╨╧рб▒с>■    ■   є Ї ї Ў ў ° ∙ · √ № ¤ ■                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ье┴9 °┐dnbjbj¤╧¤╧)╪ЯеЯе╡      l╥╥╥╥╥╥╥цОWОWОW8╞W,ЄWtц6Й╢rYrY"ФYФYФYoZoZoZИИИИИИИ$ьЙ  Мb'И╔╥oZoZoZoZoZ'И┐╥╥ФYФY█ЁИ┐┐┐oZ╬#╥ФY╥ФYИ┐oZИ┐&┐хЗ╥╥хЗФYfY └w<╥+Ў┬циQОW=~*хЗхЗЙ06ЙхЗnМgXnМхЗ┐цц╥╥╥╥┘8:B>@ '5@:0A>2 ""#,+ -" !(   # "% !"  ! " 3>2>@8B <=5: 2>4K, :>B>@K5 BK 2845;, 345 A848B 1;C4=8-F0, ACBL ;N48 8 =0@>4K, 8 ?;5<5=0, 8 O7K:8... 5=0 65, :>B>@CN BK 2845;, 5ABL 25;8:89 3>@>4, F0@AB2CNI89 =04 75<=K<8 F0@O<8". B:@>25=85 >B >0==0. 17 : 15,18 @81;860OAL <>@A:8< ?CB5< : ?>:@KB><C ?5;5=>9 3@O7=>3> A<>30, 25G=> 1C@;OI5<C 45;>2>9 M=5@3859 LN->@:C, :064K9 ?CB5H5AB25==8: =587156=> >1@0B8B 2=8<0=85 =0 3@0=48>7=CN, C25=G0==CN @>30B>9 :>@>=>9 AB0BCN 65=I8=K, 3>@4> 8 25;8G5AB25==> 27<5B=C2H59 3>@OI89 D0:5; =04 ;5=82> ?;5ICI8<8 C 55 =>3 <CB=K<8 2>;=0<8 70;820 ??5@ 59. =>385 ?CB5H5AB25==8:8 157 >A>1>3> B@C40 A@07C 65 @0A?>7=0NB MB>B H8@>:> 8725AB=K9 2> 2A5< <8@5 >1@07 0<5@8:0=A:>9 AB0BC8 !2>1>4K, O:>1K A8<2>;878@CNI59 8725G=>5 AB@5<;5=85 G5;>25G5AB20 : A2>1>45, @025=AB2C 8 1@0BAB2C. > 40;5:> =5 2A5 ;N48 7=0NB, GB> A>740B5;L MB>9 AB0BC8 $@545@8: 0@B>;L48 2 A2>5 2@5<O 1K; 0:B82=K< G;5=>< ?0@86A:>9 <0A>=A:>9 ;>68 "-;L70A->B0@8=38O" 8, A>74020O MB>B A8<2>; A2>1>4>;N18O G5;>25G5A:>3> 4CE0 2 ?>40@>: A2>8< 0<5@8:0=A:8< 548=>25@F0<, 2;>68; 2 =55 G8AB> <0A>=A:85 ?>=OB8O A2>1>4K, 1@0BAB20 8 @07C<0. 0 A?8=>9 MB>3> D0;LH82>3> A8<2>;0 8;;N7>@=>9 A2>1>4K 8 ;>6=>3> @07C<0, 2 65;57>15B>==KE 46C=3;OE <0=EMBB5=A:8E =51>A:@51>2, 7;>25I5 ?@8B08;8AL A53>4=OH=85 4CE>2=K5 @0A?>@O48B5;8 8459=>3> =0A;548O 0@B>;L48 8 ?@>G8E A25B>G59 <0A>=A:>3> CG5=8O. >A?>;L7>202H8AL @0720;>< !!! , :>B>@K9 4>;3>5 2@5<O O2;O;AO 3;02=K< ?@5?OBAB285< =0 ?CB8 CAB0=>2;5=8O 55 A5<8@=>9 D8=0=A>2>9 48:B0BC@K, <0A>=A:0O :;8:0 C>;;-AB@8BA:8E 10=:8@>2 @5H8B5;L=> CAB@5<8;0AL : 7025@H0NI59 AB0488 AB@>8B5;LAB20 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0. BAN40, 87 A2>53> =LN-9>@:A:>3> D8=0=A>2>3> ;>3>20, MB8 <0A>=A:85 >1>@>B=8 A53>4=O 45;L=> B>@3CNB AC4L10<8 F5;KE 3>AC40@AB2 8 =0@>4>2. >2K9 <8@>2>9 ?>@O4>: =LN-9>@:A:>3> D8=0=A>2>3> GC4>28I0 =5 >3@0=8G8205BAO B>;L:> 53> >4=8< 157@0745;L=K< M:>=><8G5A:8< 3>A?>4AB2>< =0 "A2>1>4=><" <8@>2>< @K=:5. 'B>1K C:@5?8BL =57K1;5<>ABL A2>53> BKAOG5;5B=53> D8=0=A>2>3> @59E0, <0A>=A:85 703>2>@I8:8, 8A?>;L7CO 2K3>4=CN 4;O =8E =K=5H=NN <564C=0@>4=CN A8BC0F8N, 1@>A8;8AL ?5@5AB@0820BL ?>;8B8G5A:85 8 >1I5AB25==K5 A8AB5<K ?>?02H8E 2 8E ?03C1=CN >@18BC AB@0=. 5AF5@5<>==> =02O7K20O GC68< =0@>40< "?@52>AE>4OI89" 0<5@8:0=A:89 >1@07 687=8 8 A?>A>1AB2CO ?>2A5<5AB=><C CAB0=>2;5=8N :0@8:0BC@=KE, :>A<5B8G5A:8E 45<>:@0B89, >=8 ?KB0NBAO C25:>25G8BL ?>;8B8G5A:CN 2;0ABL ?>A;CH=KE 8E 2>;5, ?@>406=KE <5AB=KE ?>;8B8G5A:8E >;830@E89. ;02=>9 845>;>38G5A:>9 F5;LN <0A>=A:8E 703>2>@I8:>2 O2;O5BAO ?>AB5?5==>5 @07<K20=85 B@048F8>==KE @5;8389 8 A>740=85 =0 8E <5AB5 548=>9 A5<8@=>9 <0A>=A:>9 @5;8388, ?>AB@>5==>9 =0 ?@8=F8?0E O7KG5AB20, @0A?CBAB20 8 A0B0=87<0. @8:@K20OAL <0A:>9 ;8F5<5@=>9 701>BK > 1;03>?>;CG88 2A53> G5;>25G5AB20, MB8 1>30BK5 15745;L=8:8 (5A;8 B>;L:> ?>;=>ABLN =5 ?>3@O7;8 2 =0@:><0=88, ?@>AB8BCF88 8 A0B0=87<5) ?5@8>48G5A:8, 4;O A>1AB25==>3> C4>2>;LAB28O, 10;CNBAO D8;0=B@>?8G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN 8 D8;>A>DAB2CNB > ?CBOE @5H5=8O A53>4=OH=8E 7;>1>4=52=KE <8@>2KE ?@>1;5<. >4=0BC-682 2AN A2>N <5D8AB>D5;LA:CN 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=CN <>IL, >=8 C65 2K?CAB8;8 2 A25B 2A5>E20BK20NICN "-=F8:;>?548N <8@>2KE ?@>1;5< 8 G5;>25G5A:>3> ?>B5=F80;0", :>B>@0O >B:@KB> ?@87K205B : A>740=8N 548=>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0. ! 1>;LH8< ?>=8<0=85< 45;0 02B>@K M=F8:;>?5488 ?>4@>1=> >1AC640NB 2A5 0A?5:BK >::C;LB87<0, ?@>?030=48@CNB <0A>=A:CN 8AB>@8N 8 4>:07K20NB =5>1E>48<>ABL CAB0=>2;5=8O 548=>3> <8@>2>3> ?@028B5;LAB20. #A?5H=> 7025@H82 A2>9 B8B0=8G5A:89 B@C4 =04 2A5>1I59 M=F8:;>?54859, ;CGH85 C<K <0A>=A:>3> 1@0BAB20 B5?5@L ?@8ABC?8;8 : @5H5=8N 5I5 1>;55 DC=40<5=B0;L=>9 7040G8 ?> A>740=8N =>2>9 81;88, :>B>@0O 4>;6=0 ?@8<8@8BL 2A5 =K=5 ACI5AB2CNI85 @5;8388 8 25@>20=8O, A<5B0O 8E 2 >4=C 157;8:CN :CGC <=>3>1>68O, ;>6=>3> 3C<0=87<0 8 4CE>2=>9 8=20;84=>AB8. A?>;L7CO <>=>?>;878@>20==K5 8<8 A@54AB20 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 8 >?8@0OAL =0 <=>3>G8A;5==K5 4CE>2=> 8< @>4AB25==K5 @5;838>7=K5, ?>;8B8G5A:85 8 >1I5AB25==>-:C;LBC@=K5 >@30=870F88, <0A>=A:85 <0=8?C;OB>@K 87>1@5B0B5;L=> 8 =0AB>9G82> ?@>4>;60NB =02O7K20BL G5;>25G5AB2C A2>8 @5;838>7=K5, :C;LBC@=K5 8 <>@0;L=K5 F5==>AB8. !>3;0A=> 02B>@8B5B=><C A?@02>G=8:C !>N70 564C=0@>4=KE AA>F80F89, B5?5@L 2> 2A5< <8@5 =0AG8BK205BAO =5 <5=55 G5< 4204F0BL ?OBL BKAOG B0:8E 2A?><>30B5;L=KE, ?@>G=> A2O70==KE <564C A>1>9 =52848<K<8 =8BO<8 2 548=CN A8AB5<C 8 157C?@5G=> :5<-B> :>>@48=8@C5<KE >@30=870F89. =B5@5A=>, :B> D8=0=A8@C5B 2A5 MB8 :0?8B0;>5<:85 M=F8:;>?5488 8 :B> :>>@48=8@C5B 45OB5;L=>ABL 2A5E MB8E, G0AB> :06CI8EAO @07=>@>4=K<8, <=>3>G8A;5==KE >@30=870F89? >=OB=>, GB> >3@><=K5 A>725748O @07=>H5@AB=KE <0A>=A:8E ;>6, B09=KE >@30=870F89, 0@8AB>:@0B8G5A:8E :;C1>2 8 @5;838>7=KE A5:B, A>AB>OI85 87 B0:8E 2=5H=5 =5?>E>68E 3@C?? ;N459, :0: =04<5==KE <C;LB8<8;;8>=5@>2 >35<A:>3> :;C10, "A2OBKE" E0=659 0B8:0=0, 3><>A5:AC0;L=KE A0B0=8AB>2 2C@40;0F:>9 ;>68 "@4> "5<=5; @85=B54" 8 <0D8>7=KE @M:5B8@>2 87 8B0;LO=A:>9 ;>68 "-2", =5 2A5340 2KABC?0NB 548=K< D@>=B><, 8 C =5?>A2OI5==KE =01;N40B5;59 <>65B 2>7=8:=CBL 2?5G0B;5=85 > 8E 02B>=><=>AB8 8;8 4065 2@06451=>AB8 4@C3 : 4@C3C.  459AB28B5;L=>AB8, =5A<>B@O, =0 ?>25@E=>AB=>5 @0AE>645=85 2 @8B>@8:5, >1@O40E 8 B0:B8:5, 2A5 MB8 >@30=870F88 O2;ONBAO 28=B8:0<8 548=>9 >3@><=>9 <0H8=K, A>740==>9 4;O 548=AB25==>9 F5;8: M:>=><8G5A:>3>, ?>;8B8G5A:>3> 8 @5;838>7=>3> ?>@01>I5=8O 2A53> G5;>25G5AB20. >, :0: 1K A53>4=O =8 :070;8AL <>3CI5AB25==K<8 8 =5?>1548<K<8 <0A>=A:85 45:>@0B>@K =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0, >=8 O2;ONBAO B>;L:> ?@5E>4OI8<8 2@5<5=I8:0<8 =0 B@038G5A:>9 AF5=5 G5;>25G5A:>3> ?@54AB02;5=8O 8 1C4CB =587156=> ?5@5<>;>BK =5C<>;8<> 2@0I0NI8<8AO 65@=>20<8 A?@0254;82>9, => AC@>2>9 8AB>@88. 5 A<>B@O =0 =0E>4OI85AO 2 8E @C:0E =5>3@0=8G5==K5 D8=0=A>2K5 @5AC@AK, M;5:B@>==K5 A8AB5<K C?@02;5=8O D8=0=A0<8 8 C4CH0NI89, 01A>;NB=K9 :>=B@>;L =04 G5;>25G5A:8< A>7=0=85<, :0B0:;87<K ?>;8B8G5A:>9, M:>=><8G5A:>9 8 D8=0=A>2>9 =5AB018;L=>AB8 C65 =0G0;8 ?>B@OA0BL 5I5 ?>;=>ABLN =5 4>AB@>5==>5 740=85 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0.  1>;LH><C @07>G0@>20=8N 0<5@8:0=A:8E AB@>8B5;59 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0, M:>=><8G5A:85 ?>B@OA5=8O ?>A;54=8E <5AOF52 =542C7=0G=> ?>:070;8, GB> A>740==K9 8<8 A B0:8<8 AB0@0=8O<8 <8@>2>9 M:>=><8G5A:89 "A2>1>4=K9" @K=>: C65 2ABC?8; 2 ?>;>AC =5?@542845==>3> BO65;>3> :@878A0, 2K720==>3> ?5@5?@>872>4AB2>< B>20@>2, @0ABCI8<8 48A?@>?>@F8O<8 <564C A?@>A>< 8 ?@54;>65=85<, =5A?@0254;82>9 A8AB5<>9 <8@>2KE F5= 8 15A:>=B@>;L=K< D8=0=A>2K< ?@>872>;>< <564C=0@>4=KE 20;NB=KE A?5:C;O=B>2. "5 65 A0<K5 B5=45=F88 C3;C1;ONI53>AO :@878A0 8 ?>2A5<5AB=>9 4578=B53@0F88 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0 2A5 70<5B=55 2K@8A>2K20NBAO 2 >1>AB@ONI59AO <564C=0@>4=>9 =0?@O65==>AB8 8 @0ABCI59 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 453@040F88 2 @O40E ?@02OI8E >;830@E89. A5 1>;LH5 3>AC40@AB2 8 =0@>4>2, CAB02H8E >B 15A:>=5G=>9 ;68, 15AABK4=>3> =04C20B5;LAB20 8 15A?@8=F8?=>3> ;8F5<5@8O 25;8:8E 20H8=3B>=A:8E :>@<G8E, =0G8=0NB "@5H8B5;L=> 2AB020BL =0 ?CBL >B:@KB>3> =5?>28=>25=8O 70@202H8<AO 2@5<5=I8:0< =>2>O2;5==>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0. >A;54=8< 4>:070B5;LAB2>< MB>3> O28;>AL A>25I0=85 @C:>2>48B5;59 2>AL<8 =081>;55 @0728BKE 8=4CAB@80;L=KE AB@0= <8@0 (B0: =07K205<>9 1>;LH>9 2>AL<5@:8), A>AB>O2H55AO 15-17 <0O 1998 3>40 2 0=3;89A:>< 3>@>45 8@<8=35<5. <5AB> >68405<>3> ?><?57=>3> A?5:B0:;O, ?@>A;02;ONI53> <C4@>ABL, =5?>3@5H8<>ABL 8 =57K1;5<>ABL 0<5@8:0=A:>3> <8@>2>3> ;845@AB20, : :>B>@><C B0: AB0@0B5;L=> ?>43>B02;820;8AL @568AA5@K 8@<8=35<A:>9 2AB@5G8, CG0AB=8:0< A>25I0=8O ?@8H;>AL 70=OBLAO 020@89=>9 ?>G8=:>9 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0, :>B>@K9 =5>6840==> =0G0; @07;570BLAO ?> H20<. #3;C1;ONI89AO M:>=><8G5A:89 :@878A 2 788, :>B>@K9 3@>78B C=8GB>65=85< '/7 M:>=><8G5A:>3> ?>B5=F80;0 <8@0, >B:@KB>5 =5?>A;CH0=85 =488, =5A3>2>@G82>ABL 8B0O, A2>5=@02=>ABL >AA88, :0?@87=>ABL $@0=F88, 0=B80<5@8:0=A:0O 2>8=AB25==>ABL @O40 <CAC;L<0=A:8E AB@0=, =54>25@G82>ABL D@8:8, ?>4A?C4=K9 @>?>B =54>2>;LAB20 A@548 =5:>B>@KE A>N7=8:>2 ?> " 8 @0ABCI0O <564C=0@>4=0O ?@5ABC?=>ABL >:070;8AL 3;02=K<8, E>BO 40;5:> =5 2A5<8, ?@>1;5<0<8, =5?@542845==> A20;82H8<8AO =0 3>;>2K >@30=870B>@>2 8@<8=35<A:>3> A>25I0=8O, :>B>@K5, : A2>5<C =5?@8OB=><C C482;5=8N, >1=0@C68;8, GB> >=8 1>;LH5 =5 254CB, => A;54CNB 70 B5G5=85< =5:>=B@>;8@C5<KE 8AB>@8G5A:8E A>1KB89. >=OB=>, GB> A:>=F5=B@8@>202 2 A2>8E @C:0E =52840==CN 2 8AB>@88 M:>=><8G5A:CN, ?>;8B8G5A:CN 8 2>5==CN 2;0ABL, 8<?5@80;8AB8G5A:85 A8;K !( 8 AB>OI55 708E ?;5G0<8 C>;;-AB@8BA:>5 D8=0=A>2>5 GC4>28I5 =5 A>18@0NBAO 157 1>O CABC?0BL A2>8E 702>520==KE ?>78F89 8 3>B>2K ?>9B8 =0 ;N1>5 020=BN@8AB8G5A:>5 ?@5ABC?;5=85 ?@>B82 G5;>25G5AB20, 4;O B>3> GB>1K A>E@0=8BL 2 A2>8E @C:0E 1@074K <8@>2>3> 3>A?>4AB20. >, :0: 1K >=8 =8 CE8B@O;8AL 8 :0:85 1K ?@5ABC?=K5 A@5AB20 4;O A>E@0=5=8O A2>59 2;0AB8 =8 C?>B@51;O;8, 8< =5 871560BL A?@0254;82>3> ?@83>2>@0 =5C<>;8<>3> AC40 8AB>@88. >AB@>5==K9 =0 3@O7=>9 ;68, 1574CH=>9 M:A?;C0B0F88 =0@>4>2, A;5?>9 8 1573@0=8G=>9 0;G=>AB8, 4CE>2=>9 ?CAB>B5 8 <>@0;L=>< 45:045=BAB25, =>2K9 <8@>2>9 ?>@O4>: 0<5@8:0=A:>3> D8=0=A>2>3> GC4>28I0 >1@5G5= =0 =587156=CN 3815;L. #65 1;87>: B>B @>:>2>9 45=L, :>340, :0: 2 3@>7=>< 2845=88 181;59A:>3> ?@>@>:0, " 3>@>4 25;8:89 @0A?0;AO =0 B@8 G0AB8, 8 3>@>40 O7KG5A:85 ?0;8. 8 028;>= 25;8:89 2>A?><O=CB ?@54 >3><, GB>1K 40BL 5<C G0HC 28=0 O@>AB8 3=520 3> " (B:@>25=85 >B >0==0, 16 :19).   / "=8 [:>@>;8 5<;8] 8<5NB >4=8 <KA;8 8 ?5@5404CB A8;C 8 2;0ABL A2>N 725@N". B:@>25=85 >B >0==0. 17: 13 ">@>= 2>@>=C 3;07 =5 2K:;N5B" 0@>4=0O ?>A;>28F0 !;CG8;>AL B0:, GB> 2 A0<K9 @0730@ ?@542K1>@=>9 ?@57845=BA:>9 :0<?0=88 1992 3>40 2 0<5@8:0=A:>9 ?@5AA5 >48= 70 4@C38< =0G0;8 ?>O2;OBLAO :><?@><5B8@CNI85 <0B5@80;K =0 :0=4840B0 >B 45<>:@0B8G5A:>9 ?0@B88 8;;0 ;8=B>=0. >B>H=K5 8 25745ACI85 0<5@8:0=A:85 :>@@5A?>=45=BK >B:>?0;8 =5 B>;L:> A>G=K5 8AB>@88 > 53> ?>A;51@0G=KE ;N1>2=KE ?>E>645=8OE, :>B>@K5 ?@>F25B0;8 2?;>BL 4> ?>A;54=53> 2@5<5=8, => B0:65 8 4@C385 ?8:0=B=K5 3@5H:8 53> <>;>4KE ;5B. "0: >:070;>AL, GB> 2> 2@5<O L5B=0<A:>9 2>9=K ?@5B5=45=B =0 ?@57845=BA:89 ?>AB, 0 7=0G8B 8 =0 25@E>2=>5 :><0=4>20=85 2>>@C65==K<8 A8;0<8 !(, ?>ABK4=> ?@OB0;AO 70 3@0=8F59, GB>1K 871560BL ?@87K20 2 0@<8N. BA86820OAL 2 C:@KB>9 BC<0=0<8 =3;88, 345 2 B> 2@5<O N=K9 8;; CG8;AO 2 :AD>@4A:>< C=825@A8B5B5, >= >E>B=> ?>A5I0; @07=>H5@AB=K5 :@C6:8 @048:0;L=>9 <>;>4568, >B:@KB> ?>=>A8; 0<5@8:0=A:CN 2=5H=NN ?>;8B8:C 8 ?@8 A;CG05, GB> 2 B> 2@5<O 1K;> >G5=L <>4=K< 2 A@545 70?04=>9 7>;>B>9 <>;>4568, ?>:C@820; >4C@<0=820NICN <0@8EC0=C. 4=064K, 2 >48= 87 >1KG=KE 4=59 A2>53> 157701>B=>3> ABC45=G5A:>3> 1KB8O, <>65B, 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 0<5@8:0=A:85 2;0AB8 1>;LH5 =5 =04>540;8 5<C A <>18;870F8>==K<8 ?>25AB:0<8, 0 <>65B, ?>A;5 >G5@54=>9 3;C1>:>9 70BO6:8 :>=>?;59, >= 4065 >1@0B8;AO 2 3>AC40@AB25==K9 45?0@B0<5=B !( A ?@>AL1>9 0==C;8@>20BL 53> 0<5@8:0=A:89 ?0A?>@B. 070;>AL 1K, GB> ?>A;5 B0:8E A:0=40;L=KE @07>1;0G5=89 154=><C 8;;C ?@845BAO =025:8 @0A?@>I0BLAO A> A2>59 7025B=>9 N=>H5A:>9 <5GB>9 :>340-=81C4L AB0BL ?@57845=B><. 070;>AL =587156=K<, GB> 53> ?>;8B8G5A:89 >??>=5=B, :0=4840B >B @5A?C1;8:0=A:>9 ?0@B88, >?KB=K9 6>@46 CH, =5 70<54;8B 2>A?>;L7>20BLAO B0:8< C4>1=K< A;CG05<, GB>1K @07=5AB8 "=54>AB>9=>3>" ?@>B82=8:0 2 :;>GLO. > 745AL ?@>87>H;> GB>-B> AB@0==>5 8 4065 =5>6840==>5. >?@5:8 =0AB>O=8N A2>8E ?>;8B8G5A:8E A>25B=8:>2 8 8718@0B5;L=KE :>=AC;LB0=B>2, "?>@O4>G=K9" CH :0B53>@8G5A:8 >B:070;AO @07K3@K20BL "3@O7=CN" :0@BC G0AB=>9 687=8 A2>53> <>;>4>3> :>=:C@5=B0. 0;> B>3>, 1K;8 =0:070=K 8 70AB02;5=K ?C1;8G=> 8728=8BLAO ?5@54 ;8=B>=>< A>B@C4=8:8 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 45?0@B0<5=B0, :>B>@K5, =045OAL C3>48BL ?@57845=BC CHC, @07KA:0;8 MB8 ":><?@><0BK" 2 0@E820E A2>53> <8=8AB5@AB20. #<8;OOAL 1;03>@>4AB2>< CH0, A@54AB20 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 =5 C?CAB8;8 A;CG0O, GB>1K 5I5 @07 ?@8?><=8BL 0<5@8:0=A:8< >1K20B5;O< > 2KA>:8E <>@0;L=KE :0G5AB20E 8E ?@57845=B0, :>B>@K9 2A5340 1>@5BAO A> A2>8<8 ?>;8B8G5A:8<8 ?@>B82=8:0<8 B>;L:> G8ABK<8, >B:@KBK<8 8 G5AB=K<8 <5B>40<8.  @57C;LB0B5 MB>9 "465=B5;L<5=A:8 157C?@5G=>9" ?@542K1>@=>9 :0<?0=88 "G5AB=K9" . CH, >48= 87 A0<KE ?>?C;O@=KE 0<5@8:0=A:8E ?@57845=B>2 XX 25:0, 25B5@0= B>@>9 <8@>2>9 2>9=K 8 4>;3>;5B=89 AB0@>68; 20H8=3B>=A:>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 =><5=:;0BC@K, ?>7>@=> ?@>83@0; 2K1>@K B>340 5I5 <0;> 8725AB=><C ?@>28=F80;L=><C ?>;8B8:C, "4575@B8@C 8 ?@5;N1>45N" . ;8=B>=C. 0 ?5@2K9 273;O4, =5>?KB=><C =01;N40B5;N B0:>9 >1>@>B A>1KB89 <>3 1K ?>:070BLAO AB@0==K< :0?@87>< =5A?@0254;82>9 AC4L1K, A2>52>;L=> ?>;>682H8< :>=5F ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :0@L5@5 25;8:>9 8AB>@8G5A:>9 ;8G=>AB8.  459AB28B5;L=>AB8 45;0 >1AB>O;8 7=0G8B5;L=> ?@>I5. 5;> 2 B><, GB> "1;03>@>4=K9" ?>;8B8G5A:89 @KF0@L 6>@46 CH 8 "25B@5=K9" ?>;8B8G5A:89 ?@8A?>A>1;5=5F 8;; ;8=B>= ?@8=04;560B : >4=>9 8 B>B 65 <>3CI5AB25==>9 B09=>9 >@30=870F88, :>B>@0O A53>4=O 25@H8B AC4L10<8 AB@0= 8 =0@>4>2 2A53> <8@0. 0 A?8=>9 MB>9 =52848<>9 3@>7=>9 A8;K AB>OB =5C;>28<K5 B5=8 <0A>=>2, 8;8, :0: 8E >1KG=> =07K20NB 2 ?@>AB>=0@>4L5, A2>1>4=K5 :0<5=I8:8, 8;8, 5I5 ?@>I5, 1@0BAB2>.  =0H8 4=8 =8 >4=> 7=0G8B5;L=>5 A>1KB85 2 <8@5 =5 ?@>8AE>48B 157 8E 70:C;8A=>3> CG0AB8O 8 =8 >4=> 206=>5 @5H5=85 =5 ?@8=8<05BAO 157 8E "10@A:>3>" 1;03>A;>25=8O. 'B> :0A05BAO 6>@460 CH0, B> >= 1K; ?@8=OB 2 <0A>=A:CN ;>6C "'5@5?0 8 >AB59" 2 1947 3>4C, 5I5 2> 2@5<O A2>59 CG51K 2 5;LA:>< C=825@A8B5B5. 0: 8725AB=>, =0 0?045 ?@8 :064>< 7=0G8B5;L=>< C=825@A8B5B5 87402=0 ACI5AB2>20;8 @07=K5 ABC45=G5A:85 1@0BAB20, <=>385 87 :>B>@KE O2;ONBAO D8;80;0<8 <0A>=A:8E ;>6.  5;LA:>< C=825@A8B5B5 <0A>=A:0O ;>60 ?>4 =0720=85< "@0BAB2> '5@5?0 8 >AB59" 1K;0 >A=>20=0 5I5 2 1832 3>4C =5:8< ?CB5H5AB2CNI8< 35=5@0;>< 8;LO<>< CAA5;;><. @51K20O 2 5@<0=88, 7057689 35=5@0; 1K; ?>A2OI5= 2 >4=C 87 B09=KE <0A>=A:8E >@30=870F89, ?@>?>254CNICN 8458 8;;N<8=0B>2. 0 ?5@2K9 273;O4, =082=><C G5;>25:C <>3;> 1K ?>:070BLAO, GB> MB> ?@>AB> HCB>G=0O >@30=870F8O 157701>B=KE ABC45=B>2, ;N1OI8E >B 15745;LO ?>83@0BL 2 ?8@0B>2. 0 A0<>< 45;5 1@0BAB2> "'5@5?0 8 >AB59" O2;O5BAO A0<>9 GB> =8 =0 5ABL A5@L57=>9 <0A>=A:>9 >@30=870F859 A> A2>8< AB@>38< CAB02>< 8 B09=K<8 @8BC0;0<8. ABC?0O 2 ;>6C "'5@5?0 8 >AB59", =>2K5 G;5=K 1@0BAB20 ?@8AO30NB 2A5340 1KBL 25@=K<8 845O< <0A>=A:>3> 1@0BAB20, =8 ?@8 :0:8E >1AB>OB5;LAB20E =5 @073;0H0BL 53> A5:@5BK 8 ?@8=8<0NB >1O70B5;LAB2> ?><>30BL 4@C3 4@C3C 2 ?>A;54CNI59 :0@L5@5. 0 =0@CH5=85 ?@8AO38 "?@540B5;L" =02A5340 873>=O5BAO 87 @O4>2 1@0BAB20, ?>A;5 G53> 53> >68405B =525A5;0O AC4L10 E@>=8G5A:>3> =5C40G=8:0. "0:>9 G5;>25: 1C45B =02A5340 ;8H5= 4>ABC?0 2 :@C38 2;8OB5;L=KE ;N459, 0 53> ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=0O :0@L5@0 70:>=G8BAO, 2 ;CGH5< A;CG05, 345-B> =0 C@>2=5 <5;:>3> ?@>28=F80;L=>3> 1N@>:@0B0. 5 C4828B5;L=>, GB> 2A5E ?5@5156G8:>2 87 <0A>=A:>3> ;035@O <>6=> ?5@5AG8B0BL =0 ?0;LF0E. !G8B0O A51O ?>A2OI5==K<8 2 A>:@>25==K5 B08=AB20 <0A>=A:>9 <C4@>AB8, G;5=K 1@0BAB20 A<>B@OB A2KA>:0 =0 ?@>ABKE A<5@B=KE, :>B>@KE >=8 ?@8720=K 25AB8 : A25BC ?@02482KE 7=0=89. . CH, ?@8=O2H89 <0A>=A:CN :;8G:C "0:", 2A5340 68; ?> ?@8=F8?0< 1@0BAB20 8, 1C4CG8 A?