>7=0B5;L=K5 ?A8E8G5A:85 O2;5=8O 4;O =>@<0;L=>9 687=545OB5;L=>AB8 >@30=87<0 O2;ONBAO ?@O<>9 =5>1E>48<>ABLN.  MB>< ?@>O2;O5BAO =>20O DC=:F8O 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3>: >=> >15A?5G8205B A2>5>1@07=CN @073@C7:C A>7=0=8O, GB> =0E>48B A2>5 >B@065=85 2 2K@01>B:5 B0: =07K205<KE 70I8B=KE <5E0=87<>2 A>7=0=8O. !<KA; 70I8B=KE <5E0=87<>2 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB>, >=8 2KB5A=ONB 8;8 ?>402;ONB 2AN BC 8=D>@<0F8N, E@0=82HCNAO 2 A>7=0=88, :>B>@0O <5H05B 8;8 ?@>B82>@5G8B 45OB5;L=>AB8 8 ?>2545=8N G5;>25:0 2 :>=:@5B=>9 A8BC0F88. @0=L <564C A>7=0B5;L=K< 8 15AA>7=0B5;L=K< 25AL<0 CA;>2=0. .!. >= >B<5G05B, GB> 70I8B=K5 <5E0=87<K ?@8720=K ?>445@6820BL 8725AB=CN F5;>AB=>ABL, CAB>9G82>ABL, 845=B8G=>ABL 8=48284C0;L=>3> A0<>A>7=0=8O 2 CA;>28OE, :>340 :>=D;8:B @07;8G=KE CAB0=>2>: AB028B 53> ?>4 C3@>7C. ____________________________________________________________________________ *>= .!. !>F8>;>38O ;8G=>AB8. ., 1967, A. 62. A;8 >1@0B8BLAO : ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 AB@C:BC@5 ;8G=>AB8, B> 2 55 @07;8G=KE ?>4AB@C:BC@0E <>6=> =09B8 =5<0;> M;5<5=B>2, O2;ONI8EAO 15AA>7=0B5;L=K<8 ?A8E8G5A:8<8 O2;5=8O<8. !:065<, >A=>2=K5 M;5<5=BK 18>;>38G5A:8 >1CA;>2;5==KE :0G5AB2  A2>9AB20 B5<?5@0<5=B0, 7040B:8, 2@>645==K5 2;5G5=8O 8 B. ?., >1KG=> =5 >A>7=0NBAO AC1J5:B><. =>38< ?A8E8G5A:8< ?@>F5AA0< ?@8ACH8 M;5<5=BK 15AA>7=0B5;L=>3>. #AB>9G82K5 M;5<5=BK ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> 8 687=5==>3> >?KB0, :0: ?@028;>, =5 >A>7=0NBAO AC1J5:B><. -B>  02B><0B878@>20==K5 =02K:8, C<5=8O 8 >A>15==> ?@82KG:8. =>385 459AB28O, A>25@H05<K5 G5;>25:>< <=>3>:@0B=> 8 8<5NI85 687=5==>5 7=0G5=85, B0:65 >AB0NBAO 2=5 53> A>7=0=8O. 0?@8<5@, <K 5654=52=> ?> =5A:>;L:C @07 ?>;L7C5<AO :;NG>< >B :20@B8@K, => >A>7=05< ;8HL 53> ?@O<>5 =07=0G5=85, GB> 65 :0A05BAO 35><5B@8G5A:>9 :>=D83C@0F88 :;NG0, B> >=0 =5 >B@0605BAO 2 A>7=0=88, 8 <K >1KG=> 8A?KBK205< 70B@C4=5=85, :>340 ?@>AOB =0@8A>20BL :;NG. 0:>=5F, >?@545;5==K5 G5@BK E0@0:B5@0, A2>9AB25==K5 G5;>25:C, ?@8ACI85 5<C A?>A>1=>AB8 B0:65 =5 2A5340 >A>7=0NBAO. 5@54:> 4;O >A>7=0=8O MB8E G5@B AC1J5:BC =C6=K G@572KG09=K5 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 (2>5==>5 2@5<O, =0?@8<5@), :>B>@K5 @0A:@>NB MB8 G5@BK :0: M;5<5=BK AB@C:BC@K ;8G=>AB8. =>340 G5;>25: =5 >A>7=05B A2>8E A?>A>1=>AB59, 8 >=8 @0A:@K20NBAO ?> <5@5 @0728B8O 53> A0<>A>7=0=8O, 2 ?@>F5AA5 45OB5;L=>AB8. !;54>20B5;L=>, 15AA>7=0B5;L=K5 O2;5=8O =5 5ABL >1;0ABL G53>-B> 70304>G=>3> 8 B08=AB25==>3>; MB> >1KG=K5 ?A8E8G5A:85 O2;5=8O, => =5 4>AB830NI85 C@>2=O A>7=0=8O 8;8 A0<>A>7=0=8O. AE>4O 87 >1I8E B5>@5B8G5A:8E ?>;>65=89 8 ?@0:B8G5A:>3> >?KB0 <>6=> 2K45;8BL 420 >A=>2=KE ?CB8 ?>;CG5=8O =5>1E>48<>9 =0< 8=D>@<0F88. 5@2K9  MB> ?>1C645=85 AC1J5:B0 : =5?@>872>;L=>9 @5G52>9 @5?@>4C:F88 (=5?@>872>;L=K< 2KA:07K20=8O<) D0:B>2, ?@54AB02;ONI8E 8=B5@5A 4;O @01>B=8:>2 N@848G5A:>3> B@C40. B>@>9  ?>1C645=85 8=B5@5ACNI53> =0A ;8F0 : =5?@>872>;L=K< D878G5A:8< 8;8 M:A?@5AA82=K< 459AB28O<, A>45@60I8< A>>B25BAB2CNICN 8=D>@<0F8N. 5@2K9 A?>A>1 <>6=> CA;>2=> =0720BL A;>25A=>-@5?@>4C:B82=K<, 0 2B>@>9  <>B>@=>-@5?@>4C:B82=K<. =CB@8 =0720==KE A?>A>1>2 <>6=> 2K45;8BL @O4 :>=:@5B=KE ?@85<>2, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE 8 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO ?>1C645=85 A2845B5;O, ?>B5@?52H53>, ?>4>7@5205<>3> 8 >128=O5<>3> : ?5@540G5 8=D>@<0F88 @01>B=8:C N@848G5A:>3> B@C40. 1. 5<>=AB@0F8O :>=:@5B=KE ?@54<5B>2, >682;ONI8E 2 ?0<OB8 708=B5@5A>20==>3> AC1J5:B0 A>>B25BAB2CNI85 >1@07K 8 ?>1C640NI8E 53> : =5?@>872>;L=K< 2KA:07K20=8O<. 0?@8<5@, GB>1K 2KOA=8BL, 7=0:><> ;8 ?>4>7@5205<>5 ;8F> A D>B>3@0D859, N@8AB-?@0:B8: 8;8 53> 4>25@5==>5 ;8F> 15@5B A A>1>9 :0:85-;81> D>B>?@8=04;56=>AB8 (D>B>0??0@0B, ?;5=:C, D>B>1C<03C 8 B, ?.), :>B>@K5 >1J5:B82=> <>3CB ?>A;C68BL ?>2>4>< : A>>B25BAB2CNI8< 2KA:07K20=8O<, @073>2>@C 2 F5;><. >>1I5, A;54C5B A:070BL, GB> 2 :0G5AB25 :>=:@5B=KE ?@54<5B>2, ?>1C640NI8E ?>B5@?52H53>, ?>4>7@5205<>3> 8;8 >128=O5<>3> : =5?@>872>;L=K< 2KA:07K20=8O<, <>3CB 1KBL 8A?>;L7>20=K ?@54<5BK, ?@8=04;560I85 A2O7O< ?@>25@O5<>3>, ?>B5@?52H53> 8 B. 4., 8=K5 ?@54<5BK, 4>ABC?=K5 4;O 2>A?@8OB8O (M:A?>=0BK 2KAB02>: 8 <C7552, ?;0:0BK, >1JO2;5=8O 8 B. 4.). @54<5B, 871@0==K9 4;O 45<>=AB@0F88, 4>;65= 1KBL 8725AB5= AC1J5:BC =0H59 708=B5@5A>20==>AB8. 5<>=AB@0F8O ?@54<5B0 4>;6=0 1KBL 5AB5AB25==>9 8 >?@024K20BLAO :>=:@5B=>9 A8BC0F859. 59AB28O 8 ?>ABC?:8 A>B@C4=8:0 ?@02>>E@0=8B5;L=KE >@30=>2, 45<>=AB@8@CNI53> ?@54<5B, 4>;6=K 1KBL ;>38G5A:8 ?>A;54>20B5;L=K<8 8 M:A?@5AA82=> >1>A=>20==K<8. #:070==K5 CA;>28O =0?@02;5=K =0 B>, GB>1K A:@KBL A>7=0B5;L=K9 E0@0:B5@ 45<>=AB@0F88 ?@54<5B0 8 ?>1C48BL AC1J5:B0 =0H59 708=B5@5A>20==>AB8 : A>>B25BAB2CNI8< 2KA:07K20=8O<. 5<>=AB@0F8O ?@54<5B>2 O2;O5BAO ?@>ABK< ?@85<>< ?>;CG5=8O 8=D>@<0F88. 2. A?>;L7>20=85 A<56=>9 B5<K @073>2>@0. -B>B ?@85< @073>2>@0 405B 2>7<>6=>ABL 25AB8 15A54C F5;5=0?@02;5==>, =5 ?@81530O : ?>AB0=>2:5 ?@O<KE 2>?@>A>2, 2 3>;>25 =C6=> 45@60BL =5 ?5@5G5=L 2>7<>6=>AB59, 0 A0<K9 A?>A>1 AB028BL B5<C, B> 5ABL C<5=85 1>:>2K<8 2>?@>A0<8 704020BL 3;02=K9 2>?@>A 8 ?>;CG0BL =0 =53> >B25B. >7<>6=>ABL @5?@>4C:F88 >1@07>2 ?>4 2;8O=85< @5G52KE 2>7459AB289 >A=>2K205BAO =0 ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:>< O2;5=88 A5<0=B8G5A:>9 35=5@0;870F88. !CI=>ABL MB>3> O2;5=8O 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> ?@0:B8G5A:8 >48=0:>2K5 @50:F88 2>7=8:0NB C G5;>25:0 =0 2A5 A;>20, :>B>@K5 AE>4=K ?> A<KA;C, B> 5ABL >B=>AOBAO : >4=>9 ;>38G5A:>9 3@C??5, 8 ?>GB8 =5 7028AOB >B 8E 72CG0=8O 8;8 =0?8A0=8O*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: 'C?@8:>20 .. !;>2> :0: D0:B>@ C?@02;5=8O 2 2KAH59 =5@2=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 G5;>25:0. ., 1967, A. 278 281. "5<0 @073>2>@0, 8A?>;L7C5<0O 2 :0G5AB25 A<56=>9, 4>;6=0 1KBL 8725AB=0 AC1J5:BC =0H59 708=B5@5A>20==>AB8 8 8<5BL 4;O =53> >?@545;5==CN ;8G=>AB=CN 7=0G8<>ABL. =0 4>;6=0 ;>38G5A:8 2KB5:0BL 87 :>=:@5B=>9 A8BC0F88. 59AB28O 8 ?>ABC?:8 A>B@C4=8:0 ?@02>>E@0=8B5;L=KE >@30=>2, >ACI5AB2;ONI53> ?>;CG5=85 8=D>@<0F88, 4>;6=K 1KBL ?A8E>;>38G5A:8 >1>A=>20==K<8 8 M:A?@5AA82=> ?>4B25@645==K<8. !<56=0O B5<0 =5 4>;6=0 1KBL A;8H:>< 1;87:0 : >A=>2=><C 2>?@>AC, ?>4;560I5<C 2K254K20=8N, B0: :0: 2 ?@>B82=>< A;CG05 >=0 ?@8>1@5B05B E0@0:B5@ ?;>E> 70<0A:8@>20==>3> ?@O<>3> 2>?@>A0. 3. >AB0=>2:0 ?@O<KE, => 4>AB0B>G=> <>B828@>20==KE 2>?@>A>2. 80?07>= ?@O<KE 2>?@>A>2, :>B>@K5 <>6=> AB028BL ?5@54 AC1J5:B>< =0H59 708=B5@5A>20==>AB8, 25AL<0 >@30=8G5=. ;O CA?5H=>3> ?@8<5=5=8O 2 N@848G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?@85<0 ?>AB0=>2:8 ?@O<KE <>B828@>20==KE 2>?@>A>2 =5>1E>48<> A>1;N40BL CA;>28O: 1) ?@O<>9 2>?@>A 4>;65= >B=>A8BLAO : B5<5, E>@>H> 8725AB=>9 AC1J5:BC =0H59 708=B5@5A>20==>AB8; 2) @01>B=8: N@848G5A:>9 ?@>D5AA88 8 8AB>G=8: 8=D>@<0F88 4>;6=K 4>25@OBL 4@C3 4@C3C; 3) ?@O<>9 2>?@>A 4>;65= 1KBL ?A8E>;>38G5A:8 >1>A=>20= 8 ?>4B25@645= >?@545;5==K<8 @5G52K<8 8=B>=0F8O<8. 4. K7>2 AC1J5:B0 708=B5@5A>20==>AB8 =0 A>>B25BAB2CNICN 15A54C ?CB5< D>@<8@>20=8O C =53> >?@545;5==>3> ?A8E8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O 2 ?@>F5AA5 >1I5=8O. A8E>D878>;>38G5A:8 B0:85 O2;5=8O >1JOA=ONBAO ?@8ACI59 ;N4O< B0: =07K205<>9 M<>F8>=0;L=>9 @50:B82=>ABLN. =0 E0@0:B5@87C5BAO 8=AB8=:B82=K< @5038@>20=85< =0 7<>F8>35==K9 @074@068B5;L. >7=8:0NI85 ?>4:>@:>2K5 4><8=0=BK 2>71C645=8O ?> 70:>=0< 8@@0480F88 >E20BK20NB ?>GB8 25AL >@30=87< 8 >1J5:B82=> <5H0NB F5;5=0?@02;5==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8*. ____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: 8;L15@<0= ..  2>?@>AC > <5B>45 8AA;54>20=8O M<>F8>=0;L=>9 CAB>9G82>AB8. 0B5@80;K III A5A>N7=>3> AJ5740 >1I5AB20 ?A8E>;>3>2 !!! . ". III. ., 1968, A. 210. K7>2C =0 15A54C 4>;6=> ?