ࡱ> M O 8 9 : ; < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L U@Dbjbj1Ks  +"""8Zd 4+, ^ \"~>   *******$/R;2n+}+,ZZZ *Z*ZZ& ~   { "V R! ,0, 2D2 L&2   ZLt   ++++"D++";5:A0=4@ >@O=8= 8DK > >AA88 8 4CE =0F88 3;02;5=85  TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181580" 0< =04>1=> 87CG0BL A2>5 A>1AB25==>5,  PAGEREF _Toc152181580 \h 4  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181581" A2>N >AA8N  =0H5 A5@4F5 8 AG0AB85 =0H5.  PAGEREF _Toc152181581 \h 4  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181582" @548A;>285  PAGEREF _Toc152181582 \h 4  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181583" ;020 I.  PAGEREF _Toc152181583 \h 6  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181584" >G5<C <K 25@8< 274>@C?  PAGEREF _Toc152181584 \h 6  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181585" $ > <=>3>B5@?5;82>AB8  PAGEREF _Toc152181585 \h 7  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181586" >?@>A >1 M=45<8G=>AB8 ;815@0;87<0 =C6405BAO 2 =>2>< @0AA<>B@5=88  PAGEREF _Toc152181586 \h 10  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181587"  #. !" #  .?  PAGEREF _Toc152181587 \h 12  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181588" ,(  # ! #!! )  PAGEREF _Toc152181588 \h 13  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181589"  !'!" #!!  !",/  !'!"  !  PAGEREF _Toc152181589 \h 18  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181590"   !#  '!"  =0H8E ?@54:>2  PAGEREF _Toc152181590 \h 21  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181591" ;020 II.  PAGEREF _Toc152181591 \h 24  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181592" AB>G=8:8 <8D>2, 2:;NG0O =5>6840==K5  PAGEREF _Toc152181592 \h 24  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181593" !" /, !(/!/  .  PAGEREF _Toc152181593 \h 24  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181594" ?5G0;L=K5 ?;>4K AKB>3> ;53:>25@8O  PAGEREF _Toc152181594 \h 25  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181595" ,$+  " %. '# "!/ !",?  PAGEREF _Toc152181595 \h 29  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181596"  , !!  !"   +: (   + !" "  PAGEREF _Toc152181596 \h 30  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181597" !+ !!"/  !"+%  '  PAGEREF _Toc152181597 \h 32  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181598" 064K9 =0@>4 8A:;NG8B5;5=. A:;NG8B5;L=55 ;8 <K 2A5E?  PAGEREF _Toc152181598 \h 33  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181599" , "!"#  !#)!" $  PAGEREF _Toc152181599 \h 34  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181600" ;020 III. !<5@4O:>2I8=0 8;8 :5AA>==0O 1>;57=L A2>1>4K?  PAGEREF _Toc152181600 \h 37  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181601"  '!" !   )"!/   (  PAGEREF _Toc152181601 \h 37  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181602" '"  " '# +"?  PAGEREF _Toc152181602 \h 40  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181603" AB0@G5A:>5 1@N760=85 <>;>4KE  PAGEREF _Toc152181603 \h 43  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181604" C1;8F8AB8:0 ?;>E0O, A>2A5< ?;>E0O 8 >?0A=0O  PAGEREF _Toc152181604 \h 45  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181605"  /#" +  ?  