>A>1=K< 8 ?>:;048ABK< G;5=>< A2>59 ;>68, 1KAB@> >1@0B8; =0 A51O 2=8<0=85 2;8OB5;L=KE <0A>=>2, :>B>@K< 2A5340 =C6=K @0AB>@>?=K5 8 8A?>;=8B5;L=K5 3>AC40@AB25==K5 @C:>2>48B5;8, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE >=8 =045NBAO >ACI5AB28BL A2>8 402=85 B09=K5 ?;0=K ?> CAB0=>2;5=8N A2>53> <8@>2>3> 3>A?>4AB20. @8<5@=0O <0A>=A:0O 687=L C<=>3> 8 >1E>48B5;L=>3> CH0 =5 <>3;0 >AB0BLAO =570<5G5==>9 A8;L=K<8 <8@0 A53>.  :>=F5 60-E 33. =0 <0;> 8725AB=>3>, =8G5< 2 B> 2@5<O A51O 5I5 >A>15==> =5 ?@>O282H53> 45?CB0B0 >=3@5AA0 >B "5E0A0 6>@60 CH0 >1@0B8;8 2=8<0=85 AB>;?K <0A>=A:>9 85@0@E88 . >:D5;;5@ 8 . 8AA8=465@. =8 >F5=8;8 N=>H5A:>5 @25=85 8 7@5;CN ;>O;L=>ABL MB>3> <;04H53> "1@0B0" 8 @5H8;8, GB> =0 =53> AB>8B ?>AB028BL 2KA>:CN :0@BC. 8G0@4C 8:A>=C, B>340H=5<C ?@57845=BC !(, :>B>@K9 B>65 701@0;AO =0 25@H8=C ?>;8B8G5A:>9 2;0AB8 =0 @>:D5;;5@>2A:85 45=L38, 1K;> ?>@CG5=> 27OBL A?>A>1=>3> :>=3@5AA<5=0 ?>4 A2>5 ?>:@>28B5;LAB2> ?@54>AB0282 5<C, B0:8< >1@07><, 2>7<>6=>ABL 70@01>B0BL A515 ?>;8B8G5A:89 02B>@8B5B 2 20H8=3B>=A:8E :>@84>@0E 3>AC40@AB25==>9 2;0AB8 8 >4=>2@5<5==> A>740BL 5<C 4>AB0B>G=CN 8725AB=>ABL A@548 0<5@8:0=A:8E 8718@0B5;59. !=0G0;0 8:A>= =07=0G8; CH0 0<5@8:0=A:8< ?>A;>< 2 , 345 B>B ?>;CG8; 2>7<>6=>ABL >7=0:><8BLAO A 3;02=K<8 <8@>2K<8 ?@>1;5<0<8 8 >4=>2@5<5==> 702O70BL ?>;57=K5 :>=B0:BK A 2;8OB5;L=K<8 ?>;8B8G5A:8<8 ;845@0<8 8 D8=0=A>2K<8 <>3>;0<8 @07=KE AB@0=. > :>=F0 A2>59 1>30B>9 :@C?=K<8 A>1KB8O<8 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 :0@L5@K CH 2A5340 3;C1>:> 8 8A:@5==5 25@8; 2 A8;C ;8G=KE :>=B0:B>2 ?@8 @5H5=88 2A52>7<>6=KE <564C=0@>4=KE ?@>1;5<.  1975 3. . CH 1K; =07=0G5= A?5F80;L=K< ?>A;0==8:>< !>548=5==KE (B0B>2 2 8B05.  B> 2@5<O 0<5@8:0=FK, GB>1K, 2K@202 5:8= 87-?>4 2;8O=8O >A:2K, >:>=G0B5;L=> 87<5=8BL A>>B=>H5=85 A8; =0 0;L=5< >AB>:5 2 A2>N ?>;L7C, >G5=L A?5H8;8 2>A?>;L7>20BLAO @07=>3;0A8O<8 <564C !!!  8 8B05<.  MB>< 70:;NG0;0AL 3;02=0O, => =5 548=AB25==0O F5;L =>2>9 0<5@8:0=A:>9 ?>;8B8:8 ?> >B=>H5=8N : ?>440NI5<CAO =0 ?>;8B8G5A:>5 7083@K20=85 8B0N. 5 <5=55 206=K<8 1K;8 8 M:>=><8G5A:85 8=B5@5AK 0<5@8:0=A:>9 D8=0=A>2>9 >;830@E88, =0 >AB@85 :>B>@>9 2KABC?0; <0A>=A:89 :;0= >:D5;;5@>2. @5:@0A=> ?>=8<0O 15A?@545;L=K5 ?>B5=F80;L=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 >3@><=>3> :8B09A:>3> @K=:0, <0A>=A:>-D8=0=A>20O M;8B0 <5@8:8 AB@5<8;0AL ?5@2>9 A@548 A2>8E 70?04=KE :>=:C@5=B>2 2>@20BLAO =0 =5B@>=CB>5 8 >18;L=>5 ?0AB18I5 4@5<;NI53> 0780BA:>3> 3830=B0. '5@57 "?@>1>8=C" 2 8B09A:>9 AB5=5, ?@>;><;5==CN 48?;><0B8G5A:8<8 CA8;8O<8 8:A>=0 8 8AA8=465@0, 2 :@0A=K9 8B09 =570<54;8B5;L=> 1K; ?@>?8E=CB AB0@0B5;L=K9 . CH, 401K ;8G=> ?@8A<>B@5BL =0 <5AB5, GB>1K A0<K5 ;CGH85 G0AB8 :8B09A:>3> ?8@>30 =5 4>AB0;8AL 2 GC685 @C:8.  8B05, 8A?>;L7CO AB0@CN <0A>=A:CN B0:B8:C 2BO38-20=8O =C6=KE ;N459 2 A2>N :>@@C<?8@>20==CN >@18BC ?CB5< 27OB>:, ;5AB8 8 >15I0=89, CH 702O70; <=>3> ?>;57=KE :>=B0:B>2 A 2;8OB5;L=K<8 <0=40@8=0<8 :8B09A:>9 :><<C=8AB8G5A:>9 M;8BK, 8 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L ;8G=> A 5= !O> 8=><,  7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 1;03>40@O CA8;8O< >1E>48B5;L=>3> CH0, 2A5 ;CGH85 45;>2K5 :>=B@0:BK 2 8B05 4>AB0;8AL 0<5@8:0=A:8< :><?0=8O<, :>=B@>;8@C5<K< 8AA8=465@>< 8 >:D5;;5@><. 5 C4828B5;L=>, GB> 270<5= :8B09FK ?>;CG8;8 AB0BCA =082KAH53> 1;03>?@8OBAB2>20=8O 2 B>@3>2;5 A !(, 8, =5A<>B@O =0 @5?@5AA82=>ABL 8E 2=5H=59 ?>;8B8:8 8 4065 :@>202CN @0A?@02C =04 ?@>0<5@8:0=A:8<8 ABC45=B0<8 2 8N=5 1989 3>40, 2A5340 =0E>48;8 4@C759, 1;03>A:;>==>5 ?>=8<0=85 8 ?>445@6:C 2 0H8=3B>=5. >-2848<><C, CH >B;8G=> A?@028;AO A 4>25@5==K< 5<C :8B09A:8< ?>@CG5=85<, B0: :0: ?> 2>72@0I5=88 2 0H8=3B>= >= =570<54;8B5;L=> 1K; =07=0G5= =0 ?>AB 48@5:B>@0 & # B>340H=8< "2@5<5==K<" ?@57845=B>< 65@0;L4>< $>@4><.  =5AG0ABLN, 0 <>65B 1KBL 8 : AG0ABLN 4;O CH0, @5A?C1;8:0=FK ?@>83@0;8 ?@57845=BA:85 2K1>@K, 8 2 1977 3>4C >= =5>6840==> >AB0;AO 157 4>;6=>AB8 8 >?@545;5==>3> 70=OB8O. >, ?>B5@O2 :;NG52>9 ?>AB 2 0<5@8:0=A:>< ?@028B5;LAB25, . CH =5 ?>B5@O; 2KA>:>3> 4>25@8O A2>8E 2A5A8;L=KE <0A>=A:8E ?>:@>28B5;59. 0 =53> AB028;0AL :>7K@=0O :0@B0 - ?>1548BL 2 A;54CNI8E ?@57845=BA:8E 2K1>@0E.  E>BO 45<>:@0B8G5A:89 ?@57845=B 68<<8 0@B5@ B>65 1K; G;5=>< <0A>=A:>3> 1@0BAB20, >= =5 A>2A5< ?>4E>48; =0 @>;L AB@>8B5;O =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, 4>?CAB82 F5;K9 @O4 >H81>: 2 <564C=0@>4=>9 8 2=CB@5==59 ?>;8B8:5, >= ?>B5@O; @0A?>;>65=85 <0A>=A:>9 M;8BK, 0 A 4@C3>9 - >:070;AO A;8H:>< 70:>@5=5;K< 2 A2>8E 10?B8ABA:8E 4CE>2=KE F5==>ABOE.  ?>A;54CNI5< <K ?>AB0@05<AO ?>4@>1=59 @07>1@0BLAO, ?>G5<C =5 2A5 <0A>=K 70A;C6820NB >48=0:>2> 2KA>:>3> 4>25@8O C =082KAH59 85@0@E88 1@0BAB20.  1980 3>4C 70 ?@02> ?@54AB02;OBL @5A?C1;8:0=A:CN ?0@B8N =0 ?@57845=BA:8E 2K1>@0E >AB@0O 1>@L10 @073>@5;0AL <564C C;LB@0:>=A5@20B82=K< 3C15@=0B>@>< >B HB0B0 0;8D>@=8O >=0;L4>< 5930=>< 8 AB02;5==8:>< B0: =07K205<KE @>:D5;;5@>2A:8E ;815@0;L=KE @5A?C1;8:0=F52 6>@465< CH5<.  25;8:><C >3>@G5=8N <0A>=A:>9 M;8BK, 5930= 1K; ?>445@60= ?>402;ONI8< 1>;LH8=AB2>< @O4>2KE 45;530B>2 >B @5A?C1;8:0=A:>9 ?0@B88, :>B>@K5 AG8B0;8 "?@>AB0G:0" 5930=0 A2>8< ?0@=5< 8 =0AB>OI8< 0<5@8:0=A:8< ?0B@8>B><. > =5 CA?5;8 45;530BK =0@04>20BLAO 1;5ABOI59 ?>1545 ":>=A5@20B82=KE" 8459 8 A2>53> ;N18<G8:0 5930=0, :0: 8E 3>@OG89 ?K; 1K; >E;0645= A>>1I5=85< > =07=0G5=88 . CH0 ?@5B5=45=B>< =0 ?>AB 28F5-?@57845=B0. <5@8:0=A:0O ?@5AA0 ?>765 ?8A0;0, GB> 5930= A 1>;LH8< =565;0=85< 8 B>;L:> ?>B><C, GB> 2;8OB5;L=K5 ;8F0 =LN-9>@:A:>9 D8=0=A>2>9 25@ECH:8 =0 MB>< @5H8B5;L=> =0AB0820;8, 1K; 2K=C645= =07=0G8BL CH0 A2>8< 8718@0B5;L=K< ?0@B=5@><. @54A540B5;L 8718@0B5;L=>9 :><?0=88 5930=0 8;LO< 59A8, :>B>@K9 1K; 87402=0 =0 A;C615 <0A>=A:>3> 1@0BAB20, ?5@540; 5930=C, =542C7=0G=>5 ?>A;0=85 A2>53> "=0G0;LAB20", GB> =5 :B> 8=>9, :0: CH, 4>;65= 1KBL =07=0G5= 53> 8718@0B5;L=K< ?0@B=5@><. :070;>AL, GB> ?@O<>;8=59=K9 "@C10E0-?0@5=L" 5930= =5 1K; C6 B0:8< ?@>AB0G:><, GB>1K =5 ?>=OBL, : :0:8< ?>A;54AB28O< <>65B ?@825AB8 >B:07 ?@8A;CH0BLAO : "A>25B0<" 25745ACI53> 1@0BAB20. = ?@5:@0A=> ?>=8<0;, GB> B0:>9 >B:07 <>65B ?@825AB8 : ?@5:@0I5=8N D8=0=A>2>9 ?>445@6:8 0:C;0<8 #>;;-AB@8B0 53> 8718@0B5;L=>9 :><?0=88, >?CAB>H5=85< 8718@0B5;L=>9 :07=K 8 2<5AB5 A MB8< =587156=>9 ?>B5@59 A0<8E 2K1>@>2. !B0@59H8=0< @5A?C1;8:0=A:>9 ?0@B88 =5 >AB020;>AL =8G53> 8=>3>, :0: A?0@8BL ";815@0;0" 6>@460 CH0 A 53> =5402=8< ?>;8B8G5A:8< >??>=5=B><, 2>8=AB25==K< :>=A5@20B>@>< >=0;L4>< 5930=><. 0 MB8 8 4@C385 ?>4>1=K5 70A;C38 "?>:;048ABK9" 5930= 1K; ?> 4>AB>8=AB2C >F5=5= 1@0BAB2>< 8 2 1987 3>4C ?>;CG8; ?>G5B=>5 720=85 <0A>=0 33 ABC?5=8 (>B;0=4A:>3> >1@O40. 'B>1K >:>=G0B5;L=> ?@54@5H8BL 8AE>4 ?@57845=BA:8E 2K1>@>2 1980 3>40 2 ?>;L7C @5A?C1;8:0=A:>9 ?0@B88, A>@0B=8:8 ?> "1@0BAB2C" . CH 8 . 59A8 2 >:BO1@5 MB>3> 65 3>40 >B?@028;8AL 2 0@86 8 ?@>25;8 B0< B09=K5 ?5@53>2>@K A ?@54AB028B5;O<8 @0=0 ?> >A2>1>645=8N 0<5@8:0=A:8E 70;>6=8:>2, :>B>@K5 =0E>48;8AL 2 MB>9 AB@0=5 A> 2@5<5=8 8A;0<A:>9 @52>;NF88 1979 3>40. A5 MB> 45;0;>AL =5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> 0<5@8:0=A:89 70:>= B>3> 2@5<5=8 70?@5I0; :0:85-;81> >D8F80;L=K5 :>=B0:BK 0<5@8:0=A:8E 3@0640= A ?@028B5;LAB2>< @0=A:>9 @5A?C1;8:8. >B 20< 5I5 >48= E>@>H89 ?@8<5@ "2KA>:>9 <>@0;L=>AB8" 8 "70:>=>?>A;CH=>AB8" 1;03>@>4=KE @KF0@59 <0A>=A:>3> 1@0BAB20. >65B ?>:070BLAO AB@0==K<, GB>, =5A<>B@O =0 2A5 70A;C38 . CH0 2 45;5 AB@>8B5;LAB20 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0, =0 A;54CNI8E ?@57845=BA:8E 2K1>@0E 1992 3>40 25@ECH:0 <0A>=AB20 >B40;0 ?@54?>GB5=85 53> A>?5@=8:C . ;8=B>=C. 5;L7O A:070BL, GB> : MB><C 2@5<5=8 CH A>2A5< ?>B5@O; 4>25@85 A2>8E 1;03>45B5;59, =>, 1C4CG8 25@=K<8 A2>5<C 8A?KB0==><C <5B>4C >4=>2@5<5==>9 AB02:8 D8H5: =0 2A5E 153>2KE ":>=59", B09=K5 1@0BLO =0 2AO:89 A;CG09 D8=0=A8@>20;8 >1>8E :0=4840B>2 =0 ?@57845=BA:89 ?>AB. A;8 >48= 87 8E AB02;5==8:>2 A?>B:=5BAO, =5 2K45@602 =0?@O65=8O 3>=:8, 4@C3>9 4>;65= ?>4E20B8BL <0A>=A:CN MAB0D5BC 8 ?@>4>;60BL 55 =5AB8 : :>=5G=>9 F5;8 CAB0=>2;5=8O 0<5@8:0=A:>3> <8@>2>3> 3>A?>4AB20. 0: 2 B0:8E A;CG0OE ?@8=OB> 3>2>@8BL: ">@>;L C<5@, 40 74@02AB2C5B :>@>;L".  A2O78 A MB8< 8725AB=K9 8AA;54>20B5;L B09=KE <0A>=A:8E >@30=870F89 "5:A5 0@@A 704>;3> 4> 2K1>@>2 ?8A0; 2 A2>59 3075B5 "$;0H?>9=B", GB>, =57028A8<> >B B>3>, :B> ?>1548B =0 ?@57845=BA:8E 2K1>@0E, <0A>=K =5 ?@>83@0NB, ?>A:>;L:C >=8 D8=0=A8@CNB :0: CH0, B0: 8 ;8=B>=0.  4>:070B5;LAB2> A2>8E CB25@645=89 >= ?@825; ?@8<5@ <564C=0@>4=>3> 10=:8@0 8 2;8OB5;L=>3> <0A>=0 65:A>=0 !B825=A0, :>B>@K9 ?@54>AB028; 2 @0A?>@O65=85 8718@0B5;L=>9 :0<?0=88 ;8=B>=0 420 <8;;8>=0 4>;;0@>2, =>, AB@040O @0742>5=85< 2;N1;5==>3> A5@4F0, =5 701K; B0:65 ">BAB53=CBL" :@C3;5=L:CN AC<<C =0 =C64K CH0.  B><C 65 ?>;8B8G5A:8 0:B82=0O 65=0 !B825=A0 5@8 O2;O;0AL A>?@54A540B5;5< 2A5>1I59 0<5@8:0=A:>9 :0<?0=88 "CH =0 ?@57845=B0". 5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> ?>A;5 ?>154K =04 @0:>< 2 1991 3>4C ?C1;8G=K9 @59B8=3 ?>?C;O@=>AB8 CH0 1K; A0<8< 2KA>:8< 2 8AB>@88 ?>A;52>5==KE ?@57845=B>2 <5@8:8 8 2A5 ?>;8B8G5A:85 >1>7@520B5;8 AC;8;8 5<C ;53:CN ?>154C =0 2K1>@0E, >= ?>7>@=> CABC?8; 5;K9 4>< <0;> 8725AB=><C 3C15@=0B>@C A @:0=70A0 8;;C ;8=B>=C. >@065=85 CH0 =0 2K1>@0E 1992 3>40 ?>;8B8G5A:85 >1>7@520B5;8 8 6C@=0;8ABK >1JOA=ONB <=>38<8 ?@8G8=0<8. C4CG8 >18;L=> 1>30BK<8 704=8< C<><, MB8 3>A?>40 C<5NB :@0A82> 8 C1548B5;L=>, E>BO =5 2A5340 ?@02482>, @0AB>;:>20BL 4>25@G82>9 ?C1;8:5 ;N1>5 C65 A;CG82H55AO A>1KB85. E :@0A=>@5G82K5 87;>65=8O 8 <5B0D878G5A:85 C<>70:;NG5=8O <>3;8 1K 1KBL 5I5 1>;55 C1548B5;L=K<8, 5A;8 1K >=8 ?>?KB0;8AL 703;O=CBL 2 <0A>=A:CN "B@C4>2CN :=86:C" CH0. !45;02 MB>, >=8 =025@=O:0 1K C2845;8, GB> ;>O;L=K9 "@KF0@L" <0A>=A:>3> 1@0BAB20 C65 ?>;CG8; ?5@2>5 A5@L57=>5 70<5G0=85, 0 <>65B, 4065 AB@>389 2K3>2>@ >B 5@E>2=>3> !>25B0 8;;N<8=0B>2. ;02=0O 28=0 CH0 70:;NG0;0AL 2 B><, GB> >= ?5@5ABC?8; G5@BC 4>72>;5==>AB8 2 0<5@8:0=A:>9 ?>;8B8:5 ?> >B=>H5=8N : 7@08;N, 0 MB> =5 <>3;> >AB0BLAO =570<5G5==K< 2A5284OI8< 3;07>< "25@E>2=>3> B09=>3> A>25B0" <0A>=A:>3> 1@0BAB20, :>=B@>;8@CNI53> 2A5 0A?5:BK AB@>8B5;LAB20 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0. 5;> 2 B><, GB> 2 :>=F5 1990, 2 A0<K9 @0730@ ?>43>B>2:8 >?5@0F88 "C@O 2 ?CABK=5" =0 ;86=5< >AB>:5, 0<5@8:0=A:0O 04<8=8AB@0F8O, A?5H0 70@CG8BLAO ?>445@6:>9 !!!  8 A2>8E ;0:552 87 "4@C65AB25==KE" 0@01A:8E AB@0=, ?>>15I0;0, GB> ?>A;5 2>9=K A @0:>< 1C45B A>720=0 <564C=0@>4=0O :>=D5@5=F8O ?> ;86=5<C >AB>:C, =0 :>B>@>9 >:>=G0B5;L=> @5H8BAO 2>?@>A > ?0;5AB8=A:>< 3>AC40@AB25. -B> >15I0=85 =0H;> >D8F80;L=>5 ?>4B25@645=85 2 70:;NG8B5;L=>< :><<N=8:5 ?5@53>2>@>2 <564C 3>AC40@AB25==K< A5:@5B0@5< !( . 59:5@>< 8 B>340H=8< <8=8AB@>< 8=>AB@0==KE 45; !!!  . 5AA<5@B=KE, :>B>@K5 A>AB>O;8AL 2 D52@0;5 1991 3>40. 5G=> :0?@87=>5 8 ?>4>7@8B5;L=>5 A8>=8ABA:>5 @C:>2>4AB2> @0AF5=8;> MBC =57=0G8B5;L=CN CABC?:C 0<5@8:0=A:>9 04<8=8AB@0F88 :0: =54@C65AB25==K9 0:B ?> >B=>H5=8N : 7@08;LA:><C 3>AC40@AB2C 8 G5@57 A2>8 :0=0;K 40;> 7=0BL 2 =LN-9>@:A:89 "B09=K9 A>25B", GB> >=8 =5 A>2A5< "?>=8<0NB" =>2CN ?>;8B8:C CH0. 54L >=8 >4=> 0<5@8:0=A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> A> 2@5<5=8 A>740=8O 52@59A:>3> 3>AC40@AB20 =5 H;> =0 ?>4>1=K5 CABC?:8. "5< >= A51O 2>7><=8;, - 2>7<CI0;8AL >=8, - <>65B, 2KA>:89 @59B8=3 2 >1I5AB25==>< <=5=88 A>2A5< 2A:@C68; 5<C 3>;>2C, 8 >= 701K;, GB> ?@57845=B>2 =5 2K18@0NB, 0 8E 45;0NB!" @><5 B>3>, 3>AA5:@5B0@L . 59:5@, AB0@K9 ?@8OB5;L CH0 8 4>25@5==>5 ;8F> ?@57845=B0, B>65 >:070; A2>5<C ?0B@>=C <54256LN CA;C3C, ?C1;8G=> 70O282, GB> 52@59A:85 @C:>2>48B5;8 4>;6=K @07 8 =02A5340 2K18BL A515 87 3>;>2K <KA;8 > "25;8:><" 7@08;5. "> BCB, B> B0< 2 0<5@8:0=A:8E A@54AB20E <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 4065 =0G0;8 ?>3>20@820BL >1 "0=B8A5<8B87<5" 04<8=8AB@0F88 CH0. 5;> =0G0;> ?@8=8<0BL =5HCB>G=K9 >1>@>B. 5B =8G53> AB@0H=55 4;O 70?04=>3> ?>;8B8:0, G5< 1KBL >128=5==K< 2 0=B8A5<8B87<5. =>38< 70:C;8A=K< <0=8?C;OB>@0< 0<5@8:0=A:>9 ?>;8B8:8 B0:65 =5 =@028;>AL 8 B>, GB> 2?5@2K5 70 4>;3>5 2@5<O 3>AC40@AB25==K< A5:@5B0@5< =5 1K; =07=0G5= :@>2=K9 52@59.  E>BO ?>4 :>=5F A2>53> ?@57845=BA:>3> A@>:0 CH ?>?@>A8; 59:5@0 C9B8 2 >BAB02:C 8 =0 53> <5AB> 1K; =07=0G5= G8AB>:@>2=K9 52@59 >@5=F -48=1C@35@, MB> A?0AB8 53> C65 =5 <>3;>. 0: 3>2>@8BAO, 1K;> A45;0=> A;8H:>< <0;> 8 A;8H:>< ?>74=>. %>@>H> CA2>82H89 MB>B C@>: ?>=OB;82K9 2C=45@:8=4 . ;8=B>= 70 2A5 3>4K A2>53> ?@57845=BAB20 ?>4>1=>9 3;C?>AB8 =5 ?>2B>@8;. 10 53> 3>AC40@AB25==KE A5:@5B0@O, A=0G0;0 0@@5= @8AB>D5@, 0 ?>765 04;5= ;1@09B, O2;O;8AL 52@5O<8 ?> ?;>B8 8 :@>28 8 : B><C 65 ?>445@6820NB B5A=K5 A2O78 A <0A>=A:8< 42865=85<. @><5 B>3>, CH >:070;AO =5<=>3> :>=A5@20B82=K< 2 A2>8E @5;838>7=KE 273;O40E 8 A>F80;L=KE C15645=8OE. = 459AB2>20; =54>AB0B>G=> 1KAB@> 8 =0?>@8AB> 2 =02O7K20=88 >1I5AB2C <0A>=A:8E :C;LBC@=KE 8 @5;838>7=KE F5==>AB59. 8G53> =5 ?>45;05HL, >BAB0; AB0@8: >B 2@5<5=8! "5?5@L, :>340 C3@>70 A> AB>@>=K !>25BA:>3> !>N70 8A?0@8;0AL 8 ?>25@65==K9 <8@ ?@5A<K:05BAO C =>3 <0A>=A:>3> 7>;>B>3> B5;LF0, =5B 1>;LH5 =04>1=>AB8 2 ?@57845=B5-?>;:>2>4F5, :>B>@K9 2@5<5=0<8 A18205BAO A "?@028;L=>3>" :C@A0. "5?5@L ?@54?>GB8B5;5= 8=>9, ?>=OB;82K9 8 8A?>;=8B5;L=K9 ?@57845=B, 8 65;0B5;L=> A ?>4<>G5==>9 @5?CB0F859. -B> =0 2AO:89 ?>60@=K9 A;CG09, GB>1K 7=0; A2>5 B5;OGL5 <5AB>! >;8B8:>2 A ?>4<>G5==>9 @5?CB0F859 2 <5@8:5 E>BL ?@C4 ?@C48, => "A:>;L7:89 8;;8", :0: 0<5@8:0=A:85 6C@=0;8ABK >:@5AB8;8 8;;0 ;8=B>=0, =5A><=5==>, 2K45;O;AO A@548 =8E A2>59 15A?@8=F8?=>ABLN 8 872>@>B;82>ABLN.  ?>A;54CNI85 4>;385 3>4K ?@>B8@0=8O 1@N: =0 @07=KE 3>AC40@AB25==KE 4>;6=>ABOE >= >1<>G8; A515 ?0;LFK =5 >4=8< A><=8B5;L=K< 45;LF5<. 1 MB>< ?>4@>1=> 8 =5 @07 ?8A0;8 3075BK 5I5 2> 2@5<O ?@51K20=8O ;8=B>=0 =0 ?>ABC 3C15@=0B>@0 HB0B0 @:0=70A. > :0: 1K =8 AB0@0;8AL 6C@=0;8ABK 4> :>=F0 @0A:>?0BL 0D5@K ;8=B>=0 8 :0: 1K =8 =0A540;8 =0 =53> A> 2A5E AB>@>= 53> ?>;8B8G5A:85 ?@>B82=8:8, 8< =8 @07C =5 C40;>AL ?@860BL "A:>;L7:>3> 8;;8" : AB5=:5. >A;5 :064>9 B0:>9 ?>?KB:8 =54>1@>65;0B5;O< "=5C;>28<>3>" 0@:0=70AF0 =5 >AB020;>AL =8G53> 4@C3>3>, :0: C4>2;5B2>@8BLAO ?>H;5=L:>9 ?>3>2>@:>9, GB> =5 B>B 2>@, :B> 2>@C5B, => B>B, :>3> ?>9<0NB. #G8BK20O 2A5 MB8 4>AB>8=AB20 872>@>B;82>3> ;8=B>=0, B09=K9 A>25B 8;;N<8=0B>2 @5H8;, GB> 0@:0=70AA:89 ";5BCG89 3>;;0=45F" 70A;C68205B B>3>, GB>1K ?>A<>B@5BL 53> 2 A5@L57=>< 45;5.  =C6=> >B40BL 8< 4>;6=>5, GB> 2 MB>< ?0@=5 >=8 =5 >H81;8AL. 0 2A5 H5ABL ;5B A2>59 ?@57845=BC@K ;8=B>= =8G5< 4@C38<, :0: C;06820=85< A:0=40;>2 AC3C1> ;8G=>3> E0@0:B5@0, 4065 =5 A>18@0;AO 70=8<0BLAO. @>H;0O, :0;0<1C@=0O 687=L ?@57845=B0 1K;0 =5 <5=LH5 CA5O=0 A><=8B5;L=K<8 45;8H:0<8, G5< <;5G=K9 ?CBL 25G=> <830NI8<8 725740<8. <5@8:0=A:><C >=3@5AAC 4065 ?@8H;>AL =07=0G8BL A?5F80;L=>3> =57028A8<>3> ?@>:C@>@0 4;O @0AA;54>20=8O =5:>B>@KE 0D5@ 70:>==> =5?>A;CH=>3> ?@57845=B0. >, :0: 1K =8 CA5@4AB2>20; <=>3>>?KB=K9 AB>;8G=K9 ?@>:C@>@ 5=5B !B0@@, AB0@0OAL "?@8H?8;8BL ;>2:>3> 8;;8", >= AC<5; 4>18BLAO =5 1>;LH5, G5< ei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g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ax Americ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pa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short sell" ) =0 O7K:5 18@652KE <0:;5@>2 >7=0G05B ?@>406C :0:>3>-B> 18@652>3> ?@>4C:B0, :>B>@K9 2 40==K9 <><5=B ?@>402FC =5 ?@8=04;568B.  MB>< A;CG05 48;5@K 70=8<0NB MB>B 18@652>9 ?@>4C:B A2>8< :;85=B0<, :>B>@K5 4>;6=K 8< 53> 2>72@0B8BL 2 ?>A;54CNI5< 2@5<5=8. 0 ?@0:B8:5 MB> >7=0G05B, GB> !>@>A 2K1@>A8; 2 ?@>406C 45AOB:8 <8;;80@4>2 DC=B>2 AB5@;8=3>2, :>B>@KE C =53> =8:>340 =5 1K;>. >=OB=>, GB>, 7=0O D8=0=A>2K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 8 :@548B=CN =0456=>ABL !>@>A0, =8 >4=0 48;5@A:0O D8@<0 8 =8 >48= 10=: =5 >A<5;OBAO >B:070BL A2>5<C ;N18<><C :;85=BC 2 ?