@54H5AB2>20BL D>@<8@>20=85 C AC1J5:B0 >?@545;5==>9 708=B5@5A>20==>AB8 2 >1I5=88. = 4>;65= >ACI5AB2;OBLAO A CG5B>< ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=KE 8 8=48284C0;L=KE >A>15==>AB59 8AB>G=8:0 8=D>@<0F88, 8AE>48BL 87 :>=:@5B=>9 A8BC0F88 >1I5=8O 8 D>@<8@>20BL >?@545;5==>5 ?A8E8G5A:>5 A>AB>O=85 C AC1J5:B0 708=B5@5A>20==>AB8. 5B>48G5A:8 >G5=L 206=>, GB>1K 459AB28O, 2K7K20NI85 AC1J5:B0 =0 15A54C, 1K;8 ;8G=>AB=> 4;O =53> 7=0G8<K<8. 5. 5<>=AB@0F8O :>=:@5B=KE ?@54<5B>2, A2O70==KE A ?@5ABC?=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN AC1J5:B0 =0H59 708=B5@5A>20==>AB8. 0==K9 ?@85< CA?5H=> ?@8<5=O5BAO 2 >?5@0B82=>9 8 A;54AB25==>9 ?@0:B8:5. #A;>28O<8 CA?5H=>3> ?@0:B8G5A:>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O MB>3> ?@85<0 O2;ONBAO: 1) 45<>=AB@8@C5<K5 :>=:@5B=K5 ?@54<5BK 4>;6=K 1KBL 459AB28B5;L=> 8;8 25@>OB=> A2O70=K A ?@5ABC?=>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN AC1J5:B0; 2) AC1J5:B 4>;65= 2>A?@8=OBL MB8 ?@54<5BK 2 A>>B25BAB2CNI59 A8BC0F88; 3) =0;8G85 45<>=AB@8@C5<KE ?@54<5B>2 4>;6=> 1KBL >?@0240=> >?@545;5==>9 687=5==>9 A8BC0F859; 4) 459AB28O 8 ?>ABC?:8 A>B@C4=8:0 ?@02>>E@0=8B5;L=KE >@30=>2, 45<>=AB@8@CNI53> ?@54<5B, 4>;6=K 2K@060BL 53> =59B@0;L=>5 >B=>H5=85 : MB8< ?@54<5B0< 8 1KBL A>>B25BAB2CNI8< >1@07>< <>B828@>20=K; 5) =5>1E>48<> BI0B5;L=> D8:A8@>20BL ?A8E8G5A:85 A>AB>O=8O AC1J5:B0 8 53> 2K@078B5;L=K5 42865=8O. 6. !>740=85 :@0B:>2@5<5==KE, =5>6840==KE 8;8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8 >AB@KE 687=5==KE A8BC0F89. 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A8E>;>38G5A:85 ?@85<K ?>;CG5=8O 8=D>@<0F88 A>AB02;ONB >48= 87 M;5<5=B>2 45OB5;L=>AB8 (2 G0AB=>AB8, @>;52>9) 8 1078@CNBAO =0 70:>=><5@=>ABOE ?A8E8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ;N459, 4. A8E>;>38G5A:85 0A?5:BK 2545=8O ?5@53>2>@>2 A ?@5ABC?=8:0<8 5@53>2>@K A ?@5ABC?=8:0<8. 5?@82KG=>5 A>G5B0=85 A;>2.  A0<>< 45;5, 2>7<>65= ;8 480;>3 8 4>AB865=85 :0:8E-;81> A>3;0H5=89 A ;8F0<8, ?@5ABC?82H8<8 C3>;>2=K9 70:>=, ?>4;560I8<8 ?@5A;54>20=8N A8;>9 3>AC40@AB25==>9 2;0AB8, N@848G5A:><C 8 =@02AB25==><C >AC645=8N?  =0H59 AB@0=5 8 70 @C156><, :@><5 70E20B0 70;>6=8:>2, 2A5 1>;55 <=>3>G8A;5==K<8 AB0=>2OBAO D0:BK ?>E8I5=8O ;N459, 2 B>< G8A;5 45B59, ?@>872545=89 :C;LBC@K 8 8A:CAAB20 4;O ?>;CG5=8O 2K:C?0, C3@>7 >ACI5AB28BL 2>>@C65==K5 =0?045=8O, C189AB20, 27@K2K, ?>46>38, <0AA>2K5 >B@02;5=8O, GB>1K 4>18BLAO 2K?>;=5=8O 2K428=CBKE CA;>289. @0:B8G5A:8 2> 2A5E ?>4>1=KE A;CG0OE A8;K ?@02>?>@O4:0 8 >1I5AB25==>9 157>?0A=>AB8 2K=C645=K 25AB8 ?5@53>2>@K, GB>1K A?0AB8 2KAH55 1;03> 75<=>3> 1KB8O  687=L, A@54C >18B0=8O ;N459, 4>AB865=8O G5;>25G5A:>9 F828;870F88. @8E>48BAO :>=AB0B8@>20BL, GB> ?5@53>2>@K A ?@5ABC?=8:0<8 ?>;CG8;8 7=0G8B5;L=>5 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85 2> 2A5< <8@5.  =8E G0I5 3>2>@OB A@54AB20 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88, 3075BK, @048>, B5;52845=85, A2>4:8 ?@>8AH5AB289. >6=> A:070BL, GB> >=8 AB0;8 ?@82KG=K< O2;5=85< A>F80;L=>9 8 ?@02>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, E0@0:B5@=>9 G5@B>9 A>2@5<5==>3> >1@070 687=8, >4=8< 87 =0?@02;5=89 ?@02>>E@0=8B5;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8*. ____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: ;;0@8>=>2 .. 5@53>2>@K A ?@5ABC?=8:0<8. ., 1993, A. 4 5. 0 @C156>< 5I5 2 =0G0;5 70-E 3>4>2 >A>7=0;8, GB> ?5@53>2>@K A ?@5ABC?=8:0<8 >B=>AOBAO : =>2K< ?>4E>40<, =>2K< <5@0<, ?>72>;ONI8< 2> <=>38E A8BC0F8OE >15A?5G8BL CAB@0=5=85 >?0A=>AB8, ?@54C?@548BL A>25@H5=85 BO6:8E ?@5ABC?;5=89, 871560BL ?@8<5=5=8O A8;K. @8G5< =5@54:> 548=AB25==K< @50;L=K< A@54AB2><. BAN40 8E A>F80;L=0O, ?@02>20O 8 <>@0;L=0O F5==>ABL, 2 MB>< 8E A<KA; 8 ?@54=07=0G5=85. >340 157 =8E >1>9B8AL =5;L7O  8E =04> ?@8<5=OBL; A<5;> 84B8 =0 480;>3 A ?@5ABC?=8:><. CAA:89 O7K: ?@840; A;>2C ?5@53>2>@K 420 7=0G5=8O. @>AB> ?5@53>20@820BLAO, 15A54>20BL A :5<-B>, ?5@54020BL 4@C3 4@C3C A2545=8O, 8=D>@<0F8N.  ?5@53>20@820BLAO, GB>1K 4>3>20@820BLAO, :0: 3>2>@8B 40;52A:89 A;>20@L, ?@8E>48BL : A>3;0H5=8N. -BC ?>=OB89=CN 42>9AB25==>ABL A;>20 =5;L7O =5 CG8BK20BL 2 B5>@88 8 ?@0:B8:5. #<5=85 25AB8 ?5@53>2>@K, B. 5. 48?;><0B8O, 8A?>:>= 25:>2 @0AA<0B@820;>AL :0: A;>6=K9 284 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 70:;NG0NI59AO 2 A?>A>1=>AB8 4>AB830BL A>3;0H5=8O 2 F5;OE ?@54>B2@0I5=8O 8;8 C@53C;8@>20=8O :>=D;8:B>2, ?>8A:0 :><?@><8AA>2 8 2708<>?@85<;5<KE @5H5=89.  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B25BAB25==>ABL, B@51>20B5;L=>ABL, =0E>4G82>ABL, C<5=85 E@0=8BL B09=C ?@8 @C:>2>4AB25 :>;;5:B820<8 ;N459 2 E>45 @0AA;54>20=8O C3>;>2=>3> 45;0. K45@6:0, A0<>:@8B8G=>ABL, 48AF8?;8=8@>20==>ABL, GC2AB2> A>1AB25==>3> 4>AB>8=AB20 2 >B=>H5=8OE A :>;;530<8 8 @C:>2>4AB2><*. _____________________________________________________________________________ * !<.: 0=3CB>2 .!., #<0=A:89 .. @30=870B>@ 8 >@30=870B>@A:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL. ., 1975, A.216, 238 AB0=>28<AO 8 =0 @5:>=AB@C:B82=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 A;54>20B5;O, @0AA<0B@820O 55 A2O78 A 4@C38<8 AB>@>=0<8.  @5:>=AB@C:B82=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 @50;87CNBAO B0:85 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K5 :0G5AB20 A;54>20B5;O, :0: 2>>1@065=85, ?0<OBL, <KH;5=85, >1I89 8 A?5F80;L=K9 8=B5;;5:B, 8=BC8F8O.  A>740=88 <KA;5==KE ?@>1 8 ?>A;54CNI59 @07@01>B:5 A;54AB25==KE 25@A89, >A>15==> =0 ?5@2>=0G0;L=KE MB0?0E @0AA;54>20=8O, 1>;LH>5 7=0G5=85 8<5NB 8=BC8F8O 8 2>>1@065=85 A;54>20B5;O. >>1@065=85 =0 >A=>25 A8=B570 ?>;CG5==>9 8=D>@<0F88 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> >?KB0 A>7405B 25@A88 ?@>H;>3> A>1KB8O, :>B>@K5 A>?>AB02;ONBAO A> 2A5<8 A>1@0==K<8 ?> 45;C 4>:070B5;LAB20<8. =BC8B82=K9 ?@>F5AA 2K@0605BAO 2 :><?;5:A=>< ?>4E>45 ?@8 0=0;875 8=D>@<0B82=KE >@85=B8@>2 ?>8A:0. =BC8F8O :0: G0ABL B2>@G5A:>3> <KH;5=8O =5 8A:;NG05B, 0 ?@54?>;0305B A>7=0B5;L=>5 48A:C@A82=>5 <KH;5=85, A?>A>1=>5 @0725@=CBL 4>304:C 2 A8AB5<5 4>:070B5;LAB2, >1=0@C68BL 55 D0:B8G5A:85 >A=>20=8O, >1JOA=8BL ?@>F5AA 55 D>@<8@>20=8O 8 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 >1=0@C68BL 55 ?@028;L=>ABL 8;8 >H81>G=>ABL. A=>2=>5 =07=0G5=85 8=BC8F88 2 ?@>F5AA5 @0AA;54>20=8O A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> >=0 A?>A>1AB2C5B A>740=8N 38?>B57K. =0 83@05B 206=CN 2A?><>30B5;L=CN @>;L 2 ?@>F5AA5 4>:07K20=8O, => =5 <>65B CG8BK20BLAO ?@8 ?@8=OB88 ?@>F5AAC0;L=KE @5H5=89. A:CAAB2> @0AA;54>20=8O  MB> 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 C<5=85 2845BL 8 ?>=8<0BL 2A5 4> <5;>G8. !;54C5B >B<5B8BL, >4=0:>, GB> 2845=85 >B45;L=KE 45B0;59 =8G53> =5 405B 157 >1>1I5=8O 8 ?5@5E>40 : A>1KB8N 2 F5;><.  MB> B@51C5B :>=:@5B=>3> 8 01AB@0:B=>3> 2 A;54AB25==>< <KH;5=88, :>B>@>5 ?>72>;O5B 2>AA>740BL :0@B8=C 2 F5;>< 8 C2845BL >B45;L=K5 55 HB@8E8. KH;5=85, :0: 8 2>>1@065=85, CG0AB2C5B =0 2A5< ?@>BO65=88 @0AA;54>20=8O, 81> <KH;5=85 G5;>25:0, 2 >B;8G85 >B GC2AB25==>3> ?>7=0=8O, =0G8=05BAO 2 A2O78 A 2>7=8:=>25=85< C =53> 7040G8, 2>?@>A0 8 4065 C482;5=8O*. !;54>20B5;N ?>AB>O==> ?@8E>48BAO @07@5H0BL B5 8;8 8=K5 7040G8, :>B>@K5 AB028B ?5@54 =8< @0AA;54>20=85 C3>;>2=>3> 45;0. _____________________________________________________________________________ * !<.: C:8= .., ;0B>=>2 .. A8E>;>38O. ., 1964, A. 142. 8A:C@A82=>5 <KH;5=85 A0<> ?> A515, 157 2:;NG5=8O 4@C38E :><?>=5=B>2. O2;O5BAO 2?>;=5 4>AB0B>G=K< A@54AB2>< 8AA;54>20=8O 8 4>:07K20=8O 2 A;CG0OE: 1) :>340 40=K 2A5 =5>1E>48<K5 CA;>28O 8 ?@54?>AK;:8 4;O @5H5=8O 7040G8 8 >B25B 4>AB8305BAO 2 @57C;LB0B5 2K2545=8O >4=>3> ?>;>65=8O 87 4@C3>3> 8 2) :>340 A2O7L <564C 8A:><K< >B25B><, 4>:07K205<K< ?>;>65=85< 8 ?