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"@>F:89 ?@>1K; 2 LN->@:5 2 1917 3>4C B@8 <5AOF0, A O=20@O ?> <0@B, B0: GB> 53> 4>E>4 >B ">2>3> <8@0" A>AB028; 144 4>;;0@0 8, 4>?CAB8<, 1K;> 5I5 100 4>;;0@>2 3>=>@0@>2 70 ;5:F88 - 8B>3> 244 4>;;0@0. 7 =8E "@>F:89 A<>3 >B40BL 310 4>;;0@>2 4@C7LO<, ?;0B8BL 70 =LN-9>@:A:CN :20@B8@C, >15A?5G820BL A5<LN - 8 >B;>68BL 10.000 4>;;0@>2, :>B>@K5 701@0;8 C =53> :0=04A:85 2;0AB8 2 0?@5;5 1917 3>40 2 0;8D0:A5. "@>F:89 70O2;O5B, GB> B5, :B> 3>2>@8B > =0;8G88 C =53> 4@C38E 8AB>G- 1 Leon Trotsky. My Life. 2 Josef Nedava. Trotsky and the Jews. 15 =8:>2 4>E>40 - :;525B=8:8, @0A?@>AB@0=ONI85 3;C?K5 87<KH;5=8O 8 ;>6L; => B0:8E @0AE>4>2 "@>F:89 =5 <>3 45;0BL, @0725 GB> >= 83@0; =0 8??>4@><5 =0 /<09:5. "@>F:89 O2=> 8<5; A:@KBK9 8AB>G=8: 4>E>40. 'B> MB> 1K; 70 8AB>G=8:? @BC@ #8;;5@B 2 A2>59 :=835 ">@>30 : 157>?0A=>AB8" A>>1I05B, GB> "@>F:89 70@010BK20; =0 687=L M;5:B@8:>< 2 ABC488 "$>:5 D8;L<". 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"5?5@L, =5 >3@0=8G820OAL MB>9 >G5284=>ABLN, <K ?>945< 40;55, GB>1K CAB0=>28BL =5?@5@K2=CN @01>GCN A2O7L <564C 1>;LH528F:8< 10=:8@>< ;>D>< H15@3>< 8 :>=B@>;8@C5<>9 >@30=>< :><?0=859 "0@0=B0 "@0AB" 87 LN->@:0 4>, 2> 2@5<O 8 ?>A;5 @52>;NF88 2 >AA88.  1 Michael Futrell. Northern Underground (London: Faber and Faber, 1963); Stefan Possony. Lenin: The Compulsive Revolutionary (London: George Alien & Unwin, 1966); George Katkov. German Foreign Office Documents on Financial Support to the Bolsheviks in 1917 // International Affairs 32 (Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1956). ^ "0< 65, >A>15==> C 0B:>20. 203 F0@A:85 2@5<5=0 H15@3 1K; 035=B>< >@30=0 2 >AA88 8 25; ?5@53>2>@K > @CAA:8E 709<0E 2 !(; 2 1917 3>4C H15@3 1K; D8=0=A>2K< ?>A@54=8:>< @52>;NF8>=5@>2; 0 ?>A;5 @52>;NF88 >= AB0; 3;02>9 >A:><10=:0, ?5@2>3> A>25BA:>3> <564C=0@>4=>3> 10=:0, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 0:A M9, 28F5-?@57845=B :>=B@>;8@C5<>9 >@30=>< "0@0=B0 "@0AB", AB0; 48@5:B>@>< >A:><10=:0 8 H5D>< 53> 8=>AB@0==>3> >B45;0. 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M?83@0D : 3;025 4. 7 Nation's Business, February 1923, pp. 22-23. 