@>4065 =0 ":>@>B:>" ;N1>3> :>;8G5AB20 65;05<>9 20;NBK. C6=> 8<5BL 2 284C, GB>, :>340 !>@>A =0G8=05B ?@>4020BL :0:CN-B> 20;NBC, 4@C385 <564C=0@>4=K5 A?5:C;O=BK 20;NB>9, GCB:> C;>282, :C40 4C5B 25B5@, =570<54;8B5;L=> A;54CNB 53> ?@8<5@C. A:>@5, :0: 3>;>4=K5 2>;:8 2>:@C3 703=0==>3> >;5=O, =0 @0AB5@70=85 =5AG0AB=>9 20;NBK A>18@0NBAO 2A5 :@>2>604=K5 E8I=8:8 D8=0=A>2KE 46C=3;59.  A?5:C;OB82=>9 >?5@0F88, :0: ?> :><0=45, ?>4:;NG0NBAO 8<5=8BK5 48;5@A:85 D8@<K 8 1>;LH85 <564C=0@>4=K5 10=:8.  =5B 2> 2A5< <8@5 B0:>9 =5?@>18205<>9 20;NB=>9 A8AB5<K, :>B>@0O 1K AC<5;0 2K25@=CBLAO 87 8E <5@B2>9 E20B:8. >340 4520;L28@>20==K9 DC=B, =0:>=5F, AB018;878@>20;AO =0 1>;55 =87:>< C@>2=5, B>340 ;>2:0G !>@>A :C?8; 53> ?>-=0AB>OI5<C. 5@=C2 48;5@A:8< D8@<0< 8 10=:0< ?>EC452H85 0=3;89A:85 DC=BK, >= =52>7<CB8<> ?@8:0@<0=8; @07=8FC <564C ?@56=59 8 =K=5H=59 AB>8<>ABLN. A;8, A:065<, DC=B ?>B5@O; 15% A2>59 AB>8<>AB8, B> MB>, 70 2KG5B>< :><8AA8>==KE, 8 1C45B A>AB02;OBL G8ABCN ?@81K;L A?5:C;O=B0. > MB> 5I5 =5 2A5. A:CAAB25==> A>7402 :@878A 20;NB=>9 A8AB5<K 2 =3;88, !>@>A ?>;CG8; 40;L=59H85 2>7<>6=>AB8 4;O ?@81K;L=>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O A>7402H59AO =0 D8=0=A>2>< @K=:5 A8BC0F88. :07K205BAO, GB>, ?@>4020O "?>ABK;K5" DC=BK AB5@;8=3>2, !>@>A >4=>2@5<5==> ?>:C?0; "?@83;O=C2H85AO" 5<C 0=3;89A:85 3>AC40@AB25==K5 >1;830F88. !5:@5B A5;5:F8>==>3> ?>4E>40 ?5@2>3> 20;NB=>3> 453CAB0B>@0 : D8=0=A>2><C <5=N 1K; ?@>AB. 'B>1K C45@60BL 2 AB@0=5 =0?C30==KE =5CAB>9G82>ABLN DC=B0 <564C=0@>4=KE 8=25AB>@>2, F5=B@0;L=K9 10=: =3;88 1K; 2K=C645= ?>2KA8BL 10=:>2A:CN ?@>F5=B=CN AB02:C. -B>, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, 2K720;> ?>2KH5=85 F5=K =0 1@8B0=A:85 >1;830F88. "0:8< >1@07>< >?KB=K9 20;NBG8: !>@>A ;53:> 2K83@0; A@07C ?> 42C< AG5B0<. C, 0 :B> 65 B>340 ?@>83@0;? 725AB=>, GB> D8=0=A>2K5 10B0;88, :0: 8 2AO:85 4@C385, 8<5NB A2>8E ?>1548B5;59 8 ?>15645==KE. '8B0B5;L =025@=O:0 C65 4>3040;AO, GB> ?@>83@0;8 @O4>2K5 0=3;89A:85 =0;>3>?;0B5;LI8:8. >-?5@2KE, 2 A2O78 A> A=865=85< AB>8<>AB8 =0F8>=0;L=>9 20;NBK ?>:C?0B5;L=0O A?>A>1=>ABL 0=3;89A:8E 3@0640= A=878;8AL, 0 8E 45=56=K5 A15@565=8O C<5=LH8;8AL. >-2B>@KE, ?>2KH5==0O 10=:>2A:0O ?@>F5=B=0O AB02:0 ;53;0 4>?>;=8B5;L=K< 1@5<5=5< =0 ?;5G8 ?>B@518B5;59 8 45;>2KE ;N459. 064><C E>@>H> 8725AB=>, GB> 2 :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:>< >1I5AB25 2AO 45;>20O 687=L >1@0I05BAO 2>:@C3 10=:>2A:8E 709<>2. 0AAK @O4>2KE 3@0640= 70=8<0NB 45=L38, GB>1K :C?8BL 4>< 8;8 ?@8>1@5AB8 <0H8=C. 5;>2K5 ;N48 70=8<0NB 4;O ?>445@60=8O 8;8 @AH8@5=8O 187=5A0. @028B5;LAB20 ?>AB>O==> 70=8<0NB 4;O AB@>8B5;LAB20 @07=>@>4=KE >1J5:B>2 >1I5AB25==>3> =07=0G5=8O.  MB8E CA;>28OE 4065 =57=0G8B5;L=>5 ?>2KH5=85 ?@>F5=B=>9 AB02:8 =570<54;8B5;L=> ?@82>48B : C25;8G5=8N 704>;65==>AB8 =0A5;5=8O. 0G8=05BAO F5?=0O @50:F8O 10=:@>BAB2, :>B>@0O =587156=> ?@82>48B : D8=0=A>2><C :@878AC. 07>@ONBAO <5;:85 187=5A<5=K, B5@ONB 4><0 @O4>2K5 3@0640=5 8 70BO38205B 1N465B=K9 @5<5=L ?@028B5;LAB2>. A5 MB>, 2<5AB5 27OB>5, =530B82=> A:07K205BAO =0 M:>=><8G5A:>< A>AB>O=88 AB@0=K 2 F5;><. > =8G53> 4@C3>3> 745AL =5 ?@84C<05HL. 45-B> 4>;6=K 1K;8 =0A:@5AB8 420 <8;;80@40 F5;:>2KE, =5?@8=C645==> 8 A2>1>4=> ?@8:0@<0=5==KE ?@>2>@=K< <8AB5@>< !>@>A><.  A;54CNI5< 3>4C !>@>A ?>2B>@8; A2>9 >B@01>B0==K9 "D>:CA" >?OBL, => =0 MB>B @07 871@0==8:>< 53> >:070;AO <5=55 A>;84=K9, G5< 0=3;89A:89 DC=B, => =5 <5=55 7048@8ABK9 D@0=FC7A:89 D@0=:.  AC<0B>E5 8 70<5H0B5;LAB25 AE20B:8 ?>AB@040;8 B0:65 ;53:>25A=K5 20;NBK >@BC30;88, A?0=88 8 @;0=488. 0 MB>B @07 !>@>A 459AB2>20; =5 2A;5?CN 8 =5 2 >48=>G:C. 5@54 =0G0;>< >?5@0F88 >= 70@CG8;AO 465=B;L<5=A:8< 7025@5=85< ?@57845=B0 C=45A10=:0 5;L<CB0 (;578=65@0, GB> 2 1;8609H55 2@5<O 5@<0=8O =8 2 :>5< A;CG05 =5 ?>2KA8B 10=:>2A:>9 ?@>F5=B=>9 AB02:8. >A:>;L:C C=45A10=:, D0:B8G5A:8, O2;O5BAO &5=B@0;L=K< 10=:>< 2@>?K, 8 2A5 >AB0;L=K5 52@>?59A:85 20;NBK "?>42O70=K" : <>3CI5AB25==>9 =5<5F:>9 <0@:5, B> >B:07 5;L<CB0 (;578=65@0 87<5=8BL ?@>F5=B=CN AB02:C 2 5@<0=88 AB028; 4@C385 AB@0=K 2@>?K 2 4>2>;L=>-B0:8 BO65;>5 ?>;>65=85. 'B>1K A>E@0=8BL ?@56=85 ?@>?>@F88 :C@A0 A2>8E 20;NB ?> >B=>H5=8N : =5<5F:>9 <0@:5 8 B5< A0<K< C45@60BL @0A?>;>65=85 :0?@87=KE 8=>AB@0==KE 8=25AB>@>2, MB8 AB@0=K 1K;8 2K=C645=K ?>2KA8BL 4><0H=NN 10=:>2A:CN ?@>F5=B=CN AB02:C.  =0G0;5 MB>9 >?5@0F88 4065 28402H85 284K 20;NBG8:8 =5 <>3;8 C@07C<5BL, 70G5< MB> 24@C3 ?@825@54 ;82><C !>@>AC ?>=04>18;8AL :0:85-B> 8A?0=A:85 8;8 ?>@BC30;LA:85 >1;830F88, AG8B02H85AO 2 2KAH5< >1I5AB25 <564C=0@>4=KE 8=25AB>@>2 G5<-B> 2@>45 :5-@5=A:8E 45=53. > :>340 BCG8 D8=0=A>2>9 3@>7K =04 2@>?>9 =5<=>3> @0AA5O;8AL, B> 2A5 A><=520NI85AO <>3;8 2>>G8N C1548BLAO, GB> 2A5 70:>=G8;>AL B0:, :0: B> ?@54CA<>B@5; 20;NB=K9 2C=45@:8=4 !>@>A. 048@8ABK9 D@0=FC7A:89 D@0=: 7=0G8B5;L=> "?>EC45;", 0 EC4>A>G=K5 ?>@BC30;LA:85 >1;830F88, =0>1>@>B, ACI5AB25==> "?>?@028;8AL". 'B>1K A?0AB8 A2>5 =5CAB>9G82>5 ?5A>, ?>@BC30;LF0< ?@8H;>AL ?>2KA8BL 8 157 B>3> 2KA>:CN 10=:>2A:CN ?@>F5=B=CN AB02:C. -B> =5 <>3;> =5 A:070BLAO >B@8F0B5;L=> =0 M:>=><8:5 MB>9 AB@0=K, => 70B> ?>@BC30;LA:85 >1;830F88 ?>;CG8;8 ?>G5B 8 ?@87=0=85 C <564C=0@>4=KE 8=25AB>@>2. 'B> :0A05BAO 7;>459A:>9 AC4L1K D@0=FC7A:>3> D@0=:0, B> 53> >B ?>;=>3> C=8GB>65=8O A?0A;> B>;L:> @5H8B5;L=>5 2<5H0B5;LAB2> C=45A10=:0, :>B>@K9 =0G0; 0:B82=> A:C?0BL D@0=FC7A:CN 20;NBC. @><5 ;8G=>3> >1>30I5=8O !>@>A0 8 "><?0=88", MB0 >?5@0F8O 8<5;0 40;5:> 84CI85 ?>;8B8G5A:85 ?>A;54AB28O, 2K3>4=K5, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L, 4;O 0<5@8:0=F52 8 A;54CNI8E 70 =8<8 =0 ?>;>65==>< @0AAB>O=88 =5<F52. 520;L20F8O 20;NBK @O40 52@>?59A:8E AB@0= =0;>68;0 =0 =8E 4>?>;=8B5;L=>5 D8=0=A>2>5 >1@5<5=5=85 8 70B@C4=8;0 ?@>F5AA A>740=8O 548=>9 2@>?59A:>9 20;NBK. -B> 1K;> 2K3>4=> 0<5@8:0=F0<, :>B>@K5 2 ?>3>=5 70 <8@>2K< 3>A?>4AB2>< 254CB =5?@5:@0I0NICNAO ?>;8B8G5A:CN 2>9=C ?@>B82 A2>8E ?>B5=F80;L=KE ?@>B82=8:>2 ( >AA88 8 8B0O), 48?;><0B8G5A:CN ?@>B82 A2>8E A>N7=8:>2 8 M:>=><8G5A:CN ?@>B82 2A5E >AB0;L=KE AB@0= <8@0. !>74020O 8A:CAAB25==K5 M:>=><8G5A:85 ?@>1;5<K 2 2@>?5, 0<5@8:0=FK AB@5<OBAO >A;018BL A2>8E 3;02=KE B>@3>2KE :>=:C@5=B>2. >A;5 ?>154K 2 E>;>4=>9 2>9=5 >=8 <>3CB A515 2@5<5=0<8 ?>72>;8BL =5<=>6:> ?>874520BLAO =04 A2>8<8 1K2H8<8 ;>O;L=K<8 ?0@B=5@0<8. B> 65 2@5<O =5<FK, E>BO 8 ?>=5AH85 D8=0=A>2K5 ?>B5@8 2 A2O78 A 20;NB=K< "1;8F:@83><" !>@>A0, 70<5B=> C:@5?8;8 A2>5 ?>;8B8G5A:>5 4><8=8@>20=85 2 2@>?5. -B8<, =025@=>5, 8 <>6=> >1JOA=8BL AB@0==>5 A>B@C4=8G5AB2> =5?>2>@>B;82>3> C=45A10=:0 A ?@>2>@=K< !>@>A><. >A;5 D8=0=A>2>3> :@878A0 1993 3>40 $@0=F8O >:>=G0B5;L=> "?>B5@O;0 65;0=85" ?@5B5=4>20BL =0 254CICN ?>;8B8G5A:CN @>;L 2 >1J548=5==>9 2@>?5.  B> 65 2@5<O 02B>@8B5B =5<5F:>9 <0@:8 5I5 1>;55 C:@5?8;AO, 8 >=0 ?@52@0B8;0AL 45-D0:B> 2 >1I552@>?59A:CN 20;NBC. A;01;5=85 F5;>3> @O40 52@>?59A:8E 20;NB 2?>A;54AB288 ?>72>;8;> <>3CI5AB25==><C C=45A10=:C 15A?@5?OBAB25==> 48:B>20BL E0@0:B5@ 8 CA;>28O A>740=8O 548=>3> 2@>?59A:>3> F5=B@0;L=>3> 10=:0. >340 2 O=20@5 1999 3>40 A0<>4>2>;L=K5 1N@35@K 11 AB@0= 2@>?59A:>3> A>N70 =0:>=5F ?>;CG0B 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>;L7>20BLAO 4>;3>640==>9 2@>20;NB>9, B> 2> 3;025 8E <>3CI5AB25==>3> &5=B@0;L=>3> 10=:0 =025@=O:0 1C45B =0E>48BLAO ?>A;CH=K9 =5<5F:89 AB02;5==8: 8< NA5=15@3. 07-=>B5<?5@0<5=B=0O C?@O6:0 =5?>E>68E 8 =>@>28ABKE AB@0= 2@>?59A:>3> A>N70 5I5 4>;3>5 2@5<O 1C45B 1;C640BL 2 ?>8A:0E A2>53> :C;LBC@=>3> A0<>CB25@645=8O 8 2K@01>B:5 548=>3> ?>;8B8G5A:>3> :@54>.  B5< 2@5<5=5< 548=AB25==>9 @50;L=>9 2;0ABLN, A2O7K20NI59 D@03<5=B0@=CN :>=3;><5@0F8N 52@>?59A:8E 3>AC40@AB2, 1C45B >AB020BLAO 35@<0=878@>20==K9 2A5A8;L=K9 52@>?59A:89 &5=B@0;L=K9 10=:. B:@KB> ?>E8B82 AC25@5==K5 ?@020 =0@>4>2, MB>B 10=: ?>;CG8B 2>7<>6=>ABL 548=>;8G=> =02O7K20BL AB@0=0< A>N70 >1ICN 10=:>2A:CN ?@>F5=B=CN AB02:C, 25;8G8=C <8=8<0;L=>9 70@?;0BK 8 4065 @07<5@K 2K?;0B ?> A>F80;L=><C >15A?5G5=8N.  ?>A;54=85 3>4K =8 >4=0 7=0G0I0O 20;NB0 <8@0 =5 871560;0 @>:>2>3> 2=8<0=8O !>@>A0 8 53> 2KH:>;5==>9 1@8304K <564C=0@>4=KE 20;NBG8:>2. >6=> E>BO 1K 2A?><=8BL 50%-=CN 4520;L20F8N <5:A8:0=A:>9 20;NBK 2 1994 3>4C 8;8 "?>3@><" 45=56=KE A8AB5< @O40 @0728BKE AB@0= .3>->AB>G=>9 788 2 1997-1998 3>40E, =5 3>2>@O C65 > ?045=88 5;LF8=A:>3> @C1;O. 0: ;53:0O :020;5@8O, <564C=0@>4=K5 A?5:C;O=BK =0;5B0NB =0 >G5@54=CN "7075202HCNAO" 20;NBC 8 ?>A;5 :>@>B:>3>, => 1>;57=5==>3> ?>1>8I0 2>72@0I0NBAO 2 A2>8 @>4=K5 :070@<K A ?>;=K<8 <5H:0<8 2>5==>9 4>1KG8. A;54 70 =8<8 =0 @07>@5==K5 75<;8 ?>15645==KE ?@8E>4OB 8E =0<5AB=8:8 2 >1;8G89 8@>2>3> 10=:0 8 564C=0@>4=>3> 0;NB=>3> $>=40, :>B>@K5, 2K?>;=OO 8=AB@C:F88 =LN-9>@:A:>3> HB010 10=:8@>2, ?@0:B8G5A:8 C:@5?;ONB =>2K9 <8@>2>9 ?>@O4>: =0 D8=0=A>2KE @C8=0E ?>25@65==KE AB@0=. =>340 :0:>9-=81C4L "?@>7@52H89" ?>;8B8G5A:89 45OB5;L ?>B5@?52H59 AB@0=K 2=570?=> ?@>1C6405BAO >B ;5B0@38G5A:>9 A?OG:8 8 =0G8=05B 2>7<CI0BLAO 20;NB=K< @071>5< >1=03;52H8E <564C=0@>4=KE A?5:C;O=B>2, => =52848<K5 <0AB5@0 "A2>1>4=>3>" <8@0 1KAB@> AB02OB 53> =0 >B2545==>5 5<C <5AB>. ">7><=82H89 > A515 E0<" ?>;CG05B E>@>HCN 271CG:C, 0 >AB0;L=K< "701;C640NI8<AO" 5I5 @07 B5@?5;82> @07JOA=O5BAO, GB> 157 >15A?5G5=8O 1;03>?@8OB=KE CA;>289 4;O A2>1>4=>9 B>@3>2;8 20;NB>9 8 15A?@5?OBAB25==>3> 42865=8O :0?8B0;0 <564C=0@>4=K5 8=25AB>@K 1>;LH5 =5 70E>BOB ?>:070BL 4065 =>A0 2 8E =5:C;LBC@=K5 AB@0=K. @8 MB>< 70?C30==0O ?C1;8:0 4065 =5 >A<5;8BAO A?@>A8BL, ?>G5<C MB8 ":C;LBC@=K5" 8=25AB>@K =0?5@53>=:8 A?5H0B 8=25AB8@>20BL 2 M:>=><8:C "70<:=CB>3>" 8B0O, :>B>@K9 AB@>3> >3@0=8G8205B 42865=85 8=>AB@0==>3> :0?8B0;0 8, B25@4> ?>445@6820O >D8F80;L=K9 :C@A >1<5=0 20;NBK, ;8H05B !>@>A0 ?@8OB=>AB8 ?>A?5:C;8@>20BL =0 2AN :0BCH:C :8B09A:8< N0=5<. 065 3;02=K9 0@E8B5:B>@ AB@>8B5;LAB20 2@>?59A:>3> A>4@C65AB20, >AB>@>6=K9 0: 5;>@A, ?@5=51@568B5;L=> =0720; A?5:C;O=B>2 20;NB>9 "7>;>B>9 <>;>456LN", 0 <5=55 48?;><0B8G=K9 ?@5<L5@-<8=8AB@ B0;88 @C=> 5@;CA:>=8 >B:@KB> >128=8; !>@>A0 8 AB>OI8E 70 =8< 52@59A:8E 10=:8@>2 LN->@:0 2 C<KH;5==>9 03@5AA88 ?@>B82 8B0;LO=A:>9 ;8@K. >A;54AB28O <>6=> 1K;> ?@542845BL. K2H85 A>N7=8:8 5@;CA:>=8 2 8B0;LO=A:>< ?0@;0<5=B5 2=570?=> >B:070;8AL ?>445@6820BL 53> ?@028B5;LAB2>, 8 >= 1K; 2K=C645= ?>7>@=> C9B8 2 >BAB02:C. "0: ?5G0;L=> 70:>=G8;0AL 1;5ABOI0O ?>;8B8G5A:0O :0@L5@0 5I5 >4=>3> =5 A>2A5< =082=>3> 8A:0B5;O ?@024K, :>B>@K9 =5 AC<5; 2>2@5<O @07>1@0BLAO, GB> 53> ?0B5B8G5A:0O B0;8O B5?5@L O2;O5BAO B>;L:> <0;5=L:>9 ?@>28=F859 8@>2>9 $8=0=A>2>9 8<?5@88. 5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> 5@;CA:>=8 A0< O2;O5BAO <8;;80@45@><, 4;O 25;8:8E <>3>;>2 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0 >= >7=0G05B =5 1>;LH5, G5< 4>@>6=0O ?K;L =0 1>B8=:0E 8E D8=0=A>2KE ;538>=5@>2. * * * >1540 0?040 2 E>;>4=>9 2>9=5 ACI5AB25==> 87<5=8;0 3;02=K5 =0?@02;5=8O 35>?>;8B8G5A:8E CAB@5<;5=89 !>548=5==KE (B0B>2. @56=85 CA;>28O M:>=><8G5A:>3> A>B@C4=8G5AB20 <564C !( 8 @072820NI8<8AO AB@0=0<8 "8E>>:50=A:>3> @538>=0, :>B>@K5 A;>68;8AL 2 3>4K E>;>4=>9 2>9=K, 4O4N !M<0 B5?5@L C65 =5 CAB@0820NB. %>BO MB8 >B=>H5=8O =8:>340 =5 1K;8 @02=>?@02=K<8, 8 <5@8:0 2A5340 872;5:0;0 87 =8E <0:A8<0;L=CN 4;O A51O 2K3>4C, =5:>B>@K5 AB@0=K @538>=0 AC<5;8 @0A:@CB8BL A2>9 M:>=><8G5A:89 ?>B5=F80; 8 4>AB8GL C@>2=O 2KA>:>3> ?@><KH;5==>3> @0728B8O. >A;5 B>@>9 <8@>2>9 2>9=K !>548=5==K5 (B0BK, >?0A0OAL @>AB0 ?>;8B8G5A:>3> 2;8O=8O !!!  8 8B0O 2 .3>->AB>G=>9 788, ?>A?5H8;8 A @07=>@>4=K<8 ?;0=0<8 8 ?@>3@0<<0<8 M:>=><8G5A:>9 8 D8=0=A>2>9 ?><>I8 =5:>B>@K< AB@0=0< MB>3> @538>=0. "0:85 AB@0=K, :0: /?>=8O, .6=0O >@5O, "0920=L 8 >=:>=3, >?8@0OAL =0 <0AA8@>20==CN D8=0=A>2CN ?><>IL 0H8=3B>=0 8 A2>1>4=K9 4>ABC? A2>8E B>20@>2 =0 0<5@8:0=A:89 @K=>:, 1KAB@> ?@52@0B8;8AL 2 <>I=K5 >G038 :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:>9 M:>=><8:8. @><KH;5==K9 27;5B MB8E AB@0= 1K; =0AB>;L:> 1KAB@K< 8 70E20BK20NI8<, GB> C482;5==K5 M:>=><8ABK >:@5AB8;8 MB>B D5=><5= "0780BA:8< GC4><". A;54 70 =8<8 ?>BO=C;8AL 8 4@C385 =5B5@?5;82K5 0780BA:85 ?@5B5=45=BK =0 M:>=><8G5A:>5 GC4>. A:>@5 A@54AB20 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 2A53> <8@0 A 2>AE8I5=85< 703>2>@8;8 > =51K20;KE CA?5E0E !8=30?C@0, "08;0=40, 0;09788, =4>=5788 8 $8;8??8=. 59AB28B5;L=>, 70 ?>A;54=85 30 ;5B MB8 AB@0=K, ?@820B878@>202 2A5, GB> 8<5;> E>BL <0;59HCN F5==>ABL, 8 E8I=8G5A:8 M:A?;C0B8@CO A2>8 A>1AB25==K5 >3@><=K5 ?@8@>4=K5 @5AC@AK, 4>AB83;8 >?@545;5==>3> C@>2=O @0728B>AB8. 7;8H=5 =0?><8=0BL, GB> 20@20@A:8 M:A?;C0B8@C5<K< =0@>40< MB8E AB@0= ?@8H;>AL 70?;0B8BL 4>@>3CN F5=C 70 MB>B =04CBK9 ?@>3@5AA. 07>@5==>5 :@5ABLO=AB2>, H8@>:>5 ?@8<5=5=85 45BA:>3> B@C40, ?@5ABC?=>ABL, =8I5B0, ?@>AB8BCF8O 8 =0@:><0=8O A>?CBAB2>20;8 A:07>G=><C >1>30I5=8N <5AB=>9 >;830@E88. > 70B> MB8 AB@0=K ?@52@0B8;8AL 2 =0456=K5 D>@?>ABK 0<5@8:0=A:>3> 2;8O=8O 2 "8E>>:50=A:>< 10AA59=5, CA?5H=> ?@>B82>459AB2CO @0A?@>AB@0=5=8N :><<C=8AB8G5A:8E 8 =0F8>=0;L=>->A2>1>48B5;L=KE 42865=89 2 MB>< AB@0B538G5A:8 206=>< 4;O 0<5@8:0=F52 @538>=5. #25@5==> AB02 =0 A>1AB25==K5 =>38, B0:85 AB@0=K, :0: /?>=8O, .6=0O >@5O, "0920=L 8 >=:>=3, H8@>:> ?@54>AB028;8 ;CGH85 4>AB865=8O A2>59 M;5:B@>==>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 2 @0A?>@O65=85 !( 8 ". =25AB8@CO <8;;80@4K 4>;;0@>2 2 0<5@8:0=A:CN M:>=><8:C 8 >:07K20O D8=0=A>2CN ?><>IL 20H8=3B>=A:8< 20AA0;0< 2 @07=KE G0ABOE <8@0, >=8 2=5A;8 A2>9 ACI5AB25==K9 2:;04 2 0<5@8:0=A:CN ?>154C 2 E>;>4=>9 2>9=5. 8=0<87< @0728B8O AB@0= .3>->AB>G=>9 788 H8@>:> @0AE20;820;AO :0: ;CGH55 4>:070B5;LAB2> ?@58<CI5AB20 A2>1>4=>3> @K=:0 =04 ?@>B5:F8>=87<><. 5:>B>@K5 M:>=><8ABK =0G0;8 C25@OBL, GB> 2@5<O 0<5@8:0=A:>9 3535<>=88 1;878BAO : :>=FC, 8 =0 A<5=C 59, ?>4 D;03>< AB@0=K 2>AE>4OI53> A>;=F0, 2AB05B M?>E0 0780BA:>3> AC?5@:0?8B0;87<0.  B>65 2@5<O C>;;-AB@8BA:85 10@>=K D8=0=A>2>3> B@5AB0 B>;L:> ?>A<5820;8AL 2 @C:02. =8-B> ;CGH5 4@C38E 7=0;8, :0:CN @>;L 83@05B 10=:>2A:0O A8AB5<0 2 CA;>28OE 3;>10;L=>9 M:>=><8:8, 8 :B> 45@68B @C:C =0 :=>?:5 <8@>2>3> D8=0=A>2>3> 42830B5;O. >A;5 @0720;0 !!!  35>?>;8B8G5A:0O A8BC0F8O 2 <8@5 1>;LH5 =5 B@51>20;0 >B 0H8=3B>=0 701>BK > AB018;L=>AB8 MB>9 G0AB8 <8@0, 8 0<5@8:0=FK ?5@5AB0;8 F0F:0BLAO A 0780BA:8<8 "B83@0<8". "5?5@L "8E>>:50=A:89 @538>= =0G0; @0AA<0B@820BLAO <5@8:>9, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L, :0: M:>=><8G5A:89 :>=:C@5=B, 0 =5 :0: 2>5==K9 A>N7=8:. #>;;-AB@8BA:85 2>@>B8;K >AB>@>6=> =0G0;8 @07@010BK20BL ?;0=K M:>=><8G5A:>9 45AB018;870F88 @538>=0, 2K:0G:8 >BBC40 7=0G8B5;L=>9 G0AB8 :0?8B0;0 8 27OB8O ?>4 A2>9 ?>;=K9 :>=B@>;L 1>30B>3> @K=>: .3>->AB>G=>9 788. <5@8:0=A:89 70<KA5; >1;53G0;AO B5< >1AB>OB5;LAB2><, GB> =0A:>@> ?>AB@>5==K5 =51>A:@51K M:>=><8G5A:>3> GC40 788 3>@4> 1;5AB5;8 75@:0;L=K<8 >:=0<8 B>;L:> A=0@C68, 0 8E 2=CB@5==OO :>=AB@C:F8O >:070;0AL =0 ?>25@:C A>2A5< =5 B0:>9 C6 ?@>G=>9. !0<>9 A;01>9 AB>@>=>9, B0: A:070BL, 0E8;;5A>2>9 ?OB>9 0780BA:>3> :0?8B0;87<0 >:070;0AL 10=:>20O A8AB5<0. >A:>;L:C 2 ?@02>2>< >B=>H5=88 10=:8 2 1>;LH8=AB25 0780BA:8E AB@0= 1K;8 ?;>E> @53C;8@>20=K, ?5@54 D8=0=A>2K<8 <>H5==8:0<8 >B:@K20;8AL ?@5:@0A=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 4;O @07=>3> @>40 >1<0=0 8 7;>C?>B@51;5=89. 5 C?CAB8;8 A2>53> A;CG0O 8 =LN-9>@:A:85 10=:8@K, ?>@O4>G=> =03@52H85 @C:8 =0 E0>B8G5A:>< 0780BA:>< @K=:5. #45;OO I54@K5 709<K ?@028B5;LAB20< 8 :><<5@G5A:8< 10=:0< @538>=0, 0<5@8:0=A:85 D8=0=A8ABK ?>;CG0;8 2KA>:CN ?@81K;L =0 A2>8 :@548BK, B0: :0: ?@>F5=B=0O AB02:0 2 MB>< @538>=5 1K;0 8 >AB05BAO 7=0G8B5;L=> 2KH5, G5< 2 @0728BKE AB@0=0E 0?040. >A:>;L:C <5AB=K5 10=:8, :0: ?@028;>, >1O7K20;8AL 2K?;0G820BL 4>;3 2 0<5@8:0=A:8E 4>;;0@0E, B> 70?04=K5 8=25AB>@K <>3;8 =5 >?0A0BLAO 70 F5;>AB=>ABL A2>53> :0?8B0;0. 0>1>@>B, D8=0=A>2K9 :@878A 8 >15AF5=820=85 =0F8>=0;L=KE 20;NB 2 AB@0=0E .3>->AB>G=>9 788 ?>72>;8;8 1>;LH8< 70?04=K< 10=:8@0<, 8 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L 0<5@8:0=A:8<, A:C?8BL 70 15AF5=>: 0:F88 704>;602H8E <5AB=KE :><<5@G5A:8E 10=:>2.  