@54?>AK;:0<8 >4=>7=0G=0 8;8 >3@0=8G5=0 =51>;LH8< G8A;>< 8 AB@>3> >?@545;5==K<8 D>@<0<8. ">340 459AB28B5;L=> E>4 @0AAC645=8O 845B >B >4=>3> 4>2>40 : 4@C3><C, ?>:0 8A:><>5 =5 AB0=5B 2?>;=5 OA=K< 8 4>:070==K<. 8A:C@A82=>5 <KH;5=85 E>@>H> @01>B05B 2 4>AB0B>G=> >G5@G5==>9 AD5@5, ?@>1530O >B45;L=K5 MB0?K <564C 70@0=55 =0<5G5==K<8 ?C=:B0<8 8 8725AB=K<8 ?>;>65=8O<8, ?@8 OA=>< @07;8G5=88 B>3>, GB> 40=> 8 GB> B@51C5BAO 4>:070BL, B> 5ABL =0 70:;NG8B5;L=KE MB0?0E @0AA;54>20=8O. @8 MB>< 42865=85 <KA;8 ?@>8AE>48B >B 8725AB=KE D0:B>2 : 8A:><><C, 4>:07K205<><C ?>;>65=8N, :>B>@>5 C65 =0<5G5=> 70@0=55, >D>@<8;>AL 38?>B5B8G5A:8. > @>645=85 38?>B57K (25@A88) 8 ?>41>@ A>>B25BAB2CNI8E D0:B8G5A:8E 40==KE ?@>8AE>48B =0 >A=>25 1>;55 H8@>:>3> 8 A>45@60B5;L=>3> ?@>F5AA0, G5< B>B, :>B>@K9 <K 8<55< 2 ;>38G5A:>< <KH;5=88. 0: CAB0=>2;5=> ?A8E>;>3859, 745AL 2ABC?05B 2 A2>8 ?@020 B2>@G5A:>5 <KH;5=85. AO:>5 <KH;5=85 2:;NG05B 2 A51O 420 =5>1E>48<KE :><?>=5=B0: 7=0=85 8 459AB285. 0H8 7=0=8O, B> 5ABL ?@54AB02;5=8O > G5<-;81>, 5I5 =5 <KH;5=85, 0 ;8HL 53> ?@54?>AK;:0 ;81> 53> @57C;LB0B. >6=> E>@>H> 7=0BL 70:>= 8 =5 C<5BL 53> ?@8<5=OBL, <>6=> 7=0BL :@8<8=0;8AB8:C 8 =5 C<5BL @0AA;54>20BL ?@5ABC?;5=8O. KH;5=85 2K@0605BAO 2 ?@8<5=5=88 7=0=89 4;O @5H5=8O >?@545;5==KE 7040G. -B>B ?@>F5AA A;0305BAO 87 <KA;8B5;L=KE 459AB289, :064>5 87 :>B>@KE @5H05B :>=:@5B=> >4=C M;5<5=B0@=CN 7040GC. !>2>:C?=>ABL 459AB289 8 >1@07C5B <KA;8B5;L=CN 45OB5;L=>ABL. #G0AB85 >1@07=KE :><?>=5=B>2 2 <KH;5=88 A;54>20B5;O C:@C?=O5B 8=D>@<0F8>==K5 M;5<5=BK, :>B>@K<8 >?5@8@C5B >= 2 ?@>F5AA5 <KH;5=8O, A?>A>1AB2C5B AB8<C;8@>20=8N <KA;8B5;L=>3> ?@>F5AA0, 2;5G5B 70 A>1>9 C25;8G5=85 :>;8G5AB20 ?@028;L=KE AC645=89 8 C<5=LH5=85 >H81>G=KE ?> <5@5 ?>O2;5=8O >1@07=KE :><?>=5=B>2 2 ?@>F5AA5 <KH;5=8O. CBL >B >1@07=>3> <KH;5=8O : ?>=OB89=><C 2545B >B :>=:@5B=>3> >1@070 G5@57 D>@<8@>20=85 >1@070 2A5 1>;55 2KA>:>3> C@>2=O >1>1I5=8O : >1@07=K< AE5<0<.  >1@07=KE AE5<0E 70:@5?;ONBAO C65 =5 2A5 G5@BK >B@0605<>3> ?@54<5B0, 0 D8:A8@CNBAO B>;L:> 3;02=K5 :><?>=5=BK, ACI5AB25==K5 2 ?@0:B8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. '5< 40;LH5 ?@>428305BAO >1@07 >B 2>A?@8OB8O : AE5<5, B5< >= 01AB@0:B=55, B> 5ABL C?@>I05BAO, CB@0G8205B =5:>B>@K5 87 A2>8E M;5<5=B>2. @>25@:0 :@8<8=0;8AB8G5A:>9 25@A88 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8 B@C4=0 ?@8 @01>B5 A;54>20B5;O. 06=CN @>;L 2 MB>9 ?@>25@:5 83@05B <5E0=87< A0<>?>4B25@645=8O*, 1;03>40@O :>B>@><C AC1J5:B AG8B05B ?@028;L=>9 ;8HL 8=D>@<0F8N, ?>4B25@640NICN 2K428=CBCN 8< 25@A8N, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: ?@>B82>@5G0I85 MB>9 38?>B575 A2545=8O ?@8=8<0NBAO 70 ;>6=K5. -BC >A>15==>ABL >B<5G0NB 8 4@C385 ?A8E>;>38. _____________________________________________________________________________ * !<.: C=:5@ . A8E>;>38O ?@>4C:B82=>3> <KH;5=8O. A8E>;>38O <KH;5=88. ., 1965, A. 86; >7>2 .. -:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 8AA;54>20=88 M2@8AB8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. >?@>AK ?A8E>;>388. 1968, ! 6. 0 2K1>@ 8 >F5=:C 25@A89 ?> 45;C =0@O4C A <5E0=87<>< A0<>?>4B25@645=8O >:07K205B 2;8O=85 ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O 8=5@F8O, 2 A8;C :>B>@>9 A;54>20B5;L >B405B ?@54?>GB5=85 >4=>9 25@A88. A8E>;>38G5A:0O 8=5@F8O  ?@54@0A?>;>65==>ABL : :0:><C-B> :>=:@5B=><C <5B>4C 8;8 >1@07C <KH;5=8O ?@8 @5H5=88 7040G8*. _____________________________________________________________________________ * !<.: 8:A>= 6. @>5:B8@>20=85 A8AB5<: 87>1@5B0B5;LAB2>, 0=0;87 8 ?@8=OB85 @5H5=89. 0C:0 8 687=L. 1969. ! 3, A. 68. 1O70B5;L=K< :><?>=5=B>< @5:>=AB@C:B82=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 O2;O5BAO ?@>25@:0 =0456=>AB8 55 @57C;LB0B>2. 0 >:>=G0B5;L=>9 AB0488 B0:8< :>=B@>;5< 4;O A;54>20B5;O O2;O5BAO AC4, => E>@>H89 A;54>20B5;L 4> AC40 =0 @07;8G=KE MB0?0E A2>59 @01>BK ?@>25@O5B A>740==CN 8< :>=AB@C:F8N @07;8G=K<8 A?>A>10<8, C15640OAL 2 55 =0456=>AB8. !>F80;L=0O AB>@>=0 >E20BK205B ?>;8B8G5A:89 0A?5:B 45OB5;L=>AB8 A;54>20B5;O :0: >@30=870B>@0 1>@L1K A ?@5ABC?=>ABLN =0 225@5==>< 5<C CG0AB:5. -B0 45OB5;L=>ABL 2:;NG05B 0=0;87 ?@5ABC?=>AB8, ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:85 <5@>?@8OB8O, ?@02>2CN ?@>?030=4C 8 =0G0;L=CN AB048N ?5@52>A?8B0=8O ?@5ABC?=8:0 4;O 2>72@0I5=8O 53> : A>F80;L=>9 =>@<5 ?>2545=8O. !>F80;L=0O AB>@>=0 >B@0605B ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=CN =0?@02;5==>ABL, B> 5ABL 8=B5@5A : ?@>D5AA88, <>B82K, ?>1C640NI85 : A;54AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, 8 M<>F8>=0;L=>5 : =59 >B=>H5=85. 5GL 845B > A;54>20B5;OE, >B=>AOI8EAO : A2>59 @01>B5 :0: : B2>@G5A:><C ?>8A:C 8AB8=K ?> :064><C C3>;>2=><C 45;C. 0AA;54>20=85  MB> 8B>3 53> @074C<89, 687=5==>3> 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> >?KB0, 8=BC8F88 8 B0;0=B0. 8G=>ABL A;54>20B5;O >B;8G05BAO A;>6=>ABLN 8 <=>3>3@0==>ABLN. >;LH>5 7=0G5=85 2 D>@<8@>20=88 ;8G=>AB8 A;54>20B5;O 8<5NB CG51=0O ?>43>B>2:0 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL, :>B>@0O ?@54JO2;O5B :><?;5:A B@51>20=89 : 53> ;8G=>AB=K< :0G5AB20< 8 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=K< =02K:0<, @072820O 8 70:@5?;OO 8E 2 AB@C:BC@5 ;8G=>AB8. 48= 87 3;02=KE 0A?5:B>2 AB0BCA0 ;8G=>AB8 A;54>20B5;O  >2;045=85 8< A2>59 A>F80;L=>9 @>;LN 2> 2A5< 55 @07=>>1@0788 8 48=0<8:5. !;54>20B5;L 2 A2>59 @01>B5 ?>AB>O==> 8A?KBK205B M<>F8>=0;L=K5 ?5@53@C7:8. 0 =53> 459AB2C5B 1>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> >B@8F0B5;L=KE M<>F89: AB@0E, 60;>ABL, >B2@0I5=85, 3=52, :>B>@K5 >= 4>;65= 2 A8;C 2K?>;=5=8O A2>53> A;C651=>3> 4>;30 ?>402;OBL, 0 2 8=KE A;CG0OE A:@K20BL. ;O A=OB8O =5@2=>3> =0?@O65=8O, 2>7=8:0NI53> ?>4 459AB285< C:070==KE M<>F89, =5>1E>48<0 ?>;>68B5;L=0O @07@O4:0.  55 >A=>25 ;568B GC2AB2> C4>2;5B2>@5=8O @57C;LB0B0<8 A2>53> B@C40. >GB8 ?> :064><C 45;C A;54>20B5;L 2KABC?05B 2 DC=:F88 :@8<8=>;>30 8 A>F8>;>30, 2KOA=ONI53> ?@8G8=K 8 CA;>28O A>25@H5=8O 40==>3> ?@5ABC?;5=8O, 0 B0:65 2 :0G5AB25 ?5403>30, >:07K20NI53> 2>A?8B0B5;L=>5 2>7459AB285 =0 ;8F>, A>25@H82H55 MB> ?@5ABC?;5=85. 5OB5;L=>ABL AC4L8 8A:;NG8B5;L=> A;>6=0 8 <=>3>>1@07=0 8 @50;87C5B 7=0G8B5;L=>5 :>;8G5AB2> A?5F80;L=KE :0G5AB2 8 =02K:>2 ;8G=>AB8, :>B>@K5, 1C4CG8 ?@82545=K 2 A8AB5<C, >@30=8G5A:8 2E>4OB 2 AB@C:BC@C ;8G=>AB8 AC4L8 8 >?@545;ONB 53> B2>@G5A:89 ?>B5=F80; 8 8=48284C0;L=K9 AB8;L 45OB5;L=>AB8. @>D5AA8>=0;L=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL AC4L8 45B0;L=> 8 G5B:> @53;0<5=B8@>20=0 70:>=><. !C4LO =045;5= 2;0AB=K<8 ?>;=><>G8O<8, ?@8<5=O5B 2;0ABL >B 8<5=8 3>AC40@AB20, 0 MB> @0728205B ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>5 GC2AB2> ?>2KH5==>9 >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 ?>A;54AB28O A2>8E 459AB289. K@010BK205BAO MB> =0 >A=>25 2KA>:8E <>@0;L=KE :0G5AB2, ?@02>A>7=0=8O, 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?>AB>O==>3> ?>=8<0=8O 206=>AB8 A2>59 45OB5;L=>AB8 4;O >1I5AB20.  A2>59 45OB5;L=>AB8 AC4LO >1O70= @C:>2>4AB2>20BLAO =0@O4C A >=AB8BCF859 8 4@C38<8 70:>=>40B5;L=K<8 0:B0<8, 459AB2CNI8<8 =0 B5@@8B>@88 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88, >1I5?@8=OBK<8 =>@<0<8 =@02AB25==>AB8 8 ?@028;0<8 ?>2545=8O, A?>A>1AB2>20BL CB25@645=8N 2 >1I5AB25 C25@5==>AB8 2 A?@0254;82>AB8, 15A?@8AB@0AB=>AB8 8 =57028A8<>AB8 AC40. = 4>;65= 871530BL 2A53>, GB> <>3;> 1K C<0;8BL 02B>@8B5B AC451=>9 2;0AB8. !C4LO =5 4>;65= ?@8G8=OBL CI5@1 ?@5AB86C A2>59 ?@>D5AA88 2 C3>4C ;8G=K< 8=B5@5A0< 8;8 8=B5@5A0< 4@C38E ;8F*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: >45:A G5AB8 AC4L8 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88. 0:>==>ABL. 1994. ! 2, A. 36 37. >AB>O==0O >B25BAB25==>ABL AC4L8 ?5@54 >1I5AB2>< ?@545;L=> AB8<C;8@C5B 53> ?>7=020B5;L=K5 A?>A>1=>AB8, 0=0;87 2A59 ?