8 Jennings !. Wise. Woodrow Wilson: Disciple of Revolution (New York-Paisley Press, 1938), p. 45. 210 G5A:>3> A@54AB20 >B 2A5E ?>;8B8G5A:8E 1>;57=59 G5;>25G5AB209. -B0 845O 1K;0 A2O70=0 A 4@C38<8 M;5<5=B0<8, 8<5NI8<8 AE>4=K5 F5;8. >@4 8;L=5@ 2 =3;88 405B B@0=A0B;0=B8G5A:89 ?@8<5@ 10=:>2A:8E 8=B5@5A>2, ?@87=0NI8E 4>AB>8=AB20 8 2>7<>6=>AB8 <0@:A87<0. 8;L=5@ 1K; 10=:8@><, 2;8OB5;L=K< 2 1@8B0=A:>9 ?>;8B8:5 2>5==>3> 2@5<5=8, 8 A8<?0B878@>20; <0@:A87<C10.  1903 3>4C 2 LN->@:5 1K; >A=>20= A>F80;8AB8G5A:89 :;C1 "X". !@548 53> G;5=>2 1K;8 =5 B>;L:> :><<C=8AB 8=:>;L= !B5DD5=A, A>F80;8AB #8;LO< =3;8H #>;;8=3 8 :><<C=8AB8G5A:89 10=:8@ >@@8A %8;;:28B, => 8 6>= LN8, 659<A ". 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M?83@0D : 3;025 6. 11 Morris Hillquit. Loose Leaves from a Busy Life (New York: Macmillan, 1934), p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B0:, 2>B 8A:><>5 >1JOA=5=85, :>B>@>5 A>>B25BAB2C5B =0H8< 4>:070B5;LAB20<. -B0 3@C??0 10=:8@>2 8 B>@3>2F52 0:F8O<8 =5 1K;0 =8 1>;K?528F:>9, =8 :><<C=8AB8G5A:>9, =8 A>F80;8AB8G5A:>9, =8 45<>:@0B8G5A:>9, =8 4065 0<5@8:0=A:>9. @52KH5 2A53> MB8 ;N48 65;0;8 @K=:>2, B> 5ABL 70E20G5==KE 8<8 <564C=0@>4=KE @K=:>2 8 A2>59 <>=>?>;88 =0 <8@>2>< @K=:5 :0: :>=5G=>9 F5;8. =8 65;0;8 @K=:>2, :>B>@K5 <>3;8 1K M:A?;C0B8@>20BL <>=>?>;L=>, =5 1>OAL :>=:C@5=F88 A> AB>@>=K @CAA:8E, =5<F52 8;8 :>3>-B> 5I5, 2:;NG0O 0<5@8:0=A:8E 187=5A<5=>2 70 ?@545;0<8 8E 871@0==>3> :@C30. -B0 70<:=CB0O 3@C??0 1K;0 0?>;8B8G=>9 8 0<>@0;L=>9.  1917 3>4C >=0 8<5;0 ?@O<CN F5;L - 70E20B8BL @CAA:89 @K=>:; 12 Wise, op. cit., p. 647. 13 Leon Trotsky. The Bolsheviki and World Peace (New York: Boni & Li-veright, 1918). 212 8 2A5 MB> ?@54AB02;O;>AL ?>4 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K< ?@8:@KB85< =5:>59 ;838 4;O CAB0=>2;5=8O <8@0.  #>;;-AB@8B 459AB28B5;L=> 4>AB83 A2>59 F5;8. <5@8:0=A:85 D8@<K, :>=B@>;8@C5<K5 MB8< A8=48:0B><, ?>765 ?>H;8 40;LH5 8 AB@>8;8 !>25BA:89 !>N7, 0 A53>4=O C25@5==> 84CB ?> ?CB8 22545=8O A>25BA:>3> 2>5==>-?@><KH;5==>3> :><?;5:A0 2 M@C :><?LNB5@>2. !53>4=O 8E F5;L 2A5 5I5 6820 8 459AB2C5B. 6>= . >:D5;;5@ 87;0305B 55 2 A2>59 :=835 "B>@0O 0<5@8:0=A:0O @52>;NF8O", =0 B8BC;L=>< ;8AB5 :>B>@>9 :@0AC5BAO ?OB8:>=5G=0O 72574014.