PAGEREF _Toc152181605 \h 47  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181606" ;020 IV.  PAGEREF _Toc152181606 \h 48  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181607" >?@02:8 : >1@07C >AA88  PAGEREF _Toc152181607 \h 48  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181608" 0< =02O7K20NB ?A8E>;>38N >1865==KE  PAGEREF _Toc152181608 \h 48  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181609" !B@0H=K9 <8@ :0B0AB@>D8AB0  PAGEREF _Toc152181609 \h 51  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181610" 3;O=5<AO 8 C4828<AO  PAGEREF _Toc152181610 \h 53  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181611" ;02=>5 @>AA89A:>5 GC4>  PAGEREF _Toc152181611 \h 54  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181612" A;8 C6 AC4L10 @0AI54@8;0AL...  PAGEREF _Toc152181612 \h 56  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181613" @C30O AB@0=0  PAGEREF _Toc152181613 \h 60  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181614" @> =0H :@878A  PAGEREF _Toc152181614 \h 61  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181615" ;020 V.  PAGEREF _Toc152181615 \h 63  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181616" >CG8<AO C 0?04=>9 2@>?K?  PAGEREF _Toc152181616 \h 63  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181617" 8D > 4>1@>< =5<5F:>< ?@8<5@5 4;O >AA88  PAGEREF _Toc152181617 \h 63  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181618" 45 C2060;8 G5;>25G5A:CN 687=L?  PAGEREF _Toc152181618 \h 65  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181619"  1;03>=@0288 8 65AB>:>A5@488  PAGEREF _Toc152181619 \h 67  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181620" ;020 VI.  PAGEREF _Toc152181620 \h 69  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181621" >7<>65= ;8 <>AB =04 8AB>@8G5A:>9 ?@>?0ABLN?  PAGEREF _Toc152181621 \h 69  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181622" AB>@8G5A:0O >AA8O, :0:>9 >=0 2845;0 A51O  PAGEREF _Toc152181622 \h 69  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181623" 'C2AB2> >1I5@CAA:>3> 548=AB20  PAGEREF _Toc152181623 \h 72  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181624" A>7=0=85 @07=>>1@078O.  =@02AB25==KE AB0=40@B0E  PAGEREF _Toc152181624 \h 74  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181625" 0D>A 8<?5@88, <03=8B 8<?5@88  PAGEREF _Toc152181625 \h 77  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181626" /  !"+/?  PAGEREF _Toc152181626 \h 79  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181627" #%  !& !!! ' 1914   PAGEREF _Toc152181627 \h 81  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181628" ;020 VII.  PAGEREF _Toc152181628 \h 85  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181629"  >AA89A:89  <=>3> 2KH5, G5< <K 4C<05<  PAGEREF _Toc152181629 \h 85  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181630" 5A:>5 A;>2> A5<8@=>3> 0=:0  PAGEREF _Toc152181630 \h 88  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181631" !>?>AB028<K5  (2 <;@4. 