>;CG05<>9 8=D>@<0F88, B@51C5B >B =53> G5B:>AB8 8 OA=>AB8 2 ?@8=OB88 @5H5=89. !C4L59 4>;65= 1KBL G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 A2>8< ;8G=K< ?>2545=85<, A2>8< >B=>H5=85< : @01>B5 70A;C68; 4>25@85 8 02B>@8B5B, G5;>25:, :>B>@K9 8<55B 1>;LH>9 >1I5AB25==>-?>;8B8G5A:89 >?KB, C<55B @0718@0BLAO 2 ;N4OE...*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: 0;8=8= ..  A>F80;8AB8G5A:>9 70:>==>AB8. ., 1959, A. 177. A>15==>ABL 45OB5;L=>AB8 AC4L8 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB> >=0 =5 <>65B @0AA<0B@820BLAO B>;L:> :0: A;C610, >=0 2A5340 4>;6=0 1KBL ?@8720=85<. 0: E>@>H> ?>4<5B8; . 54K=A:89, 3;02=>5  2 A0<>9 ?A8E>;>388 AC4L8, 2 53> D8;>A>DA:>< >A<KA;5=88 >B=>H5=8O : G5;>25:C 8 >1I5AB2C... !C4 =5 A;C610, AC4  2KA>:>5 >1I5AB25==>5 A;C65=85 8 A;5?>9 AC4LO =0@>4C =5 A;C30*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *54K=A:89 . "@C4=0O :=830. ., 1966, A. 333. !C451=K5 45;0 G@572KG09=> @07=>>1@07=K :0: ?> >1J5<C, B0: 8 ?> E0@0:B5@C. 07=>?;0=>2>ABL @01>BK AC4L8 ?@54?>;0305B =5<0;CN >1ICN 8 N@848G5A:CN M@C48F8N, C<5=85 ?@8=8<0BL @5H5=8O 2 A0<KE @07=>>1@07=KE A8BC0F8OE. A=>2=0O 7040G0 AC40  2K=5A5=85 A?@0254;82>3> ?@83>2>@0 8;8 @5H5=8O ?> 45;C =0 >A=>20=88 3;C1>:>3> 8 2A5AB>@>==53> 8AA;54>20=8O 4>:070B5;LAB2 8 2 A>>B25BAB288 A 459AB2CNI8< 70:>=>40B5;LAB2><. !C451=K9 ?@>F5AA >:07K205B 2>A?8B0B5;L=>5 2>7459AB285 =0 2A5E, :B> CG0AB2C5B 8;8 ?@8ACBAB2C5B =0 =5<, 0 B0:65 =0 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 7=0G8B5;L=K5 3@C??K =0A5;5=8O, =0E>4OI85AO 70 ?@545;0<8 AC40. !C4K >:07K20NB 2;8O=85 =0 A;54CNI85 0A?5:BK >1I5AB25==>3> <=5=8O: $>@<8@CNB C 3@0640= ?@02>A>7=0=85. #3>;>2=K5 ?@>F5AAK A>740NB A>F80;L=>-?A8E>;>38G5A:CN 0B<>AD5@C =5>B2@0B8<>AB8 =0:070=8O. @8 2KA>:>9 :C;LBC@5 AC451=>3> ?@>F5AA0 A>740NB 2>:@C3 ?@5ABC?=8:0 8 53> ?>A>1=8:>2 0B<>AD5@C <>@0;L=>3> >AC645=8O. !C451=K9 ?@>F5AA AB8<C;8@C5B >1I5AB25==>5 <=5=85 : 2KO2;5=8N ?@8G8= 8 CA;>289, A?>A>1AB2>202H8E A>25@H5=8N ?@5ABC?;5=8O*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: 0A8;L52 .. .@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O. !. 159. >2545=85, >1;8: AC4L8 4>;6=K 1KBL B0:8<8, GB>1K >= A@07C 2=CH0; : A515 C2065=85, GB>1K C 2A5E ?@8ACBAB2CNI8E A>74020;>AL C15645=85 2 53> ?@025, A?>A>1=>AB8, C<5=88 @5H0BL A;>6=K5 45;0, @5H0BL AC4L1K ;N459.  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'!", !/ !#/ !%/ ;020 VIII @8<8=0;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O. 1. @54<5B 8 7040G8 :@8<8=0;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 @8<8=0;L=0O ?A8E>;>38O 87CG05B ?A8E8G5A:85 70:>=><5@=>AB8, A2O70==K5 A D>@<8@>20=85< ?@5ABC?=>9 CAB0=>2:8 ;8G=>AB8, >1@07>20=85< ?@5ABC?=>3> C<KA;0, ?>43>B>2:>9 8 A>25@H5=85< ?@5ABC?;5=8O, 0 B0:65 A>740=85< ?@5ABC?=>3> AB5@5>B8?0 ?>2545=8O. =0 8AA;54C5B ;8G=>ABL ?@5ABC?=8:0, 0 B0:65 ?CB8 8 A?>A>1K 2>A?8B0B5;L=>3> 2>7459AB28O =0 MBC ;8G=>ABL 8 3@C??C 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>< 0A?5:B5. 8:BC5BAO =5>1E>48<>ABL 87CG5=8O ;8G=>AB8 ?@5ABC?=8:0 ?@5645 2A53> ?>B@51=>ABO<8 ?@0:B8:8 1>@L1K A ?@5ABC?=>ABLN.  @0<:0E :@8<8=0;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 8AA;54CNBAO ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 ;8G=>AB8 =5 B>;L:> =0A8;LAB25==KE, => 8 :>@KAB=KE ?@5ABC?=8:>2, AB@C:BC@0 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 ?@5ABC?=KE 3@C??. 0CG=K5 48AF8?;8=K ?>-@07=><C ?>4E>4OB : 35=578AC ?@02>=0@CH5=89. "0:, 4;O :@8<8=>;>388, A>F8>;>388 8 ?A8E>;>388 1>;55 ?@>4C:B825= 48=0<8G5A:89 ?>4E>4, ?>72>;ONI89 87CG8BL ?>2545=85 G5;>25:0 2 @0728B88. 45AL :>=:@5B=>5 ?@02>=0@CH5=85 5ABL ?@>F5AA, @0725@BK20NI89AO :0: 2 ?@>AB@0=AB25, B0: 8 2> 2@5<5=8. >A:>;L:C =0A 8=B5@5ACNB ?@8G8=K ?@02>=0@CH5=89, =5>1E>48<>, CG8BK20BL =5 B>;L:> A0<8 459AB28O, >1@07CNI85 70?@5I5==K9 70:>=>< ?>ABC?>:, => 8 >B45;L=K5 ?@54H5AB2CNI85 8< A>1KB8O. @>F5AA D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8 E>BO 8 8=B5@5AC5B ?@02> 8 :@8<8=>;>38N, =>, AB@>3> 3>2>@O, =5 O2;O5BAO ?@54<5B>< 8E 87CG5=8O: MB> 45;> ?5403>38:8, ?A8E>;>388, A>F8>;>388 8 4@C38E =0C: > G5;>25:5*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: C4@O2F52 .. @8G8=K ?@02>=0@CH5=89. ., 1976, A. 90. #A?5H=0O A>F80;870F8O 2 ?@>F5AA5 @0728B8O 8 AB0=>2;5=8O ;8G=>AB8 ?@54>?@545;O5BAO =0;8G85< 4>AB0B>G=> ?@>G=KE A>F80;L=KE B>@<>7>2 8 2=CB@5==53> :>=B@>;O. #<KA5;, :0: ?@028;>, 2>7=8:05B 2 ?@>F5AA5 <KH;5=8O. 0 53> D>@<8@>20=85 >:07K20NB 2>7459AB285 ?>=OB8O 8 ?@54AB02;5=8O, =5 A>>B25BAB2CNI85 >1I5AB25==><C ?@02>A>7=0=8N. 0A:>;L:> ;8F> 70@065=> 0=B8>1I5AB25==K<8 273;O40<8, :0:CN 8<55B A>F80;L=CN =0?@02;5==>ABL, C405BAO 2KOA=8BL, ;8HL @0AA<>B@52 :><?;5:A 53> ?>B@51=>AB59, 8=B5@5A>2, <>B82>2 459AB28O. 0 >1@07>20=85 ?@>B82>?@02=>3> C<KA;0 2;8ONB 8 B8? =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K, B5<?5@0<5=B, E0@0:B5@. >ABC;8@>20=85 D0:B0, GB> ?@5ABC?=>ABL >1CA;>2;5=0 ?@5645 2A53> A>F80;L=>, 2>2A5 =5 >7=0G05B, GB> 83=>@8@CNBAO 8=48284C0;L=K5 A2>9AB20 ;8G=>AB8 ?@8 87CG5=88 ?@5ABC?=>3> ?>2545=8O. =0;87 A>F80;L=>3> 8 18>;>38G5A:>3> 2 ;8G=>AB8 ?@54?>;0305B ?@5645 2A53> @0AA<>B@5=85 A>>B=>H5=8O MB8E D0:B>@>2 2 ?@>F5AA5 A>F80;L=>3> @0728B8O, D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8. >?KB:C A>?>AB028BL A>>B=>H5=85 18>;>38G5A:>3> 8 A>F80;L=>3> 2 AB@C:BC@5 ;8G=>AB8 2 ?@>F5AA5 55 >=B>35=570 ?@54?@8=O; .. ;0B>=>2, ?>:0702, GB> A>>B=>H5=85 MB8E D0:B>@>2 =5>48=0:>2> 2 @07;8G=KE ?>4AB@C:BC@0E*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: ;0B>=>2 .. !B@C:BC@0 8 @0728B85 ;8G=>AB8. ., 1986; ;0B>=>2 .., >;C152 .. A8E>;>38O. ., 1977, A.38 42; 86 97. >A25==>5, >?>A@54AB2>20==>5 2;8O=85 A>F80;L=>3> D0:B>@0 =0 >A>15==>AB8 18>;>38G5A:>9 ?>4AB@C:BC@K =5 <5=55 >G5284=>, :0: 8 2;8O=85 18>;>38G5A:>3> =0 ?>4AB@C:BC@C =0?@02;5==>AB8 ;8G=>AB8, E>BO ?>;, B8? 8 AB@C:BC@C =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K, ?0B>;>388 8 7040B:8 G5;>25: ?>;CG05B ?@8 @>645=88. 065 18>;>38G5A:0O ?>4AB@C:BC@0, 345 @5GL 845B > AC3C1> 2@>645==KE 8 =0A;54AB25==KE A2>9AB20E 8=482840, =5 A2>1>4=0 ?>;=>ABLN >B 2;8O=8O A@54K, 2>7459AB2CNI59 =0 =53> >?>A@54>20==>, G5@57 >@30=87< <0B5@8. >AB0B>G=> A;>6=K< >:07K205BAO 2708<>459AB285 18>;>38G5A:>3> 8 A>F80;L=>3> D0:B>@0 =0 2KAH59 ?>4AB@C:BC@5 =0?@02;5==>AB8, ?@>O2;ONI59AO 2 ;8G=>AB=KE :0G5AB20E 8 ?>2545=88 G5;>25:0, 2 E0@0:B5@5 53> A>F80;L=>9 0:B82=>AB8. 725AB=>, GB> 35@>O<8 8 ?@5ABC?=8:0<8 =5 @>640NBAO, 0 AB0=>2OBAO, A;54>20B5;L=>, 2 D>@<8@>20=88 MB8E :0G5AB2 254CI55 <5AB> >B2>48BAO A>F80;L=K<, ?@8687=5==K< D0:B>@0<, 2>A?8B0=8N, >1CG5=8N, 2;8O=8N >:@C60NI59 A@54K. 1I5AB2> <>65B 8 4>;6=> ?@54C?@5640BL ?@5ABC?=>5 ?>2545=85 8=48284>2, :>B>@K5 8<5NB =51;03>?@8OB=CN >@30=8G5A:CN >BO3>I5==>ABL, => ?@8 MB>< A>F80;L=>-2>A?8B0B5;L=K5 ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:85 ?@>3@0<<K 4>;6=K AB@>8BLAO A CG5B>< MB8E 8<5NI8E =51;03>?@8OB=K9 E0@0:B5@ ?A8E>18>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59 G0AB8 ?@02>=0@CH8B5;59. >MB><C ?>=OB5= B>B 8=B5@5A, :>B>@K9 ?@>O2;ONB : 40==><C 2>?@>AC ?@54AB028B5;8 @07;8G=KE >B@0A;59 ?A8E>;>388, :@8<8=>;>388, <548F8=K, 8AA;54CNI85 ?@>1;5<C >B:;>=ONI53>AO ?>2545=8O 8 ?@5ABC?=>AB8. "0:, 2 A2>5< 8AA;54>20=88 .. 20=5A>2 2K45;O5B 18>;>38G5A:85 ?@54?>AK;:8, 83@0NI85 >B@8F0B5;L=CN @>;L 2 ?>2545=88 G5;>25:0: ?0B>;>38O 18>;>38G5A:8E ?>B@51=>AB59, GB> G0AB> AB0=>28BAO ?@8G8=>9 A5:AC0;L=KE 872@0I5=88 8 ?>;>2KE ?@5ABC?;5=89; =5@2=>-?A8E8G5A:85 701>;520=8O (=52@0AB5=88, ?A8E>?0B88, @07;8G=K5 ?>3@0=8G=K5 A>AB>O=8O), ?>2KH0NI85 2>71C48<>ABL =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K 8 >1CA;>2;820NI85 =5045:20B=CN @50:F8N, 70B@C4=ONI85 A>F80;L=K9 :>=B@>;L 70 459AB28O<8; =0A;54AB25==K5 701>;520=8O, >A>15==> >BO3>I5==K5 0;:>3>;87<><, :>B>@K<8 AB@040NB 40% C<AB25==> >BAB0;KE 45B59; ?A8E>D878>;>38G5A:85 =03@C7:8, :>=D;8:B=K5 A8BC0F88, 87<5=5=85 E8<8G5A:>3> >:@C65=8O A@54K, 8A?