B><C 65 20;NB0 1>;LH8=AB20 :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:8E AB@0= 788 "?@82O70=0" : 0<5@8:0=A:><C 4>;;0@C, GB> 45;05B 55 ;53:> CO728<>9 4;O <0=8?C;OF89 872=5. @8 2A5< 1>30BAB25 8 @07=>>1@0788 A?5:C;O=BA:8E ?@85<>2, : :>B>@K< ?@81530NB 0=3;>-0<5@8:0=A:85 D8=0=A>2K5 6C;8:8 2 A2>59 :><<5@G5A:>9 <564C=0@>4=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, ACBL 2A5E 8E <0E8=0F89 4>2>;L=>-B0:8 ?@>AB0. ;02=K< @KG03>< 2K:0G820=8O ?@81K;8 87 @072820NI8EAO AB@0=, :>B>@K< =587<5==> ?>;L7CNBAO 70?04=K5 10=:8@K, O2;O5BAO F5;5=0?@02;5==0O F8@:C;OF8O 1>;LH>9 <0AAK 8=25AB8F8>==>3> :0?8B0;0. ;O >1@07=>AB8 MB>B ?@>F5AA <>6=> =0720BL MDD5:B>< H>:>2>9 D8=0=A>2>9 B5@0?88. !=0G0;0 2 A>25@H5==> 74>@>2K9 D8=0=A>2>-M:>=><8G5A:89 >@30=87< >?@545;5==>9 AB@0=K 2?@KA:8205BAO 1>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> 703@0=8G=>3> 8=25AB8F8>==>3> :0?8B0;0.  AB@0=5 =0G8=05BAO 8A:CAAB25==> A>740==K9 :@548B=>9 3;N:>7>9 ?>4J5< 45;>2>9 0:B82=>AB8, :>B>@K9, :0: <03=8B, =0G8=05B ?@8BO3820BL 2A5 =>2KE 8 =>2KE 8=>AB@0==KE 8=25AB>@>2. ><<5@G5A:85 10=:8 AB@0=K ?>;CG0NB ?>GB8 1573@0=8G=K5 AC<<K ;53:>3> :@548B0 8 2>2AN ?CA:0NB 53> ?> F5?>G:5 ?@54>AB02;5=8O 709<>2. > ?>@K 4> 2@5<5=8 45;0 2 AB@0=5 >1AB>OB 70<5G0B5;L=>. =>AB@0==K5 8=25AB>@K 8 :><<5@G5A:85 10=:8 ?>;CG0NB 68@=K5 ?@>F5=BK =0 A2>8 :@548BK, 45;>2K5 ;N48 @0AH8@ONB ?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL, 8 4065 @O4>2K5 3@0640=5 G0AB> 8<5NB @01>BC. ?B8<8AB8G5A:8 1C@;8B 8 @>:>G5B 45;>20O 687=L. "5< 2@5<5=5< 70?04=K5 D8=0=A8ABK, ?@5:@0A=> ?>=8<0O, GB> >18;L=0O ?5=0 =0 2718B>< 8E :@548B0<8 D8=0=A>2>< :>:B59;5 25G=> AB>OBL =5 1C45B, =5 4>6840OAL, :>340 =0ABC?8B =5>1@0B8<K9 ?@>F5AA >A04:8 2>74CH=KE ?C7K@L:>2, =0G8=0NB B09:>< >B:0G820BL A2>9 :0?8B0; 87 AB@0=K. #B5G:0 1>;LH>3> :0?8B0;0 =5 <>65B 4;8B5;L=>5 2@5<O >AB020BLAO =570<5G5==>9 >AB0;L=K<8 CG0AB=8:0<8 MB>9 83@K. A:>@5, :0: >157C<52H55 AB04> 187>=>2, A<5B0O 2A5 =0 A2>5< ?CB8 8 :0;5G0 4@C3 4@C30, 87 AB@0=K =0CB5: ?CA:05BAO >AB0;L=0O B>;?0 1>;LH8E 8 ?@>G8E 8=>AB@0==KE 8=25AB>@>2. =570?=> ;8H5==K9 :@548B=>9 :0?5;L=8FK 8 @07CG82H89AO A0<>AB>OB5;L=> DC=:F8>=8@>20BL M:>=><8G5A:89 >@30=87< AB@0=K ?>?0405B 2 <><5=B0;L=K9 D8=0=A>2K9 H>:, :>B>@K9 A>?@>2>6405BAO >15AF5=820=85< =0F8>=0;L=>9 20;NBK, 8=D;OF859, <0AA>2K<8 10=:@>BAB20<8 8 =587156=K< ?>2KH5=85< F5= =0 B>20@K. !?5F8D8:>9 =K=5H=53>, A0<>3> 7=0G8B5;L=>3> A> 2@5<5= 1>;LH>9 45?@5AA88 30-E 3>4>2, D8=0=A>2>3> :@878A0 O2;O5BAO 53> 3;>10;L=K9 E0@0:B5@. LN-9>@:A:85 4>:B>@0-A048ABK AC<5;8 2K720BL D8=0=A>2>5 H>:>2>5 A>AB>O=85 =5 2 >B45;L=>9 AB@0=5, => ?>GB8 >4=>2@5<5==> 2> 2A5< <8@5. * * * ?5@0F8O ?> 45AB018;870F88 0780BA:>9 D8=0=A>2>9 A8AB5<K =0G0;0AL 2 8N;5 1997 3>40, :>340 "20;NB=K9 F0@L" 6>@46 !>@>A 8 53> A?>4@CG=K5, 20;NB=K5 A?5:C;O=BK LN->@:0 =0G0;8 <0AA>2> ?@>4020BL B08;0=4A:89 10D. 0: <K 2848<, 4;O =0G0;0 1K;0 2K1@0=0 >4=0 87 A0<KE A;01KE 20;NB @538>=0. 5A:>;L:> 4=59 MB0 <0;5=L:0O AB@0=0 A @074CB>9 M:>=><8:>9 8 >3@0=8G5==K<8 20;NB=K<8 @575@20<8 ?KB0;0AL 157CA?5H=> AB018;878@>20BL A2>N D8=0=A>2CN A8AB5<C. 5@>2=0O AE20B:0 D8=0=A>2KE 02840 8 >;80D0 1K;0 :>@>B:>9 8 ?@54A:07C5<>9. '5@57 =5A:>;L:> 4=59 "08;0=4C ?@8H;>AL 7=0G8B5;L=> 4520;L28@>20BL A2>9 ?>B@5?0==K9 10D. -B> 1K;> B>;L:> ?@5;N4859 ;51548=>9 ?5A=8 0780BA:>3> GC40. !:>@> ?>4>1=0O CG0ABL ?>AB83;0 8 4@C385 20;NBK 1;87;560I8E AB@0=. LN-9>@:A:85 20;NB=K5 A?5:C;O=BK =5 ?><5H:0;8, GB>1K =5 ?>4AB@8GL ?5@KH:8 2KA>:> ;5B0NI8< <0;0789A:><C @8=68BC, D8;8??8=A:><C ?5A>, 8=4>=5789A:><C @C?8N 8 A8=30?C@A:><C 4>;;0@C.  :>=5G=>< 8B>35, AC4L10-7;>459:0 =5 <8=C;0 A2>59 3>@L:>9 G0H59 "=0456=K9" N6=>-:>@59A:89 2>=, "=57K1;5<CN" O?>=A:CN 95=C 8 "3>@4K9" 3>=:>=3A:89 4>;;0@.  A@54=5<, AB>8<>ABL MB8E 20;NB 70 =5A:>;L:> 4=59 A=878;0AL =0 40%. #GCO2 ?@81;865=85 D8=0=A>2>9 1C@8, =5@2=K5 8=25AB>@K =0G0;8 <0AA>2> ?@>4020BL >1;830F88 8 0:F88 <5AB=KE 18@6. >H;0 F5?=0O @50:F8O D8=0=A>2>3> 157C<8O. 0=:8 ?>B5@?52H8E D8=0=A>2>5 154AB285 AB@0= =5 <>3;8 @0AAG8B0BLAO A 8=>AB@0==K<8 2:;04G8:0<8, ?>A:>;L:C B5 B@51>20;8 2>72@0B0 709<>2 2 4>;;0@0E, 0 F5=0 0<5@8:0=A:>3> 4>;;0@0 B5?5@L 2>7@>A;0 2 420 @070 ?> A@02=5=8N A <5AB=>9 20;NB>9.  B5G5=85 4=O <=>385 :@C?=K5 10=:8 788 "?>H;8 =0 4=>" 1CHCNI59 M:>=><8G5A:>9 AB8E88. ">;L:> 2 >4=>9 =4>=5788 @07>@8;8AL 16 10=:>2 <564C=0@>4=>3> AB0BCA0. >A:>;L:C AB>8<>ABL =542868<>AB8, :>B>@0O 2 MB8E AB@0=0E C65 <=>3> ;5B ?>4@O4 28B0;0 2 70>1;0G=KE 2KA>B0E, @57:> C?0;0, B> B>@3>2;O 2 MB>9 AD5@5 ?@8H;0 : ?>;=>9 >AB0=>2:5. >A;54CNI85 A>1KB8O @072>@0G820;8AL A>3;0A=> 704C<0==><C 2 =LN-9>@:A:>< "F5=B@5" AF5=0@8N. 5AG0AB=K5 65@B2K 20;NB=KE A?5:C;O=B>2 1@>A8;8AL 2 564C=0@>4=K9 0;NB=K9 $>=4, B> 5ABL : B5< A0<8< 20;NB=K< A?5:C;O=B0<, C<>;OO 8E > ?><>I8 ?> AB018;870F88 =0F8>=0;L=KE 20;NB. * * * A>15==>5 <5AB> 2 40;5:> 84CI8E ?;0=0E C>;;-AB@8B-A:8E 45;LF>2 ?> :>=A>;840F88 A2>53> M:>=><8G5A:>3> 3>A?>4AB20 2 788 >B2>48BAO ?@8B082H59AO 2 @09A:>< C3>;:C "8E>3> >:50=0 :@0A>G=>9 =4>=5788. -B0 <=>3>>AB@>2=0O 8 >1H8@=0O AB@0=0 A 425AB8<8;;8>==K< B@C4>;N182K< =0A5;5=85< ?@82;5:05B =5=0AKB=K5 0??5B8BK 0<5@8:0=A:>3> :0?8B0;0 A2>8< >3@><=K< @K=:>< A1KB0, 1>30BK<8 ?@8@>4=K<8 @5AC@A0<8 8 45H52>9 (2 B> 65 2@5<O 2KA>:>>1@07>20==>9) @01>G59 A8;>9.  1>;LH><C @074@065=8N =5B5@?5;82>3> 0H8=3B>=0, ?@02OI0O :;8:0 =4>=5788 >:070;0AL 4>2>;L=>-B0:8 :@5?:8< >@5H:>< 8 A>2A5< =5 A>18@0;0AL 157 A>?@>B82;5=8O >B@5GLAO >B A2>59 01A>;NB=>9 M:>=><8G5A:>9 8 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 2;0AB8. !F5<5=B8@>20==0O A5<59=K<8 A2O7O<8 8 ?>3>;>2=>9 :>@@C?F859 2 >48= <>=>;8B=K9 1;>: 2>:@C3 B@84F0B8;5B=59 48:B0BC@K 35=5@0;0 !CE0@B> 8 ?CAB82H0O 3;C1>:85 :>@=8 2> 2A5 AD5@K M:>=><8G5A:>-D8=0=A>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 AB@0=K, 8=4>=5789A:0O M;8B0 >:070;0AL A5@L57=K< ?@>B82=8:>< 4;O 7048@8ABKE :>21>52 87 $. >;C2>5==K9 @568< !CE0@B>, :>B>@K9 2A5340 25@>9 8 ?@024>9 A;C68; ?>;8B8G5A:8< 8=B5@5A0< 0H8=3B>=0, B5?5@L A 4CH52=>9 1>;LN 8 3>@5GLN 4;O A51O >1=0@C68;, GB> 2 ?;0=0E =LN-9>@:A:8E AB@>8B5;59 A5<8@=>9 D8=0=A>2>9 8<?5@88 5<C >B2>48BAO 1>;55 A:@><=0O @>;L, G5< B0, =0 :>B>@CN >= "70A;C65=>" @0AAG8BK20;. 04<5==K9 #>;;-AB@8B =542C7=0G=> B@51>20; >A=>20B5;L=>3> ?5@545;0 M:>=><8G5A:>3> ?8@>30 =4>=5788. -B> B@51>20=85 =5 <>3;> =5 70B@>=CBL GC2AB28B5;L=>3>, A>1AB25==8G5A:>3> =5@20 8=4>=5789A:>3> ?@02OI53> :;0AA0, :>B>@><C A>2A5< =5 E>B5;>AL @0AAB020BLAO 4065 A G0ABLN A2>59 "70:>==>9" 2>BG8=K. 'B> >A>15==> =5?@8OB=> >15A?>:>8;> ?@02OICN M;8BC =4>=5788, B0: MB> @07=C740==0O ?@>?030=40 70?04=KE A@54AB2 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88, =0?@02;5==0O ?@>B82 8E ?>;8B8G5A:>3> @568<0. !>45@60=85 8 D>@<0 0?04=>9 :@8B8:8 =542C7=0G=> C:07K20;0 =0 B>, GB> ?> A2>5=@02=><C AF5=0@8N AB@>8B5;59 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0 <5AB> 4;O 4@OE;5NI53> @568<0 !CE0@B> ?@54?>;030;0AL 345-B> =0 A20;:5 157@07;8G=>9 8AB>@88. C6=> >B40BL 4>;6=>5 70:0;5==><C =0 A;C615 C 0<5@8:0=A:8E A?5FA;C61 AB0@><C 35=5@0;C, :>B>@K9 2<5AB> B>3>, GB>1K ?>A;CH=> >B?@028BLAO ?@>540BL A2>N ?5=A8N 2 >4=>9 87 A2>8E @>A:>H=KE @57845=F89, @5H8; ?@8=OBL 2K7>2 $ 8 ?>?@>1>20; 1K;> 70I8I0BLAO. >=8<0O, GB> 2 >B:@KBCN >B25@3=CBL B@51>20=8O =LN-9>@:A:8E 10=:8@>2 1K;> 1K 3;C?> 8 A<5H=>, !CE0@B> @5H8; ?>?@>1>20BL A>?@>B82;OBLAO ?> <564C=0@>4=K< ?@028;0< D8=0=A>2>9 83@K.  A2>59 >BG0O==>9 AE20B:5 A BO65;>25A=K< $ !CE0@B> =5>6840==> =0H5; =5B8?8G=>3> A>N7=8:0 2 ;8F5 :>;>@8AB8G5A:>9 ;8G=>AB8 LN-9>@:A:>3> M:>=><8AB0 !B820 %0=:5. !@548 <=>3>G8A;5==KE 45;>2KE C2;5G5=89 2 =5>1JOB=>9 >1;0AB8 20;NB=KE A?5:C;OF89 <8AB5@0 %0=:5 B0:65 O2;O5BAO ?>AB 28F5-48@5:B>@0 >4=>3> 87 D8;80;>2 8=25AB8F8>==>9 D8@<K $@8415@3 5@:0=B09; @C??, :>B>@0O ?>@O4>G=> @071>30B5;0 =0 0780BA:>< D8=0=A>2>< :@878A5 1997-1998 3>4>2. 5@54 A0<8< =0G0;>< D8=0=A>2>3> :@878A0 MB0 D8@<0 C<C4@8;0AL A2>52@5<5==> ?@>40BL A2>8 70?0AK 2 B> 2@5<O 5I5 ?>;=>F5==>9 20;NBK .6=>-780BA:8E AB@0=. #65 87 MB>3> 548=AB25==>3> D0:B0 <>6=> 1K;> A45;0BL 2K2>4, GB> 4;O !B820 %0=:5 =5 4>;6=> 1K;> 1KBL =8:0:8E A5:@5B>2 2 A;>6=KE <5E0=87<0E 20;NB=KE A?5:C;OF89. >340 2 >B<5AB:C 70 53> 87<5=C 70?04=K5 3075BK >B:@K;8 ?@>B82 =53> :><?0=8N :;525BK 8 8=A8=C0F89, =5@0A:0O2H89AO @5=530B =52>7<CB8<> ?@>4>;60; CB25@640BL; "/ 7=0N, GB> O2;O5BAO ?@8G8=>9 D8=0=A>2KE :@878A>2.  O B0:65 7=0N, :0: <>6=> 8A?@028BL MB8 :@878AK". @5:@0A=> ?>=8<0O, GB> 3;02=CN >?0A=>ABL 4;O D8=0=A>2>9 AB018;L=>AB8 ?@54AB02;ONB 25745ACI85, ?>445@68205<K5 2A59 <>ILN 0<5@8:0=A:8E 10=:>2 20;NB=K5 A?5:C;O=BK, >= ?@54;>68;, 703=0==><C 2 C3>; 8=4>=5789A:><C ?@028B5;LAB2C A>740BL 0;NB=CN ><8AA8N, :>B>@0O <>3;0 1K ?5@5;>68BL =0 A51O =5:>B>@K5 206=K5 DC=:F88 &5=B@0;L=>3> 10=:0. 0: MDD5:B82=>5 ?@>B82>459AB285 20;NB=K< A?5:C;OF8O< 8 459AB25==K9 @53C;OB>@ 42865=8O 1>;LH>3> 8=>AB@0==>3> :0?8B0;0 G5@57 M;5:B@>==K5 3@0=8FK AB@0=K 0;NB=0O ><8AA8O >=:>=30 CA?5H=> 1K;0 8A?KB0=0 =5402=8< D8=0=A>2K< :@878A>< 2 788. ;O ?@>AB>BK ?@8<5@0 <>6=> A:070BL, GB> 0;NB=0O ><8AA8O CAB@>5=0 ?> ?@8=F8?C H;N7>2, @53C;8@CNI8E C@>25=L 2>4K 2 @5:5. 0: B>;L:> 2 AB@0=C =0G8=05B ?>ABC?0BL 1>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> 0<5@8:0=A:8E 4>;;0@>2, ><8AA8O =570<54;8B5;L=> @0A?>@O605BAO 2K?CAB8BL 2 >1@0I5=85 A>>B25BAB2CNI55 :>;8G5AB2> 4><0H=8E 45=53 A> AB@>3> CAB0=>2;5==K< :C@A>< >1<5=0. >A:>;L:C B5?5@L 2 >1@0I5=88 8<55BAO 871KB>: 4><0H=8E 45=53, B> ?> 2A5< ?@028;0< <>=5B0@=>9 =0C:8 10=:>2A:0O ?@>F5=B=0O AB02:0 4>;6=0 02B><0B8G5A:8 A=878BLAO.  MB8E CA;>28OE, =0B:=C2H8AL =0 <875@=K9 ?05: =87:>3> 10=:>2A:>3> ?@>F5=B0 8 "2@54=>5" >18;85 <5AB=>9 20;NBK, =5720=K9 0<5@8:0=A:89 4>;;0@ =0G8=05B ?>A?5H=> @5B8@>20BLAO 87 =53>AB5?@88<=>9 AB@0=K.  25G=>9 ?>3>=5 70 40@<>2I8=>9 =5B5@?5;82K5 A?5:C;O=BK 20;NB>9, :0: ?@>6>@;82K5, H=K@ONI85 >B @8D0 : @8DC 0:C;K, =5 ?>;CG82 >68405<>3> 68@=>3> ?@>F5=B0 2 >4=>9 AB@0=5, =570<54;8B5;L=> C=>AOBAO 2 4@C385 75<;8. 0: B>;L:> >15A:C@065==K9 4>;;0@ =0G8=05B C?;K20BL 87 AB@0=K. 0;NB=0O ><8AA8O @0A?>@O605BAO A>:@0B8BL :>;8G5AB2> =0E>4OI8EAO 2 >1@0I5=88 =0F8>=0;L=KE 45=53, 8 ?>A065==K5 =0 3>;>4=K9 ?05: :><<5@G5A:85 10=:8 A@07C 65 ?>2KH0NB ?@>F5=B=CN AB02:C.  MB8E CA;>28OE B5@?OB C1KB:8 =5 B>;L:> <564C=0@>4=K5 A?5:C;O=BK 20;NB>9, => B0:65 <5AB=K5 10=:8. C4CG8 ;8H5==K<8 I54@KE 709<>2 &5=B@0;L=>3> 10=:0, >=8 ?>=52>;5 2K=C645=K A=878BL :>;8G5AB2> :@548B>2, C45;O5<KE A2>8< :;85=B0<, 8 B5< A0<8< >ABC48BL A?5:C;OB82=K9 068>B06 =0 >B5G5AB25==KE 18@60E. ;03>40@O B0:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 0;NB=>9 ><8AA88 <>=5B0@=0O ?>;8B8:0 AB@0=K A1;8605BAO A @50;L=K<8 ?>B@51=>ABO<8 55 M:>=><8:8, 0 =5 28B05B 2 <CB=KE >1;0:0E 18@652KE A?5:C;OF89. "@8 ?><>I8 A>740==>9 <=>9 0;NB=>9 ><8AA88 20H8 D8=0=A>2K5 ?@>1;5<K 8AG57=CB G5@57 420 <5AOF0, :0: 4C@=>9 A>=", - C25@O; %0=:5 A2>8E ?>25A5;52H8E 8=4>=5789A:8E A;CH0B5;59. 1865==K9 G5@=>9 =51;03>40@=>ABLN 20H8=3B>=A:8E E>7O52 8 >1=04565==K9 ?@8OB=K<8, E>BO 8 <0;>?>=OB=K<8 4;O ?@5AB0@5;>3> A;C60:8 @0AAC645=8O<8 > B5E=8G5A:8E <5E0=87<0E D8=0=A>2KE <0=8?C;OF89, !CE0@B> A @04>ABLN AE20B8;AO 70 845N A>740=8O ><8AA88. >=OB=>, GB> B0:>5 "A0<>C?@02AB2>" C?@O<>3> 8=4>=5789A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20 =5 <>3;> =5 2>7<CB8BL D5;L4-D515;52A:CN ?>@>4C <>;>4G8:>2 87 $. 8 2 :>5< A;CG05 >=8 =5 <>3;8 4>?CAB8BL, GB>1K <>=5B0@=CN ?>;8B8:C =4>=5788 >ACI5AB2;O; :B>-;81> 8=>9, :@><5 8E ?@>25@5==>3> AB02;5==8:0, &5=B@0;L=>3> 10=:0, :>B>@K9 1K ?>A;CH=> 2K?>;=O; 48@5:B82K 0H8=3B>=0 8 ?>AB>O==> C45@6820; 2KA>:89 10=:>2A:89 ?@>F5=B. !2>52>;L=8G0NI8< 345-B> =0 :@0N 75<;8 <0;5=L:8< 48:B0B>@>< 24@C3 708=B5@5A>20;8AL B0:85 <>3CI5AB25==K5 ;8G=>AB8, :0: ?@57845=B !( 8; ;8=B>=, 35@<0=A:89 :0=F;5@ 5;L<CB >;L 8 ?@5<L5@-<8=8AB@ =3;88 ">=8 ;M@, :>B>@K5 70:;8=0;8 C?@O<>3> 35=5@0;0 ">?><=8BLAO" 8 ?>9B8 =0 ">1>N4=> 2K3>4=K9" :><?@><8AA A $.  :>=F5 :>=F>2, AB>@3>202 :>5-:0:85 CABC?:8 4;O A2>8E 45B59 8 ;N18<KE D02>@8B>2, 87<CG5==K9 35=5@0; ?>A;54>20; 7>2C @07C<0, 0 =5 A5@4F0, >B:070;AO >B 8458 A>740=8O 0;NB=>9 ><8AA88 8 ?>40; 2 >BAB02:C. "0: 15AA;02=> 70:>=G8;0AL 5I5 >4=0, E>BO 8 =5A<5;0O ?>?KB:0 A>?@>B82;5=8O 2>;5 <>3CI5AB25==>3> $ 8 53> 2A5A8;L=KE C>;;-AB@8B-A:8E E>7O52. A:CAAB25==> A>7402 D8=0=A>2K9 :@878A 2 788 8 ?>@O4>G=> =0682H8AL =0 4520;L20F88 <5AB=KE 20;NB, =LN-9>@:A:85 6C;8:8 70H;8 =0 =>2K9 :@C3 AB@86:8 0780BA:8E :C?>=>2. "5?5@L ?@8 ?>A@54=8G5AB25 $ >=8 <>3;8 5I5 2K3>4=55 70=8<0BL 45=L38 ?>B5@?52H8< C1KB:8 AB@0=0<, B@51CO =0 MB>B @07 3>@074> 1>;55 2KA>:>3> ?@>F5=B0 =0 A2>8 :@548BK. >, :0: 8725AB=>, =5 >4=8< ?@>F5=B>< 682 $. 0 MB>B @07, :@><5 2KA>:8E 3>4>2KE, @C:>2>4AB2> $ B@51>20;> 4;O A51O ?@020 2<5H820BLAO 2> 2A5 0A?5:BK D8=0=A>2>-M:>=><8G5A:>9 8 4065 A>F80;L=>9 ?>;8B8:8 AB@0=-4>;6=8:>2. "5?5@L $ :0B53>@8G5A:8 =0AB0820; =0 B><, GB>1K ?@028B5;LAB20 0780BA:8E AB@0= =5<54;5==> ?@5:@0B8;8 C45;OBL AC1A8488 =0F8>=0;L=K< ?@54?@8OB8O<, 87<5=8;8 70:>=K > 10=:@>BAB25, ?@>25;8 ?@54?8A0==K5 8< @C:>2>4AB2>< $ 10=:>2A:85 @5D>@<K, >B<5=8;8 >3@0=8G5=8O =0 @07<5@K 8=>AB@0==>9 A>1AB25==>AB8, A=878;8 B>@3>2K5 ?>H;8=K =0 22>78<CN 8 2K2>78<CN ?@>4C:F8N, @07@5H8;8 157=0;>3>2>5 42865=85 :0?8B0;0 8, A0<>5 3;02=>5, GB>1K =5C:>A=8B5;L=> ?>445@6820;8 2KA>:89 10=:>2A:89 ?@>F5=B. 'B>1K :0:-B> >1>A=>20BL A2>5 =03;>5 2<5H0B5;LAB2> 2> 2=CB@5==85 45;0 AC25@5==KE AB@0=, 0<5@8:0=A:85 M:>=><8G5A:85 M:A?5@BK 87 $ CB25@640;8, GB> 3;02=K<8 ?@8G8=0<8 D8=0=A>2>3> :@878A0 2 788 1K; =54>AB0B>G=K9 :>=B@>;L 70 45OB5;L=>ABLN 10=:>2, 65AB:89 ?@>B5:F8>=87< =0 2=CB@5==5< @K=:5, :>@@C?F8O 8 3>;>2>BO?AB2> 2;0AB59, 0 B0:65 2KA>:85 A>F80;L=K5 @0AE>4K. =0O =5G8AB>?;>B=K9 E0@0:B5@ 8 ABO60B5;LA:CN 48=0<8:C A>2@5<5==>3> :0?8B0;87<0, <>6=> 1K 1K;> 4065 A>3;0A8BAO A =5:>B>@K<8 2K2>40<8 A?5F80;8AB>2 A $. > 2 B> 65 2@5<O :064K9 =5?@5427OBK9 >1>7@520B5;L 2?@025 A?@>A8BL, ?>G5<C, 5A;8 MB>B ?>@>: A2>9AB25= 2A5< AB@0=0< 788, D8=0=A>2K9 :@878A B>340 ?@>:0B8;AO ?> :>=B8=5=BC =5 25745 >48=0:>2>? A;8 1K <K ?>?KB0;8AL A>740BL >1ICN :0@B8=C 0780BA:>3> :@878A0 8 =09B8 745AL :0:CN-B> 70-:>=><5@=>ABL 8;8 D>@<C;C, B> =587156=> ?@8H;8 1K : >G5284=><C 2K2>4C, GB> @07@CH8B5;L=0O A8;0 :@878A0 A>>B25BAB2C5B AB5?5=8 7028A8<>AB8 @07=KE AB@0= >B 0<5@8:0=A:>3> 2;8O=8O. =0G8B5;L=> EC65 ?@8H;>AL B5< AB@0=0<, 345 ?@>B5:F8>=87< 1K; A;0155, 345 0<5@8:0=A:>5 2;8O=85 1K;> A8;L=55 8 345 D8=0=A>2K5 >@30=870F88 87402=0 ?@845@6820;8AL @53C;OF88 $. 0?@8<5@, C@030= D8=0=A>2>3> :@878A0 ?>GB8 A>2A5< =5 70B@>=C; 8B09 8 =48N. B=>A8B5;L=> <0;> ?>AB@040; ?@8A>548=5==K9 =5402=> : 8B0N >=:>=3. /?>=8O, E>BO 8 ?>B5@O;0 2 AC<0B>E5 :@878A0 45AOB:8 <8;;80@4>2 4>;;0@>2, 4>AB0B>G=> 1>30B0 GB>1K =5 >1@0I0BLAO 70 ?><>ILN 2 $. 128=OO =5:><?5B5=B=K5 ?@028B5;LAB20 8 =540;L=>284=KE M:>=><8AB>2 2 A>740=88 :@878A=>9 A8BC0F88 2 @O45 0780BA:8E AB@0=, 2KA>:><5@=K5 CG8B5;O 87 $ C4>1=> 701K20NB, GB> 2 A2>5< ?>A;54=5< >BG5B5 70 1997 3>4 >=8 A0<8 @0AE20;820;8 4> =515A 2KA>:CN MDD5:B82=>ABL M:>=><8:8 AB@0= .3>->AB>G=>9 788, ?@8 MB>< >A>15==> 2K45;OO "8A:;NG8B5;L=K5" CA?5E8 "08;0=40 8 .6=>9 >@58. "0:, 2 >:BO1@5 1997 3>40 2 =5A?>:>9=CN, C65 >ICI0NICN ?5@2K5 ?>@K2K =042830NI59AO D8=0=A>2>9 1C@8 .6=CN >@5N ?@81K; 48@5:B>@ "8E>>:50=A:>3> @538>=0 $ %C15@B 59AA, :>B>@K9 45;>28B> ?@8=O;AO ?>CG0BL 8 CA?>:0820BL ?5@5?C30==CN 0C48B>@8N :>@59A:8E 10=:8@>2. 57 A;540 A><=5=8O 2 ?@02>B5 A2>8E C<>70:;NG5=89 >= 7025@O; :>@59A:8E :>;;53, GB> M:>=><8G5A:0O A8BC0F8O 2 @538>=5 =0E>48BAO 2 157C?@5G=>9 D>@<5, 8 8< =5G53> ?@8A;CH820BLAO : 157>B25BAB25==K< 2>?;O< 4C@0:>2 8 ?0=8:5@>2. H0@0H5==K5 :>@59A:85 10=:8@K, :>B>@K5 >6840;8 >B 59AA0 45;L=KE A>25B>2, :0: C15@5GL A2>8 45=L38 ?5@54 ?@81;860NI59AO D8=0=A>2>9 AB8E859, A>2A5< @0AB5@O;8AL, =5 7=0O, :><C >=8 4>;6=K 25@8BL. ! >4=>9 AB>@>=K, BO65;> 1K;> 83=>@8@>20BL =5C<>;8<CN 459AB28B5;L=>ABL, :>B>@0O 15760;>AB=> A2845-B5;LAB2>20;0, GB> AB5=K D8=0=A>2>3> 740=8O AB@0=K =0G0;8 ?