4>;;.) 3;02=KE ?@><KH;5==KE AB@0= <8@0,  PAGEREF _Toc152181631 \h 88  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181632" 8AG8A;5==K5 ?> ?0@8B5BC ?>:C?0B5;L=>9 A?>A>1=>AB8  PAGEREF _Toc152181632 \h 88  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181633"  3;02=KE ?@><KH;5==KE AB@0= <8@0 =0 4CHC =0A5;5=8O  PAGEREF _Toc152181633 \h 89  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181634" >?@02>G=K9 :>MDD8F85=B 8 1N465B >AA88  PAGEREF _Toc152181634 \h 92  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181635" ;020 VIII.  PAGEREF _Toc152181635 \h 96  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181636" 1@07 AB@0=K  8AB>G=8: @04>AB8 ;81> 48A:><D>@B0  PAGEREF _Toc152181636 \h 96  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181637" '!"   !'!",  *"+ !" '!   PAGEREF _Toc152181637 \h 100  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc152181638" B> 68; :><D>@B=55?  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A;8 25@8BL >?@>A0<, 2A53> H5ABL ?@>F5=B>2 @>AA8O= >ICI0NB A51O AG0AB;82K<8.  =5<0;>9 AB5?5=8 MB> ?;>4 @01>BK 2@54>=>A=KE <8D>2. 01>B0 ?> @07@CH5=8N <8D>2 206=0 8 ?> 4@C3>9 ?@8G8=5. =0 ?><>305B 2KO2;5=8N 8AB8==>3> >1@070 >AA88. >:0 <K =5 C15@5< 8A:060NI85 =0A;>5=8O, =0H0 @>48=0 1C45B >AB020BLAO, ?> 1>;LH><C AG5BC, =58725AB=>9 AB@0=>9. 58725AB=>9 4065 4;O =0A A0<8E. @C3CN, =5 <5=55 206=CN A2>N 7040GC O 2845; 2 B><, GB>1K ?@81;878BLAO : ?>=8<0=8N <5E0=87<>2, ?@>H;KE 8 =K=5H=8E, ?>4@K20 =0F8>=0;L=>3> 4CE0. 1572@548BL MB8 <5E0=87<K <>6=>, ;8HL ?>=O2 8E. 5@2K9, :@0B:89 20@80=B 40==>9 @01>BK (2 2845 AB0BL8 ?>4 =0720=85< 'B> <K 7=05< > >AA88?) 1K; =0?5G0B0= 2 6C@=0;5 >2K5 25E8 XE "\>2K5 25E8\"  ! 1(2) 70 1998 3. 0AH8@5==0O 25@A8O, C65 ?>4 =K=5H=8< =0720=85<, ?5G0B0;0AL A :>=F0 1998-3> 4> =0G0;0 =K=5H=53> 3>40 2 6C@=0;5 @0=8 XE "\@0=8\"  (!! 187, 188, 189, 190, 194, 196 8 199). 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C@=0; -:>=><8AB XE "\-:>=><8AB\"  =0720; MB> 2>?;>I5=85< 45<>:@0B88. >AA8O 871@0;0 ?@57845=B0 87 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 >??>78F88 2 1991 3>4C 8 ?@>25;0 A B5E ?>@ =5 <5=55 ?OB8 A>ABO70B5;L=KE, 4>AB0B>G=> A2>1>4=KE 2K1>@>2. -:>=><8AB 8<5=C5B MB> ;6545<>:@0B859. >;C<18N XE ">;C<18O"  >4>;5205B >@30=87>20==0O ?@5ABC?=>ABL  0H8=3B>= XE "0H8=3B>="  2K45;O5B 55 ?@028B5;LAB2C 2 2845 ?><>I8 =0 1>@L1C A =0@:>10@>=0<8 1,3 <;@4. 4>;;0@>2. # >AA88 B0:65 ?@>1;5<K A >@3?@5ABC?=>ABLN  0<5@8:0=A:85 ?>;8B8:8 AB@>3> 2=CH0NB >A:25 XE ">A:20" : =8:0:>9 ?><>I8 4> ?>;=>3> 8A?@02;5=8O.  E>45 ?>4?>;L=>9 A?5F>?5@0F88 0<5@8:0=FK 2KO2;ONB @O4 <5:A8:0=A:8E 10=:>2, >B<K20NI8E =0@:>4>;;0@K 2 !( XE "!("   0H8=3B>= XE "0H8=3B>="  ?@8=>A8B A2>8 8728=5=8O 5:A8:5 XE "5:A8:0"  70 B09=K5 459AB28O =0 55 B5@@8B>@88. 48= 0<5@8:0=A:89 10=: O:>1K >B<K20; 45=L38 4;O @CAA:8E ?@5ABC?=KE 3@C??  254CI89 0<5@8:0=A:89 A5=0B>@ >17K205B ?@028B5;LAB2> >AA88 A0<>9 70@07=>9 :;5?B>:@0B859 <8@0. >340 0780BA:89 :@878A 2A?C3=C; 8=25AB>@>2 A 1@078;LA:>3> @K=:0, >1@CH82 @50;, :><<5=B0B>@K A@02=8;8 MB> A>1KB85 A CE01>< =0 4>@>35. >340 B>B 65 :@878A @0A?C30; 8=>AB@0==KE 8=25AB>@>2, 459AB2>20H8E 2 >AA88, 0 @C1;L @CE=C;, :><<5=B0B>@K >1JO28;8 MB> 4>:070B5;LAB2>< ?