>;L7>20=85 =>2KE 284>2 M=5@388, :>B>@K5 :0: ?@82>4OB : @07;8G=K< ?A8E>?0B8G5A:8<, 0;;5@38G5A:8<, B>:A8G5A:8< 701>;520=8O<, B0: 8 A;C60B 4>?>;=8B5;L=K< :@8<8=0;L=K< D0:B>@><*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: 20=5A>2 .. @8<8=>;>38O 8 A>F80;L=0O ?@>D8;0:B8:0. ., 1980, A. 226 230. 48= 87 ACI5AB25==KE :><?>=5=B>2 ?@8G8==>3> :><?;5:A0 ?@5ABC?=>AB8  MB> =5C4>2;5B2>@5==>ABL 70?@>A>2 ;N459 2 AD5@5 ?>B@51;5=8O, @07@K2 <564C ?>B@51=>ABO<8 2 <0B5@80;L=>-B>20@=KE F5==>ABOE 8;8 CA;C30E 8 2>7<>6=>ABO<8 8E @50;870F88. 2. A8E>;>38G5A:89 0=0;87 ;8G=>AB8 ?@5ABC?=8:0 @>1;5<0 ;8G=>AB8 ?@5ABC?=8:0 2A5 1>;55 ?@82;5:05B : A515 2=8<0=85 >B5G5AB25==KE N@8AB>2.  MB>9 A2O78 <K AG8B05< =5>1E>48<K< ?@>25AB8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 0=0;87 ;8G=>AB8 ?@5ABC?=8:0. 5OB5;L=>ABL, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?@5ABC?=0O, 2> <=>3>< >1CA;>2;5=0 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 A0<>3> G5;>25:0. #3>;>2=>-?@>F5AAC0;L=K9 70:>=, >?@545;OO ?@54<5B 4>:07K20=8O, B@51C5B 2KOA=5=8O >1AB>OB5;LAB2, 2;8ONI8E =0 AB5?5=L 8 E0@0:B5@ >B25BAB25==>AB8 >128=O5<>3>, 0 B0:65 8=KE >1AB>OB5;LAB2, E0@0:B5@87CNI8E ;8G=>ABL >128=O5<>3>. 4=0:> 4> =0AB>OI53> 2@5<5=8 =0 ?@0:B8:5 >1AB>OB5;LAB20, :>B>@K5 E0@0:B5@87CNB ;8G=>ABL >128=O5<>3> A 4>AB0B>G=>9 ?>;=>B>9, =5 CAB0=02;820NBAO*. 8HL 2 >B=>H5=88 =5A>25@H5==>;5B=8E 70:>= C:07K205B =5A:>;L:> 1>;55 ?>4@>1=K9 :@C3 >1AB>OB5;LAB2, :>B>@K5 =5>1E>48<> 2KOA=8BL. >MB><C @07@01>B:0 ?@87=0:>2 ;8G=>AB8 ?@5ABC?=8:0, ?>4;560I8E CAB0=>2;5=8N, O2;O5BAO 206=>9 7040G59 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: >;LH5 2=8<0=8O 8AA;54>20=8N ;8G=>AB8 >128=O5<>3>. N;;5B5=L 5@E>2=>3> !C40 !!! , 1969, ! 2; 0B8I520 ., 528 . "0:B8:0 A;54AB25==KE 459AB289 ?@8 CG0AB88 70I8B=8:0. 0:>==>ABL. . , 1993, ! 12; '5@B:>2 . @54;>65=8O ?@>:C@>@0 > <5@5 =0:070=8O. 0:>==>ABL. ., 1993, ! 12 8 B. 4. @8 :@8<8=>;>38G5A:>< 87CG5=88 =0 ?@0:B8:5 2065= 0=0;87 ;8G=>AB8 2> 2708<>459AB288 A A>F80;L=>9 A@54>9, ?>A:>;L:C ?@5ABC?=>5 ?>2545=85 @>6405B =5 A0<0 ?> A515 ;8G=>ABL 8;8 A@540, 0 8<5==> 8E 2708<>459AB285. ;8O=85 A>F80;L=>9 A@54K =0 ?@5ABC?=>5 ?>2545=85 =>A8B A;>6=K9 E0@0:B5@. @C38<8 A;>20<8, A>F80;L=>-M:>=><8G5A:85, ?>;8B8G5A:85 8 :C;LBC@=K5 0A?5:BK 687=8 >1I5AB20 >:07K20NB 2=5H=55 2>7459AB285 =0 D>@<8@>20=85 <>45;8@C5<>3> <5E0=87<0 ?@5ABC?;5=8O B>340 :0: ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 8 ?A8E8G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 <>45;8@C5<>3> ?@5ABC?=8:0 D>@<8@CNB 53> 87=CB@8, A>AB02;OO :0: 1K 2=CB@5==55 A>45@60=85. "0:0O 3@040F8O D0:B>@>2, :>=5G=>, 25AL<0 CA;>2=0, 8 B5< =5 <5=55 MB> 3>2>@8B > =5>1E>48<>AB8 8E :><?;5:A=>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O. 8G=>ABL ?@5ABC?=8:0 ?@54AB02;O5B 4;O :@8<8=>;>388 8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=K9 8=B5@5A, 81> >=0 =5 ?@>AB> >B@0605B >?@545;5==K5 2=5H=85 CA;>28O, => O2;O5BAO 0:B82=>9 AB>@>=>9 2708<>459AB28O. ;O =55 E0@0:B5@=0 A>7=0B5;L=0O, F5;5=0?@02;5==0O 45OB5;L=>ABL. !2O7L A>F80;L=KE CA;>289 A ?@5ABC?=K< ?>2545=85< O2;O5BAO A;>6=>9, ?@8G5< 2A5340 A>F80;L=K5 CA;>28O ?@>O2;ONBAO 2 ?@5ABC?;5=88, ?@5;><;OOAL G5@57 ;8G=>ABL.  @O45 A;CG052 >=8 2 ?@>F5AA5 4;8B5;L=>3> A>F80;L=>3> 2708<>459AB28O =0:;04K20NB >B=>A8B5;L=> AB>9:89 >B?5G0B>: =0 ;8G=>ABL 8 ?>@>640NB =5 >B45;L=K5 ?@5ABC?=K5 0:BK, 0 CAB>9G82CN ?@>B82>?@02=CN >@85=B0F8N, :>B>@0O ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 :><?;5:A5 :>=:@5B=KE ?@02>=0@CH5=89. B;8G85 ?@5ABC?=>3> ?>2545=8O >B ?@02><5@=>3>, ?> =0H5<C <=5=8N, :>@5=8BAO 2 A8AB5<5 F5==>AB=KE >@85=B0F88, 273;O4>2 8 A>F80;L=KE CAB0=>2>:, B> 5ABL 2 A>45@60B5;L=>9 AB>@>=5 A>7=0=8O. 1I5?@87=0=>, GB> 8<5==> 2 :>>@48=0B0E F5==>AB=>-=>@<0B82=>9 A8AB5<K ;8G=>AB8 8 A>F80;L=>9 A@54K, 8E 2708<>459AB288 =04> 8A:0BL =5?>A@54AB25==K5 ?@8G8=K ?@5ABC?=>3> ?>2545=8O*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<. ?>4@>1=55: 0A8;L52 .. .@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O. !. 222 224. =0;87 :@8<8=0;8AB8G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@K ?>:07K205B, GB> 2>?@>AC 87CG5=8O ?A8E>;>388 ?@5ABC?=8:0 C45;O;>AL 8 C45;O5BAO 1>;LH>5 2=8<0=85 ( 0B8=>2 . ., 3>H52 .., ;07K@8= .., C;>2 .., 0A8;L52 .. 8 4@.). @0:B8G5A:8 :0640O @01>B0 ?> :@8<8=0;8AB8G5A:>9 B0:B8:5 8 <5B>48:5 2:;NG05B 2 A51O B5 8;8 8=K5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 0A?5:BK. "5< =5 <5=55, :0: A2845B5;LAB2C5B ?@0:B8:0, B5>@5B8G5A:85 8AA;54>20=8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59 ?@02>=0@CH8B5;59 =5 A>2A5< ?>;=> >A25I0NB :0@B8=C ?@5ABC?=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. =>385 2>?@>AK >AB0NBAO 70 :04@>< 2 A8;C C7:8E @0<>: ?@54<5B>2 >1I59 8 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388. "0:, =0?@8<5@, 2K1>@ A?>A>10 A>25@H5=8O ?@5ABC?;5=8O =5@54:> >ACI5AB2;O5BAO =5 B>;L:> A CG5B>< ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59 ?@5ABC?=8:0, => 8 53> ?A8E8G5A:>9 A?5F8D8:8. >A;54=55, :0: 8725AB=>, =5 O2;O5BAO ?@54<5B>< ?A8E>;>388*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: >@H5=8= .. =0;87 ?>2545=8O ;N459 8 <5B>48:0 <>45;8@>20=8O ?@54?>;0305<>9 A8BC0F88. ., 1993, A. 3. A8E>;>38G5A:0O B8?870F8O ;8G=>AB8 5ABL >48= 87 <5B>4>2 ?>7=0=8O @0AA<0B@8205<>3> O2;5=8O, => =5>1E>48<> 87CG0BL ;8G=>AB8 :>=:@5B=KE ?@5ABC?=8:>2 A A>>B25BAB2CNI8< B5>@5B8G5A:8< >1>1I5=85< ?>;CG5==KE 40==KE. 5E0=87< A>F80;L=>9 45B5@<8=0F88 ?@5ABC?=>AB8 B@51C5B A>G5B0=8O 42CE ?>4E>4>2 ?@8 87CG5=88 ;8G=>AB8: A>F80;L=>-B8?>;>38G5A:>3> 8 A>F80;L=>-@>;52>3>. @8 A>F80;L=>-B8?>;>38G5A:>< ?>4E>45 0=0;878@CNBAO ?@5645 2A53> A>F80;L=0O ?>78F8O ;8G=>AB8, A>>B25BAB2CNI85 59 A>F80;L=K5 =>@<K, 8E 2>A?@8OB85 8 8A?>;=5=85. > 2B>@>< A;CG05 ;8G=>ABL @0AA<0B@8205BAO :0: 0:B82=K9 45OB5;L, AC1J5:B >1I5AB25==KE >B=>H5=89. !>F80;L=>-@>;52>9 ?>4E>4 ?>72>;O5B C2845BL ?>78F88 8 DC=:F88, :>B>@K5 >1J5:B82=> :@8<8=>35==K, B0: :0: >=8 =0;030NB =0 ;8G=>ABL >1O70==>AB8, ?@>B82>@5G0I85 459AB2CNI5<C ?@02C, 8 >=0 <>65B 8E 2K?>;=8BL B>;L:> F5=>9 ?@02>=0@CH5=8O; ?@54JO2;ONB : =59 2708<>8A:;NG0NI85 B@51>20=8O, GB> 2545B : A>F80;L=>-?@02>2K< :>=D;8:B0<, 2K2>4OB ;8G=>ABL 87 =5>1E>48<>9 4;O =55 A>2>:C?=>AB8 ?>;>68B5;L=KE 2>7459AB289 8 B. ?.  :@8<8=0;L=>9 ?A8E>;>388 >48= 87 >A=>2=KE 2>?@>A>2  2K45;5=85 2=CB@5==8E ;8G=>AB=KE ?@54?>AK;>:, :>B>@K5 2> 2708<>459AB288 ?@5645 2A53> <>B820F8>==>9 AD5@K ;8G=>AB8 A >?@545;5==K<8 D0:B>@0<8 2=5H=59 A@54K <>3CB A>740BL 4;O 40==>9 ;8G=>AB8 :@8<8=>35==CN A8BC0F8N. A8E>;>38G5A:0O 7028A8<>ABL ?@5ABC?=8:>2 >B;8G05BAO ?> A2>5<C E0@0:B5@C >B 0=0;>38G=>9 >A>15==>AB8, :>B>@0O ?@8ACI0 1>;LH8=AB2C ;N459. #65 2 A8;C A>F80;L=>3> E0@0:B5@0 53> @0728B8O 8 2>A?8B0=8O :064><C G5;>25:C A2>9AB25==> AB@5<;5=85 : >1J548=5=8N A 4@C38<8 ;N4L<8 4;O C4>2;5B2>@5=8O A2>8E ?>B@51=>AB59, 4>AB865=8O ;8G=KE 8 A>2<5AB=KE F5;59.  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B<5B8<, GB> ?A8E>;>38O ?@02>=0@CH5=8O  MB> E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 2=CB@5==59 =5?>A@54AB25==> =5=01;N405<>9 AB>@>=K ?@5ABC?=>3> ?>2545=8O. N1>5 ?@5ABC?=>5 A>1KB85 :0: ?>2545=85 ;8G=>AB8 8<55B 425 AB>@>=K: 2=5H=NN (?@54<5B=>-D878G5A:CN) 8 2=CB@5==NN (?A8E>;>38G5A:CN). =0G5 3>2>@O, ;N1>5 ?@02>=0@CH5=85 2:;NG05B 2 A51O 425 3@C??K >1AB>OB5;LAB2: >1J5:B82=K5 >1AB>OB5;LAB20, :>B>@K5 ?>GB8 2A5340 ?>440NBAO =5?>A@54AB25==><C 2>A?@8OB8N 8 =01;N45=8N, 8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 (AC1J5:B82=K5) >1AB>OB5;LAB20, :>B>@K5 =5 <>3CB 1KBL =5?>A@54AB25==> 2>A?