* -B0 :=830 A>45@68B 3>;>A;>2=K9 ?@87K2 : 3C<0=87<C, B> 5ABL ?@87K2, GB> =0H8< ?5@2K< 45;>< 4>;6=0 1KBL @01>B0 @048 4@C38E. =0G5 3>2>@O, ?@87K2 : :>;;5:B8287<C. C<0=87< MB> :>;;5:B8287<. 4=0:> AB>8B >B<5B8BL, GB> >:D5;;5@K, :>B>@K5 ?@>42830;8 MBC 3C<0=8AB8G5A:CN 845N 2 B5G5=85 25:0, B0: 8 =5 ?5@540;8 !. A>1AB25==>ABL 4@C38<. >MB><C 2 ^  <05 1973 3. 10=: "'597 0=EMBB5=" (?@54A540B5;L M284 >:D5;;5@) >B:@K; A2>5 ?@54AB028B5;LAB2> 2 >A:25 ?> 04@5AC: ?;>I04L 0@;0 0@:A0, 1. >=B>@0 2 LN->@:5 =0E>48BAO ?> 04@5AC: '597 <0=E5BB5= ?;070, 1.  7=0G5=88 ?OB8:>=5G=>9 72574K (?5=B03@0<<K) A<. 2 ?>A;5A;>288 8740B5;O. - @8<. @54. " ". 213 AMERICAN REVOLUTION Some Personal Observations JOHN D. ROCKEFlLLLLR 3rd "8BC;L=K9 ;8AB :=838 6. . >:D5;;5@0 III 8E @5:><5=40F88 <>6=> ?@54?>;>68BL B>B A:@KBK9 A<KA;, GB> <K 2A5 @01>B05< =0 >:D5;;5@>2. =830 >:D5;;5@0 ?@>2>48B 845N :>;;5:B8287<0 ?>4 <0A:>9 >AB>@>6=>3> :>=A5@20B87<0 8 >1I5AB25==>3> 1;030.  459AB28B5;L=>AB8 65 MB> ?@87K2 : ?@>4>;65=8N ?@56=59 ?>445@6:8 >@30=><- >:D5;;5@>< :>;;5:B828ABA:8E ?@54?@8OB89 8 <0AA>2>3> C=8GB>65=8O 8=48284C0;L=KE ?@02. 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Confessions of a Monopolist (Chicago: Public Publishing, n.d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bid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enate. Bolshevik Propaganda, hearings before a subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary, 65th Cong., pp. 679-80. !<. B0:65 2 3;025 6 40==>9 :=838 > @>;8 8;LO<A0 2 @5AA-1N@> 045:0. ! A>25BA:>< 8740=88 "5AOB8 4=59, :>B>@K5 ?>B@OA;8 <8@" A>45@68BAO B0:0O @540:F8>==0O A?@02:0 >1 02B>@5 MB>3> ?@87=0=8O: ;L15@B 8A 8;LO<5 - 4@C3 6>=0 840, 284=K9 0<5@8:0=A:89 ?@>3@5AA82=K9 45OB5;L 8 ?C1;8F8AB; 02B>@ =5A:>;L:8E :=83 > 1>@L15 B@C4OI8EAO 70 A>F80;87< (. 1957, A. 165). - @8<. @54. " ". ^ !<.: Antony !. Sutton. Western Technology and Soviet Economic Development, 3 vols. (Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution, 1968, 1971, 1973); A<. B0:65: National Suicide: Military Aid to the Soviet Union (New York: Arlington House, 1973). 216   1  "   #+% , $   #' , #/#"+%  -"  ( 1917-1918 %) AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION (120 Broadway) ["<5@8:M= =B5@=MH=; >@?