@>20;0 @CAA:8E ;815@0;L=KE M:>=><8G5A:8E @5D>@<. 0?04=K5 G8B0B5;8 CA2>8;8, GB> 2 >AA88 =5B ?@54?@8=8<0B5;59, >4=8 <0D8>78; =5B 45<>:@0B>2  B>;L:> ?@>406=K5 ?>;8B8:0=K; =5B 3@0640=  5ABL ;8HL >1=8I02H0O =0F8>=0;8AB8G5A:0O <0AA0. @8 MB>< >=8 =5 7=0NB, GB> C65 >:>;> 1998 3>40 :0640O B@5BLO A5<LO 2 >AA88 8<5;0 02B><>18;L, GB> 70 ?>A;54=85 3>4K 745AL 4>1028;>AL 32 BKAOG8 :< 02B>4>@>3, :>;8G5AB2> 4><0H=8E B5;5D>=>2 C25;8G8;>AL =0 40%, 0 G8A;> <564C=0@>4=KE 72>=:>2 2K@>A;> 2 12 @07. >ABC? : B@5< 8 1>;55 B5;5:0=0;0< B5?5@L 8<5NB C65 =5 36%, 0 68% =0A5;5=8O >AA88. 5BA:0O A<5@B=>ABL, 2>7@>AH0O 1K;> 2 =0G0;5 ?>A;54=53> 45AOB8;5B8O, A53>4=O =865, G5< 2 1990 3>4C. #4828B5;L=> ;8, GB> <=>385 @CAA:85 CA<0B@820NB 2 >B=>H5=88 0?040 : 8E AB@0=5 42>9=>9 AB0=40@B? (Daniel Treisman XE "Treisman, Daniel" , Blaming Russia First, Foreign Affairs XE "\Foreign Affairs\" , Nov-Dec, 2000).  A;>20E "@8A<M=0 25@=> 2A5, :@><5 ?>A;54=53> ?@54;>65=8O. 1> <=>385 @CAA:85, > :>B>@KE 845B @5GL, 5420 ;8 CA<>B@OB 745AL 42>9=>9 AB0=40@B. =>385 @CAA:85 4>25@G82> @0745;ONB >A<5O==K5 "@8A<M=>< :;8H5 =0AG5B ;6545<>:@0B88, >1=8I02H59 =0F8>=0;8AB8G5A:>9 <0AAK 8 ?@>20;0 @5D>@<  @02=> :0: 8 =0AG5B 70A8;LO 2 >AA88 <0D88, :;5?B>:@0B88 8 ?@>406=KE ?>;8B8:0=>2. 0;> B>3>. A:@5==5 CA2>82, GB> >AA8O ?5@568205B =5 :0:85-B> B0< 60;:85 B@C4=>AB8 ?5@5E>4=>3> ?5@8>40, 0 0B0AB@>DC A !0<>9 >;LH>9 C:2K, :>5-:B> C =0A (=5 CAB0N ?>2B>@OBL) ?>H5; 5I5 40;LH5, 70:;NG82, GB> 8=0G5 8 1KBL =5 <>3;>: 2AO =0H0 8AB>@8O 1K;0 =5?@028;L=0, ?>B><C =5?@028;5= 8 A53>4=OH=89 45=L. 54L 8<5==> : B0:><C 273;O4C =0A C65 45AOB>: ;5B ?>4B0;:820NB ?5G0BL 8 MD8@. ABL 02B>@K, 2>;=CNI85AO :0: =525ABK ?@8 A;>25 0?04, >=8 >A>15==> ?>AB0@0;8AL. 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Sic volo, sic jubeo, sit pro ratione voluntas (B0: E>GC, B0: 25;N, 2<5AB> 4>2>4>2  <>O 2>;O)  MB>B ?@8=F8? ?@8H5; =5 87 5@A88 XE "5@A8O"  8 =5 87 8B0O XE "8B09" . ;8, A;54CO ;>38:5 !0<CM;8 XE "!0<CM;8, "81>@" , =0< A;54C5B >1JO28BL N4>28:0 XI XE "N4>28: XI" , $8;8??0 II A?0=A:>3> XE "$8;8?? II A?0=A:89" , ;825@0 @><25;O XE "@><25;L, ;825@" , 8B;5@0 XE "8B;5@ ."  8 CAA>;8=8 XE "CAA>;8=8, 5=8B>"  (0 87 <5;:8E  !0;0H8 XE "!0;0H8, $5@5=F" , 75<;O:0 !0<CM;8 XE "!0<CM;8, "81>@" )  45A0=B=8:0<8 87 "0@B0@88 XE ""0@B0@8O" ?  A:>;L:> 0=B845<>:@0B8G5A:8E <KA;8B5;59 7=0;0 2@>?0, ?@8B>< 1;5ABOI8E! AB0B8, >48= 87 =8E, >75D 45 5AB@ XE "5AB@, >75D 45" , 682O 2 1802-1814 2 5B5@1C@35 XE "!0=:B-5B5@1C@3" , >:070; ?@8NB82H59 53> AB@0=5 CA;C3C A>2A5< =5 B>3> @>40, :0:CN, A>3;0A=> ;>38:5 ?52F>2 >;H51=>3> 0?040, 4>;65= 1K; 59 >:070BL ?@>A25I5==K9 8 ?@8OB=K9 2> 2A5E >B=>H5=8OE 52@>?55F. >75D 45 5AB@ XE "5AB@, >75D 45"  8A:@5==5 ;N18; >AA8N 8 65;0; 59 4>1@0.  65;0O 4>1@0, 25; 0:B82=CN 8=B@83C ?@>B82 .. !?5@0=A:>3> XE "!?5@0=A:89 .." , ?@>B82 53> ?@>5:B>2 ?>AB5?5==>3> >A2>1>645=8O :@5ABLO=, ?@>B82 CG@5645=8O >AC40@AB25==>9 C<K XE "C<0" . ;O 45 5AB@0 XE "5AB@, >75D 45"  =5 1K;> =8G53> AB@0H=55 45<>:@0B88 8 @0745;5=8O 2;0AB59.  8=B@83>20BL 5<C 1K;> ;53:>  >= A;K; 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>9 72574>9 2@>?K, A =8< ;N18; 15A54>20BL A0< 8<?5@0B>@ ;5:A0=4@ I XE ";5:A0=4@ I" , : =5<C ?