@8=OBK 8 C2845=K G5;>25:><. B<5B8<, GB> : >1J5:B82=K< >1AB>OB5;LAB20< ;N1>3> 45;0 >B=>AOBAO: <5AB>, 2@5<O, A?>A>1, ?@54<5B ?>AO30B5;LAB20, >@C48O A>25@H5=8O ?@5ABC?;5=8O, A0<8 459AB28O ;8F0, 0 B0:65 =0ABC?82H89 ?@5ABC?=K9 @57C;LB0B.  ?A8E>;>38G5A:8< >1AB>OB5;LAB20< 45;0 >B=>AOBAO <>B82K 8 F5;8 A>25@H5=8O ?@5ABC?;5=8O, ?A8E8G5A:>5 >B=>H5=85 ;8F0 : ?@5ABC?=><C 459AB28N 8 =0ABC?82H5<C @57C;LB0BC 2 D>@<5 C<KA;0 8;8 =5>AB>@>6=>AB8, 8=K5 ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 D0:BK ?>2545=8O. 'B>1K ?>;CG0BL 8 @07>1@0BLAO 2 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>9 8=D>@<0F88, =5>1E>48<>9 4;O CAB0=>2;5=8O 8AB8=K ?> :>=:@5B=><C 45;C, :064><C 4>7=020B5;N 8 A;54>20B5;N =04> >2;045BL >A=>20<8 ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> 0=0;870 ?@5ABC?=>3> ?>2545=8O. -B8< 2>?@>A0< 8 ?>A2OI5=0 =0AB>OI0O 3;020. 1. @5ABC?=>5 ?>2545=85 8 53> >B@065=85 2 C3>;>2=>< 70:>=5 !2>5>1@0785 8=48284C0;L=>3> ?@5ABC?=>3> ?>2545=8O A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> =0@O4C A D0:B>@0<8 2=5H=59 A@54K, 0 8<5==> ?@8G8= 8 CA;>289, 53> >1CA;02;820NB 8 2=CB@5==85 D0:B>@K, 2 G0AB=>AB8 D>@<0 28=K, <>B82K 8 F5;8. $0:B>@K 2=5H=59 A@54K AB0=>2OBAO ?>1C640NI8<8 A8;0<8 ?>2545=8O, B>;L:> ?@5;><82H8AL 2 A>7=0=88 ;8G=>AB8. ;O 1>;55 G5B:>3> CAB0=>2;5=8O 8 ?>=8<0=8O ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> A>45@60=8O =5>1E>48<> 2A:@KBL 2=CB@5==85 ?@C68=K, :>B>@K5 ?@825;8 2 459AB285 :>=:@5B=CN ;8G=>ABL. @8 ?@>2545=88 >?5@0B82=>-@>7KA:=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, ?@5420@8B5;L=>< @0AA;54>20=88 8 AC451=>< @0AA<>B@5=88 C3>;>2=KE 45; >?5@0B82=K9 @01>B=8:, A;54>20B5;L 8;8 AC4 ?>AB>O==> AB0;:820NBAO A MB8<8 2>?@>A0<8 8 >1O70=K CAB0=>28BL, :0:>20 1K;0 D>@<0 28=K, <>B82K 8 F5;8 A>25@H5==>3> :>=:@5B=>3> ?@5ABC?;5=8O. > =0H5<C <=5=8N, 28=0, <>B82 8 F5;L 2A5340 2E>4OB 2 AB@C:BC@C ?@5ABC?=>3> 459AB28O ;8F0. >4 AB@C:BC@>9 ?@5ABC?=>3> ?>2545=8O ?>=8<05BAO 2=CB@5==55 (?A8E>;>38G5A:>5) AB@>5=85 MB8E D>@< ?@5ABC?=>3> ?>2545=8O 8 2708<>A2O7L 8E A>AB02=KE G0AB59. -B> ?>;>65=85 =5>1E>48<> >A>15==> ?>4G5@:=CBL, B0: :0: 28=0, <>B82 8 F5;L =5@54:> @0AA<0B@820NBAO A0<8 ?> A515, 2 :0G5AB25 A0<>AB>OB5;L=KE O2;5=89, 2=5 AB@C:BC@K ?@5ABC?=>3> ?>2545=8O, M;5<5=B0<8 :>B>@>3> >=8 O2;ONBAO. "0:, =0?@8<5@, >4=8<8 02B>@0<8 >=8 @0AA<0B@820NBAO B>;L:> A B>G:8 7@5=8O 8E 2K@065=8O 2 =>@<5 70:>=0*, 4@C38<8 65 >=8 @0AA<0B@820NBAO ;8HL :0: ?@87=0:8 ;8G=>AB8 >128=O5<>3>**. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: 8:B>@>2 .. &5;L 8 <>B82 2 BO6:8E ?@5ABC?;5=8OE. ., 1963; >;:>2 .!. @>1;5<0 2>;8 8 C3>;>2=0O >B25BAB25==>ABL, 070=L, 1965; 0C<>2 .. >B82K C189AB20. >;3>3@04, 1970. **>@H8: .., !B5=8G52 !.!. 7CG5=85 ;8G=>AB8 >128=O5<>3> =0 ?@5420@8B5;L=>< A;54AB288. ., 1969; 59:8=0 .!. 8G=>ABL ?@5ABC?=8:0 8 C3>;>2=0O >B25BAB25==>ABL. ., 1968. 564C B5< >?@545;ONI8< ?>;>65=85< ?@8 E0@0:B5@8AB8:5 =0720==KE ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E D0:B>2 O2;O5BAO 8E @0AA<>B@5=85 :0: AB@C:BC@=KE M;5<5=B>2 ?@5ABC?=>3> ?>2545=8O. >4>1=K9 ?>4E>4 ?>72>;O5B 0=0;878@>20BL 8E :0: M;5<5=BK 45OB5;L=>AB8 ;8F0, 2KOA=8BL <5AB> 28=K, <>B820 8 F5;8 2 AB@C:BC@5 @07;8G=KE D>@< ?@5ABC?=>3> ?>2545=8O 8 DC=:F88, >ACI5AB2;O5<K5 8<8 2 ?5@8>4 ?>43>B>2:8 (<>B820F88) 8 >ACI5AB2;5=8O ?@5ABC?;5=8O. A8E>;>38G5A:0O ACI=>ABL ?@5ABC?=>3> ?>2545=8O A>AB>8B 2 0:B82=>< AB@5<;5=88 ;8F0 4>18BLAO >ACI5AB2;5=8O ?>AB02;5==>9 F5;8. => =0E>48B A2>5 2K@065=85 2 A>7=0B5;L=> <>B828@>20==KE 459AB28OE, =0?@02;5==KE =0 4>AB865=85 >?@545;5==>9 F5;8, =57028A8<> >B B>3>, A>2?0405B >=0 8;8 =5 A>2?0405B A =0ABC?82H8<8 >1I5AB25==> >?0A=K<8 ?>A;54AB28O<8. "0:8< >1@07><, ?A8E8:0 2A5340 2:;NG5=0 2 ?@5ABC?=CN 45OB5;L=>ABL. 0: ?@028;>, >=0 2KABC?05B :0: F5=B@0;L=>5 A2O7CNI55 725=> >B45;L=KE 459AB289 MB>3> :>=:@5B=>3> ;8F0. '5@57 =55 4>AB8305BAO 548=AB2> 2 @53C;OF88 MB8E 459AB289 8 ?>2545=8O 2 F5;><. C4CG8 ?> A2>5<C A>45@60=8N 0=B8>1I5AB25==K<, ?@5ABC?=>5 ?>2545=85 A B>G:8 7@5=8O 53> AB@>5=8O >B25G05B 2A5< ?@87=0:0< 2>;52>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 2 >1I5?A8E>;>38G5A:>< 55 7=0G5=88. ! AC1J5:B82=>9 AB>@>=K >=> E0@0:B5@87C5BAO 2>;59, <>B828@>20==>ABLN 8 F5;5=0?@02;5==>ABLN, 0 A >1J5:B82=>9  D878G5A:8<8 459AB28O<8 8;8 2>745@60=85< >B =8E*. A;8 2 A>25@H5==>< ?@5ABC?;5=88 2>;O ;8F0 =5 =0H;0 A2>53> 2K@065=8O 2 A8;C 2=CB@5==8E ?@8G8= (@0AAB@>9AB2> A>7=0=8O, ?A8E8G5A:0O 1>;57=L 8 B. ?.), B> ;8F> =5 ?>4;568B C3>;>2=>9 >B25BAB25==>AB8. A;8 65 2 ?@5ABC?;5=88 2>;O ;8F0 =5 =0H;0 A2>53> 2K@065=8O 2 A8;C 2=5H=8E ?@8G8= (?@8=C645=85, =0A8;85 8 B. ?.), B> MB> O2;O5BAO >1AB>OB5;LAB2><, A<O3G0NI8< C3>;>2=CN >B25BAB25==>ABL**. *C7=5F>20 .$. @5ABC?;5=85 8 ?@5ABC?=>ABL. ., 1969, A. 49. **!<. A>>B25BAB2CNI85 AB0BL8 1I59 G0AB8 # $. #G5B 2>;52>3> E0@0:B5@0 ?@5ABC?=>3> ?>2545=8O =0E>48B A2>5 2K@065=85 2 C3>;>2=>< 70:>=>40B5;LAB25. "0:, 70:>=>40B5;L=>5 ?>=OB85 ?@5ABC?;5=8O =5?>A@54AB25==> 8AE>48B 87 2>;52>3> E0@0:B5@0 ?@5ABC?=>3> ?>2545=8O; ...?@5ABC?;5=85< ?@87=05BAO ?@54CA<>B@5==>5 70:>=>< >1I5AB25==> >?0A=>5 45O=85 (459AB285 8;8 157459AB285), ?>AO30NI55 =0 >1I5AB25==K9 8 3>AC40@AB25==K9 AB@>9, A8AB5<C E>7O9AB20, A>1AB25==>ABL, ;8G=>ABL, ?>;8B8G5A:85, B@C4>2K5, 8<CI5AB25==K5 8 4@C385 ?@020 3@0640=, 0 @02=> 8=>5 ?>AO30NI55 =0 ?@02>?>@O4>: >1I5AB25==> >?0A=>5 45O=85, ?@54CA<>B@5==>5 C3>;>2=K< 70:>=><*. -B> ?>;>65=85 ?>4G5@:8205BAO 8 2 B5>@88 C3>;>2=>3> ?@020, 2 G0AB=>AB8, B>, GB> 2>;52>5 459AB285 G5;>25:0, ;560I55 2 >A=>25 ?>AB@>5=8O ?>=OB8O ?@5ABC?;5=8O, <>6=> >?@545;8BL :0: A>7=0B5;L=>5 F5;5=0?@02;5==>5 2>7459AB285 G5;>25:0 =0 >:@C60NI89 <8@**. "0:8< >1@07><, :>340 @5GL 845B > ?A8E>;>388 ?@02>=0@CH5=8O, MB> >7=0G05B, GB> @5GL 845B B>;L:> >1 >4=>< 2845 G5;>25G5A:>3> ?>2545=8O, 0 8<5==> > 2>;52>< ?>2545=88. 564C B5< =0@O4C A 2>;52K< G5;>25:C A2>9AB25==K 8 4@C385 284K 459AB289, =0 :>B>@KE E>BO 1K :@0B:> A;54C5B >AB0=>28BLAO. _____________________________________________________________________________ *>=OB85 45O=85 4>A;>2=> >7=0G05B 2 ?5@52>45 A> AB0@>A;02O=A:>3> =5:>5 459AB285, ?>ABC?>:, 45;>. => O2;O5BAO ACI5AB28B5;L=K< >B 3;03>;0 "45;0BL" (45OBL) 8 >7=0G05B C65 A>25@H5==>5 459AB285, A>25@H82H89AO D0:B. !<.: >@H0:>20 .., (5=A:89 .. !>2@5<5==K9 @CAA:89 O7K:. ., 1957, A. 238 ** C4@O2F52 .. 1J5:B82=0O AB>@>=0 ?@5ABC?;5=8O. ., 1963, A. 13 14. 2. 84K G5;>25G5A:8E 459AB289  7028A8<>AB8 >B =0;8G8O 8;8 >BACBAB28O ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> <5E0=87<0 @07;8G0NB @5D;5:B>@=K5, 8<?C;LA82=K5, 8=AB8=:B82=K5 8 2>;52K5 459AB28O. 5D;5:B>@=K5 459AB28O O2;ONBAO 459AB28O<8-@50:F8O<8. =8 =5 B@51CNB F5;8 8 @53C;OF88 2 A>>B25BAB288 A =59, 0 A>25@H0NBAO 02B><0B8G5A:8. =AB8=:B82=K5 459AB28O 8AE>4OB 87 >@30=8G5A:8E 8<?C;LA>2, 2 =8E >BACBAB2C5B >A>7=0=85 ;8F0 8 ?@542845=85 @57C;LB0B0 459AB28O. <?C;LA82=>5 459AB285  MB>, :0: ?@028;>, 459AB285-2A?KH:0, 459AB285-@07@O4:0, :>340 8AE>4=>5 ?>1C645=85 (@074@065=85, =54>2>;LAB2> 8 B. ?.), A>740==>5 A8BC0F859, 157 2725H820=8O 8 >F5=:8 53> 2 :0G5AB25 <>B820 =5?>A@54AB25==> ?5@5E>48B 2 459AB285. <?C;LA82=K5 459AB28O G0I5 2A53> =01;N40NBAO 2 ?0B>;>38G5A:8E A;CG0OE, :>340 ;8F> 2 A8;C 4CH52=>9 1>;57=8 =5A?>A>1=> A>25@H8BL 2>;52K5 459AB28O. 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A8E>;>38O A;54AB25==KE 459AB289. >;3>3@04. 1983, A. 55. ! F5;LN 8A:;NG5=8O >H81>: 2 ?>:070=8OE ?>B5@?52H53> 206=> CG8BK20BL >A>15==>AB8 2>A?@8OB8O 8< 2 <><5=B A>25@H5=8O ?@5ABC?;5=8O >1AB>OB5;LAB2 45;0, ;8G=>AB8 ?@5ABC?=8:0. -:A?5@8<5=B0;L=> 4>:070=>, GB> 8A?KBK205<K5 8< GC2AB20 AB@0E0, 3=520, ABK40, >184K 8 B. ?. <>3CB A?>A>1AB2>20BL 8A:065=8N 2>A?@8OB8O, AC6820O 53> >1J5<, ?@82>4O : =5?@028;L=>9 >F5=:5 @O40 D0:B>2, ?@87=0:>2, 45B0;59. @8 D878>;>38G5A:>< 0DD5:B5, :>B>@K9 2AB@5G05BAO =5@54:> 2 @57C;LB0B5 ?@5ABC?=>3> ?