>@59H="] J.Ogden Armour G.J. Baldwin C.A. Coffin W.E. Corey Robert Dollar Pierre S. du Pont Philip A.S. Franklin J.P. Grace R.F. Herrick Otto H. Kahn H.W. Pritchett Percy A. Rockefeller John D. Ryan W.L. Saunders J.A. Stillman C.A. Stone T.N. Vail F.A. Vanderlip E.S. Webster A.H. Wiggin Beckman Winthrop William Woodward CHASE NATIONAL BANK ("'597 MH=; M=:"] J.N. Hill A.B. Hepbum S.H. Miller CM. Schwab H. Bendicott Newcomb Carlton FEDERAL ADVISORY COUNCIL (1916) [$545@0;L=K9 :>=AC;LB0B82=K9 A>25B] Daniel G. Wing, >AB>=, :@C3 ! 1 J.P. Morgan, LN->@:, :@C3 ! 2 Levi L. Rue, $8;045;LD8O, :@C3 ! 3 W.S. Rowe, &8=F8=0BB8, :@C3 ! 4 J.W. Norwood, @8=28;;L, .6=0O 0@>;8=0, :@C3 ! 5 !.. Lyeriy, '0BB0=C30, :@C3 ! 6 J.B. Forgan, '8:03>, ?@57845=B. :@C3 ! 7 Frank . Watts, !5=B-C8A, :@C3 ! 8 !.". Jaffray, 8==50?>;8A, :@C3 ! 9 E.F.Swinney, 0=70A-!8B8, :@C3 ! 10 T.J. Record, 0@86, :@C3 ! 11 Herbert Fleishhacker, !0=-$@0=F8A:>, :@C3 ! 12 FEDERAL RESERV BANK OF NEW YORK (120 Broadway) [$545@0;L=K9 @575@2=K9 10=: LN->@:0] William Woodward (1917) Robert H.Treman (1918) ) ;0AA  Franklin D. Locke (1919) Charles A. Stone (1920) Wm. B. Thompson (1918) } ;0AA  L.R. Palmer (1919) Pierre Jay (1917) George F. Peabody (1919) } ;0AA ! William Lawrence Saunders (1920) 218 FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD [$545@0;L=>5 @575@2=>5 C?@02;5=85] William G.M'Adoo Charles S. Hamlin (1916) Paul M. Warburg (1918) Adolph C. Miller (1924)  Frederic A. Delano (1920) W.P.G. Harding (1922) John Skelton Williams GUARANTY TRUST COMPANY (140 Broadway) ["0@0=B0 "@0AB ><?0=8"] Alexander J. Hemphill (?@54A540B5;L) Edgar L. Marston Grayson M.P. Murphy Charles A. Peabody William C. Potter John S. Runnells Thomas F. Ryan Charles H. Sabin John W. Spoor Albert Straus Harry P. Whitney Thomas E. Wilson >=4>=A:89 :><8B5B: Charles H. Alien A.C. Bedford Edward J. Berwind W. Murrey Crane T. de Witt Cuyler James B. Duke Caleb C. Dula Robert W. Goelet Daniel Guggenheim W. Averell Harriman Albert H. Harris Walter D. Hines Augustus D. Julliard Thomas W. Lament William C. Lane Arthur J. Fraser (?