@8A;CH820;AO <8=8AB@ ?@>A25I5=8O 07C<>2A:89 XE " 07C<>2A:89 .." .  B><, GB> 2 1812 3>4C !?5@0=A:89 XE "!?5@0=A:89 .."  1K; >BAB02;5=, 0 ?@>5:B >AC40@AB25==>9 C<K XE "C<0"  =0 93 3>40 ?>;>65= ?>4 AC:=>, 5ABL 8 70A;C30 52@>?59F0 45 5AB@0 XE "5AB@, >75D 45" . (0: =5<0;0O 70A;C30 2 ?>O2;5=88 C =0A ;5=8=87<0 ?@8=04;568B 52@>?59FC 0@:AC XE "0@:A, 0@;" .) 1880-9 8 1940-9 0 ?>@>35 B@5BL53> BKAOG5;5B8O =0G8=05B :070BLAO, GB> ?0@;0<5=BA:0O 45<>:@0B8O 8 ;815@0;87< (>1 @C:C A A>F80;L=K< @5D>@<0B>@AB2><) ?>15640NB, C65 ?>GB8 ?>1548;8, 2> 2A5< <8@5 2 A8;C A2>59 =5>B@078<>AB8. 081>;55 ?5@54>2K5 AB@0=K, 45A:0BL, 2AB0;8 =0 MB>B ?CBL @0=LH5, =5 AB>;L ?5@54>2K5  ?>765, =C 0 A0<K5 70B>@<>65==K5 ?@8A>548=ONBAO C65 =0 =0H8E 3;070E. ?>@C 2>A:;8:=CBL: 0: MB> =5B 1>;LH0:0 <8@>2>9 F828;870F88? >B 65 >=!. >340 23;O4K205HLAO 2 >1>1I5==CN 8 C?@>I5==CN 40;L 2@5<5=, <>65B 4065 ?><5@5I8BLAO, GB> 1>;LH0: 1K; >:>=G0B5;L=> 2K<>I5= C65 2 XIX 25:5, >A>15==> ?>A;5 ?>B@OA5=89 8 10@@8:04 1830, 1848 8 1871 3>4>2. >;55 B>3>, 5A;8 ?@>A<0B@820BL <8@>2K5 A>1KB8O 3>4 70 3>4><, 42830OAL : A>2@5<5==>AB8, ?>O2;O5BAO A>1;07= >1JO28BL 8 AB0@B>2CN 40BC: 1880 3>4. 8 2 >48= ?@54H5AB2CNI89 3>4 ?@028;L=K5 2AE>4K =5 ?@>@0AB0;8 AB>;L 4@C6=>.  MB>< 3>4C 2> $@0=F88 XE "$@0=F8O"  0<=8AB8@>20=K :><<C=0@K 8 =0G0;>AL =0F8>=0;L=>5 ?@8<8@5=85, A?0=8O XE "A?0=8O"  C=8GB>68;0 @01AB2> =0 C15, 2 !( XE "!("  ?@57845=B>< AB0; 0@D8;4 XE "0@D8;4 6." , ?>15482H89 @0A8AB0 %M=:>:0 XE "%M=:>: #.!." , =0 ?0@;0<5=BA:8E 2K1>@0E 2 =3;88 XE "=3;8O"  25@E 27O;8 ;815@0;K, A@07C 65 ?@8=O2H85 70:>= >1 >B25BAB25==>AB8 @01>B>40B5;O 8 >E@0=5 B@C40, 2 (259F0@88 XE "(259F0@8O"  2>7=8:;> ?5@2>5 2 <8@5 >1J548=5=85 ?@>DA>N7>2, "@0=A200;L XE ""@0=A200;L" , 2G5@0H=OO :>;>=8O, ?@>2>73;0A8; 2 1880 A2>N =57028A8<>ABL. !C4L1>=>A=K5 A>1KB8O, C25=G02H85 @52>;NF8N M9478 XE " 52>;NF8O M9478" , ?@>87>H;8 2 /?>=88 XE "/?>=8O" : 745AL 1K;0 A:>?8@>20=0 D@0=FC7A:0O A8AB5<0 AC4>?@>872>4AB20, 0 >1@07F>2K5 ?@54?@8OB8O, A>740202H85AO ?@028B5;LAB2>< (AC4>AB@>8B5;L=K5 25@D8, <5B0;;C@38G5A:85 702>4K 8 B.4.) 1K;> @5H5=> ?@>40BL 70 A8<2>;8G5A:CN ?;0BC 2 G0AB=K5 @C:8. A;8 1K =5 MB> @5H5=85, /?>=8O XE "/?>=8O"  ?>H;0 1K, ?> ACB8, A>F80;8AB8G5A:8< ?CB5<. A:;NG8B5;L=> >1=0456820NI5 @072820;8AL 2 1880 45;0 2 >AA88. .>@8A-5;8:>2 XE ">@8A-5;8:>2 ."."  ?@54;>68; F0@N @O4 A<5;KE ?@5>1@07>20=89 2 AD5@5 >B=>H5=89 @01>G8E 8 ?@54?@8=8<0B5;59, 2 =0@>4=>< >1@07>20=88, 2 <5AB=>< A0<>C?@02;5=88, 2 ?0A?>@B=>9 A8AB5<5, 0 3;02=>5  ?@54;>68; ?@82;5:0BL 2K1>@=KE A254CI8E ;N459 XE "\!254CI85 ;N48\"  : >1AC645=8N 70:>=>2, 8 ;5:A0=4@ II XE ";5:A0=4@ II"  ?@8=O; MB8 ?@54;>65=8O. @><5 B>3>, 1K; >B<5=5= 0@E08G=K9 A>;O=>9 =0;>3, A<O3G5=0 F5=7C@0, @0AH8@5=K ?@020 AB0@>>1@O4F52. 0G0;0AL ?>43>B>2:0 B>3>, GB> 8AB>@8:8 =07K20NB >=AB8BCF859 >@8A-5;8:>20 XE ">@8A-5;8:>2 ."." . <5==> 2 1880 0<5@8:0=A:89 ?>;8B8: "><0A 84 XE " 84, "><0A"  ?@>2>73;0A8;: 0:>=5F-B> 25AL <8@ C1548;AO, GB> 45<>:@0B8O  ;CGH55 CAB@>9AB2> G5;>25G5A:>3> >1I5AB20.  4>1028;:  8450;L=>5 CAB@>9AB2>, MB> :>340 >4=0 ?0@B8O ?@028B, 0 4@C30O  A;548B 70 :064K< 55 H03><. @0240, C65 2 A;54CNI5< 3>4C 0@D8;4 XE "0@D8;4 6."  