>AO30B5;LAB20 =0 ;8G=>ABL, C ?>B5@?52H53> 70B@C4=O5BAO A0<>:>=B@>;L, ?@028;L=0O >F5=:0 A2>8E 459AB289, CEC4H05BAO 2>A?@8OB85 @50;L=>9 >1AB0=>2:8*.  ?>4>1=KE A>AB>O=8OE ?>B5@?52H89 <>65B >H818BLAO, >F5=820O D878G5A:85 40==K5 ?@5ABC?=8:0, :>;8G5AB2> ?@02>=0@CH8B5;59, E0@0:B5@ 459AB289 =0?0402H8E 8 B. ?. 4=0:> A8;L=K5 ?5@56820=8O, 8A?KBK205<K5 ?>B5@?52H8<8 2 <><5=B A>25@H5=8O ?@5ABC?;5=8O, 70G0ABCN 45;0NB 8E 2>A?@8OB85 1>;55 3;C1>:8<, O@:8<, 40NB 2>7<>6=>ABL =04>;3> 70?><=8BL <=>385, 4065 =57=0G8B5;L=K5 45B0;8, A>1KB8O, ?@87=0:8 2=5H=>AB8 ?@5ABC?=8:0. _____________________________________________________________________________ * 0:0B>2 .. "0:B8:0 4>?@>A0 ?>B5@?52H53>. >;3>3@04. 1976, A. 25. >A:>;L:C ?@5ABC?;5=85 =0=>A8B 4CH52=CN B@02<C ?>B5@?52H5<C, >= <KA;5==> <=>3>:@0B=> 2>72@0I05BAO : A;CG82H5<CAO, 2A?><8=0O @07;8G=K5 >1AB>OB5;LAB20 ?@5ABC?=>3> A>1KB8O. @8 MB>< ?>B5@?52H5<C =5@54:> C405BAO 2A?><=8BL :0:85-;81> ACI5AB25==K5 >1AB>OB5;LAB20, > :>B>@KE >= =5 A>>1I8; ?@8 ?5@2>< 4>?@>A5. >B ?>G5<C A CG5B>< D878G5A:>3> 8 ?A8E8G5A:>3> A>AB>O=8O ?>B5@?52H53>, AB0@0OAL =5 ?@8G8=OBL 5<C 87;8H=8E ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E B@02<, F5;5A>>1@07=> 2 A;CG05 =5>1E>48<>AB8 ?@>25AB8 ?>2B>@=K9 4>?@>A. !;54C5B 8<5BL 2 284C, GB> G0ABK5 2>A?><8=0=8O A;CG82H53>AO 8 A2O70==KE A MB8< ?5@56820=89 0:B82878@CNB <KA;8B5;L=K5 ?@>F5AAK ?>B5@?52H53>, CA8;820NB 53> AB@5<;5=85 =09B8 28=>2=KE. >B ?>G5<C ?>B5@?52H85 70G0ABCN A:;>==K A0<8 2K42830BL <=>3>G8A;5==K5 ?@54?>;>65=8O > B><, :B> 8 ?>G5<C A>25@H8; ?@5ABC?;5=85. >?CA:0O, GB> <=>385 87 B0:8E ?@54?>;>65=89 =5 >A=>20=K =0 :0:8E-;81> D0:B8G5A:8E 40==KE, A;54>20B5;L =5 4>;65= >B<5B0BL 8E A ?>@>30. >-?5@2KE, MB> ?><>305B CAB0=>2;5=8N ?A8E>;>38G5A:>3> :>=B0:B0. >-2B>@KE, 2 25@A8OE ?>B5@?52H53> 2?>;=5 <>65B 1KBL 74>@>2>5 75@=>. !;54AB25==>9 ?@0:B8:5 8725AB=> =5<0;> A;CG052, :>340 ?@54?>;>65=8O ?>B5@?52H53> ?>4B25@640;8AL 2 E>45 @0AA;54>20=8O. AE>4O 87 B>3>, GB> ?>B5@?52H8< ?@8G8=O5BAO =5?>A@54AB25==K9 CI5@1 459AB28O<8 ?@5ABC?=8:0, <=>385 :@8<8=0;8ABK, AAK;0OAL =0 ;8G=CN 708=B5@5A>20==>ABL ?>B5@?52H8E, ?@8E>4OB : <KA;8 > =5>1E>48<>AB8 >A>15==> BI0B5;L=>9 ?@>25@:8 8E ?>:070=89*. 5;> 2 B><, GB> ?>:070=8O ?>B5@?52H8E 40;5:> =5 2A5340 >1J5:B82=K. @8G8= <>65B 1KBL <=>3>. >B5@?52H89, =0?@8<5@, AB@5<8BAO >B><AB8BL ?@5ABC?=8:C 70 ?@8G8=5==K5 AB@040=8O, 1>;L, ;8H5=8O, >A:>@1;5=8O 8 B. ?.; 65;05B ?>;CG8BL <0:A8<0;L=CN <0B5@80;L=CN :><?5=A0F8N 2 A;CG05 >AC645=8O ?@02>=0@CH8B5;O. @8 MB>< ?>B5@?52H89 <>65B ?@5A;54>20BL 8 :>@KAB=K5 F5;8, ?@5C25;8G820O @07<5@K ?@8G8=5==>3> 5<C CI5@10; =0<5@5205BAO A<O3G8BL CG0ABL >128=O5<>3> ?>4 2;8O=85< C3>2>@>2 @>4AB25==8:>2 8 4@C759 ?@5ABC?=8:0, 60;>AB8 : =5<C 8 B. 4.; E>G5B A:@KBL A>1AB25==>5 =51;03>284=>5 ?>2545=85. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: 0@8= .. 01>B0 A;54>20B5;O A 4>:070B5;LAB20<8. ., 1966, A. 52, C;>2 .., 5AB5@5=:> .. "0:B8:0 A;54AB25==KE 459AB289. 8=A:. 1971, A. 79. !;54>20B5;L 4>;65= ?>AB>O==> 8<5BL 2 284C 2>7<>6=>ABL B0:>3> 28:B8<>;>38G5A:>3> 0A?5:B0 2 ?>:070=8OE ?>B5@?52H53>. =0;87 A;54AB25==>9 ?@0:B8:8 ?>:07K205B, GB> =5@54:> ?>B5@?52H8<8 >:07K20NBAO ;8F0, 254CI85 0<>@0;L=K9 >1@07 687=8, 7;>C?>B@51;ONI85 A?8@B=K<8 =0?8B:0<8, A:;>==K5 : :>=D;8:B0<, AA>@0<. 5>1J5:B82=>ABL ?>:070=89 ?>B5@?52H53> <>65B >1JOA=OBLAO B0:65 8 B5<, GB> >=, ?>;CG82 BC 8;8 8=CN 8=D>@<0F8N A;54>20B5;O > <0B5@80;0E 45;0, ?>4?0405B ?>4 55 2;8O=85.  B0:8E A;CG0OE ?>:070=8O ?>B5@?52H53> A>45@60B A2545=8O =5 ;8G=> 8< 2>A?@8=OBK5, 0 A>>1I5==K5 4@C38<8 ;8F0<8. 5A>>B25BAB285 ?>:070=89 ?>B5@?52H53> ?>4;8==K< >1AB>OB5;LAB2>< 45;0 8=>340 O2;O5BAO A;54AB285< ABK4;82>AB8, A<CI5=8O, =5;>2:>AB8 ?@8 =5>1E>48<>AB8 @0AA:070BL > 459AB28OE ?@5ABC?=8:0 ;81> > A>1AB25==KE 459AB28OE 2 <><5=B A>25@H5=8O ?@5ABC?;5=8O. "0:85 A8BC0F88 2>7=8:0NB, 2 G0AB=>AB8, ?@8 4>?@>A5 ?>B5@?52H8E ?> 45;0< > ?>;>2KE ?@5ABC?;5=8OE. >:070=8O ?>B5@?52H53> <>3CB =5 A>>B25BAB2>20BL 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 8 ?>B><C, GB> >= >?0A05BAO <5AB8 A> AB>@>=K ?@5ABC?=8:0, 53> A>CG0AB=8:>2, @>4AB25==8:>2 8 4@C759*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *0:0B>2 .. "0:B8:0 4>?@>A0 ?>B5@?52H53>. >;3>3@04. 1976, A. 22. $0:B>@><, 2;8ONI8< =0 ?>:070=8O ?>B5@?52H53>, <>65B >:070BLAO 2=CH5=85 ?@54=0<5@5==>5 8;8 =5?@54=0<5@5==>5.  1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 MB> E0@0:B5@=> 4;O =5A>25@H5==>;5B=8E ?>B5@?52H8E, => 2=CH5=8N <>3CB 1KBL ?>425@65=K 8 27@>A;K5. >B5@?52H85 2>>1I5 2=CH05<K 1>;LH5, G5< A2845B5;8, >A>15==> B>340, :>340 2=CH05<K5 A2545=8O A>>B25BAB2CNB 8E 8=B5@5A0<. 5?>;=>B0, =5B>G=>ABL 40==KE ?>B5@?52H53> B0:65 A?>A>1AB2C5B 2=CH5=8N. ;O B>3> GB>1K 871560BL 2@54=>3> 459AB28O 2=CH5=8O, =0 4>?@>A5 ?@54CA<>B@5=K >?@545;5==K5 ?@>F5AAC0;L=K5 <5@K, 2 G0AB=>AB8 70?@5I5=K =02>4OI85 2>?@>AK, :>B>@K5 <>3CB ?>4A:070BL ?>B5@?52H5<C 65;05<K9 >B25B.  70:;NG5=85 <>6=> A:070BL, GB> ;8G=>ABL ?>B5@?52H53> 83@05B 1>;LHCN @>;L 4;O @01>BK >@30=>2 ?@02>AC48O. 48= 87 206=K5 2>?@>A>2  87CG5=85 ;8G=>AB8 ?>B5@?52H53> =0 ?@5420@8B5;L=>< A;54AB288 2 F5;OE ?>;CG5=8O >B =53> 4>AB>25@=KE ?>:070=89. "0:>5 87CG5=85 ?@>2>48BAO :0: B@048F8>==K<8 <5B>40<8 (=01;N45=85, 15A540, 0=0;87 4>:C<5=B>2, >1>1I5=85 =57028A8<KE E0@0:B5@8AB8:), B0: 8 A?5F8D8G5A:8<8 (?A8E>;>38G5A:0O M:A?5@B870). >:070=8O ?>B5@?52H53> 7028AOB >B <=>38E AC1J5:B82=KE 8 >1J5:B82=KE D0:B>@>2. =0=85 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E 70:>=><5@=>AB59 ?@>F5AA0 D>@<8@>20=8O ?>:070=89 8 8E >A>15==>AB59 C ?>B5@?52H53>, 87CG5=85 <>B820F88 ?>A;54=53> ?><>30NB A;54>20B5;N 871@0BL =C6=K5 B0:B8G5A:85 ?@85<K 4;O ?>;CG5=8O 4>AB>25@=KE A2545=89. 0==K5 > ?>B5@?52H5< 8A?>;L7CNBAO =5 B>;L:> =0 4>?@>A5, => 8 ?@8 ?@>2545=88 4@C38E A;54AB25==KE 459AB289. ;020 XI A8E>;>38O =5A>25@H5==>;5B=8E 1. @>1;5<K =5A>25@H5==>;5B=8E 2 N@848G5A:>9 ?A8E>;>388 0: ?>:07K205B 87CG5=85 ?@02>=0@CH5=89 =5A>25@H5==>;5B=8E, ?>4@>AB>: G0I5 2A53> <>65B A>25@H8BL ?@5ABC?;5=85 ?>4 =5?>A@54AB25==K< 2>7459AB285< A25@AB=8:>2 8;8 27@>A;KE ;8F, ?>4G8=OOAL 402;5=8N B>;?K*. # 1>;LH8=AB20 B0:8E ?>4@>AB:>2 2 AB@C:BC@5 ;8G=>AB8 4><8=8@CNB >B@8F0B5;L=K5 :0G5AB20: ;5=L, 1572>;85, 157>B25BAB25==>ABL, :>=D>@<87<, 03@5AA82=>ABL 8 B. ?. 06=59H8< CA;>285< D>@<8@>20=8O ;8G=>AB8 B@C4=>3> ?>4@>AB:0 2 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 O2;ONBAO >B@8F0B5;L=K5 A5<59=K5 CA;>28O, 0;:>3>;87< @>48B5;59 8;8 @>4AB25==8:>2, 8E 0<>@0;L=>5 ?>2545=85 8 B. 4. 4=0:> =5@54:8 A;CG08, :>340 8A:065==CN =@02AB25==CN 0B<>AD5@C 2>:@C3 =5A>25@H5==>;5B=53> A>740NB ;N1OI85 53> 8 65;0NI85 5<C 2AO:>3> 4>1@0, => =5 >1;040NI85 4>AB0B>G=>9 ?5403>38G5A:>9 :C;LBC@>9 @>48B5;8. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: >G:0@520 .. 028A8<>ABL ?@5ABC?=>3> ?>2545=8O =5A>25@H5==>;5B=8E ?@02>=0@CH8B5;59 >B 8E ?>40B;82>AB8 3@C??>2><C 2;8O=8N. ">?@>AK AC451=>9 ?A8E>;>388". ., 1971, A. 58 59. ;O B@C4=>2>A?8BC5<KE ?>4@>AB:>2, :0: ?@028;>, E0@0:B5@=> >B@8F0B5;L=>5 >B=>H5=85 : CG515, :>B>@>5 2 :>=5G=>< AG5B5 ?@>B82>?>AB02;O5B 8E :>;;5:B82C :;0AA0, H:>;K, CG8;8I0 8 B. ?.  ?>402;ONI5< 1>;LH8=AB25 A;CG052 2 G8A;> ?>4@>AB:>2-?@02>=0@CH8B5;59 ?>?040NB B5, :>B>@K5 =5 =0H;8 A51O 2 H:>;L=>< :>;;5:B825 2 A2O78 A >B@8F0B5;L=K<8 >B=>H5=8O<8 A =8<8. =B8A>F80;L=>5 ?>2545=85 =5A>25@H5==>;5B=53>, B0:8< >1@07>< 2708<>>1CA;>2;5=> 2;8O=85< D0:B>@>2 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L 2=5H=59 A>F80;L=>9 A@54K (2 >A>15==>AB8 <8:@>A@54K), 0 B0:65 8=48284C0;L=K<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 ;8G=>AB8 ?>4@>AB:0, :>B>@K5 >1CA;02;820NB 53> 8=48284C0;L=>5 @5038@>20=85 =0 @07;8G=K5 687=5==K5 =5C40G8. >4@>AB:>2K9 2>7@0AB (11 15 ;5B) O2;O5BAO ?5@5E>4=K< 3;02=K< >1@07>< 2 18>;>38G5A:>< A<KA;5, ?