>B@OA0BLAO >B ?5@2KE H:20;L=KE ?>@K2>2 M:>=><8G5A:>3> :@878A0. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, @0AAC48B5;L=K9 AB8;L 8 CA?>:0820NI89 B>= @07<5@5==>9 @5G8 <8AB5@0 59AA0 =5 >AB02;O;8 8 A;540 A><=5=8O 2 B><, GB> 2 D8=0=A>2>< :>@>;52AB25 AB@0=K 45;0 >1AB>OB A0<K< ;CGH8< >1@07><. 025@=>5, <K ?@>AB> 30;;NF8=8@C5<, @5H8;8 ?>25A5;52H85 :>@59A:85 10=:8@K, 0 :06CI89AO =0< D8=0=A>2K9 :@878A =5 GB> 8=>5, :0: :>H<0@=K9 <8@06.  1>;LH><C @07>G0@>20=8N A5C;LA:8E B>;AB>AC<>2, B0: GC4=> 459AB2CNI85 =0 8E =5@2K F5;51=K5 :0?;8 CA?>:0820NI8E A;>2 70>:50=A:>3> 7=0E0@O =5 <>3;8 87<5=8BL =5C<>;8<>9 @50;L=>9 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. '5@57 =5A:>;L:> 4=59 ?>A;5 B>@65AB25==KE ?@>2>4>2 2KA>:>3> 3>ABO :>@59A:8< 10=:8@0< =5 >AB0;>AL =8:0:>3> 8=>3> 70=OB8O, :0: @073@510BL 3@C4K @0720;8= =5:>340 25;8G5AB25==>3> 8 =04<5==>3> D8=0=A>2>3> 740=8O 8E AB@0=K. 0;> 2 G5< >BAB020;8 >B A2>8E ;8F5<5@=KE :>;;53 87 $ 8 M:>=><8G5A:85 M:A?5@BK 87 , :>B>@K5 2 1993 3>4C >?C1;8:>20;8 :=83C ?>4 3@><:8< =0720=85< "780BA:>5 GC4>", 2 :>B>@>9 >=8 2AOG5A:8 2>AE20;O;8 45;>2K5 :0G5AB20 0780B>2 8 ?@54A:07K20;8 8< <8@>2CN M:>=><8G5A:CN 3535<>=8N C65 2 =0G0;5 XXI 25:0. 5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> 4;O 1>;LH8=AB20 74@02><KA;OI8E >1>7@520B5;59 =5A>AB>OB5;L=>ABL 8 4065 2@54=>ABL M:>=><8G5A:>3> ";5G5=8O", ?@8<5=O5<>3> "4>:B>@0<8" 87 0H8=3B>=0 2 AB@0=0E 788, C65 402=> AB0;0 >G5284=>9, $ 8 53> E>7O520 87 $545@0;L=>3> 575@20 ?@>4>;60;8 =0AB0820BL =0 =5C:>A=8B5;L=>< ?@>4>;65=88 CAB0=>2;5==>3> :C@A0 ";5G5=8O". 065 A25B8;> 0<5@8:0=A:>3> M:>=><8G5A:>3> ;815@0;87<0 8 1K2H89 A>25B=8: @>AA89A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20 65D@8 !0:A, :>B>@K9 2 A2>5 2@5<O ;5G8; @>AA89A:8E >1K20B5;59 H>:>2>9 B5@0?859, 2K=C645= 1K; ?@87=0BL, GB> "?><>IL" $ B5@?OI8< M:>=><8G5A:>5 154AB285 AB@0=0< .3>->AB>G=>9 788 1>;LH5 8< 2@548B, G5< ?><>305B, 0 3;02=K9 M:>=><8AB  >A8D !B83;8F ?@O<> 70O28;, GB> "MB> =5 ?@56=OO ?>;8B8:0 ?>3C18;0 78N, => >B:;>=5=85 >B ?@56=59 ?>;8B8:8" ?@825;> : M:>=><8G5A:><C E0>AC.  :>=F5 :>=F>2, 4065 B0:85 ?@540==K5 4@C7LO 0H8=3B>=0, :0: .6=0O >@5O, "08;0=4 8 =4>=578O ?@8H;8 : =525A5;><C 2K2>4C, GB> =LN-9>@:A:0O <0A>=A:0O H09:0 8E ?@>AB> ">:@CB8;0", 8 GB> ?@57845=B 0;09788 0E0BE8@ 0E0<04 1K; 2A5-B0:8 A>25@H5==> ?@02, :>340 5I5 2 1997 3>4C >128=8; 0<5@8:0=A:8E A?5:C;O=B>2 20;NB>9 2 8A:CAAB25==>< A>740=88 M:>=><8G5A:>3> :@878A0 2 788. @8<5@ AB@0= 788 =03;O4=> ?>:07K205B, GB> B0: =07K205<0O M:>=><8G5A:0O 8 D8=0=A>20O ;815@0;870F8O, =02O7K205<0O 2A5<C <8@C ?>;8B8:>9 $ , $ 8 , A;C68B 8A:;NG8B5;L=> =0 ?>;L7C 0=3;>-0<5@8:0=A:>9 D8=0=A>2>9 >;830@E88. 0640O AB@0=0, :>B>@0O ?>?0405BAO =0 C4>G:C 0<5@8:0=A:8E A;04:8E >15I0=89 > 1;5ABOI8E ?5@A?5:B820E 4;O 2A5E CG0AB=8:>2 >B:@KB>3> @K=:0, @0=LH5 8;8 ?>765 ?;0B8B 2KA>:CN F5=C 70 A2>N 4>25@G82>ABL 8 =082=>ABL. 5 A;CG09=> 1>;LH5 2A5E ?>B5@?5;8 >B D8=0=A>2>3> HB>@<0 2 788 2A5 B5 65 "08;0=4, =4>=578O 8 .6=0O >@5O, AB@0=K, :>B>@K5 A >3@><=K< M=BC7807<>< ?@825BAB2>20;8 =>2>22545=8O $ 8 CA5@4=> ?><>30;8 5<C AB@>8BL >B:@KBK9 D8=0=A>2K9 @K=>: 2 A2>5< @538>=5.  B> 65 2@5<O B0:85 ?>;C70:@KBK5 8 <5=55 ;815@0;L=K5 AB@0=K @538>=0, :0: =48O 8 8B09, :>B>@K5 ?@>2>4OB ?>;8B8:C C<5@5==>3> ?@>B5:F8>=87<0, ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 1K;8 7045BK M:>=><8G5A:8< :@878A><, A28@5?AB2>202H8< =0 :>=B8=5=B5. "57 A><=5=8O, <K 1>;55 MDD5:B82=K, G5< =48O, => =0 =0A >1@CH8;8AL 2A5 154K B>;L:> ?>B><C, GB> <K >B:@K;8 =0H 20;NB=K9 @K=>: A8;0< 3;>10;870F88", - A 70?>740;>9 3>@5GLN ?@87=0; <<0@ !LO<20;;0, >48= 87 =081>;55 8725AB=KE M:>=><8AB>2 "08;0=40, :>B>@K9 4> =5402=53> 2@5<5=8 O2;O;AO 3>@OG8< ?@825@65=F5< ?@>?>254C5<>9 $ ?>;8B8:8 ">B:@KBKE 425@59". 5>3@0D8G5A:89 C7>@ 0780BA:>3> M:>=><8G5A:>3> :@878A0 1K; =0A:>;L:> ?@>AB 8 2K@078B5;5=, GB> =5 =C6=> 1K;> 8<5BL 2A5E 48?;><>2 8 720=89 <8AB5@0 !LO<20;;0, GB>1K @07>1@0BLAO, :B>, :0: 8 70G5< ?>?0; 2 53> ?03C1=K9 25@B5?. 0;> :B> 2 A53>4=OH=5< <8@5 5I5 =5 ?>=8<05B, GB> !( 15AABK4=> 8A?>;L7CNB ;>7C=38 3;>10;870F88 8 ;815@0;870F88 D8=0=A>2>-M:>=><8G5A:>3> @K=:0 4;O =59B@0;870F88 A2>8E =57040G;82KE :>=:C@5=B>2 8 15A?@5?OBAB25==>9 M:A?;C0B0F88 GC68E =0@>4>2. %>@>H> 8725AB5= B0:65 B>B D0:B, GB> 3;02=K< >@C485< 0<5@8:0=A:>3> 8<?5@80;87<0 2 >ACI5AB2;5=88 MB>9 ?>;8B8:8 O2;ONBAO 2A5 B5 65 $ 8 . #@>:8 ?>A;54=8E D8=0=A>2KE ?>B@OA5=89 2 788, >AA88 8 0B8=A:>9 <5@8:5 =5 <>3;8 >AB0BLAO 157 2=8<0=8O 8 =04;560I53> 0=0;870 @50;L=> <KA;OI8E ?>;8B8:>2 8 M:>=><8AB>2. !>?@>B82;5=85 ;815@0;870F88 <8@>2>9 B>@3>2;8 8 15A?@5?OBAB25==><C 42865=8N 45=56=>3> :0?8B0;0 1KAB@> =0@0AB05B 2> <=>38E AB@0=0E <8@0. 45AL <>6=> >AB0=>28BAO =0 ?@8<5@5 =488, :>B>@0O, =5 >1@0I0O 2=8<0=8O =0 H8?OI85 C3@>7K $,  8 0<5@8:0=A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20, @57:> ?>2KA8;0 B0@8D=K5 ?>1>@K =0 8<?>@B 8 70>AB@8;0 70:>= ?@>B82 8=>AB@0==>3> 45<?8=30. %>@>H> 7=0O E8I=8G5A:CN ?>@>4C <564C=0@>4=KE 8=25AB>@>2, 8=489A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> @5H8B5;L=> ?@8=O;>AL 70 >3@0=8G5=85 8=>AB@0==KE 8=25AB8F89 2 >B@0A;OE ;53:>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 8 ?>B@518B5;LA:8E B>20@>2. <5AB> I54@>9 =0 1KAB@CN 8 >18;L=CN =0682C ;53:>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 =54>2>;L=K< 8=>AB@0==K< 8=25AB>@0< 2 =488 :C;LBC@=> ?@54;0305BAO 2:;04K20BL 87;8H:8 8E :0?8B0;0 2 <54;5==> ?@8=>AOI55 >B40GC :0?8B0;L=>5 AB@>8B5;LAB2> 4>@>3, A>>@C65=85 M;5:B@>AB0=F89 8 <>45@=870F8N <>@A:8E ?>@B>2.  C65 >B:@KB> 1@>A0O ?@O<>9 2K7>2 A2>5:>@KAB=>9 ?>;8B8:5 $, 8=489A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2>, 2<5AB> ?@54?8AK205<>3> A=865=8O 1N465B0, 70O28;> > A2>5< B25@4>< =0<5@5=88 ?@>4>;60BL AC1A848@>20=85 :;NG52KE M:>=><8G5A:8E ?@>65:B>2 8 C25;8G8BL @0AE>4K =0 2>>@C65=85. KB0OAL 70?C30BL 8=489A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> 8 B0:8< >1@07>< 70AB028BL 53> 87<5=8BL =52K3>4=CN <564C=0@>4=K< 10=:8@0< M:>=><8G5A:CN ?>;8B8:C, A@54AB20 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 0?040 ?@8=O;8AL 1K;> >128=OBL =48N 2 03@5AA82=>9 ?>;8B8:5 ?> >B=>H5=8N : A2>8< A>A54O<, A?>A>1AB2>20=8N @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O O45@=>3> >@C68O 8 <=>38E 4@C38E 4LO2>;LA:8E 70<KA;0E. > ?@>H54H0O 42CE25:>2CN H:>;C 0=3;>A0:A>=A:>3> :>20@AB20 8 42C;8G8O, 8=489A:0O ?>;8B8G5A:0O M;8B0 >:070;0AL 4>AB>9=K< ?@>B82=8:>< A>2@5<5==KE =5>:>;>=870B>@>2. =489A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> =5 ?>1560;> ?>A;5 ?5@2>3> ?@>?030=48ABA:>3> 70;?0 70?04=>9 ?@5AAK, :0: =0 B> @0AAG8BK20;8 0H8=3B>=A:85 =02>4G8:8, => C25@5==> 8 =5C:;>==> ?@>4>;60;> A2>N =0<5G5==CN ?>;8B8:C 8 >:070;>AL ?@02K< 2 A2>8E :>=5G=KE @0AG5B0E. >?@5:8 <@0G=K< ?@54A:070=8O< D8=0=A>2KE ?@>D5AA8>=0;>2 87 $ 8 8@>2>3> 0=:0, 8=>AB@0==K9 :0?8B0; =5 B>;L:> =5 ?>1560; 87 =488, =>, 74@02> >F5=82 AB018;L=>ABL 8 E>@>H85 ?5@A?5:B82K @>AB0 8=489A:>9 M:>=><8:8, 25;8G8; A2>5 20;NB=>5 ?@8ACBAB285 2 AB@0=5.  B> 2@5<O :>340 ?>A;CH=K9 :0?@87=>9 2>;5 $ &5=B@0;L=K9 10=: =4>=5788, GB>1K C45@60BL ?@825@54;82KE 8=>AB@0==KE 8=25AB>@>2, 1K; 2K=C645= ?>4=OBL A2>N ?@>F5=B=CN AB02:C 4> 45%, 53> 8=489A:89 ?@>B03>=8AB ?@54;0305B B5< A0<8< 8=25AB>@0< B>;L:> A:@><=KE 10% 3>4>2KE. 07>7;5==K5 ?>;8B8G5A:85 45OB5;8 "08;0=40 B5?5@L 1@>A8;8AL 2 4@C3CN :@09=>ABL 8 C3@>60NB ?5@59B8 : ?>;=>9 M:>=><8G5A:>9 87>;OF88 >B 2=5H=53> <8@0. 025@=>5, H81:> 1>;L=> >1845;8 8E 42C;8G=K5 0<5@8:0=FK, :>340 >BG0O2H85AO B08;0=4FK =0G0;8?C1;8G=> 2>AE20;820BL !525@=CN >@5N, :>B>@0O C65 50 ;5B AB>8G5A:8 ACI5AB2C5B 2 ?>;=>< M:>=><8G5A:>< >BH5;L=8G5AB25 8 <>65B, A D8;>A>DA:8< A?>:>9AB285< C44K, A?>:>9=> A>75@F0BL :>=2C;LA88 A2>8E "706@02H8EAO" A>A5459. 065 =081>;55 AB>9:85 0<5@8:0=A:85 =87:>?>:;>=FK 8 :@8:;82K5 ?0B@8>BK ?>;8B8:8 >B:@KBKE 425@59 70<5B=> ?@8C=K;8 8 2A5 1>;55 >B:@KB> ?5@5H5?BK20NBAO > 2>7<>6=>AB8 A>740=8O 70<:=CB>3> 0780BA:>3> B>@3>2>3> 1;>:0. >=OB=>, GB> B0:85 @073>2>@K =5 <>3;8 =5 =0AB>@>68BL 0<5@8:0=A:89 D8=0=A>2K9 028;>=. ;O =02545=8O 65;57=>9 48AF8?;8=K 2 @>?ICI8E @O40E A2>8E 20AA0;>2 2 @538>= 1K;8 A@>G=> =0?@02;5=K =082KAH85 ?@54AB028B5;8 $,  8 0<5@8:0=A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20. 5@=K9 A2>59 87;N1;5==>9 ?>;8B8:5 :=CB0 8 ?@O=8:0, 0H8=3B>= C?>;=><>G8; ?@54AB028B5;59 $ 83@0BL @>;L ?;>E8E A;54>20B5;59, 0  - E>@>H8E.  B> 2@5<O, :>340 C?@02;ONI89 48@5:B>@ $ 09:; 0<45AAN B@51>20; >B ?@028B5;LAB2 .6=>9 >@58, =4>=5788, "08;0=40 8 $8;8??8= =5C:>A=8B5;L=> ?@>4>;60BL ?>;8B8:C 70BO3820=8O @5<=O 8 >B:@KB8O 2=CB@5==53> @K=:0 4;O 0<5@8:0=A:8E 10=:>2, ?@54A540B5;L  659<A >;LD5=A>= @07J5760; ?> 788 8 :@8B8:>20; 65AB:CN ;8=8N 8@>2>3> 0;NB=>3> $>=40. 5 B> GB>1K ?> =0AB>OI5<C :@8B8:>20; 8 ?@54;030; :0:85-B> 0;LB5@=0B82=K5 @5H5=8O 4;O "?;>E>9" ?>;8B8:8 $, => B0: ?>-4@C65A:8 A5B>20; =0 ?>A?5H=>ABL @5D>@< 8 <=>3> @073;03>;LAB2>20; > 2>7<>6=KE =51;03>?@8OB=KE A>F80;L=KE ?>A;54AB28OE =K=5H=53> :C@A0 MB>9 >@30=870F88. <, 2848B5 ;8, AB0;> 60;L 0780BA:8E @01>G8E, :>B>@K5 2 @57C;LB0B5 4@0:>=>2A:8E <5@ $ <>3CB ?>B5@OBL @01>BC 8 ?>3@C78BAO 2 ?CG8=C 15A?@>A25B=>9 =8I5BK. 0: 1C4B> 350 <8;;8>=>2 @01>G8E 788, :>B>@K5, 1;03>40@O "<8;>AB82>9" ?>;8B8:5 , ?@>4>;60NB, A>3;0A=> AB0B8AB8:5 , 70@010BK20BL <5=LH5 >4=>3> 4>;;0pa 2 45=L, :>340-=81C4L 2845;8 4@C3CN 687=L, :@><5 15A?@>A25B=>9 =8I5BK. > 5I5 3>@OG8< A;540< ?>A;0==8:>2 =LN-9>@:A:8E 10=:>2 2 2>O6 ?> AB@0=0< 788 >B?@028;AO :0B53>@8G5A:8 7048@8ABK9 <8=8AB@ >1>@>=K !( 8;LO< >35=, :>B>@K9 ?>A?5H8; =02O70BL @0AB5@O2H8<AO 2 AC<0B>E5 D8=0=A>2>3> :@878A0 0780BA:8< B83@0< 2A52>7<>6=K5 =5@02=>?@02=K5 ">1>@>==K5" A>3;0H5=8O, 15A?0@4>==> ?5@5;>682 =0 8E ?;5G8 >A=>2=CN BO65ABL 2>5==KE @0AE>4>2. = 2AOG5A:8 70?C3820; <5AB=K5 ?@02OI85 :;8:8 3@O4CI8<8 A>F80;L=K<8 ?>B@OA5=8O<8 8 4065 2>7<>6=>ABLN 2>9= <564C 4>2545==K<8 4> >BG0O=8O 3>AC40@AB20<8 AC1:>=B8=5=B0. !AK;0OAL =0 M:>=><8G5A:85 B@C4=>AB8 2 @O45 AB@0= .3>->AB>G=>9 788, :>B>@K5, =5 ?><5H05B ?@8?><=8BL, 1K;8 8A:CAAB25==> A>740=K 0<5@8:0=A:8<8 10=:0<8, >35= C:07K20; =0 2>7@>AHCN =5>1E>48<>ABL 0<5@8:0=A:>3> 2>5==>3> ?@8ACBAB28O 2 @538>=5.  @57C;LB0B5 MB>3> H0=B060 0H8=3B>= ?>;CG8; 1>;55 2K3>4=K5 CA;>28O 0@5=4K 2>5==KE 107 2 =5:>B>@KE AB@0=0E @538>=0. @028B5;LAB2> !8=30?C@0 4065 A>3;0A8;>AL =0 15A?;0B=>5 >1A;C6820=85 0<5@8:0=A:8E :>@01;59 2 A2>5< C;LB@0A>2@5<5==>< 2>5==>-<>@A:>< ?>@BC (0=68. * * * >A;5 B>3>, :0: C?@O<K9 =@02 0780BA:8E "B83@>2" 1K; ACI5AB25==> A<O3G5=, ?@8H;> 2@5<O 8E >:>=G0B5;L=>3> >4><0H=820=8O. -B0 ?>?KB:0 A>AB>O;0AL 2 :>=F5 =>O1@O 1997 3>40 =0 A>25I0=88 ;845@>2 780BA:>-"8E>->:50=A:>3> -:>=><8G5A:>3> !>B@C4=8G5AB20, :>B>@>5 A>AB>O;>AL 2 :0=04A:>< 3>@>45 0=:C25@5. >A;5 >A=>20B5;L=>9 >1@01>B:8 >1I5AB25==>3> <=5=8O 70?04=K<8 A@54AB20<8 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 ?@>B0;:820BL 0<5@8:0=A:CN B>G:C 7@5=8O 2KA;0;8 "<0;LG8:0 =0 ?>153CH:0E" <5:A8:0=A:>3> ?@57845=B0 -@=5AB0 548;;>, :>B>@K9 =0AB0820; =0 ?@8=OB88 =>2KE ?@028; A2>1>4=>3> @K=:0 8 =>2>9, 1>;55 0:B82=>9 @>;8 $ 2 AD5@5 <564C=0@>4=>9 D8=0=A>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8. KABC?;5=85 548;;> A2>48;>AL : B@5< 3;02=K< ?C=:B0< 0<5@8:0=A:8E B@51>20=89, 2K?>;=5=85 :>B>@KE A2O7K20;>AL A> AB018;870F859 D8=0=A>2>9 A8AB5<K AB@0= .3>->AB>G=>9 788. >-?5@2KE, ?>A;CH=> ?>2B>@O; 48@5:B82K A2>8E 0H8=3B>=A:8E E>7O52 548;;>, AB@0=K @538>=0 4>;6=K ?@>25AB8 @5D>@<C 10=:>2 8 4520;L28@>20BL =0F8>=0;L=K5 20;NBK, GB>, 45A:0BL, ?>72>;8B 871560BL 40;L=59H8E 7;>C?>B@51;5=89 2 10=:>2A:>9 A8AB5<5 8 >1;53G8B M:A?>@B. >-2B>@KE, CB25@640; <5:A8:0=A:89 ?@57845=B, A;54C5B >A;018BL ?@>B5:F8>=87< 2=CB@5==53> @K=:0, GB> :0:8<-B> GC4>B2>@=K< >1@07>< ?><>65B 0:B82878@>20BL M:>=><8G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL 8 A=878B F5=K =0 2A5 284K B>20@>2 8 CA;C3. -B@5BL8E, GB> A0<>5 3;02=>5, GB>1K 871560BL M:>=><8G5A:8E ?>B@OA5=89 2 1C4CI5<, =C6=> ?@87=0BL @>;L $ :0: 3;02=>3> 0@18B@0 8 @5287>@0 2> 2A5E 206=KE 2=CB@5==8E 2>?@>A0E D8=0=A>2>9 8 M:>=><8G5A:>9 ?>;8B8:8. @C38<8 A;>20<8, AB@0=K "-! 4>;6=K 1K 1K;8 4>1@>2>;L=> ?5@540BL A2>9 =0F8>=0;L=K9 AC25@5=8B5B 2 @C:8 $ 8 53> 20H8=3B>=A:8E E>7O52.  E>BO <=>385 ?>B5@?52H85 2 1C@OE M:>=><8G5A:>3> :@878A0 0780BA:85 AB@0=K =5 <>3;8 >1>9B8AL 157 D8=0=A>2>9 ?><>I8 $, C =8E 2A5-B0:8 E20B8;> :>;;5:B82=>9 <C4@>AB8, GB>1K =5 2?CAB8BL : A515 ?@54;0305<>3> =0 :>=D5@5=F88 "B@>O=A:>3> :>=O" =LN-9>@:A:8E 8;;N<8=0B>2.  A2>N >G5@54L, AB@0=K 788 ?>B@51>20;8 >B 0<5@8:0=F52 5A;8 =5 70?@5B8BL, B> E>BO 1K >3@0=8G8BL A?5:C;OB82=CN B>@3>2;N 20;NB>9, :>B>@0O, :@><5 10A=>A;>2=>9 ?@81K;8 4;O =LN-9>@:A:>3> A8=48:0B0 3>A?>48=0 !>@>A0 8 ">20@8I5AB20, =5 8A?>;=O5B =8:0:>9 ?>78B82=>9 M:>=><8G5A:>9 @>;8. 0: 2A5340 2 B0:8E A;CG0OE, 0<5@8:0=FK A@07C 65 2K?CAB8;8 =0 AF5=C 72574 0@20@4A:>9 M:>=><8G5A:>9 <KA;8, :>B>@K5 :0: 42064K 420 "4>:070;8" ?@8ACBAB2CNI8<, GB> B0: 65 :0: ?G5;8=K9 C;59 =C6405BAO 2 B@CB=OE 4;O 2>A?@>872>4AB20 ?>B><AB20, B0: 8 D8=0=A>2K9 @K=>: =5 <>65B =>@<0;L=> DC=:F8>=8@>20BL 157 AB8<C;878@CNI59 @>;8 25745ACI8E 20;NB=KE "B@CB=59-A?5:C;O=B>2".  GB> :0A05BAO @53C;8@>20=8O 8 >3@0=8G5=8O 8E 2@54=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, B> 0@20@4A:0O M:>=><8G5A:0O H:>;0, : A>60;5=8N, =0 MB>B 2>?@>A ?>:0 5I5 >B25B8BL =5 <>65B.  :>=F5 :>=F>2, MB> =5 AB>;L 206=>. > <=5=8N ?@54A540B5;O $545@0;L=>3> 575@2=>3> $>=40 !( ;;0=0 @8=A?0=0, 28=>20BK =5 !>@>A 8 A?5:C;O=BK 20;NB>9, => A0<8 0780BA:85 ?@028B5;LAB20, =5 C<5NI85 @53C;8@>20BL A>1AB25==CN 10=:>2A:CN A8AB5<C. 0 GB> ?@5<L5@-<8=8AB@ 0;09788 >AB@>C<=> 70<5B8;: "=8 CB25@640NB, GB> =5 <>3CB :>=B@>;8@>20BL A2>8E A?5:C;O=B>2 20;NB>9, 0 2 B>65 2@5<O B@51CNB, GB>1K O :>=B@>;8@>20; <>8 10=:8 ".  E>BO <0A>=A:8< 10=:8@0< B0: 8 =5 C40;>AL ?@>B>;:=CBL 2A5 A2>8 ?@54;>65=8O =0 :>=D5@5=F88, 8E 3;02=0O F5;L 1K;0 4>AB83=CB0. $8=0=A>20O A8AB5<0 AB@0= .3>->AB>G=>9 788 1K;0 >A=>20B5;L=> ?>B@5?0=0, 0 8E M:>=><8G5A:0O :>=:C@5=B>A?>A>1=>ABL =0 <564C=0@>4=>< @K=:5 4@0<0B8G5A:8 >A;01;5=0.  B> 65 2@5<O $ ?>;CG8; 4>?>;=8B5;L=K5 ?@020 2<5H820BLAO 2> <=>385, 4> B>3> 2@5<5=8 4;O =53> =54>ABC?=K5, 2>?@>AK D8=0=A>2>9 ?>;8B8:8 4@C38E AC25@5==KE AB@0=, 0 0<5@8:0=A:85 10=:8@K >?OBL ?@8:0@<0=8;8 A>B=8 <8;;80@4>2 4>;;0@>2.  70:;NG8B5;L=K9 45=L @01>BK :>=D5@5=F88 1K;> ?@8=OB> @5H5=85 2 1;8609H55 2@5<O ?@8=OBL 2 >@30=870F8N "-! B@5E =>2KE G;5=>2 - >AA8N, L5B=0< 8 5@C. 'B> 65! >1@> ?>60;>20BL, >AA8O, 2 "M:A:;N782=K9" :;C1! LNB B51O 1>;L=> A 52@>?59A:>9 AB>@>=K ?> <>@45, ?>4AB02;O9 5I5 A2>N 0780BA:CN I5:C. * * * "564C=0@>4=K9 0;NB=K9 $>=4 O2;O5BAO A5:@5B=>9 >@30=870F859, A >3@><=>9 02B>=><859... 8 :>B>@0O 459AB2C5B ?>4 0C@>9 =5?>3@5H8<>AB8". 65D@8 !0:A @548B=0O ?>;8B8:0 $ F5;8:>< 8 ?>;=>ABLN =0?@02;5=0 =0 ?>@01>I5=85 =0@>4>2 ?CB5< 2BO3820-=8O 8E 2 4>;3>2CN 7028A8<>ABL. $ G0AB> 70=8<05B 45=L38 ?@028B5;LAB20<, :>B>@K5, ?> 2A5< 74@02K< >F5=:0<, =5 8<5NB 8 =08<5=LH8E H0=A>2, GB>1K 2>72@0B8BL ?>;CG5==K5 4>;38. >?02, B0:8< >1@07><, 2 4>;3>2CN ;>2CH:C <564C=0@>4=KE 10=:8@>2, >1=8I0;K5 ?@028B5;LAB20 =5 8<5NB 8=>3> 2KE>40, :0: C=865=> ?@>A8BL A2>8E :@548B>@>2 ?@54>AB028BL 8< =>2K5 709<K, GB>1K @0A?;0B8BAO A> AB0@K<8 4>;30<8. -B>3> :0: @07 70>:50=A:8< 45=56=K< <5H:0< 8 =C6=>. =0O, GB> ?@>A8B5;8 704KE0NBAO >B =5E20B:8 D8=0=A>2KE A@54AB2, >=8 =0G8=0NB ?>AB5?5==> 70:@CG820BL ?@5AA 402;5=8O. !;54CNI0O 4>70 ?@54>AB02;5==KE :@548B>2, :0: ?@028;>, A2O7K205BAO A @07=>3> @>40 M:>=><8G5A:8<8 8 ?>;8B8G5A:8<8 B@51>20=8O<8. 1KG=> ?@54AB028B5;8 $ B@51CNB, GB>1K ?@028B5;LAB20 C<5=LH8;8 1N465B =0 A>F80;L=>5 >15A?5G5=85, 74@02>>E@0=5=85 8 >1@07>20=85, >3@0=8G8;8 @0AE>4K =0 2>>@C65==K5 A8;K, ?@5:@0B8;8 AC1A848@>20=85 C1KB>G=KE ?@54?@8OB89 8 ?@>2>48;8 65AB:CN 0=B88=D;OF8>==CN <>=5B0@=CN ?>;8B8:C. 5 3>2>@O C65 > B><, GB> ?