8 ;5:A0=4@ II XE ";5:A0=4@ II"  1K;8 C18BK, >@8A-5;8:>2 XE ">@8A-5;8:>2 ."."  8 53> AB>@>==8:8 ?>40;8 2 >BAB02:C, $@0=F8O XE "$@0=F8O"  ?>@01>B8;0 "C=8A XE ""C=8A" , !( XE "!("  2>A?@5B8;8 2J574 2 AB@0=C  65;BKE, 0 0=3;89A:89 ;815@0; ;04AB>= XE ";04AB>= #." , 701K2, :0: >= >1;8G0; 8<?5@80;87< 8 >15I0; A0<>C?@02;5=85 @;0=488 XE "@;0=48O" , 428=C; 2>9A:0 2 38?5B XE "38?5B"  8 1@>A8; 2 BN@L<K 8@;0=4A:8E 0:B828AB>2. 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A:@5==5 =045NAL, GB> : =59 ?@8A>548=OBAO 4@C385. !AK;:8 8 C?><8=0=8O: 20;80=8 !.. 5<A:85 A>1>@K. 45AA0, 1916. :<0=>2 .. 0H:8@A:85 2>AAB0=8O XVII  ?5@2>9 B@5B8 XVIII 2. #D0, 1978. ;40=>2 0@:. ;NG [@><0= ]. (=>3>G8A;5==K5 8740=8O). <5@8:0=0. 8=32>-AB@0=>254G5A:89 A;>20@L. [!<>;5=A:], 1996. =8A8<>2 .. 0@>4 C MH0D>B0. 25740. 1998, ! 11. 0@10@> 8 >=B0@8=8 2 >AA88.  8AB>@88 8B0;> @CAA:8E A2O759 2 XV 25:5. ., 1971. 5;>2 .. 1 8AB>@8G5A:>< 7=0G5=88 @CAA:>3> 1>O@AB20. !?1., 1886. 5;>=>2A:0O .. 8 5;>=>2A:89 .. @54AB028B5;LAB2> 8 2K1>@K 2 >AA88 A 4@52=59H8E 2@5<5= 4> XVII 25:0. ., 1999. 5@4O52 8:>;09. CAA:0O 845O, !1., 1994. 5@4O52 8:>;09. !C4L10 >AA88, ., 1990. >340=>2 .. "@8 25:0 ?5B5@1C@3A:>9 10=8. !1, 2000. >;>B>2 =4@59. 87=L 8 ?@8:;NG5=8O =4@5O >;>B>20, >?8A0==K5 A0<8< 8< 4;O A2>8E ?>B><:>2. "B. 1  3. ., 1993. C=8= 20=. :0O==K5 4=8. (=>3>G8A;5==K5 8740=8O). 5@B ;5:A0=4@. $@0=F8O 1940  1955, ., 1959. >9=0 5@<0=88 ?@>B82 !>25BA:>3> !>N70. 1941  1945, @CAA:0O 25@A8O, Argon Verlag. 5@;8=, 1992. 5AA5= ..  42CE 25:0E. @E82 @CAA:>9 @52>;NF88. ". XXII. 5@;8=, 1937. >3>;L 8:>;09. 89 [?>25ABL ]. (<=>3>G8A;5==K5 8740=8O). >@O=8= . >;LH>9 ?>:5@ 1941 3>40. @0=8 ! 193, 2000. >@O=8= . C4L AG0AB;820, #:@08=0! >A52. !! 3(1431) 8 4(1432), 1996. >@O=8= . 5;8G09H0O 87 4>@>3. CAA:0O <KA;L (0@86). 1996, ! 4148 (7  13 =>O1@O). >@O=8= . B>@>5 ?@8H5AB285 A@54=53> :;0AA0. Paris Match (@CAA:>5 8740=85). C;52>9 =><5@, 19 <0@B0 1998. >@O=8= . 0G0. >A:@5H5=85 CB@0G5==>3> @0O. <0459. ! 2(11), 1997. >@O=8= . ><18 E;>?>G5B 2?CABCN. CAA:0O <KA;L (0@86). ! 4124 (2  8 <0O), 1996. >@O=8= . 0:>5 AG0ABL5  3@>10=C;0AL @0:5B0! C@=0;8AB. ! 8, 1997. >@O=8= . >AB ;N128. 8B5@0BC@=0O 3075B0. ! 11, 1991. >@O=8= . K =5 60;5;8 > ?@>945==>< ?CB8.... >2K9 <8@. ! 2, 2000. >@O=8= . 0 >G=>9 AB02:5 3075B=KE AC645=89. 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Denkwurdigkeiten, B.II. 1927, Berlin, S.328.  .75D 0F:528G XE "0F:528G .75D" ,  "A:07>G=><" 2@5<5=8, >2K9 C@=0; XE ">2K9 C@=0;"  (LN->@:), ! 67, 1962.  ..01C70= XE "01C70= .." , CAA:85 2 <8@5, !1 XE "!0=:B-5B5@1C@3" , 1996, B01;.17.  ..5;5=8= XE "5;5=8= .." , >AB>G=>A;02O=A:0O MB=>3@0D8O, ., 1991, AB@.362.  ..5>=B>28G XE "5>=B>28G .." , AB>@8O ;815@0;87<0 2 >AA88, ., 1995, AB@.159.  ?@>G5<, 8 8E ?@54:0<, 4065 40;5:8<, B0:65 =5 =04> 1K;> >1JOA=OBL, GB> MB> B0:>5. ;O CA8 XE " CAL" - >AA88 2A5340 1K;> E0@0:B5@=> >18;85 2K1>@=KE 4>;6=>AB59. !>>B25BAB2CNI0O D0:B>3@0D8O >1>1I5=0 2 :=835 ..5;>=>2A:>9 XE "5;>=>2A:0O .."  8 ..5;>=>2A:>3> XE "5;>=>2A:89 .."  @54AB028B5;LAB2> 8 2K1>@K 2 >AA88 A 4@52=59H8E 2@5<5= 4> XVII 25:0 (., 1999). 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A>G., AB@. 