@54A540B5;L) Cecil F. Pan-Robert Callander P.A. Rockefeller James Stillman W. Rockefeller J.O. Armour J.W. Sterling J.A. Stillman M.T. Pyne E.D. Bapst J.H. Post W.C. Procter NATIONAL CITY BANK ["MH=; !8B8 M=:"] P.A.S. Franklin J.P. Grace G.H. Dodge H.A.C. Taylor R.S. Lovett F.A. Vanderiip G.H. Miniken E.P. Swenson Prank Trumbull Edgar Palmer NATIONALBANK FUR DEUTSCHLAND ["0F8>=0;L10=: DN@ 59G;0=4"] (=0 1914 3., /;<0@ (0EB 2>H5; 2 ?@02;5=85 2 1918 3.) Emil Wittenberg Th. Marba Hjalmar Schacht Paul Koch Martin Schiff Franz Rintelen Hans Winterfeldt SINCLAIR CONSOLIDATED OIL CORPORATION (Broadway 120) ["!8=:;M9@ >=A>;8459B54 9; >@?>@59H="] Harry F. Sinclair H.P. Whitney Wm. E. Corey Wm. B. Thompson James N. Wallace Edward H. dark Daniel C. Jackling Albert H.Wiggin ( WHITE ENGINEERING CORPORATION ["6. . #09B =68=8@8=3 >@?>@59H="] J.G. White GanoDunn E.G. WiUiams A.S. Crane H.A. Lardner G.H. Kinniat A.F. Kountz R.B. Marchant Henry Parsons A.N. Connett James Brown Douglas Campbell G.C. Clark, Jr. Bayard Dominick, Jr. A.G. Hodenpyi T.W. Lamont Marion McMillan J.H. Pardee G.H. Walbridge E.N. Chilson C.E. Bailey   2 " / +& .&   !  * !CI5AB2C5B >1H8@=0O ;8B5@0BC@0 =0 0=3;89A:><, D@0=FC7A:>< 8 =5<5F:>< O7K:0E, >B@060NI0O B>B 0@3C-, <5=B, GB> 1>;KF528F:0O @52>;NF8O 1K;0 @57C;LB0B>< I52@59A:>3> 703>2>@0, 0 1>;55 :>=:@5B=> - 703>2>@0 [52@59A:8E 10=:8@>2 2A53> <8@0.  >1I5<, 2 :0G5AB25 :>=5G=>9 F5;8 ?@54?>;0305BAO 8E :>=B@>;L =04 <8@><; 3 1>;K?528F:0O 65 @52>;NF8O 1K;0 ;8HL >4=>9 D07>9 1>;55 H8@>:>9 ?@>3@0<<K, :>B>@0O O:>1K >B@0605B <=>3>25:>2CN @5;838>7=CN 1>@L1C <564C E@8AB80=AB2>< 8 A8;0<8 BL<K. -B>B 0@3C<5=B 8 53> 20@80=BK <>6=> =09B8 2 A0<KE ^=5>6840==KE <5AB0E 8 CA;KH0BL >B A0<KE C4828B5;L=KE S ;8F.  D52@0;5 1920 3>40 #8=AB>= '5@G8;;L =0?8A0; AB0BLN - @54:> F8B8@C5<CN A53>4=O - 4;O ">=4>= ;;NAB-@59B54 !0=48 5@0;L4", >703;02;5==CN "!8>=87< ?@>B82 1>;LH5287<0"**.  MB>9 AB0BL5 '5@G8;;L A45;0; B0:>9 2K2>4: >A>15==> 206=>... GB>1K 52@58 2 :064>9 AB@0=5, | :>B>@K5 ;>O;L=K : ?@8=O2H59 8E 75<;5, AB@5<8;8AL : 2K42865=8N ?@8 :064>< C4>1=>< A;CG05... 8 83@0;8 284=CN @>;L 2 :064>< <5@>?@8OB88 4;O 1>@L1K A 703>2>@>< 1>;LH528:>2. '5@G8;;L ?