>4>1=K5 B@51>20=8O 2KE>4OB 70 @0<:8 ?@02>2KE >B=>H5=89 <564C :@548B>@0<8 8 4>;6=8:0<8 8 O2;ONBAO ?@O<K< 2<5H0B5;LAB2>< 2> 2=CB@5==55 45;0 AC25@5==KE AB@0=, 8E M:>=><8G5A:0O F5;5A>>1@07=>ABL B0:65 2K7K205B =5<0;> 2>?@>A>2. 54L, 5A;8 ?@028B5;LAB2> 2K=C48B C1KB>G=K5 ?@54?@8OB8O >10=:@>B8BLAO, >B@5702 8E >B AC1A8489 8 :@548B>2, B> B5< A0<8< C25;8G8B G8A;> 157@01>B=KE, :>B>@K< =C6=> 1C45B 2K?;0G820BL A>F80;L=>5 ?>A>185. 0: 2 B0:>< A;CG05 ?@028B5;LAB2> <>65B ?>72>;8BL A=878BL @0AE>4K =0 A>F80;L=>5 >15A?5G5=85? @><5 B>3>, :0: 2A5< 8725AB=>, 70:@KBK5, AB>OI85 ?@54?@8OB8O =0;>3>2 =5 ?;0BOB. B:C40 B>340 ?@028B5;LAB2> A<>65B 87KA:0BL A@54AB20 4;O ?>?>;=5=8O A2>53> 1N465B0, GB>1K @0A?;0B8BAO A B5< 65 A0<K< $, =5 3>2>@O C65 > 4@C38E 3>AC40@AB25==KE =C640E? "0 65 A0<0O =5?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL 2 M:>=><8G5A:8E "@5F5?B0E" $ 70;>65=0 2 B@51>20=88 15A?>I04=>9 1>@L1K A 8=D;OF859. 725AB=>, GB> =87:0O 8=D;OF8O <>65B 1KBL 4>AB83=CB0 B>;L:> 8A:CAAB25==K< 70<>@06820=85< F5= 8 A>:@0I5=85< :>;8G5AB20 45=53, =0E>4OI8EAO 2 >1@0I5=88.  CA;>28OE M:>=><8G5A:>3> :@878A0, :0:, =0?@8<5@, 2 A;CG05 >AA88, B0:0O <>=5B0@=0O ?>;8B8:0 ;8H05B ?@028B5;LAB2> D8=0=A>2>3> @KG030, ?@8 ?><>I8 :>B>@>3> >=> <>3;> 1K A?>A>1AB2>20BL M:>=><8G5A:><C >682;5=8N 2 AB@0=5. 1C740=85 8=D;OF88, ?@5645 2A53>, 2K3>4=> <564C=0@>4=K< 10=:8@0<, :>B>@K5 E>BOB ?>;CG8BL ?>;=K9 2>72@0B =0 A2>8 703@0=8G=K5 :@548BK, GB> 1K;> 1K =52>7<>6=> 2 CA;>28OE >15AF5=820=8O 45=53.  B><C 65, 7075<;82 8=D;OF8N ?@0:B8G5A:8 =0 =C;5 8 B0:8< >1@07>< ?>A0482 25AL <8@ =0 3>;>4=K9 :@548B=K9 ?05:. $545@0;L=K9 575@2 !( >:070;AO =5 2 <5@C I54@K< ?> >B=>H5=8N : A2>8< 4>@>38< A>1@0BLO<-10=:8@0<. >;L7COAL >18;L=K<8 :@548B0<8 $ , =LN-9>@:A:85 10=:8@K 8 8E A?>4@CG=K5 <564C=0@>4=K5 20;NBG8:8 @0A:@CB8;8 =0 2AN :0BCH:C A?5:C;OB82=CN >@38N =0 3;02=KE 18@60E <8@0. 0 ?>A;54=85 A5<L ;5B >=8 <=>3>:@0B=> C<=>68;8 A2>8 8 157 B>3> =5?><5@=K5 1>30BAB20. 065 "@CG=>9" M:>=><8AB =LN-9>@:A:>3> C=825@A8B5B0 -420@4 >;LD 1K; 2K=C645= ?@87=0BL, GB> 70 ?>A;54=85 3>4K ?@>87>H;0 1KAB@0O, 4>B>;5 =52840==0O 2 CA5O==>9 ABO60B5;LA:8<8 45O=8O<8 :><<5@G5A:>9 8AB>@88 G5;>25G5AB20, :>=F5=B@0F8O :0?8B0;0 2 @C:0E C7:>9 3@C??K D8=0=A>2KE <03=0B>2. = ?>4AG8B0;, GB> >48= ?@>F5=B =0A5;5=8O !( B5?5@L :>=B@>;8@C5B 48% =0F8>=0;L=>3> 1>30BAB20, 0 80% 154=KE 0<5@8:0=F52 4>2>;LAB2CNBAO B>;L:> 6%. AB0;L=>5 ?@8=04;568B 19% 7068B>G=>9 A@54=59 ?@>A;>9:8. =B5@5A=> 70<5B8BL, GB> 20:E0=0;8O A0<>>1>30I5=8O =0 70?04=KE 18@60E :0: 1K =527=0G09 A>2?0;0 A 15AA;02=K< @0720;>< !!!  8 ?>A;54>202H8< =51K20;K< 2 <8@>2>9 8AB>@88 3@0156>< =0H59 AB@0=K. 'B>1K 2 MB>< C1548BLAO, 4>AB0B>G=> ?>A<>B@5BL =0 ?>:070B5;8 0AB@>=><8G5A:>3> @>AB0 :0?8B0;870F88 =LN-9>@:A:>9 18@68, :>B>@0O ?> ?@02C O2;O5BAO ?5@2>9 >3=54KH0I59 3>;>2>9 <8@>2>3> D8=0=A>2>3> GC4>28I0. ">340 :0: ?@5645 3;02=><C B5E=8G5A:><C ?>:070B5;N MB>9 18@68, B0: =07K205<><C 0C 6>= =40AB@8-0;, ?>=04>18;>AL 63 3>40, GB>1K 2 1991 3>4C, A B@C4><, 4>?>;7B8 4> B@5EBKAOG=>9 >B<5B:8 A2>59 :0?8B0;870F88. >, C65 G5@57 A5<L ;5B, 2 1998 3>4C, =5>6840==> >BKA:02H89 <>;>45F:CN ?@KB:>ABL 0C 6>= C25@5==> ?5@5<0E=C; G5@57 ?;0=:C 452OB8BKAOG=>9 >B<5B:8 A2>59 :0?8B0;870F88. * * * >A;CH=>5 2=54@5=85 2 687=L @>AA89A:8< ?@028B5;LAB2>< "4>1@>65;0B5;L=KE" A>25B>2 $ - :0: ;CGH5 >ACI5AB2;OBL :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:85 @5D>@<K - =5 <>3;> =5 ?@825AB8 =0HC AB@0=C : 70BO6=><C M:>=><8G5A:><C 70AB>N, A=865=8N 55 >1>@>=>A?>A>1=>AB8 8 ?>AB5?5==><C ?@52@0I5=8N 55 2 AK@L52>9 ?@840B>: 8=4CAB@80;L=> @0728BKE AB@0=. 5 ?>4B25@48;8AL 687=LN B0:65 >15I0=8O 8 ?@>3=>7K 30@20@4A:8E CG5==KE 8 M:>=><8G5A:8E M:A?5@B>2 87 $ 2 >1;0AB8 AB018;870F88 @>AA89A:>9 D8=0=A>2>9 A8AB5<K. "0:, >=8 C25@O;8 =0H8E A;02=KE @5D>@<0B>@>2, GB> :0: B>;L:> >AA8O 2K?>;=8B 2A5 A>25BK $, B> :@C?=K5 <564C=0@>4=K5 8=25AB>@K =0?5@51>9 1@>AOBAO 2:;04K20BL A2>8 45=L38 2 =0HC 1574>==CN M:>=><8:C. =25AB>@K, <>;, B>;L:> 8 >6840NB, :>340 >AA8O A10;0=A8@C5B A2>9 1N465B, >3@0=8G8B AC1A848@>20=85 ?@54?@8OB89 8 A>:@0B8B 45=56=CN 8=D;OF8N. %>@>H> ;8, EC4>, => =0H8 AB@>8B5;8 =>2>9 >AA88 2>?;>B8;8 2 687=L 1>;LH8=AB2>, 5A;8 =5 2A5, ?>65;0=8O 70>:50=A:8E 4>1@>65;0B5;59 8, :0: 8< :070;>AL, ?>43>B>28;8 "1;03>40B=CN" M:>=><8G5A:CN ?>G2C 4;O <564C=0@>4=>3> 8=25AB8@>20=8O. A5 A45;0;8, :0: ?> ?C=:B0<. =D;OF8N ?@8AB@C=8;8, 0@<8N @07>@C68;8, ?@54?@8OB8O 70:@K;8, @01>G8< =5 ?;0B8;8 8 7;>459A:CN ?@820B870F8N >ACI5AB28;8. 070;>AL 1K, ?>A;5 MB>3> G53> 8=>AB@0==K< 8=25AB>@0< 5I5 >AB0;>AL 640BL. 4=0:>, 2<5AB> >18;L=>3> 7>;>B>3> 4>64O 8=>AB@0==>3> :0?8B0;0 @07<5@ <564C=0@>4=KE 8=25AB8F89 2 @>AA89A:CN M:>=><8:C =5C<>;8<> A=8605BAO.  MB> =5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> ?@>F5=B=0O AB02:0 @CAA:>3> F5=B@0;L=>3> 10=:0 ?>AB>O==> C25;8G820;0AL. "0:, 2 O=20@5 1998 3>40 4>H;0 4> 01AC@4=>3> C@>2=O - 34% 3>4>2KE.  MB> ?@8 ACI5AB2>202H5< ?>GB8 200-<8;;80@4=>< 8=>AB@0==>< 4>;35! 5 =C6=> 1KBL 30@20@4A:8< M:>=><8AB><, GB>1K ?@84B8 : ?5G0;L=><C 70:;NG5=8N, GB> =8 >4=0 M:>=><8G5A:0O A8AB5<0 2 <8@5 =5 1K;0 1K. 2 A>AB>O=88 2K:0@01:0BLAO 87 ?>4>1=>9 4>;3>2>9 O<K, 1C4CG8 >1@5<5=5=0 =5?>A8;L=K<8 38@O<8 ?@>F5=B=>3> 3@C70, :>B>@K9 2 <05 1998 3>40 4>H5; 4> A<5E>B2>@=>3>, 150%-=>3> C@>2=O. "5< 1>;55, GB> 1;03>40@O =LN-9>@:A:8< D8=0=A>2K< <0=8?C;OB>@0<, <564C=0@>4=K5 F5=K =0 AK@L5, :>B>@>5 A>AB02;O5B 75% @>AA89A:>3> M:A?>@B0, 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O @57:> A=878;8AL. "0:>5 =525A5;>5 M:>=><8G5A:>5 ?>;>65=85 <>3;> 1K >15A:C@068BL :>3> C3>4=>, => B>;L:> =5 87>1@5B0B5;L=CN ?>@>4C =>2>@>AA89A:8E :0?8B0;8AB>2. "A;8 C =0A =5B ?@><KH;5==KE B>20@>2 4;O 2K2>70, 0 AK@L5 70 3@0=8FC B5?5@L ?@>4020BL B>65 =52K3>4=>, 40209B5 1C45< M:A?>@B8@>20BL 45=56=K9 :0?8B0;", - >AB@>C<=> @5H8;8 >=8. , 2 :>B>@K9 @07 C482;OO A2>59 >@838=0;L=>ABLN <8@, =8I0O >AA8O ?@52@0B8;0AL 2 A0<>3> :@C?=>3> D8=0=A>2>3> 8=25AB>@0 2 70?04=KE AB@0=0E. > :>=A5@20B82=K< 8 =5?>;=K< ?>4AG5B0< 70@C156=KE M:>=><8AB>2, 2 B5G5=88 ?OB8 ;5B 87 >AA88 =0 0?04 C?;K;> 1>;55 200 <8;;80@4>2 4>;;0@>2, GB> 7=0G8B5;L=> ?@52KA8;> >1ICN AC<<C 2A5E 703@0=8G=KE 709<>2, :@548B>2 8 8=25AB8F89, ?@54>AB02;5==KE 70 MB> 2@5<O >AA88!  GB> =0H8< N=K< 10=:8@0<, 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2, >AB020;>AL 45;0BL? 5@B2>@>645==K9 @>AA89A:89 :0?8B0;87<, 2AO AB@C:BC@0 :>B>@>3> 1K;0 ?@8A?>A>1;5=0 8A:;NG8B5;L=> : @071070@820=8N =0@>4=>3> 8<CI5AB20, 2A5 @02=> =5 1K; 2 A>AB>O=88 ?5@56520BL 4065 G0AB8 703@0=8G=KE 45=53. 5C4828B5;L=>, GB> D8=0=A>20O A8BC0F8O 2 AB@0=5 ?@>4>;60;0 :0B0AB@>D8G5A:8 CEC4H0BLAO, 8 @>AA89A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> =5 8<55B 4@C3>3> 2KE>40, :0: B>;L:> 2A5 BC65 70BO3820BL =0 H55 AB@0=K ?5B;N 8=>AB@0==>9 704>;65==>AB8. 0720;82 ?>GB8 ?>;=>ABLN >B5G5AB25==CN M:>=><8:C, @>AA89A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> 1K;> 2K=C645=> 2 1998 3>4C C42>8BL @07<5@ A2>53> :@0B:>A@>G=>3> 8=>AB@0==>3> 4>;30, GB> 2 :>=5G=>< 8B>35 O28;>AL B>9 A>;><8=:>9, :>B>@0O ?5@5;><8;0 E@515B =0H59 D8=0=A>2>9 A8AB5<K. 58725AB=>, 1C4CB ;8 2 A>AB>O=88 A;54CNI85 ?>:>;5=8O @>AA8O= @0AAG8B0BLAO A "A5@4>1>;L=K<8" 70>:50=A:8<8 :@548B>@0<8 70 ?@5ABC?=>5 3>;>2>BO?AB2> =0H8E =K=5H=8E E>7O9AB25==8:>2 8 2K@20BLAO 87 4>;3>2>3> @01AB20 =LN-9>@:A:8E @>AB>2I8:>2. 0B> 6>@46 !>@>A, 1>;LH>9 F5=8B5;L @>AA89A:>9 :C;LBC@K 8 A0<K9 7=0G8B5;L=K9 8=>AB@0==K9 8=25AB>@ 2 =0H59 AB@0=5, =5A<>B@O =0 A3CI0NI85AO =04 >AA859 3@>7>2K5 BCG8 >1I5AB25==>-M:>=><8G5A:8E ?>B@OA5=89, @0AF5=820; =0H8 ?5@A?5:B82K 2 A0<KE @04C6=KE :@0A:0E. KABC?0O =0 <564C=0@>4=>9 :>=D5@5=F88 8=25AB>@>2 2 O=20@5 1998 3>40, >= 2 4CE5 ?>?C;O@=>9 ?5A=8 " 0 2 >AB0;L=><, ?@5:@0A=0O <0@:870, 2A5 E>@>H>, 2A5 E>@>H>" C25@O; A>1@02H8EAO 45;>2KE ;N459, GB> @>AA89A:0O M:>=><8:0 C65, 45A:0BL, ?@5>4>;5;0 :0:CN-B> 2>>1@0605<CN :@8B8G5A:CN G5@BC, 8 55 >68405B 4>B>;5 =52840==K9 2 8AB>@8G5A:8E 0==0;0E G5;>25G5AB20 M:>=><8G5A:89 @0AF25B. >G5<C 1K 5<C =0 @04>ABOE =5 ?><>;>BL 2AO:CN 2AOG8=C, 5A;8 2<5AB5 A> A2>8<8 =LN-9>@:A:8<8 A>>1I=8:0<8 87 " >@30= !5:N@8B8A" 8 "!! 0@1C@3" >=8 =0456=> C:@5?8;8AL =0 ?>AB0E 3;02=KE @0A?>@O48B5;59 @>AA89A:8<8 3>AC40@AB25==K<8 709<0<8. =B5@5A=>, ?>G5<C B>340, 5A;8 @>AA89A:>5 3>AC40@AB2> AB>O;> =0 ?>@>35 M:>=><8G5A:>3> @5=5AA0=A0, 4@C30O 4@C65AB25==0O !>@>AC =LN-9>@:A:0O <0A>=A:0O D8@<0 "C48A =25AB>@5 !5@28A5A", :>B>@0O O2;O5BAO 15AA?>@=K< <564C=0@>4=K< 02B>@8B5B>< 2 >F5=820=88 =0456=>AB8 >1;830F89, ?>AB>O==> A=860;0 @59B8=3 @>AA89A:8E >1;830F89. 5 ?>B><C ;8, GB> G5< =865 <564C=0@>4=K9 @59B8=3 =0H8E >1;830F89, B5< 2KH5 ?@>F5=B, :>B>@K9 ?@8E>48BAO ?;0B8BL @>AA89A:><C ?@028B5;LAB2C =0 70=OBK5 C A2>8E 70>:50=A:8E 1;03>45B5;59 45=L38? ?@>G5<, B5?5@L MB> C65 =5 ACI5AB25==>. >B5<:8=A:0O 8710 @>AA89A:>3> :0?8B0;87<0 >:070;0AL =5 1>;55 4>;3>25G=>9, G5< 25BE85 :>=NH=8 =5AG0AB=>9 <0@:87K. @540B5;LA:8 2BO=CB0O 2 70?04=N 3;>10;L=>3> >B:@KB>3> @K=:0 8 >B40==0O =0 @0AB5@70=85 <564C=0@>4=K< D8=0=A>2K< AB5@2OB=8:0<, >AA8O 1K;0 >AB02;5=0 =0 ?@>872>; AC4L1K, :0: B>;L:> 2A5 55 AB>OI85 @5AC@AK 8 F5==>AB8 ?5@5:>G520;8 2 AC=4C:8 =LN-9>@:A:8E 10=:8@>2. 8G53> 745AL =5 ?>45;05HL. 87=L 1K205B AC@>2K< CG8B5;5<. 0:>=G8;AO 5I5 >48= 28B>: <8@>2>9 G5;>25G5A:>9 4@0<K, 8 2 >G5@54=>9 @07 C?0; 70=025A =87:>?@>1=>3> ?@54AB02;5=8O. " $8=8B0 ;O :><548O ". >=5B0@=0O ?>;8B8:0 F5=B@0;L=KE 10=:>2, ?@>2>48<0O 2 8=B5@5A0E <564C=0@>4=KE D8=0=A>2KE <03=0B>2, 2A5 1>;LH5 ?>4B0G8205B DC=40<5=B =5 B>;L:> B0:8E A;01KE M:>=><8G5A:8E A8AB5<, :0: @>AA89A:0O, => B0:65 >B@8F0B5;L=> A:07K205BAO =0 M:>=><8G5A:>< @>AB5 @0728BKE :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:8E AB@0=. 5?@5@K2=0O 1>@L10 F5=B@0;L=KE 10=:>2 A ?@87@0:>< 8=D;OF88 8 C4CH0NI5 2KA>:0O ?@>F5=B=0O AB02:0 C65 ?@825;8 : 70BO6=>9 M:>=><8G5A:>9 AB03=0F88 2 AB@0=0E 0?040 8 =52840==><C A> 2@5<5= B>@>9 <8@>2>9 2>9=K D8=0=A>2>-M:>=><8G5A:><C :@878AC 2 >AB0;L=>9 G0AB8 <8@0. !?>=A8@>20==0O &5=B@0;L=K< 10=:>< !>548=5==KE (B0B>2 ?>;8B8:0 8A:CAAB25==>3> D8=0=A>2>3> 3>;>40 70AB02;O5B <=>385 ?@54?@8OB8O A>:@0I0BL ?@>872>4AB2> ?@>4C:F88 8 C2>;L=OBL @01>G8E.  MB8E CA;>28OE B@C4OI85AO 70?04=KE AB@0= ?@0:B8G5A:8 ;8H5=K 2>7<>6=>AB8 1>@>BLAO 70 ?>2KH5=85 70@01>B=>9 ?;0BK, A>E@0=5=85 ACI5AB2CNI8E @01>G8E <5AB 8 C;CGH5=85 CA;>289 B@C40.  B> 2@5<O :0: A>AB>O=85 >B45;L=KE A5<59 >;830@E>2 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O =5?><5@=> 2>7@>A;> 8 ?> A2>8< "A:@><=K<" @07<5@0< ?@52KA8;> 20;>2>9 4>E>4 A@54=8E AB@0=, @50;L=K9 687=5==K9 C@>25=L =0A5;5=8O 2 @0728BKE AB@0=0E, =5 8A:;NG0O !(, =5C:;>==> ?0405B. !53>4=O, :0: =8:>340, <=>385 ;N48 =0 0?045 @01>B0NB =0 ?>;AB02:8 8;8 ?@81530NB : ?>A;54=59 2>7<>6=>AB8 B@C4>CAB@>9AB20, B0: =07K205<><C A0<>B@C4>CAB@>9AB2C.  ?>A;54=55 2@5<O B5@<8= "A0<>B@C4>CAB@>9AB2>" ?@>G=> 268;AO B0:65 2 187=5A=> =54>@0728BCN @CAA:CN @5GL. A>15==> 1>;LH85 B@C4=>AB8 2 ?>8A:0E @01>BK ?5@568205B <>;>456L.  =5:>B>@KE @0728BKE :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:8E AB@0=0E G8A;> 157@01>B=KE 4> 25 ;5B A>AB02;O5B 1>;55 20%. 065 2 A@02=8B5;L=> 1;03>?>;CG=>9 5@<0=88 G8A;> 157@01>B=KE B5?5@L A>AB02;O5B 11,5%, GB> O2;O5BAO A0<>9 2KA>:>9 F8D@>9 A> 2@5<5= B>@>9 <8@>2>9 2>9=K.  B> 65 2@5<O 2> $@0=F88, 345 @01>G85 =5 E>BOB 4>1@>2>;L=> >B40BL A2>8 4>1KBK5 2 <=>3>;5B=59 1>@L15 A>F80;L=>-M:>=><8G5A:85 702>520=8O, 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O ?> 2A59 AB@0=5 ?@>:0B8;0AL 2>;=0 7010AB>2>: 8 0:B>2 A>F80;L=>3> =5?>28=>25=8O. "!>GC2AB2CNI55" @01>G8< =>2>5 ;591>@8ABA:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> =3;88 ?>4 402;5=85< @8B0=A:>3> F5=B@0;L=>3> 10=:0 >1JO28;>, GB>, =0G8=0O A 0?@5;O 1998 3>40, 2A5 <>;>4K5 =5 CG0I85AO ;N48 1C4CB ;8H5=K A>F80;L=>3> ?>A>18O ?> 157@01>B8F5.  MB> =5 A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> =3;8O ?>A;CH=> 2K?>;=8;0 2A5 ?@54K4CI85 ?@54?8A0=8O F5=B@0;L=>3> 10=:0, 7=0G8B5;L=> C<5=LH82 1N465B=K9 45D8F8B 8 :@5?:> ?@8AB@C=82 8=D;OF8N. > MB>3> A>2A5< =54>AB0B>G=> 4;O AB02;5==8:0 0<5@8:0=A:>9 D8=0=A>2>9 >;830@E88, ?@54A540B5;O $545@0;L=>3> 575@20 !( ;0=0 @8=A?0=0, :>B>@K9 =5C<>;8< 2 A2>5< AB@5<;5=88 4>25AB8 8=D;OF8N 4> 0%.  MB> ?>=OB=>. LN-9>@:A:0O D8=0=A>20O 1@0B8O =5 65;05B @8A:>20BL A2>8<8 8=25AB8F8O<8, :@548B0<8 8;8 4065 4520;L20F859 ?@81K;8 =0 2;>65==K9 :0?8B0;. * * * >, =5A<>B@O =0 :06CICNAO A2>N =5A>:@CH8<>ABL, <564C=0@>4=0O D8=0=A>20O :;8:0 O2;O5BAO B>;L:> 2@5<5=I8:><, 0 =5 2;0AB8B5;5< =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0.  =5C45@68<>9 8 A;5?>9 ?>3>=5 70 =0682>9 >=0 A0<0 A55B A5<5=0 A2>53> A>1AB25==>3> 3@O4CI53> @07@CH5=8O.  A2>5 2@5<O 0?>;5>= A:070;: ">O 0@<8O 5ABL 0@<8O =0ABC?;5=8O, >BABC?0BL >=0 =5 C<55B". 0?>;5>=>2A:CN 0@<8N <>3;8 ?>445@6820BL, AB8<C;8@>20BL 8 2>>4CH52;OBL B>;L:> =0ABC?0B5;L=K5 2>5==K5 CA?5E8. >340 2 >AA89A:>9 :0<?0=88 1812 3>40 59 ?@8H;>AL 8A?8BL 3>@5GL ?>@065=89 8 >BABC?;5=8O, B> >=0 ?>?@>ABC @0AAK?0;0AL. >4>1=>5 D0B0;L=>5 ?@54=0G5@B0=85 "35=5B8G5A:8" 70:>48@>20=> 8 2 AC4L15 25;8:>9 D8=0=A>2>9 0@<88 8<?5@0B>@>2 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0. ;LD>9 8 ><53>9 ?@54=07=0G5=8O <564C=0@>4=>3> :0?8B0;0 O2;O5BAO =5?@5@K2=0O ?>3>=O 70 =>2>9 =0682>9, 157 ?>AB>O==>3> ?@8?;K20 :>B>@>9 D8=0=A>2>5 GC4>28I5 ACI5AB2>20BL =5 <>65B. !CBL :0?8B0;0 70:;NG05BAO 2 ?>3>=5 70 =>2K< :0?8B0;><. 0:8<8 1K =8 1K;8 >AB>@>6=K<8 8 C<C4@5==K<8 A53>4=OH=85 "F570@8" <8@>2>9 D8=0=A>2>9 8<?5@88, >=8 =5 <>3CB ?@>872>;L=> 87<5=8BL A>1AB25==CN ?@8@>4C 8 >B:070BLAO >B A;5?>3>, 157C<=>3>, 2A5 ?>3;>I0NI53> 8 G0AB> A0<>@07@CH8B5;L=>3> AB@5<;5=8O 70 7>2>< A2>59 ?@8@>4K, 8725G=K< 7>2>< "A2OB>AB8" 10@KH0. #A?5H=> ?5@5=0AKB82 4><0H=89 ?>B@518B5;LA:89 @K=>: A>1AB25==K< ?5@5?@>872>4AB2><, @0728BK5 :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:85 AB@0=K B5?5@L ;8E>@04>G=> ?@8=O;8AL 703@C60BL A2>8<8 B>20@0<8 <8@>2>9 "A2>1>4=K9" @K=>:. 5 =C6=> 1KBL 35=85<, GB>1K C@07C<5BL, :0:85 ?>A;54AB28O >6840NB <8@>2CN M:>=><8:C, :>340 "A2>1>4=K9" @K=>: 1C45B A 3>;>2>9 7020;5= 70?04=K< H8@?>B@51><. #65 A53>4=O ?@>4C:F8O <=>38E >B@0A;59 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 8 A5;LA:>3> E>7O9AB20 8A?KBK205B =5?@5>4>;8<K5 B@C4=>AB8 A1KB0, 0 48A?@>?>@F88 <564C A?@>A>< 8 ?@54;>65=85< =5C<>;8<> C25;8G820NBAO A :064K< 4=5<. @>1;5<K ?5@5=0AKI5=8O @K=:0 CAC3C1;ONBAO 5I5 8 B5<, GB> 2 ?>3>=5 70 <0:A8<0;L=>9 ?@81K;LN <564C=0@>4=K5 :>@?>@0F88 8A:CAAB25==> ?>445@6820NB 2KA>:85 F5=K =0 A2>8 3>B>2K5 B>20@K, >4=>2@5<5==> C45@6820O =87:85 =0 703@0=8G=>5 AK@L5 8 @01>GCN A8;C, GB> ?@82>48B : A=865=8N ?>:C?0B5;L=KE 2>7<>6=>AB59 =0A5;5=8O 2 @072820NI8EAO AB@0=0E. ACI5AB2;OO ?>4>1=CN B>@3>2CN ?>;8B8:C 2 50-80-E 3>40E XX 25:0, 0?04 ?>GB8 ?>;=>ABLN @07>@8; ?>B@518B5;LA:85 @K=:8 D@8:8 8 0B8=A:>9 <5@8:8. !53>4=O D8=0=A>2K5 0:C;K 0?040, 8A?>;L7CO E>@>H> >B@01>B0==K5 2 ?@>H;>< <5B>4K "70:>==>3>" 3@01560, ?@8=O;8AL B5@70BL =>2>>B:@KBK5 @K=:8 >AB>G=>9 2@>?K 8 >AA88.  ?>3>=5 70 <><5=B0;L=>9 ?@81K;LN D8=0=A>2K9 :0?8B0; =5A>7=0B5;L=> ?>4B0G8205B 25B:C, =0 :>B>@>9 >= ?@5645 A28; A2>5 CNB=>5 3=574>. 5@07C<=> >?CAB>H0O A2>9 703@0=8G=K9 @K=>: A1KB0 =5A?@0254;82>9 ?>;8B8:>9 F5=, D8=0=A>20O >;830@E8O 0?040 @07@CH05B =>@<0;L=K5 CA;>28O <564C=0@>4=>9 B>@3>2;8.  @57C;LB0B5 A28=A:>3> ?>2545=8O <564C=0@>4=>3> :0?8B0;0 =0 <8@>2>< @K=:5 @07@K2 <564C 154=K<8 8 1>30BK<8 AB@0=0<8, <564C A?@>A>< 8 ?@54;>65=85< =5 C<5=LH05BAO, :0: ?@54A:07K20;8 0<5@8:0=A:85 "A25B8;0" M:>=><8G5A:>9 <KA;8, 0, =0>1>@>B, C25;8G8205BAO A :064K< 4=5<. 070;>AL 1K, GB> 2 MB>9 A8BC0F88 8=AB8=:B A0<>A>E@0=5=8O ?>4A:065B F5=B@0;L=K< 10=:0<, :>B>@K5 >ACI5AB2;ONB <>=5B0@=CN ?>;8B8:C, GB> ?>@0 A>:@0B8BL =0;8G85 :@548B>2 8 =5<=>3> ">ABC48BL" ?@>872>4AB2> 2 @0728BKE :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:8E AB@0=0E. > A45;0BL MB> >7=0G05B 4>1@>2>;L=> >B:070BLAO >B G0AB8 ;53:>9 ?@81K;8, GB> A>25@H5==> ?