203-204  !<: G5@:8 @CAA:>9 :C;LBC@K XVIII 25:0, G.4, .,1990.  >4@>1=55 >1 MB>< A<. 2 <>59 AB0BL5 0G0. >A:@5H5=85 CB@0G5==>3> @0O, <0459 XE "\<0459\" , !2(11), 1997.  'B>1K =5 C2O7=CBL 745AL 2 4>AB0B>G=> A;>6=>9 B5<5, >BAK;0N : >1J5<8AB>9 @01>B5 "..'C3C=>20 XE "'C3C=>2 ".."  5@52=O =0 >;3>D5 XE ">;3>D0"  (N=E5= XE "N=E5=" , 1968). =0;87 AB0B8AB8G5A:8E 8 8=KE 40==KE ?@825; 55 02B>@0 : 2K2>4C, GB> CA;>28O 687=8 :>;E>7=8:0 >1@07F0 1967 3>40 1K;8 2 33(!) @070 EC65 CA;>289 687=8 :@5ABLO=8=0 2 1913 3>4C.  5<>3@0D8G5A:89 M=F8:;>?548G5A:89 A;>20@L, .,1985; ..01C70= XE "01C70= .." , 0@>4K >AA88 2 XVIII 25:5, .,1990.  .">;AB>9 XE "">;AB>9, 52" , 0?8A=0O :=86:0 ! 4, >;=>5 A>1@0=85 A>G8=5=89 2 90 BB, B.48, .-., 1952.  "0=B5>= A;02=KE @>AA89A:8E <C659", ! 1, 1816.  E.L.Keennan XE "Keennan E.L." . On Certain Mythical Beliefs and Russian Behaviors (2 A1>@=8:5 The Legacy of History in Russia and the New States of Eurasia, London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muts) 2 A2>1>4=>5 >B >A=>2=>9 @01>BK 2@5<O.  >G5<C 1K @0G52C XE "@0G52 ."  =5 ?>3>@520BL > B><, GB> =52>7<>6=> =0 @CAA:>< O7K:5 2K@078BL @07;8G8O <564C B0:8<8 MB=>=8<0<8 0=3;89A:>3> O7K:0, :0: Hispanic 8 Spanish, Hindustani 8 Indian?  !B@0H=> ?>4C<0BL, => 02B>@ MB>3> ;5?5B0 1K; ?@5AA-A5:@5B0@5< .>@10G520 XE ">@10G52, 8E08; !5@35528G"  2 ?>@C ?@57845=BAB20 ?>A;54=53>. 51>AL, ?@>A25I0; H5D0 ?> G0AB8 @>AA852545=8O.  Arthur Koestler XE "Koestler, Arthur" , The Thirteenth Tribe, L., 1976. <55BAO 2 284C B@8=04F0B>5 :>;5=> 87@08;52>, 2 4>?>;=5=85 : 425=04F0B8 181;59A:8<.  David E. Stannard XE "Stannard, David E." . American Holocaust: the Conquest of the New World, Oxford University Press, 1993.  B:@KB85 =B0@:B84K XE "=B0@:B840" , <0B5@8:0 ?;>I04LN 14 <;= :2. :<, 8 2>2A5 4>;6=> 1K;> ?>AB028BL >AA8N 2?5@548 2A5E AB@0=, A :>B>@K<8 B@048F8>==> A2O7K20NB 5;8:85 35>3@0D8G5A:85 >B:@KB8O XE "5;8:85 35>3@0D8G5A:85 >B:@KB8O"  (A >AA859 8E, GB> 70<5G0B5;L=>, =5 A2O7K20NB), => <K ;N48 =0AB>;L:> =5:8G;82K5, GB> =8:B> C =0A, :065BAO, >1 MB>< ?>G5B=>< <5AB5 =5 >701>B8;AO ?>E;>?>B0BL.  .$.5@5=A:89 XE "5@5=A:89 .$."  ?@>25; ?>GB8 2A5 A2>8 38<=078G5A:85 3>4K 8 ?>;CG8; 0BB5AB0B 7@5;>AB8 2 "0H:5=B5 XE ""0H:5=B" .  <5@8:0=0. 8=32>-AB@0=>254G5A:89 A;>20@L. .<. [!<>;5=A:], 1996.  !2>N ?0@>48N O 70:>=G8; A;>20<8: <5==> B0: 45;05BAO 2AO B0 :20788AB>@8G5A:0O 5@C=40, GB> 70?>;>=8;0 =K=5 6C@=0;K =0 ?@>AB>@0E 1K2H53> !!!  XE "!!! " . 5;8:> 65 1K;> <>5 C482;5=85, :>340 O C2845; MB>B 45<>=AB@0F8>==K9 <8D 3>4 A?CABO 87;>65==K< =0 ?>;=>< A5@L575, ?>GB8 4>A;>2=> 8 157 AAK;:8 =0 <5=O  C 8AB8=K =5 <>65B 1KBL 02B>@0, =5 B0: ;8?  2 AB0BL5 .0@?>20 XE "0@?>2 ."  =B8@CAA:85 <8DK 2 C:@08=A:>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 (0 >AA8N XE "0 >AA8N" . 5AB=8: 2=CB@5==59 687=8 0@>4=>-B@C4>2>3> !>N70 @>AA89A:8E A>;840@8AB>2 XE "0@>4=>-B@C4>2>9 !>N7 @>AA89A:8E A>;840@8AB>2" , ! 6/338, A5=BO1@L->:BO1@L 1997). %>@>H89 C@>:!  5=5@0; 5154L XE "5154L .."  C25@O5B, GB> AB@0=0 C =0A 25;8:0O, => =5AG0AB=0O, 45?CB0B ?@>H;>9 C<K XE "C<0"  .C9:8= XE "C9:8= ."   GB> 3>@5<KG=0O, 45?CB0B =K=5H=59 .&>9 XE "&>9 ."   GB> C=865==0O. 0:>5 <=>3>>1@0785 <=5=89!  