>A:>;L:C MB> 2>7@0AB ?>;>2>3> A>7@520=8O, ?0@0;;5;L=> :>B>@><C 4>AB830NB 2 >A=>2=>< 7@5;>AB8 8 4@C385 18>;>38G5A:85 A8AB5<K >@30=87<0.  ?;0=5 A>F80;L=>< ?>4@>AB:>20O D070  MB> ?@>4>;65=85 ?5@28G=>9 A>F80;870F88. 0: ?@028;>, 2A5 ?>4@>AB:8 MB>3> 2>7@0AB0  H:>;L=8:8. !>F80;L=K9 AB0BCA ?>4@>AB:0 <0;> G5< >B;8G05BAO >B 45BA:>3>. 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A8E>;>38G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 A;54AB28O ?> 45;0< =5A>25@H5==>;5B=8E @0:B8:0 ?>:07K205B, GB> 7=0=85 ?A8E>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59 ?>4@>AB:>2 A?>A>1AB2C5B ?@028;L=><C @5H5=8N 7040G @0AA;54>20=8O ?@5ABC?;5=89 8 ?5@52>A?8B0=8O =5A>25@H5==>;5B=8E ?@5ABC?=8:>2. 01>B=8:8 ?@02>>E@0=8B5;L=KE >@30=>2, 8A?>;L7CO MB8 7=0=8O, >15A?5G820NB ?@028;L=CN 4803=>AB8:C ;8G=>AB8 =5A>25@H5==>;5B=53>, 8=48284C0;L=K9 ?>4E>4 : =5<C, 2K1>@ 8 ?@8<5=5=85 =081>;55 A>>B25BAB2CNI8E A8BC0F88 B0:B8G5A:8E ?@85<>2 8 B. 4. 7CG5=85 ;8G=>AB8 =5A>25@H5==>;5B=53> ?@02>=0@CH8B5;O =0 ?@5420@8B5;L=>< A;54AB288, :0: ?@028;>, ?@>2>48BAO ?> AE5<5: =0A;54AB25==>-18>;>38G5A:85 D0:B>@K: ?@54@0A?>;>65=85 : =5@2=K< 8;8 ?A8E8G5A:8< 701>;520=8O< >4=>3> 87 @>48B5;59, ?0B>;>38G5A:0O 15@5<5==>ABL, =5=>@<0;L=K5 @>4K, >B@8F0B5;L=>5 2;8O=85 0;:>3>;87<0, C?>B@51;5=8O =0@:>B8:>2 8 4@.; 1;8609H55 A>F80;L=>5 >:@C65=85 ?>4@>AB:0: A5<LO, A>F80;L=>-M:>=><8G5A:89 AB0BCA @>48B5;59, >B=>H5=8O 2 A5<L5, F5==>AB=K5 >@85=B0F88 @>48B5;59, 1@0BL52, A5AB5@, >A>15==>AB8 2>A?8B0=8O ?>4@>AB:>2, H:>;0, >B=>H5=85 : CG515, >B=>H5=8O A CG8B5;O<8, ?>;>65=85 ?>4@>AB:0 2 :;0AA5, F5==>AB=K5 >@85=B0F88 >4=>:;0AA=8:>2, 4@C7LO, 8E A>F80;L=>5 ?>;>65=85, AB0BCA ?>4@>AB:0 2 3@C??5 4@C759; ;8G=>AB=K5 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 ?>4@>AB:0: >A>15==>AB8 E0@0:B5@0 8 B5<?5@0<5=B0, F5==>AB=>-<>B820F8>==K9 1;>:, F5==>AB=K5 >@85=B0F88 ?>4@>AB:0, C@>25=L ?@8BO70=89, A0<>>F5=:0 8 2>7<>6=K5 :>=D;8:BK 2 >1;0AB8 A0<>>F5=:8, >B=>H5=85 : ?@>D5AA88: A>7=0B5;L=>ABL 2K1>@0, <5AB> ?@>D5AA88 2 A8AB5<5 F5==>AB59 ?>4@>AB:0, ?;0=K =0 1C4CI55; ?@02>A>7=0=85 ?>4@>AB:0*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: 0A8;L52 .. .@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O. ., 1991, A. 313. ;O ?>7=0=8O CA;>289 687=8 8 2>A?8B0=8O =5A>25@H5==>;5B=53> ?>4>7@5205<>3> 8;8 >128=O5<>3> =5>1E>48<> B0:65 87CG0BL 8 4@C385 AD5@K  A5<LN, <5AB> @01>BK 8 CG51K. 5>1E>48<> 2KOA=8BL CA;>28O 687=8 =5A>25@H5==>;5B=53> 4> 8 ?>A;5 A>25@H5=8O ?@5ABC?;5=8O, A>AB02 A5<L8, 2KOA=8BL, 8=B5@5A>20;8AL ;8 @>48B5;8 8;8 4@C385 27@>A;K5 G;5=K A5<L8 CG51>9, 4>AC3><, :@C3>< 7=0:><KE, 4@C759, A@548 :>B>@KE =5A>25@H5==>;5B=89 ?@>2>48; A2>1>4=>5 2@5<O, 70<5G0;8 ;8 =530B82=>5 ?>2545=85 =5A>25@H5==>;5B=53> 8 :0: @5038@>20;8 =0 MB>, :0:85 ?@8<5=O;8AL <5@K =0:070=8O : =5<C 70 =0@CH5=8O B@51>20=89 <>@0;8, =0?@8<5@ 2 A;CG0OE @0A?8B8O A?8@B=KE =0?8B:>2, 4@0: 8 B. 4. 06=> CAB0=>28BL, ?>A5I0; ;8 MB>B ?>4@>AB>: 70=OB8O 2> 2@5<O A>25@H5=8O ?@5ABC?;5=8O, G5< >= C2;5:0;AO, CG0AL 2 H:>;5, :0:>2> 1K;> 53> >B=>H5=85 : >1I5AB25==>9 @01>B5, :0: >= CG8;AO, A :5< 4@C68;, :0:>2 MB>B ?>4@>AB>: 2 >1I5=88 A 4@C38<8 H:>;L=8:0<8 (03@5AA825=, @074@068B5;5=, =0?>@8AB, 8718205B <;04H8E 8 B. 4.); >1I8B5;5=, 70<:=CB, ?@02482, 6045= 8;8 I54@, AG8B05BAO ;8 A <=5=85< :>;;5:B820, 2 :>B>@>< >= CG8BAO, 53> =5?>A@54AB25==>5 >B=>H5=85 : @>48B5;O< 8 CG8B5;O<. 06=> CAB0=>28BL 8 7=0BL, :0: >= 2>A?@8=8<0; <5@K =0:070=8O 70 A>25@H5==K5 ?@>ABC?:8 8 :0:>2> 53> >B=>H5=85 : ?@8=OBK< <5@0< 8 B. 4. A;8 ?>4@>AB>: C65 @01>B05B, B> =04> 2KOA=8BL, A :0:>3> 2@5<5=8 8 :0:CN @01>BC >= 2K?>;=O5B, @01>B0; ;8 >= @0=LH5, A:>;L:> :;0AA>2 >:>=G8;, :0: >= >B=>A8;AO : @01>B5, @07<5@ 70@01>B=>9 ?;0BK, 53> 68;8I=K5 CA;>28O, 0 B0:65 :@C3 4@C759 =0 @01>B5, 8=B5@5A>20;AO ;8 8A:CAAB2><, A?>@B><, :=830<8, B5E=8:>9; 8<5;8AL ;8 A;CG08 =0@CH5=8O B@C4>2>9 48AF8?;8=K, ?@8=8<0; ;8 :0:>5-;81> CG0AB85 2 >1I5AB25==>9 687=8, 5A;8 =0@CH0; 48AF8?;8=C, B> :0: >= >B=>A8;AO : ?@8<5=O5<K< <5@0< =0:070=89, 8 B. ?. !;54C5B ?><=8BL, GB> 2 ?>4@>AB:>2>< 2>7@0AB5 >B<5G0NBAO A=865=85 ?>@>30 2>71C48<>AB8 F5=B@0;L=>9 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K, >A;01;5=85 2 =59 ?@>F5AA>2 B>@<>65=8O 8 ?@5>1;040=85 ?@>F5AA>2 2>71C645=8O, =5045:20B=>ABL 8 4578=B53@8@>20==>ABL @50:F89 ?>4@>AB:0 =0 2>7459AB285 2=5H=8E @074@068B5;59, ?>2KH5==K9 8=B5@5A : A>1KB8O< 687=8, AB@5<;5=85 : CG0AB8N 2 =8E, @07;8G=0O A0<>>F5=:0 A2>8E A8; 8 2>7<>6=>AB59. A5 MB> 8<55B <5AB> =0 D>=5 ?>2KH5==>9 M<>F8>=0;L=>AB8. AB5AB25==>, GB> 157 CG0AB8O ?A8E>;>30 A;54>20B5;L 8 AC4 =5 2 A>AB>O=88 >?@545;8BL, =0A:>;L:> A:070;8AL B5 8;8 8=K5 2>7@0AB=K5 >A>15==>AB8 =0 8<5NI59 C3>;>2=>-?@02>2>5 7=0G5=85 45OB5;L=>AB8 =5A>25@H5==>;5B=53>. @8 MB>< 206=0 ?A8E>;>38G5A:0O M:A?5@B870 ?> 45;0< =5A>25@H5==>;5B=8E, :>340 C A;54>20B5;O 2>7=8:05B A><=5=85 2 C<AB25==>< @0728B88 =5A>25@H5==>;5B=53>, 2 AB5?5=8 @0728B8O 53> 8=B5;;5:B0 8 B. ?. A8E>;>3 ?@8 0=0;875 ?@8G8= 0=B8>1I5AB25==>9 >@85=B0F88 ;8G=>AB8 ?>4@>AB:0 8AA;54C5B >A>15==>AB8 D>@<8@>20=8O 53> ?@02>A>7=0=8O, @50;L=KE 687=5==KE F5==>AB59, =@02AB25==>-=>@<0B82=KE CAB0=>2>: 8 A>>B=>A8B 8E A 2K45;5==K<8 8=48284C0;L=>-B8?>;>38G5A:8<8 8 E0@0:B5@>;>38G5A:8<8 >A>15==>ABO<8. 57CA;>2=>, GB> ?@8 A?5F8D8:5 ?@8=OB8O @5H5=89, :>B>@0O 2 ?>402;ONI5< A2>5< 1>;LH8=AB25 CGB5=0 2 C3>;>2=>-?@>F5AAC0;L=>< 70:>=>40B5;LAB25, 87CG0NBAO 8=48284C0;L=K5 A2>9AB20 ;8G=>AB8 =5A>25@H5==>;5B=53> ?>4@>AB:0. >MB><C A;54>20B5;L 4>;65= E>@>H> 7=0BL ?A8E>;>38G5A:85 >A>15==>AB8 ;8G=>AB8 =5A>25@H5==>;5B=8E 8 CG8BK20BL 8E ?@8 2K1>@5 B0:B8G5A:8E ?@85<>2 ?@>2545=8O A =8<8 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> A;54AB25==>3> 459AB28O. @8 4>?@>A5 =5A>25@H5==>;5B=8E =0@O4C A >1I8<8 70:>=><5@=>ABO<8, E0@0:B5@=K<8 4;O MB>3> A;54AB25==>3> 459AB28O, A;54C5B CG8BK20BL @O4 >A>15==>AB59, A2O70==KE A 2>7@0AB>< =5A>25@H5==>;5B=8E.  G0AB=>AB8, 4>?@>AK <0;5=L:8E 45B59 2 @O45 A;CG052 F5;5A>>1@07=> 70<5=8BL 15A54>9 8;8 >?@>A>< <0;>;5B=53> A F5;LN 1KAB@>3> ?>;CG5=8O 8=D>@<0F88 > ;8G=>AB8 ?@5ABC?=8:0 8 B. ?. !;54C5B CG8BK20BL, GB> 45B8 ?@8 2>A?@8OB88 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 ?;>E> @0718@0NBAO 2 ?@8G8==KE A2O7OE, A;>6=>5 A>1KB85 2>A?@8=8<0NB =5 F5;8:><, 0 D@03<5=B0@=>. 4=0:> C 45B59 2<5AB> 687=5==>3> >?KB0 5ABL 2>>1@065=85, ?><>30NI55 8< E>@>H> 2>A?@8=8<0BL ?@54<5BK 8 A>1KB8O, 1;87:85 8E 8=B5@5A0<. # 1>;LH8=AB20 45B59 >B 11 4> 15 ;5B >B<5G0NBAO H8@>:85 ?>7=020B5;L=K5 ?@>F5AAK, @>AB A0<>A>7=0=8O, AB@5<;5=85 >1I0BLAO A ;N4L<8, ?@>O2;5=85 GC2AB20 4>;30 8 >B25BAB25==>AB8. -B8 :0G5AB20 2 F5;>< A?>A>1AB2CNB 70?5G0B;520=8N 8 2>A?@>872545=8N 8=D>@<0F88. # =5A>25@H5==>;5B=8E 2 2>7@0AB5 >B 15 4> 18 ;5B 2 F5;>< 459AB2CNB ?A8E8G5A:85 70:>=><5@=>AB8, E0@0:B5@=K5 C65 4;O 27@>A;>3> G5;>25:0, >4=0:> C >B45;L=KE N=>H59 8 452CH5: MB>3> 2>7@0AB0 >B<5G0NBAO =5?@028;L=K5 =@02AB25==K5 >F5=:8 =0@O4C A ?>2KH5==K< AB@5<;5=85< : =57028A8<>AB8. @0:B8:0 ?>:07K205B, GB> :064><C 4>?@>AC =5A>25@H5==>;5B=53> 4>;6=0 ?@54H5AB2>20BL BI0B5;L=0O ?>43>B>2:0. 45AL 206=> 2KOA=8BL, :0:85 ;N48 >:@C60NB =5A>25@H5==>;5B=53>, 2 :0:8E CA;>28OE >= 6825B, A :5< 4@C68B, :0: >= @01>B05B 8;8 CG8BAO. 06=> >?@545;8BL C@>25=L 53> @0728B8O, A?>A>1=>AB8, :@C3 53> 8=B5@5A>2, 0 B0:65 >A>15==>AB8 E0@0:B5@0. 2B>@ ?@845@68205BAO ?>78F88 .. 0A8;L520, :>B>@K9 2K45;O5B 5 MB0?>2 4>?@>A0 =5A>25@H5==>;5B=53>*. _____________________________________________________________________________ *!<.: 0A8;L52 .. .@848G5A:0O ?A8E>;>38O. ., 1991, A. 321.  G0AB=>AB8, =0 ?5@2>=0G0;L=>< MB0?5 4>?@>A0 A;54>20B5;L 2 CAB=>9 D>@<5 ?>;CG05B >B =5A>25@H5==>;5B=53> 4>?@0H8205<>3> 53> 0=:5B=K5 40==K5. 45AL 3;02=0O 7040G0 A;54>20B5;O  ?@028;L=> 4803=>AB8@>20BL ;8G=>ABL 4>?@0H8205<>3>. 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