@>B82>@5G8;> 1K ?@8@>45 8 ;>38:5 A>2@5<5==>3> :0?8B0;0. >28=COAL 7>2C A2>53> 5AB5AB20, D8=0=A>2K9 :0?8B0; I54@> 2K45;O5B 2A5 =>2K5 :@548BK =0 @0AH8@5=85 ?@>872>4AB20, ?@>4C:F8O :>B>@>3> =8:>340 =5 1C45B ?>;=>ABLN ?>3;>I5=0 ?>:0;5G5==K< <564C=0@>4=K< @K=:><. !0<>C25@5==KE 8 >4=>AB>@>==5 >1@07>20==KE =LN-9>@:A:8E 10=:8@>2 MB0 G0ABL M:>=><8G5A:>9 =0C:8 =8:>340 =5 8=B5@5A>20;0. ;O =8E 3;02=>5, GB>1K 4>;6=8:8 8< 2>2@5<O 2>72@0I0;8 ?@>F5=BK 8E :@548B>2, 0 2A5 >AB0;L=>5 :0:-B> ?@8;>68BAO. ">A;5 =0A E>BL ?>B>?", - ;N18;8 ?>2B>@OBL <>@0;L=> 8A:0;5G5==K5 25;L<>68 ?@8 42>@5 D@0=FC7A:>3> :>@>;O N4>28:0 XIV. 0: 2848<, A B5E 2@5<5= =8G53> =5 87<5=8;>AL 2 <>@0;L=KE C15645=8OE 2;0ABL 8<CI8E. >;55 B>3>, D8=0=A>2K9 :0?8B0;, :>B>@K9 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K >B:@K; 4;O A51O =>2CN 8 A0<CN ?@81K;L=CN AB0BLN 4>E>40 A 20;NB=KE A?5:C;OF89, A @572>ABLN <>;>4>3> E8I=8:0 1@>A8;AO "B5@70BL" 20;NB=K5 8 M:>=><8G5A:85 A8AB5<K 2A5E AB@0= <8@0. 065 3;02=K9 2878@L 20;NB=KE >?5@0F89, 2@5<5=0<8 ?>4>7@8B5;L=> >B:@>25==K9 6>@46 !>@>A, 2 >4=>< 87 A2>8E B5;52878>==KE 8=B5@2LN ?>@O4>G=> C4828; ":075==KE" 30@20@4A:8E M:>=><8AB>2, 70O282, GB> "<8@ C65 2ABC?8; 2 M?>EC 4578=B53@0F88, B>;L:> <K MB>3> 5I5 =5 70<5G05<".  MB>9 A2O78 2>7=8:05B 70:>==K9 2>?@>A. 0G5< 65 B>340 >AA88 1K;> F5?;OBLAO 0AB@>=><8G5A:>9 150%-=>9 10=:>2A:>9 AB02:>9 70 B>=CI89 ""8B0=8:" <8@>2>3> "A2>1>4=>3>" @K=:0, 5A;8 4065 >48= 87 53> :0?8B0=>2 ?@54A:07K205B 5<C =587156=K9 :>=5F? >65B, =0AB0;> 2@5<O ?5@5AB0BL :>@<8BL A51O 8;;N78O<8 > =5?>B>?;O5<>AB8 ""8B0=8:0" 8, ?>701>B82H8AL > A?0A5=88 A>1AB25==>9 687=8, ?5@5A5ABL =0 4>1@>B=CN >B5G5AB25==CN A?0A0B5;L=CN ;>4:C. 3@0=8G82 8 C<5=LH82 A>1AB25==K9 @K=>: A1KB0 53> E8I=8G5A:>9 M:A?;C0B0F859, 70?04=K5 AB@0=K 2A5 G0I5 ?@81530NB : M:A?>@BC :0?8B0;0 2<5AB> M:A?>@B0 B>20@>2. > 8 MB>B @K=>:, 1;03>40@O =5=0AKB=>9 0;G=>AB8 <564C=0@>4=>9 D8=0=A>2>9 >;830@E88, :>B>@0O, =5 A;54C5B 701K20BL, ?>@>48;0 B5?5@5H=89 <8@>2>9 M:>=><8G5A:89 :@878A, =0G0; CAKE0BL =0 3;070E. KB0OAL 70 ;N1CN F5=C A>E@0=8BL =K=5H=89 D8=0=A>2K9 :>;>=80;87< =0 <8@>2>< "A2>1>4=><" @K=:5, 0<5@8:0=A:89 8<?5@80;87< 2A5 G0I5 ?@815305B : 2=5M:>=><8G5A:8< <5B>40< ?@8=C645=8O 8 =0A8;8O. !>1KB8O ?>A;54=53> 2@5<5=8 ?@54>AB028;8 <8@>2>9 >1I5AB25==>AB8 =5 >48= O@:89 ?@8<5@ @0ABCI59 03@5AA82=>AB8 A0<>C25@5==>3> 0H8=3B>=0, :>B>@K9 A ?><>ILN " 8  ?KB05BAO C25:>25G8BL A2>5 D8=0=A>2>-M:>=><8G5A:>5 3>A?>4AB2> =0 <8@>2>< "A2>1>4=><" @K=:5. 5 4>6840OAL, :>340 >GC<52H89 >B C30@0 ?>2A5<5AB=>3> 3@01560 8 15770:>=8O, B2>@82H53>AO 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K =0 >B:@KB>< D8=0=A>2>< @K=:5, <8@ =0G=5B 2KE>48BL 87 ABC?>@0 BO65;>3> ?>E<5;LO, =LN-9>@:A:89 D8=0=A>2K9 :0@B5;L C65 ?@83>B>28;AO : A;54CNI5<C 28B:C 3;>10;870F88. @84O : =5B@C4=><C 8 C4>1=><C 4;O A51O 2K2>4C, GB> =5 :B> 8=>9, :0: A0<8 ?>AB@0402H85 AB@0=K 28=>20BK 2 ?>AB83H8E 8E 1540E, 0=3;>-0<5@8:0=A:85 D8=0=A>2K5 0;E8<8:8 @5H8;8, GB> 8<5==> 8< ?@8=04;568B 8AB>@8G5A:0O @>;L ?> =02545=8N =>2>3> ?>@O4:0 2 1570;015@=>< D8=0=A>2>< E>7O9AB25 4@C38E AB@0=. > 8E <=5=8N, MB> =5 ?>;8B8:0 $,  8 ?@>6>@;82KE 20;NB=KE A?5:C;O=B>2 @0AH0B0;8 <8@>2>9 D8=0=A>2K9 @K=>:, => =5@07C<=0O 45OB5;L=>ABL F5=B@0;L=KE 10=:>2, =0F8>=0;L=K9 ?@>B5:F8>=87<, 0780BA:0O :>@@C?F8O 8 @>AA89A:89 15A?@545; O28;8AL 3;02=K<8 :0B0;870B>@0<8 B5?5@5H=53> <8@>2>3> M:>=><8G5A:>3> :@878A0. K;> 1K =5@07C<=> ?>;=>ABLN >B@8F0BL ?03C1=>ABL 2;8O=8O MB8E =51;03>284=KE ?@>O2;5=89 :>;>@8B=KE =0F8>=0;L=KE E0@0:B5@>2 =0 >1>AB@5=85 :@878A=KE ?@>F5AA>2 2 8E A>1AB25==KE AB@0=0E. > 745AL B0:65 1K;> 1K 8=B5@5A=> A?@>A8BL A0<>720==KE 48@865@>2 <8@>2>3> "A2>1>4=>3>" @K=:0: :B>, :0: =5 >=8, 2AOG5A:8 ?>4:0@<;820;8 8 AB8<C;8@>20;8 MB8 ?>ABK4=K5 ?>@>:8 G5;>25G5A:>9 =0BC@K? 5 >=8 ;8 A0<8, ?>:0 MB> >B25G0;> 8E A2>5:>@KAB=K< 8=B5@5A0<, 2AOG5A:8 A?>A>1AB2>20;8 =5G8ABK< A?5:C;OB82=K< <0E8=0F8O< =0 <8@>2KE D8=0=A>2KE 18@60E? 5 A ?><>ILN ;8 MB8E :@8<8=0;L=KE @KG03>2 >=8 =5;530;L=> 2K:0G820;8 ?>A;54=55 4>AB>O=85 87 >AA88 8 4@C38E @072820NI8EAO AB@0=? "5?5@L, ?@8:@K20OAL ;8F5<5@=>9 <0A:>9 701>BK > =02545=88 ?>@O4:0 2 D8=0=A>2>9 A8AB5<5 A2>8E =5@07C<=KE 65@B2, 0<5@8:0=A:85 AB@>8B5;8 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0 A ?><>ILN $,  8 4@C38E ?@028B5;LAB2 @0728BKE 70?04=KE AB@0= ?KB0NBAO =02O70BL AC25@5==K< AB@0=0< A>1AB25==K5, "AB0=40@B878@>20==K5" ?@028;0 <564C=0@>4=>9 D8=0=A>2>9 83@K. ;O MB>3> >=8, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L, A?5H0B 27OBL ?>4 A2>9 :>=B@>;L 45OB5;L=>ABL F5=B@0;L=KE 10=:>2 A0<>AB>OB5;L=KE 3>AC40@AB2 A B5<, GB>1K 70B5< >=8 <>3;8 15A?@5?OBAB25==> 48:B>20BL ?@028B5;LAB20< AC25@5==KE AB@0= 2K3>4=CN 4;O A51O <>=5B0@=CN 8 D8=0=A>2>N ?>;8B8:C. @8 2A5< @07=>>1@0788 <KA;59 8 ?@54;>65=89 > ?CBOE 8 A?>A>10E ?>G8=:8 @0AH0B02H53>AO 3;>10;L=>3> D8=0=A>2>3> @K=:0, :>B>@K5 >18;L=> B5:CB 87 2A57=0NI53> 0H8=3B>=0, ;N18<K< 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=K< 45B8I5< 0<5@8:0=A:>3> <>73>2>3> B@5AB0 O2;O5BAO 845O A>740=8O 8@>2>3> &5=B@0;L=>3> 10=:0. ">;L:> B0:>9 10=:, CB25@640NB >=8, 2 A>AB>O=88 A>1@0BL 2>548=> @0AAK?02H89AO <8@>2>9 D8=0=A>2K9 @K=>: 8 >15A?5G8BL =>@<0;L=K5 <564C=0@>4=K5 8=25AB8F8>==K5 CA;>28O. 025@=>5, =5B =04>1=>AB8 745AL ?@8?><8=0BL, GB> ?> 70<KA;C <0A>=A:8E B5>@5B8:>2 8<5==> A>740=85 8@>2>3> &5=B@0;L=>3> 10=:0 4>;6=> 1K;> >7=0<5=>20BL >:>=G0=85 AB@>8B5;LAB20 8E <8@>2>9 "D8;>A>DA:>9" 8<?5@88. >A;CH=> 2K?>;=OO 2>;N 0=3;>-0<5@8:0=A:>3> D8=0=A>2>3> 8AB51;8H<5=B0, 8@>2>9 &5=B@0;L=K9 10=: 1C45B ?@8720= @53C;8@>20BL <>=5B0@=CN ?>;8B8:C 2A5E >AB0;L=KE F5=B@0;L=KE 10=:>2 <8@0, 0 3;02=>5, ?>445@6820BL >48=0:>2CN 4;O 2A5E CG0AB=8:>2 D8=0=A>2>3> @K=:0 ?@>F5=B=CN AB02:C. K ?><=8<, GB> 2 A2>5 2@5<O F5=B@0;L=K5 10=:8 C7C@?8@>20;8 =0F8>=0;L=K9 AC25@5=8B5B =0@>4>2, ;8H0O 8E ?@028B5;LAB20 8A:>==>3> ?@020 >ACI5AB2;OBL M<8AA8N 45=53 8 A>74020BL =>2K9 :@548B. "5?5@L 3@O4CI89 & 10=:, :0: 548=>2;0AB=K9 E>7O8= =0 <8@>2>< D8=0=A>2>< @K=:5, 1C45B 2 A>AB>O=88 C7C@?8@>20BL MB> ?@02> C >AB0;L=KE, "?5@8D5@89=KE" F5=B@0;L=KE 10=:>2. > 8725AB=><C 2K@065=8N :;0AA8:>2, =0<5G05BAO "2K25@=CB0O" M:A?@>?@80F8O M:A?@>?@80B>@>2 2> 2A5<8@=>< <0AHB015. 5 B@C4=> C2845BL, GB> 70 3>;>A;>2=K<8 7025@5=8O<8 > ?>;L75 8 4065 1;035 548=>3> <8@>2>3> 10=:>2A:>3> F5=B@0 A:@K205BAO =542C7=0G=>5 AB@5<;5=85 0<5@8:0=A:>9 >;830@E88 AF5<5=B8@>20BL A2>N C4CH0NICN E20B:C =0 D8=0=A>2KE A8AB5<0E 4@C38E AC25@5==KE AB@0=. 0 ?@8<5@>< 40;5:> E>48BL =5 A;54C5B. 7OBL E>BO 1K, :070;>AL 1K, B0:CN "=528==CN" DC=:F8N 1C4CI53> & 10=:0, :0: @53C;8@>20=85 <564C=0@>4=>9 ?@>F5=B=>9 AB02:8. 064><C M:>=><8ABC E>@>H> 8725AB=>, GB> A ?><>ILN ?@>F5=B=>9 AB02:8 <>6=> ;53:> 428=CBL >3@><=K5 <0AAK :0?8B0;0 2 :0:CN C3>4=> AB>@>=C. A;8 ?@54?>;>68<, GB> ?@>F5=B=0O AB02:0 1C45B >48=0:>2>9 2> 2A5E AB@0=0E, B>, 157 A><=5=8O, <564C=0@>4=K5 8=25AB>@K 1C4CB 2:;04K20BL A2>8 45=L38, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L, 2 M:>=><8:C !(, 2 <5=LH59 AB5?5=8 2 M:>=><8:C 4@C38E @0728BKE :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:8E AB@0= 8 A>2A5< <0;>, 5A;8 2>>1I5 1C4CB, 2 A;01> @0728BK5 AB@0=K. B> 70E>G5B @8A:>20BL A2>8<8 45=L30<8, 2:;04K20O 8E 2 =525@=CN >AA8N, 5A;8 B0<, =0?@8<5@, ?@>F5=B=0O AB02:0 B0:0O 65 8;8 ?>GB8 B0:0O 65, :0: 2 AB018;L=>9 =0456=>9 8 157>?0A=>9 <5@8:5. 025@=>5, <=>385 5I5 ?><=OB =5402=55 157C<85 @>AA89A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20, :>B>@>5, ?KB0OAL C45@60BL 2 AB@0=5 8=>AB@0==KE 8=25AB>@>2, >15I0;> 8< 150% 3>4>2KE, 2 B> 2@5<O, :>340 0<5@8:0=F0< ?>=04>18;>AL B>;L:> 5%, GB>1K C4>2;5B2>@8BL A2>8E :@548B>@>2. ;8==K5 CH8 A2>5:>@KAB=>9 ?>;8B8:8 0<5@8:0=A:8E D8=0=A>2KE 0;E8<8:>2 2KABC?0;8 B0: 2K@078B5;L=> 87-?>4 8458 A>740=8O & 10=:0, GB> 8E ;53:> <>6=> 1K;> @0A?>7=0BL 4065 157 A?5F80;L=>3> M:>=><8G5A:>3> >1@07>20=8O. >340 =0 A>2<5AB=>9 :>=D5@5=F88 $,  8 <8=8AB@>2 D8=0=A>2 1>;LH>9 A5<5@:8, :>B>@0O A>AB>O;0AL 2 =0G0;5 >:BO1@O 1998 3>40 2 0H8=3B>=5, 0<5@8:0=FK 1K;> ?>?@>1>20;8 =09B8 ":>=A5=ACA" 4;O A>740=8O 8@>2>3> 0=:0, B> 4065 8E 1;8609H85 A>N7=8:8, 70 8A:;NG5=85< @01>;5?AB2CNI59 =3;88, >B:070;8AL ?>445@60BL MB>B A2>5:>@KAB=K9 70<KA5; =LN-9>@:A:8E D8=0=A>2KE D>:CA=8:>2. >;55 B>3>, A25B8;0< M:>=><8G5A:>9 <KA;8 1>;LH>9 A5<5@:8 =5 C40;>AL =09B8 548=>3> >1I53> 7=0<5=0B5;O 4;O @5H5=8O 8=KE, 4065 2B>@>AB5?5==KE, D8=0=A>2>-M:>=><8G5A:8E ?@>1;5< A>2@5<5==>3> <8@>2>3> :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:>3> @K=:0. 0?@8<5@, =5<FK, 7=0O, : G5<C MB> <>65B ?@825AB8, =0>B@57 >B:070;8AL ?>A;54>20BL "15A:>@KAB=><C" ?@8<5@C 0<5@8:0=A:>3> $  8 A=878BL 87=0G0;L=CN ?@>F5=B=CN AB02:C A2>53> &. I5 1>;55 =5?>A;CH=K<8 >:070;8AL O?>=FK. 8:0:85 A;04:85 >15I0=8O, C3>20@820=85 8 4065 A:@KBK5 C3@>7K =5 <>3;8 70AB028BL C?@O<>-256;82KE O?>H5: A>3;0A8BLAO =0 0<5@8:0=A:85 ?;0=K @5D>@<8@>20=8O 8E 10=:>2A:>9 A8AB5<K. <5AB> ?@8?8AK205<>3> C>;;-AB@8BA:8<8 4>:B>@0<8 >BA>548=5=8O 8E "1>;L=KE" 10=:>2 >B :0?5;L=8FK 3>AC40@AB25==>3> D8=0=A8@>20=8O, O?>=A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> @5H8;> 2;8BL 900 <8;;80@4>2 4>;;0@>2 =>2>3> :@548B0 2 A2>N =54><>30NICN D8=0=A>2CN A8AB5<C. /?>=FK >:070;8AL ?@02K 2 A2>8E @0AG5B0E. 4=> 8725AB85 >1 MB>< @5H5=88 O?>=A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20 24>E=>28;> =5 B>;L:> O?>=A:CN D8=0=A>2CN 18@6C, => B0:65 ?>@>48;> =0AB>OICN M9D>@8N =0 2A5E 18@60E .3>->AB>G=>9 788. 4=>2@5<5==> 0B<>AD5@0 C=K=8O 8 @07>G0@>20=8O >:CB0;0 HB01-:20@B8@K 0=3;>-0<5@8:0=A:8E D8=0=A>2KE "4>:B>@>2", :>B>@K5, @0AAG8BK20O =0 <0AA>2>5 10=:@>BAB2> O?>=A:8E 10=:>2, C65 ?@83>B>28;8AL A:C?0BL 8E >15AF5=82H85AO 0:F88. :07K205BAO, GB> A5:@5B @5H5=8O <=>38E D8=0=A>2>-M:>=><8G5A:8E ?@>1;5< 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB>1K 256;82> 2KA;CH0BL 0<5@8:0=A:8E "15A:>@KAB=KE" :>=AC;LB0=B>2 8 A45;0BL 2A5 =0>1>@>B. 0A>=>-52@59A:85 D8=0=A8ABK 0?040 ?@5:@0A=> ?>=8<0NB, GB> <8@>2>5 A>>1I5AB2> 1C45B 2AOG5A:8 A>?@>B82;OBLAO 8E 0@:0==K< 845O< A>740=8O 8@>2>3> &5=B@0;L=>3> 10=:0 8 40;L=59H53> ?@8A?>A01;820=8O D8=0=A>2>-M:>=><8G5A:>3> "A2>1>4=>3>" @K=:0 : A2>5:>@KAB=K< ?>B@51=>ABO< 0<5@8:0=A:>3> :0?8B0;0. >MB><C 4;O 48A:@548B8@>202H53> A51O 2 3;070E <8@>2>3> A>>1I5AB20 7;>3> A5@>3> 2>;:0 ?>4 =0720=85< ">B:@KBK9 A2>1>4=K9 @K=>:" >=8 AH8;8 A8<?0B8G=>N :@0A=CN H0?>G:C, :>B>@0O ?>;CG8;0 8=B@83CNI55 =0720=85 B5>@88 "@5BL53> CB8. !53>4=O MB0 B5>@8O 0:B82=> ?@>?030=48@C5BAO 871@0==K<8 ;N18<G8:0<8 <0A>=A:>3> 1@0BAB20 0<5@8:0=A:8< ?@57845=B>< . ;8=B>=>< 8 1@8B0=A:8< ?@5<L5@-<8=8AB@>< ". ;M@><. 71530O 745AL 45B0;L=>3> >?8A0=8O MB>3>, ?>;=>3> 1;038E A;>25A=KE C:@0H5=89, ?>A;54=53> 87>1@5B5=8O <0A>=A:8E B5>@5B8:>2, "@5B89 CBL <>6=> >E0@0:B5@87>20BL :0: =>2K9 <8@>2>9 ?>@O4>: A "G5;>25G5A:8<" ;8F><. AC640O =0 A;>20E =5:>B>@K5 C@>4;82K5 D>@<K B5?5@5H=53> <8@>2>3> >B:@KB>3> @K=:0, 845>;>38 "@5BL53> CB8 CB25@640NB, GB> A ?><>ILN 548=>3> F5=B@0;L=>3> 10=:0, ?>2A5<5AB-=>9 AB0=40@B870F88 10=:>2A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, G0AB8G=>3> 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 2<5H0B5;LAB20 2 M:>=><8:C, 10;0=A8@>20=85< 8=25AB8F89 8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=85< "?5@54>2>9" 70?04=>9 M:>=><8G5A:>9 <KA;8 <>6=> 1C45B 2?@54L 871560BL ?>4>1=KE D8=0=A>2KE :@878A>2, :>B>@K5 =K=G5 15760;>AB=> A28@5?AB2CNB 2 @07=KE G0ABOE 75<=>3> H0@0. >=OB=>, GB> ?> <=5=8N 20H8=3B>=A:8E :>=A?8@0B>@>2 A>740=85 B0:>3> ?>2A5<5AB=>3> "1;03>A;>25==>3> =0@>4=>3> :0?8B0;87<0" <>6=> >ACI5AB28BL B>;L:> A ?><>ILN "?@>A25I5==>3>" 0<5@8:0=A:>3> @C:>2>4AB20 <8@>2>9 M:>=><8:>9 8 ?>;=>3> ?>A;CH0=8O >AB0;L=>9 G0AB8 G5;>25G5AB20. @C38<8 A;>20<8, 70 <5;:85 ?>40G:8, ?CABK5 >15I0=8O 8 C7C@?0B>@A:85 :@548BK AC25@5==K5 =0@>4K 4>;6=K >:>=G0B5;L=> ?>4G8=8BAO ?>;=>9 48:B0BC@5 0=3;>-0<5@8:0=A:>9 <0A>=A:>9 D8=0=A>2>9 :;8:8. 5 >3@0=8G820OAL G8AB> ?>;8B8:>-M:>=><8G5A:>9 48:B0BC@>9, >=8 2A5 =0AB>9G8259 3>2>@OB > =5>1E>48<>AB8 3;>10;878@>20=8O ?@02>2KE A8AB5<, <8@>2>9 :C;LBC@K, >1I5G5;>25G5A:>9 <>@0;8 8 4065 2K@01>B:8 548=>3> 4;O 2A5E =0@>4>2 A>7=0=8O, 70B>;:02 8E 2 65AB:85 H>@K <0A>=A:>3> C<>7@5=8O 8 0<5@8:0=A:>3> >1@070 687=8.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O, =5 ?> A2>59 28=5, <K >:070;8AL 2 >4=>< 87 :@8B8G5A:8 A;>6=KE ?5@8>4>2 AB@>8B5;LAB20 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0, :>340 ?>@>645==K9 @0720;>< !!!  ?5@2K9 F8:; 3;>10;870F88 ?>4>H5; : A2>5<C 15AA;02=><C :>=FC, 8 :>340 =0 @C8=0E =K=5H=53> ?>2A5<5AB=>3> M:>=><8G5A:>3> :@878A0 =LN-9>@:A:0O D8=0=A>20O :;8:0 ?KB05BAO >:>=G0B5;L=> 70:@5?8BL A2>5 B8@0=AB2> 8 3>A?>4AB2>, ?@52@0B82 25AL >AB0;L=>9 <8@ 2 A2>N 15A?@02=CN :>;>=8N. >=8<0O, GB> 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O 845O >B:@KB>3> <8@>2>3> @K=:0 4>2>;L=>-B0:8 A51O 48A:@548B8@>20;0 8 >4=8<8 M:>=><8G5A:8<8 <5B>40<8 ?@>F5AA 3;>10;870F88 2>7@>48BL 1C45B BO65;>, 0<5@8:0=A:85 8<?5@80;8ABK 2A5 G0I5 ?@81530NB : <5B>40< ?>;8B8G5A:>3> 402;5=8O 8 2>5==>3> @071>O. 0: MB> G0AB> A;CG0;>AL 2 8AB>@88 A 4@C38<8 48:B0B>@A:8<8 @568<0<8, :>B>@K5 =587156=> ?@81530;8 : =0A8;8N 2 CA;>28OE M:>=><8G5A:8E :@878A>2, =K=5H=85 ?@028B5;8 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0 2A5 G0I5 ?>B@OA0NB >@C685<, 8A:CAAB25==> =03=5B0NB <564C=0@>4=CN =0?@O65==>ABL 8 @076830NB <=>3>G8A;5==K5 2>5==K5 :>=D;8:BK. ! =5402=53> 2@5<5=8 4065 <=>385 "8;;N<8=8@>20==K5" @>AA89A:85 @5D>@<0B>@K C@07C<5;8, GB> <8@>2>9 >B:@KBK9 @K=>: O2;O5BAO =8G5< 8=K<, :0: C4>1=K< >@C485< 2 @C:0E 0=3;>-0<5@8:0=A:8E 10=:8@>2 4;O >:>=G0B5;L=>3> 8A:>@5=5=8O A2>8E M:>=><8G5A:8E :>=:C@5=B>2, 0 =5 CA;>285< 2708<>2K3>4=>9 8 @02=>?@02=>9 <564C=0@>4=>9 B>@3>2;8, :0: MB> CB25@640;8 8E 30@20@4A:85 <5F5=0BK. >;55 B>3>, 2K4C<0==K9 8<8 8 2AOG5A:8 2>AE20;O5<K9 <8D ?@58<CI5AB2 D8=0=A>2>-M:>=><8G5A:>9 3;>10;870F88, :>B>@K9 >=8 ?@54AB02;ONB :0: 8AB>@8G5A:8 =587156=K9 ?@>F5AA @0728B8O <8@>2>9 M:>=><8:8, 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 O2;O5BAO 4065 40;5:> =5 A0<>9 ;CGH59 D>@<>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 >B:@KB>3> A2>1>4=>3> @K=:0. @C3>5 45;>, GB> =>20O ?@028B5;LAB25==0O :><0=40 >AA88 =5 8<55B =8 4>AB0B>G=> A<5;>AB8, =8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=>AB8, =8 2;0AB8, GB>1K, 2>A?>;L7>202H8AL 2@5<5==K< >A;01;5=85< F5=B@>AB@5<8B5;L=KE A8; D8=0=A>2>-M:>=><8G5A:>9 3;>10;870F88, ?>?KB0BLAO 2K@20BLAO 87 IC?0;LF52 <564C=0@>4=>3> D8=0=A>2>3> A?@CB0. ;02=K< ?@5?OBAB285< =0 ?CB8 >74>@>2;5=8O @>AA89A:>9 M:>=><8:8 O2;O5BAO =K=5H=OO 5;LF8=A:0O >=AB8BCF8O, :>B>@0O 30@0=B8@C5B =5?@8:>A=>25==>ABL G0AB=>9 A>1AB25==>AB8 2 B>9 C@>4;82>9 D>@<5, 2 :0:>9 55 ?>@>48;0 2>@>2A:0O GC109A>2A:>-G5@=><K@48=A:0O ?@820B870F8O. 5 3>2>@O C65 > 2>@>2A:>< E0@0:B5@5 @>AA89A:>9 ?@820B870F88, CA;>28O :>B>@>9 1K;8 A20@30=5=K 8A:;NG8B5;L=> =0 1;03> CG0AB=8:>2 ?@820B870F8>==>9 83@K, M:>=><8G5A:8 >=0 1K;0 >ACI5AB2;5=0 A>25@H5==> =53@0<>B=>. "0:, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L, 1K;8 ?>A?5H=> @0AE20B0=K B5 >B@0A;8 M:>=><8:8, :>B>@K5 A>25@H5==> =5 =C640;8AL 2 ?@820B870F88. 0?@8<5@, :0: 3@81K ?>A;5 4>64O, 2 >AA88 @0A?;>48;>AL <=>65AB2> G0AB=KE ?>A@54=8G5A:8E D8@< 4;O M:A?>@B0 =5DB5?@>4C:B>2, F25B=KE <5B0;;>2, 7>;>B0, 0;<07>2 8 3070, B. 5. B0:8E B>20@>2, =0 :>B>@K5 ACI5AB2C5B ?>AB>O==K9 8 AB018;L=K9 A?@>A 70 3@0=8F59, 0 ?>MB><C 3>AC40@AB2> A0<> <>3;> ?@>4>;60BL 70=8<0BLAO 8E ?@81K;L=K< M:A?>@B><.  @57C;LB0B5 MB>3> 4>E>4 >B ?@>4068 @>AA89A:8E AK@L52KE 8 M=5@35B8G5A:8E @5AC@A>2, 2<5AB> B>3>, GB>1K ?>?>;=OBL 3>AC40@AB25==CN :07=C, ?>;=>ABLN C?;K; 2 G0AB=K5 @C:8. 45AL =5 ?><5H05B ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> 4065 2 @0728BKE :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:8E AB@0=0E ?@028B5;LAB20 =8:>340 =5 ?@81530NB : ?@820B870F88 ?@54?@8OB89, :>B>@K5 ?@8=>AOB 4>E>4 8 8A?