@>2>48B @07;8G85 <564C =0F8>=0;L=K<8 52@5O<8 8 B5<8, :>3> >= =07K205B <564C=0@>4=K<8 52@5O<8. = 4>:07K205B, GB> <564C=0@>4=K5 8, 3;02=K< >1@07><, 0B58AB8G5A:8 =0AB@>5==K5 ?52@58, :>=5G=>, 83@0;8 25AL<0 1>;LHCN @>;L 2 A>740=88 1>;LH5287<0 8 ?@>8725;8 @52>;NF8N 2 >AA88. = ! C25@O5B (2>?@5:8 D0:B0<), GB> 70 8A:;NG5=85< 5=8=0 | 1>;LH8=AB2> 254CI8E D83C@ 2 @52>;NF88 1K;8 52@58, ">G:0 7@5=8O 8740B5;O, >B;8G0NI0OAO >B CB25@645=89 C20605<>3> ?@>D. -. !0BB>=0 2 MB>9 3;025, 87;>65=0 2 ?>A;5A;>288 : :=835. - @8<. @54. " ". ** Winston Churchill. Zionism Versus Bolshevism // London Illustrated Sunday Herald, Febr. 1920. - @8<. @54. 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B<5G0O, GB> A8>=87< 8 1>;LH5287< :>=:C@8@CNB 2 1>@L15 70 4CHC 52@59A:>3> =0@>40, '5@G8;;L (2 1920 3>4C) 1K; >701>G5= @>;LN 52@552 2 1>;K?528F:>9 @52>;NF88 8 ACI5AB2>20=85< 2A5<8@=>3> 52@59A:>3> 703>2>@0. I5 >48= H8@>:> 8725AB=K9 2 1920-E 3>40E 02B>@, 5=@8 #8:EM< !B84, >?8AK205B 2> 2B>@>< B><5 A2>53> ?@>872545=8O "'5@57 30 ;5B, 1892-1922" (A. 302)*, :0: >= ?KB0;AO 4>25AB8 845N 52@59A:>3> 703>2>@0 4> A2545=8O ?>;:>2=8:0 -420@40 . %0CA0 8 ?@57845=B0 C4@> 8;LA>=0. 4=064K 2 <0@B5 1919 3>40 !B84 =025AB8; ?>;:>2=8:0 %0CA0 8 =0H5; 53> @0AAB@>5==K< 87-70 =5402=59 :@8B8:8 !B84>< 2>7<>6=>3> ?@87=0=8O <5@8:>9 1>;LH528:>2. !B84 A:070; %0CAC, GB> 8;LA>= 1K; 1K 48A:@548B8@>20= 2 3;070E <=>38E ;N459 8 =0@>4>2 2@>?K, 8 =0AB0820;, GB> 157 53> 254><0 3;02=K<8 4286CI8<8 A8;0<8 1K;8 /:>1 (8DD, 0@1C@3 8 4@C385 <564C=0@>4=K5 D8=0=A8ABK, :>B>@K5 1>;LH5 2A53> E>B5;8 ?>445@60BL 52@59A:8E 1>;LH528:>2, GB>1K ?>;CG8BL ?>;5 45OB5;L=>AB8 4;O 35@<0=>-52@59A:>9 M:A?;C0B0F88 >AA881. 5BC Wickham Steed. Through 30 Years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GB> 87 MB>3>? 5;05B ;8 MB> 0<5@8:0=A:CN @52>;NF8N 0=3;89A:8< 703>2>@><? 0O2;5=85 #8=AB>=0 '5@G8;;O, GB> 52@58 AK3@0;8 >G5=L 1>;LHCN @>;L 2 1>;LH528F:>9 @52>;NF88, ?>445@68205BAO B>;L:> 8A:065==K<8 4>:070B5;LAB20<8. !?8A>: 52@552, CG0AB2>202H8E 2 1>;LH528F:>9 @52>;NF88, =5>1E>48<> A@02=8BL A> A?8A:>< =552@552, CG0AB2>202H8E 2 @52>;NF88. A;8 A;54>20BL MB>9 =0CG=>9 <5B>48:5, B> ?@>?>@F8O 8=>AB@0==KE 52@552-1>;LH528:>2, CG0AB2>202H8E 2 @52>;NF88, 1C45B <5=55 4 Great Britain, Directorat of Intelligence. A Monthly Review of the Progress of Revolutionary Movements Abroad, no. 9, July 16, 1913 (861.99/5067). -[5;8:>1@8B0=8O, 07254K20B5;L=>5 C?