William Cobbett XE "Cobbett, William" . The History of the Protestant Reformation in England. London. 1980.  0:>5-B> 2@5<O A?CABO 8740B5;59, : AG0ABLN, >A5=8;> C1@0BL MB> 2A5 5I5.  !<., =0?@8<5@, <>N AB0BLN ;5B5BAO ;8 703>2>@ ?@>B82 >AA88? ( CAA:0O <KA;L XE " CAA:0O <KA;L" , 4.4.96).  / >A>15==> 1;03>40@5= 02B>@C 40==>9 F8B0BK .><@8=C XE "><@8= ."  70 GC4=K5 ?@8<5@K 2 2845 42CE A>>1I5=89 035=BAB20 59B5@ XE " 59B5@, 035=BAB2>" . 5@2>5, >B 20.4.97, > :@065 =0 702>45 :A : 2>AB>:C >B #@0;0 XE "#@0;"  42C<O ?LO=K<8 @01>G8<8 =0 A?>@ 42CE O45@=KE 1>53>;>2>:. B>@>5, >B 30.4.97,  > B><, :0: 87 @CAA:>3> 2>5==>3> A0<>;5B0 =04 "8E8< >:50=>< XE ""8E89 >:50="  2K?0;8 425 C:@045==K5 :>@>2K 8  2=8<0=85, G8B0B5;L!  C?02 =0 O?>=A:>5 @K1>;>2=>5 AC4=>, ?>B>?8;8 53>. .><@8= XE "><@8= ."  ?@O<> 3>2>@8B > @>AA89A:>< 8AB>G=8:5 ?@5;5AB=>9 8AB>@88 A 1>53>;>2:0<8, =5B A><=5=89 8 2 ?@>8AE>645=88 10A=8 > :>@>20E  A>G8=8B5;8 O2=> E>B5;8 =5 B>;L:> 70@01>B0BL, => 8 ?>874520BLAO =04 ;>E0<8.  &8B. ?>: 65DD@8 '>A5@, 5=B5@15@89A:85 @0AA:07K, ., 1996, A.800, 801, 827.  @;0=4A:85 8AB>@8:8 ?>;030NB, GB> >B ?@56=53> G8A;0 68B5;59 CF5;5;> =5 1>;55 >4=>9 H5AB>9... A;8 ?@8=OBL 4065 BC F8D@C, :0:CN 40NB 0=3;89A:85 ?8A0B5;8...  1>;55 B@5B8 2A53> =0A5;5=8O @;0=488 XE "@;0=48O" , B> 2A5 65 ?@845BAO A:070BL, GB> >=0 O2;O5BAO C60A0NI59; ?@>?>@F8>=0;L=> @02=CN 5420 ;8 ?@54AB028B G8A;> ;8F, ?>381H8E ?@8 =0H5AB288 ;N1>3> 87 2>AB>G=KE 702>520B5;59  '8=38AE0=0 XE "'8=38AE0=" , 0BKO XE "0BK9"  8;8 "0<5@;0=0 XE ""0<5@;0="  (-=F8:;>?548G5A:89 A;>20@L CAA:>3> 181;8>3@0D8G5A:>3> 8=AB8BCB0 @0=0B XE " CAA:89 181;8>3@0D8G5A:89 8=AB8BCB @0=0B" , B>< 9, ., [1911], AB1. 94).  >2K9 M=F8:;>?548G5A:89 A;>20@L (B.15, !1 XE "!0=:B-5B5@1C@3" , 1.3. [1913], AB1. 61)   @CAA:>< ?5@52>45: @8=, 6>=- 8G0@4 XE "@8=, 6>= 8G0@4" . AB>@8O 0=3;89A:>3> =0@>40, B.3, ., 874. !>;40B5=:>20 XE "!>;40BQ=:>2, >7L<0 "5@5=BL528G" , 1892, A.218.  5 <>3C =5 ?@>F8B8@>20BL 745AL 8AB>@8:0 !..02;NG5=:>20 XE "02;NG5=:>2 !.." : '5;>25G5AB2> :>;;5:B82=> H;> : @CAA:>9 @52>;NF88, 8 55 @57C;LB0BK, :0: 2 A2>5 2@5<O @52>;NF88 D@0=FC7A:>9, ?@8=04;560B 2A5<C G5;>25G5AB2C 8 ?>2;8O;8 =0 F828;870F8N B5<8 8;8 8=K<8 A?>A>10<8, ?@>428=C2 55 40;5:> 2?5@54 ?> ?CB8 30@<>=870F88 >1I5AB25==KE >B=>H5=89 (>5==K9 :><<C=87< 2 >AA88: 2;0ABL 8 <0AAK, ., 1997, AB@. 13).  Amtorg Trading Corporation XE "Amtorg Trading Corporation"   B>@3>20O >@30=870F8O, ?> =53;0A=><C 2708<=><C A>3;0A8N 2K?>;=O2H0O =5:>B>@K5 :>=AC;LA:85 DC=:F88 4> >1<5=0 ?>A>;LAB20<8 <564C !!!  XE "!!! "  8 !( XE "!("  2 =0G0;5 1934 3>40.  >;;82C4 XE ">;;82C4"  30-E ?>@>48; =5 @>15NI8E ?5@54 ?@53@040<8 35@>52, 8 MB8 35@>8 2A5;O;8 =04564C 2 ?>B5@O==KE. K=5H=55 @>AA89A:>5 :8=>, ?>E>65, 8<55B 7040GC 2>3=0BL ?>B5@O==KE 2 >BG0O=85. >;LH8=AB2> D8;L<>2 1990-1997 33. 3>4=K ;8HL 4;O <CA>@=>9 :>@78=K. 8=>@568AA5@ 8:8B0 8E0;:>2 XE "8E0;:>2, 8:8B0"  2K@078;AO B0:: 0:>9 =>@<0;L=K9 G5;>25:, ?>A<>B@52 MB8 D8;L<K, 70E>G5B ?>A5B8BL >AA8N? A>15==> C60A=K, 4>102;N >B A51O, B0: =07K205<K5 :><5488.  >65, :0:0O <C7K:0 2 MB8E A;>20E, B>;L:> 2A;CH09B5AL: 045=85 A>25BA:>9 2;0AB8... 0: >=8 A;04:8, :0: B0NB 2> @BC!  5AA5= .. XE "5AA5= .."   42CE 25:0E.