@02;5=85. "65<5AOG=K9 >17>@ @0728B8O @52>;NF8>==KE 42865=89 70 3@0=8F59", ! 9, 16 8N;O 1913 3. 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C48=>< 87 :><?0=88 "65=5@0; -;5:B@8:". 29 <0O 1922 3. >A?>48= !5:@5B0@L: -= C48= 87 :><?0=88 "65=5@0; -;5:B@8:" 8=D>@<8@>20; <5=O A53>4=O CB@><, GB>, ?> <=5=8N 53> :><?0=88, ?@81;8605BAO 2@5<O =0G0BL ?5@53>2>@K A @0A8=K< > 2>7>1=>2;5=88 45; 2 >AA88. / A:070; 5<C, GB>, ?> <=5=8N 5?0@B0<5=B0, :C@A, :>B>@K9 8715@CB 2 MB>< 2>?@>A5 0<5@8:0=A:85 D8@<K, 1C45B >?@545;OBLAO A>>1@065=8O<8 187=5A0 8 GB> 5?0@B0<5=B, :>=5G=>, =5 1C45B AB028BL ?@5?OBAB289 :0:>9-;81> 0<5@8:0=A:>9 D8@<5, 2>7>1=>282H59 45OB5;L=>ABL 2 >AA88 =0 ;N1>9 >A=>25, :>B>@CN >=0 A>GB5B ?@85<;5<>9. = A:070;, GB> A59G0A ?@>E>4OB ?5@53>2>@K <564C :><?0=859 "65=5@0; -;5:B@8:" 8 0:F8>=5@=K< >1I5AB2>< ";L35<09=5 -;5:B@8F8BMBA3575;LH0DB" ?> 2>7>1=>2;5=8N @01>G53> A>3;0H5=8O, :>B>@>5 >=8 >ACI5AB2;O;8 4> 2>9=K. = >68405B, GB> A>3;0H5=85, :>B>@>5 1C45B ?>43>B>2;5=>, 1C45B 2:;NG0BL ?>;>65=85 > A>B@C4=8G5AB25 2 >AA88. ! C2065=85<, .. C; 250 ><<5=B0@89 -B> 206=K9 4>:C<5=B, B0: :0: >= >B=>A8BAO : ?@81;860NI5<CAO 2>7>1=>2;5=8N >B=>H5=89 A >AA859 2;8OB5;L=>9 0<5@8:0=A:>9 :><?0=88. = ?>:07K205B, GB> 8=8F80B820 8AE>48;0 >B :><?0=88, 0 =5 >B >AC40@AB25==>3> 45?0@B0<5=B0, 8 GB> ?@8 MB>< =5 CG8BK20;AO MDD5:B ?5@540G8 B5E=>;>389 :><?0=88 "65=5@0; -;5:B@8:" >B:@>25==><C 2@03C. -B> A>3;0H5=85 :><?0=88 "65=5@0; -;5:B@8:" 1K;> ?5@2K< H03>< =0 ?CB8 :@C?=KE ?5@540G B5E=>;>388, :>B>@K5 ?@O<> ?@825;8 : 3815;8 100.000 0<5@8:0=F52 8 >3@><=>3> G8A;0 A>N7=8:>2. 251 71@0==0O 181;8>3@0D8O Adam, George. Treason and Tragedy: An Account of French War Trials. London: Jonathan Cape, 1929. American Red Cross Archives. Minutes of the War Council of the American National Red Cross, Washington, D.C., May 1917; and Billings report to Henry P. Davison, October 22, 1917, Washington, D.C. Aschberg, Olof. En Vandrande Jude Fran Glasbruksgatan. Stockholm: Albert Bonniers Ferlag, n.d. Billion, Rudolph. Defeated Leaders. 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