@02=> ?;0BOB =0;>38. @820B878@>202 :;NG52K5 8 A0<K5 ?@81K;L=K5 >B@0A;8 ?@><KH;5==>AB8, @>AA89A:>5 3>AC40@AB2> ;8H8;> A51O =5 B>;L:> 4>E>40 >B 8E 45OB5;L=>AB8, => B0:65 >AB0;>AL 157 M:>=><8G5A:>3> @KG030, A ?><>ILN :>B>@>3> ?@028B5;LAB2> <>3;> 1K >ACI5AB28BL =5>1E>48<K5 @5D>@<K. 0?@8<5@, 1>;LH528:0< 2 1>;55 BO65;KE 8AB>@8G5A:8E CA;>28OE, G5< =K=5H=85, C40;>AL CA?5H=> >ACI5AB28BL ?@>3@0<<C -0 B>;L:> ?>B><C, GB> :;NG52K5 >B@0A;8 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 8 10=:8 =0E>48;8AL 2 @C:0E 3>AC40@AB20. '0AB=>?@54?@8=8<0B5;LA:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL 1K;0 @07@5H5=0 =0 B5E CG0AB:0E M:>=><8:8, 345 >=0 <>3;0 ?@8=>A8BL ?>;L7C 4;O 2>AAB0=>2;5=8O @07@CH5==>3> B>20@=>3> @K=:0.  >B;8G85 >B <0;>3@0<>B=KE =M?<0=>2 8 =5>B5A0==KE 45@525=A:8E :C;0:>2 20-E 3>4>2, =K=5H=OO ?>@>40 =>2>@>AA89A:8E 187=5A<5=>2 70=8<0BLAO <0;> ?@81K;L=K< 8 A:CG=K< 45;>< B>20@=>3> ?@>872>4AB20 =5 ?>65;0;0. @C3>5 45;> B>@3>2;O, 0 >A>15==> M:A?>@B=>-8<?>@B=0O. 0:>=><5@=K< @57C;LB0B>< B0:>3> A5;5:B82=>3> A?>A>10 ?@820B870F88 >:070;>AL B>, GB> A A0<>3> =0G0;0 A2>53> ACI5AB2>20=8O @>AA89A:89 :0?8B0;87< ?@52@0B8;AO 2 ?0@078B8@CNICN, =5?@>872>4OICN M:>=><8G5A:CN A8AB5<C, :>B>@0O 2<5AB> M:A?>@B0 ?@>4C:F88 =0G0;0 M:A?>@B8@>20BL 45=L38. >AA89A:89 ?0@078-B8G5A:89 :0?8B0;87< >:070;AO =5?@8A?>A>1;5==K< =5 B>;L:> : 708<AB2>20=8N ?5@54>2>9 <8@>2>9 B5E=>;>388, A ?><>ILN :>B>@>9 AB@0=0, >?8@0OAL =0 2KA>:>>1@07>20==CN 8 45H52CN @01>GCN A8;C, <>3;0 =0G0BL :>=:C@8@>20BL A 703@0=8G=K<8 B>20@0<8, => >:070;AO 4065 =5 2 A>AB>O=88 CA2>8BL ?>;CG5==K9 8=>AB@0==K9 :0?8B0;. <5AB> 70:C?>: ?5@54>2>9 703@0=8G=>9 B5E=>;>388 >AA8O =0G0;0 =0 70=OBK5 45=L38 70:C?0BL <0AAK 8<?>@B=>3> H8@?>B@510 8 ?@>4C:B>2.  B> 65 2@5<O >AB02;5==K5 =0 ?@>872>; AC4L1K "A5@K5 ;>H04:8" >B5G5AB25==>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 8 A5;LA:>3> E>7O9AB20, :>B>@K5 <>3;8 1K =5 <5=55 CA?5H=> 8 =5 1>;55 4>@>3> ?@>872>48BL 0=0;>38G=CN ?@>4C:F8N, 704KE0;8AL >B ?>AB>O==>9 =5E20B:8 8=25AB8F8>==>3> :0?8B0;0. 5 ;CGH8< >1@07>< >1AB>OB 45;0 8 2 B5E =5:>340 ?@81K;L=KE >B@0A;OE ?@>872>4AB20, :>B>@K5 1K;8 <><5=B0;L=> @0AE20B0=K >B5G5AB25==K< 8 70@C156=K< :0?8B0;>< 2 A0<>< =0G0;5 ?@820B870F88. %@>=8G5A:8 =54>8=-25AB8@C5<K5 8 ?>AB>O==> @0A:@04K205<K5, >=8 ?@52@0B8;8AL 2 60;:89 ?@87@0: A2>53> 1K;>3> <>3CI5AB20. !53>4=O 2 >AA88 ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5 >AB0;>AL B0:8E ?@>872>4AB25==KE 3830=B>2, :>B>@K5 <>3;8 1K CA?5H=> :>=:C@8@>20BL A 1>;LH8<8 8=>AB@0==K<8 :>@?>@0F8O<8 8 :>B>@K5 <>3;8 1K ?>A;C68BL AB@C:BC@=K< E@51B>< 1C4CI53> M:>=><8G5A:>3> 2>7@>645=8O AB@0=K.  B> 65 2@5<O 5I5 =5A:>;L:> ;5B =0704 >AA8O 1K;0 >G5=L 1;87:0 : <8@>2><C 4><8=8@>20=8N 2 >1;0AB8 0280AB@>5=8O, :>A<8G5A:>9, >1>@>==>9 8 M=5@35B8G5A:>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8. >MB><C, 8AE>4O 87 B>3> >G5284=>3> D0:B0, GB> 3;02=>9 ?@8G8=>9 @07@CH5=8O @>AA89A:>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 1K;0 =5@07C<=0O 8 2@54=0O 4;O E>7O9AB25==>3> 74>@>2LO AB@0=K ?@820B870F8O, =5;L7O 871560BL 70:>=><5@=>3> 2K2>40 > =5>1E>48<>AB8 @5=0F8>=0;870F88 2A5E :;NG52KE 8 687=5==> 206=KE >B@0A;59 @>AA89A:>9 M:>=><8:8. 57 MB>3> 1>;57=5==>3>, => 2 B>65 2@5<O =5>1E>48<>3> H030 =8 >4=> @>AA89A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2>, B5?5@L 8;8 2 1C4CI5<, =5 1C45B 2 A>AB>O=88 ?@>25AB8 @0F8>=0;L=KE @5D>@< 8 =0?@028BL AB@0=C =0 ?CBL M:>=><8G5A:>3> 2>7@>645=8O. 5AA<KA;5==0O, =8:>340 2 ?>4>1=>9 848>B8G5A:>9 D>@<5 =5 2AB@5G0NI0OAO 2 8AB>@88 G5;>25G5AB20, @>AA89A:0O ?@820B870F8O >:070;0AL @>:>2>9 =5 B>;L:> 2 >B=>H5=88 >B5G5AB25==>9 M:>=><8:8, => B0:65 8<5;0 40;5:> 84CI85 ?>;8B8G5A:85 ?>A;54AB28O 4;O F5;>AB=>AB8 AB@0=K. >1@>2>;L=> ?5@5402 =081>;55 ?@>872>48B5;L=K5 8 A0<K5 ?@81K;L=K5 >B@0A;8 >B5G5AB25==>9 M:>=><8:8 2 G0AB=K5 @C:8, ?@028B5;LAB2> ?@52@0B8;>AL 2 15AA8;L=CN <0@8>=5B:C 2 @C:0E A2>5:>@KAB=KE ?@><KH;5==KE 10@>=>2 8 0;G=KE :;0=>2 D8=0=A>2>9 >;830@E88.  B><C 65, ?@52@0B82 >3@><=CN AB@0=C 2 <>708:C @538>=0;L=KE 2>BG8= 8 8=B5@5A>2, A20@;820O ?>@>40 =0H8E >;830@E>2 D0:B8G5A:8 ?>@20;0 682K5 =8B8 M:>=><8G5A:>3> >@30=87<0, :>B>@K5 =5:>340 =0456=> A2O7K20;8 >AA8N 2 >4=> <>3CG55 F5;>5. -B8< =570<54;8B5;L=> 2>A?>;L7>20;8AL =0H8 40;5:85 8 1;87:85 =54>1@>65;0B5;8, 2@06451=K5 MB=8G5A:85 A5?0@0B8ABK 8 ?@>AB> @07=>3> @>40 020=BN@8ABK, :>B>@K5, ?>;L7COAL @0ABCI59 A;01>ABLN F5=B@0;L=>9 2;0AB8, 1@>A8;8AL @0AB0A:820BL >3@><=>5 3>AC40@AB2> ?> G0ABO<. >MB><C 2>?@>A > =570<54;8B5;L=>9 @5=0F8>=0;870F88, 157 ?@5C25;8G5=8O, O2;O5BAO 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O 2>?@>A>< 687=8 8 A<5@B8 @>AA89A:>3> 3>AC40@AB20. @C3>9 =5 <5=55 ?03C1=>9 O72>9 =0 B5;5 @>AA89A:>9 M:>=><8:8 O2;O5BAO E0>B8G5A:8 1570;015@=0O, =0A:2>7L :@8<8=0;878@>20==0O 8 A>25@H5==> 15A?>;57=0O @>AA89A:0O 10=:>2A:0O A8AB5<0. %>BO ?> 70<KA;C =0H8E 1@02KE @5D>@<0B>@>2-?5@5AB@>9I8:>2 ?@820B870F8O D8=0=A>2>3> A5:B>@0 4>;6=0 1K;0 AB0BL 74>@>2K< :0B0;870B>@>< 2>7@>482H53>AO @>AA89A:>3> :0?8B0;87<0, =0H8 >B5G5AB25==K5 G0AB=K5 10=:8 70 A5<L AC<1C@=KE ;5B A2>53> 15A?CB=>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O 70=8<0;8AL G5< C3>4=>, => B>;L:> =5 =>@<0;L=>9 10=:>2A:>9 45OB5;L=>ABLN. > <5@5 B>3>, :0: CAKE0;0 8 2K@>640;0AL >B5G5AB25==0O ?@><KH;5==>ABL, 1C9=> @07@0AB0;>AL 1;03>A>AB>O=85 8 :>;8G5AB2> @>AA89A:8E :><<5@G5A:8E 10=:>2.  1997 3>4C 2 >1=8I02H59, =5 ?@>872>4OI59 8 15745=56=>9 >AA88, 1>3 25ABL 4;O :0:8E =C64, C65 =0AG8BK20;>AL 1>;55 1300 1>;LH8E 8 <0;KE G0AB=KE 10=:>2. A?>;L7CO A2>5 AB@0B538G5A:>5 ?>;>65=85 2 ?5@5:0G:5 :@548B>2, 8=>AB@0==KE 709<>2 8 8=25AB8F8>==>3> :0?8B0;0, @>AA89A:85 :><<5@G5A:85 10=:8 1KAB@> ?@52@0B8;8AL 87 ?>A@54=8:>2 2 3;02=KE CG0AB=8:>2 C3>;>2=>9 ?@820B870F8>==>9 >@388. >=AC;LB8@C5<K5 A2>8<8 70@C156=K<8 <5=B>@0<8, @>AA89A:85 G0AB=K5 10=:8 2A:>@5 A>A@54>B>G8;8 2 A2>8E @C:0E >3@><=CN G0ABL ?@820B878@>20==>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8, :>B>@CN >=8, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, =0G0;8 ?5@5?@>4020BL 8=>AB@0==K< 0:F8>=5@0<.  @57C;LB0B5 B0:>9 A2>5>1@07=>9 :><<5@G5A:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 =0H8E "=5?@527>945==KE" 10=:>2 87 AB@0=K 1K;> 2K2575=>, ?@>40=> 8 C:@045=> ?>GB8 2A5, GB> 8<5;> :0:CN-B> B>20@=CN F5==>ABL. >A;54=89 D8=0=A>2K9 :@878A 2 AB@0=5, :>B>@K9, 745AL A;54C5B 70<5B8BL, 1K; 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 AB5?5=8 CAC3C1;5= :@548B=>9 ?>;8B8:>9 @>48<KE 10=:>2, ?>AB028; ?>A;54=NN B>G:C 2 15AA;02=>9 A035 CG0AB8O @>AA89A:8E 10=:>2 2 ?@820B870F8>==>< ?@>F5AA5. AB02H8AL 2;0AB8B5;O<8 @07<>=B8@>20==KE, ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5459AB2CNI8E ?@>872>4AB25==KE >1J5:B>2, >=8 =5 8<5;8 4@C3>9 2>7<>6=>AB8 @0A?;0B8BLAO A 70@C156=K<8 :@548B>@0<8, :0: >B40BL 8< >AB0B:8 8<CI5AB20 ?@820B878@>20==KE 8-<8 ?@54?@8OB89. >:0 GB> 8E ?>->BF>2A:8 2@5<5==> 70I8I05B @>4=>5 ?@028B5;LAB2>, :>B>@>5 =0;>68;> <>@0B>@89 =0 C?;0BC 8=>AB@0==>9 704>;65==>AB8. C, 0 GB> 45;0BL 40;LH5? 54L B0:0O A8BC0F8O 25G=> 4;8BLAO =5 <>65B. 0: =5 :@CB8, 2KE>4 745AL B>;L:> >48=. 'B>1K A?0AB8 AB@0=C >B ?>;=59H53> M:>=><8G5A:>3> @0720;0, ?@028B5;LAB2> 4>;6=> :0: <>6=> 1KAB@55 =0F8>=0;878@>20BL 2A5 :@C?=K5 G0AB=K5 10=:8 8 0==C;8@>20BL 8=>AB@0==K5 4>;38. >=OB=>, GB> =K=5H=89 ?>;8B8G5A:89 @568<, :>B>@K9 O2;O5BAO 2K@078B5;5< 8=B5@5A>2 1>;LH>3> @>AA89A:>3> :0?8B0;0, =0 B0:>9 H03 =8:>340 =5 ?>945B.  157 MB>3> >?OBL 65 =8 > :0:>< M:>=><8G5A:>< 2>7@>645=88 AB@0=K =5 <>65B 1KBL 8 @5G8.  AD5@5 1;038E 8;;N789 A;54C5B B0:65 >B=5AB8 7025@5=8O =K=5H=53> "B@0=78B=>3>" @>AA89A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20 > 2>7<>6=>AB8 2K2>40 AB@0=K 87 :@878A0 ?CB5< C25;8G5=8O M<8AA88 45=53, CA8;5=8O 3>AC40@AB25==>3> :>=B@>;O 70 M:A?>@B><, AC1A848@>20=8O >B5G5AB25==>3> ?@>872>4AB20, @5D>@<8@>20=85< 10=:>2 8 C:@5?;5=85< E>7O9AB25==>9 70:>==>AB8. N1OI85 A@02=820BL A2>8 25;8:85 @5D>@<0B>@A:85 =0G8=0=8O A 0=0;>38G=K<8 703@0=8G=K<8 45O=8O<8, =0H8 "?@>A25I5==K5" 70?04=8:8 157 B5=8 A<CI5=8O ?@8@02=820NB A2>8 ?;0=K 2K2>40 AB@0=K 87 :@878A0 A> 7=0<5=8BK< >2K< >3>2>@>< 0<5@8:0=A:>3> ?@57845=B0 $. . C725;LB0. !CBL MB>3> >3>2>@0 A2>48;0AL : B><C, GB>, ?@8153=C2 : ?@028B5;LAB25==><C 2<5H0B5;LAB2C 2 M:>=><8G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL AB@0=K 8 C25;8G82 =0;8G85 =87:>?@>F5=B=KE :@548B>2, 0<5@8:0=A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> AC<5;> 2K25AB8 AB@0=C 87 70BO6=>9 M:>=><8G5A:>9 45?@5AA88 :>=F0 20-E-=0G0;0 30-E 3>4>2. C6=> A:070BL, GB> ?>4>1=0O M:>=><8G5A:0O ?>;8B8:0 2AB@5G0;0AL =5 >48= @07 2 =5@>2=>9 8AB>@88 :0?8B0;87<0 8 A @07=>9 4>;59 CA?5E0 ?@8<5=O;0AL ?@028B5;LAB20<8 @07=KE AB@0=, :0: 4> C725;LB0, B0: 8 ?>A;5 =53>. @8<5=OO ?>4>1=CN M:>=><8G5A:CN ?>;8B8:C, 5I5 1>;55 ?>@078B5;L=KE CA?5E>2, G5< <0;>?>4286=K9 52@59 C725;LB, 4>18;AO =5?>A54;82K9 0@85F 8B;5@ 2 5@<0=88.  B5G5=85 =5A:>;L:8E :>@>B:8E ;5B =0F8ABA:><C ?@028B5;LAB2C C40;>AL ?>;=>ABLN >1C740BL E@>=8G5A:8 2KA>:CN 8=D;OF8N, =587<5==> C25;8G820BL 2K?CA: 20;>2>9 ?@><KH;5==>9 ?@>4C:F88 8 4>18BLAO D0:B8G5A:8 ?>;=>9 B@C4>2>9 70=OB>AB8 =0A5;5=8O AB@0=K. >, A>18@0OAL 45;L=> =0A;54>20BL 2?5G0B;ONI85 ?@8<5@K 5@<0=88 8 !>548=5==KE (B0B>2, =0H8 30;;NF8=8@CNI85 @5D>@<0B>@K C?CA:0NB 87 284C, GB>, 2 >B;8G85 >B MB8E AB@0=, :>B>@K5 @0A?>;030;8 E>@>H> =0;065==>9 D8=0=A>2>-M:>=><8G5A:>9 8=D@0AB@C:BC@>9, A?>A>1=>9 2?8B0BL 8 ?5@5@01>B0BL 3>AC40@AB25==K5 :@58BK, =0H >B5G5AB25==K9 :0?8B0;87< =5 8<55B 01A>;NB=> =8:0:8E CA;>289 4;O ?@>4C:B82=>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O 1>;LH>9 <0AAK =>2>3> 45=56=>3> :0?8B0;0, :>B>@K9 =587156=> @0A?;K25BAO 2 15A?@>A25B=>9 <3;5 15A:>=5G=>3> @>AA89A:>3> 15A?@545;0. KB0BLAO A?0AB8 @>AA89A:89 :0?8B0;87< 548=AB25==> D8=0=A>2>-<>=5B0@=K<8 <5B>40<8, 157 ?@5420@8B5;L=> ?@>2545==>9 @5=0F8>=0;870F88 :;NG52KE >B@0A;59 ?@><KH;5==>AB8 8 :><<5@G5A:8E 10=:>2, 157 2>7>1=>2;5=8O ?@56=8E M:>=><8G5A:8E A2O759 <564C ?@54?@8OB8O<8 8 @538>=0<8, 157 3>AC40@AB25==>3> @53C;8@>20=8O F5= 8 157 A>740=8O =5>1E>48<>9 4;O =>@<0;L=>9 E>7O9AB25==>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 ?@02>2>9 107K - MB> 2A5 @02=>, GB> @0A?CA:0BL ?0@CA0 =0 ?>3@C65==>9 2 2>4C ;>4:5. > <5@5 C3;C1;5=8O @>AA89A:>3> D8=0=A>2>-M:>=><8G5A:>3> :@878A0 2A5 1>;LH5 ;N459 ?@8E>4OB : C15645=8N, GB> 157 =5?>?C;O@=KE 2 :@C30E 3>A?>4AB2CNI53> :;0AA0 8 1>;57=5==KE 4;O 2A5E >AB0;L=KE A>3@0640= M:>=><8G5A:8E 8 ?>;8B8G5A:8E 87<5=5=89 =0H0 AB@0=0 >1@5G5=0 =0 =587156=CN 4578=B53@0F8N 8 2K<8@0=85.  '" "/ "5B 1>;55 ?>7>@=>3> @01AB20, G5< @01AB2> 4>1@>2>;L=>5". !5=5:0 #G5=K5 0AB@>=><K CB25@640NB, GB>, :>340 O45@=K9 "42830B5;L" 72574K 8AG5@?05B >AB0B:8 A2>53> 2>4>@>4=>3> 3>@NG53>, B>340 >3@><=>5 :>A<8G5A:>5 B5;> =0G8=05B @0A?040BLAO =0 G0AB8 ?>4 BO65ABLN A>1AB25==>9 >E;0640NI59AO <0AAK. 4=0:>, A;54CO 70:>=0< 3@028B0F8>==>9 A8;K ?@8BO65=8O, >AB0B:8 ?>381H59 72574K 5I5 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O 1C4CB 28E@5< :@C68BLAO 2>:@C3 A2>53>, C65 =5 ACI5AB2CNI53>, F5=B@0, ?>:0 =5 C=5ACBAO 2 15A:@09=85 ?@>AB>@K A5;5==>9, ?@52@0B82H8AL 2 <5;:CN :>A<8G5A:CN ?K;L, B>;L:> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K, ?>?02 2 >@18BC 4@C3>9 72574K, 70A25B8BLAO >BBC40 GC68< 8 40;5:8< A25B><. 'B>-B> ?>4>1=>5 A;CG8;>AL 8 A 1K2H59 !>25BA:>9 8<?5@859. !@07C ?>A;5 @0720;0 !>25BA:>3> !>N70 1;87:>5 8 40;L=55 70@C156L5, :0: 1K =5 >A>7=02 4> :>=F0 3;C18=K A;CG82H59AO :0B0AB@>DK, 5I5 :0:>5-B> 2@5<O 2@0I0;8AL ?> ?@82KG=>9 >@18B5, B@52>6=> >3;O4K20OAL ?> AB>@>=0< 8 A >?0A:>9 >6840O A;54CNI53> H030 >A:2K. 4=8, :0: ?@810;B89A:85 @5A?C1;8:8, >;LH0 8 5=3@8O, A 1>O7=LN 8 =54>25@85< A;548;8 70 :064K< 42865=85< @5<;O, >?0A0OAL, :0: 1K 8E =5 ">::C?8@>20;8" >1@0B=>. @C385, ?@58<CI5AB25==> 2 1;86=5< 70@C156L5, A> A:@KB>9 =04564>9 B09=> 1@>A0;8 =>AB0;L38G5A:85 273;O4K : 1K2H5<C F5=B@C.  =C-:0, <>65B, >1@07C<8BAO I54@0O <0BCH:0 >AA8O, <>65B, =5<=>6:> ?@83@55B =0A, A8@>B, A2>8<8 =5DB54>;;0@0<8, <>65B, 4065 ?><>65B ?>;>68BL :>=5F =0H8< <564>CA>18F0<8. 0?@0A=> =045O;8AL >4=8 8 =0?@0A=> 1>O;8AL 4@C385. 1<0=CB0O, 87@0=5==0O 8 A?82H0OAO >AA8O =5 1K;0 2 A>AB>O=88 @07>1@0BLAO B>;:>< 4065 2 A2>8E A>1AB25==KE 45;0E. 0: >3@><=K9 ?>;C682>9 725@L, >=0 15AA8;L=> @0ABO=C;0AL =0 420 :>=B8=5=B0, =5 8<5O 1>;LH5 =8 A8;K, =8 65;0=8O A>?@>B82;OBLAO A<5@B5;L=>9 1>;57=8. , <>65B, 2A5 B0:8, ?@8?02 3@C4LN : @>4=>9 75<;5, >=0 H5?>B>< <>;8BAO 1>3C, =0:0?;820O A25685 A8;K, 8 >68405B A2>53> ;CGH53> G0A0?  B5< 2@5<5=5< 55 1K2H85 A0B5;;8BK @07;5B5;8AL :B> :C40. >;LH0, 5=3@8O 8 '5E8O C65 ?@83@5;8AL 70 ?@>AB>@=>9 ?07CE>9 C ". C<K=8O, >;30@8O 8 @810;B8:0 B>65 A:@51CBAO 2 704=NN 425@L "2A:>9 E0BK. 02:07 8 !@54=OO 78O >?OBL 25@=C;8AL 2 A2>N ?@82KG=CN AB8E8N, 70=O2H8AL :@>202>9 @071>@:>9 AB0@KE AG5B>2, 2@5<5==> ?@8>AB0=>2;5==KE =5A:>;L:> A>B5= ;5B =0704. !>2A5< >BC?52H0O C:@08=A:0O 45@525=I8=0 @0AB5@O==> AB>8B =0 @0A?CBL5 <564C 0?04>< 8 >AB>:><, =5 7=0O, GB> 45;0BL 8 :C40 ?>40BLAO . 4=0 >1=8I02H0O 5;>@CAA8O =5A<5;> A:@515BAO 2 425@L @CAA:>9 871K. >, ?>4?C4@5==0O, A2565@0A:@0H5==0O GC68<8 @5:;0<0<8, :0: 1K ?><>;>45;0O, =04<5==0O >A:20 C65 2>73>@48;0AL. 9 1>;LH5 =5 ?@8OB5= 284 154=KE @>4AB25==8:>2 2 ;0?BOE.  <>65B, 70>:50=A:89 1>AA =5 @07@5H05B? B> 53> 7=05B. * * * "A;8 1K 2K E>B5;8 C=8GB>68BL !>25BA:89 !>N7, 45;0;8 1K 2K MB> ?>-4@C3><C, G5< >@10G52?" .8AA8=465@. 0 70A540=88 2 :018=5B5 ?@57845=B0. A5=L 1989 3. - [7 :=838 1K2H53> 48@5:B>@0 & # >15@B0 59B0, "7 <@0:0 B5=8 " AB@. 448 ].  O=20@5 1989 3>40 1K2H89 >AC40@AB25==K9 A5:@5B0@L !( 5=@8 8AA8=465@ ?@8;5B5; 2 >A:2C 4;O 2AB@5G8 A >@10G52K< 8, ?5@5402 5<C ;8G=>5 ?>A;0=85 ?@57845=B0 . CH0, ?@54;>68; =0G0BL ?5@53>2>@K > =>2>< AB0BCA5 >AB>G=>9 2@>?K. ;02=>9 B5<>9 MB8E ?5@53>2>@>2 4>;65= 1K; AB0BL 2>?@>A > 40;L=59H8E AC4L10E 2>5==KE A>N7>2 0@H02A:>3> 4>3>2>@0 8 " 2 2@>?5. 0: 2A5340, 4065 =5 :>=AC;LB8@COAL A> A2>8<8 A>N7=8:0<8 ?> 0@H02A:><C 4>3>2>@C, >@10G52 1KAB@> 8 >E>B=> A>3;0A8;AO. =, ?>-2848<><C, C65 ?@54AB02;O; A51O 2 @>;8 =>2>3> !B0;8=0, ?5@545;K20NI53> 3@0=8FK 8 AD5@K 2;8O=8O 2 2@>?5, => 45;0O MB> ?>-4@C3><C, "?>-A?@0254;82><C", ?>68=0O ?@8 MB>< ?;>4K 3>@OG59 1;03>40@=>AB8 8 3;C1>:>3> ?@87=0=8O <8@>;N182KE 3@0640= ?;0=5BK. A;8 1K 4065 B0:85 ?5@53>2>@K A>AB>O;8AL, B>, ?@8=8<0O 2> 2=8<0=85 48?;><0B8G5A:89 AB8;L >@10G520, >=8 1K, 157 A><=5=8O, 70:>=G8;8AL >G5@54=K< C=865=85< 4;O !!! . > 70B> 2 70?04=>9 ?@5AA5 :064K9 2=5H=5?>;8B8G5A:89 ;O?ACA >@10G520 @0AF5=820;AO :0: A2845B5;LAB2> 53> ?@>7>@;82>AB8 8 1;5ABOI8E 3>AC40@AB25==KE :0G5AB2.  1>;LH><C >3>@G5=8N BI5A;02=>3> 35=A5:0, 48=0<8:0 1KAB@> 87<5=ONI8EAO ?>;8B8G5A:8E A>1KB89 2 <8@5 ;8H8;0 53> ?@8OB=>AB8 2KABC?8BL 2 @>;8 ?5@5AB@>9-I8:0 52@>?59A:>3> :>=B8=5=B0. @03>F5==>5 2@5<O 4;O MB>3> 45H52>3> D0@A0 1K;> C65 C?CI5=>. 0:C;8A=> ?5@53>2>@0< > ?>AB5?5==>< 8 2708<>?@85<;5<>< ?5@5CAB@>9AB25 2 2@>?5 ?@>B828;8AL ?><>I=8: 3>AA5:@5B0@O ?> 2@>?59A:8< 45;0< >70=0 846259 8 55 70<5AB8B5;L ?> AB@0=0< !>25BA:>3> 1;>:0 "><0A !8<5>=. =8, :0: 2KA>:>?>AB02;5==K5 :04@>2K5 >?5@0B82=8:8 3>A45?0@B0<5=B0, 1K;8 ;CGH5, G5< 8AA8=465@ 8;8 4065 CH, >A254><;5=K > 459AB28B5;L=>< A>AB>O=88 45; 2 !!!  8 4@C38E AB@0=0E 0@H02A:>3> 4>3>2>@0. 0A?>;030O 45B0;L=>9 @07254K20B5;L=>9 8=D>@<0F859 A?5FA;C61, >=8 E>@>H> 7=0;8, GB> & # 2 A>B@C4=8G5AB25 A 4@C38<8 70?04=K<8 @07254:0<8 C65 ?@83>B>28;8 ?>G2C 4;O @0720;0 A>F80;87<0, 0 7=0G8B, 8 >1>@>=8B5;L=>3> A>N70 2 >AB>G=>9 2@>?5. AB020;8AL B>;L:> AG8B0==K5 <5AOFK ?5@54 BI0B5;L=> ?>43>B>2;5==K< 8 E>@>H> A:>>@48=8@>20==K< @5H8B5;L=K< B>;G:><, :>B>@K9 >:>=G0B5;L=> A=5A5B 5@;8=A:CN AB5=C 8 ?>@25B 2 :;>GLO ?@>3=82H85 C7K A>4@C65AB20 "1@0BA:8E " ?0@B89 8 AB@0=.  MB><C 2@5<5=8 4;O <=>38E =0 0?045 AB0;> >G5284=K<, GB> ?5@5AB@>5G=0O B5;530 >@10G520 15A:>=B@>;L=> ?>:0B8;0AL A 3>@K, 8 8< >AB020;>AL B>;L:> =5<=>3> ?>4>640BL, ?>:0 >=0 A0<0 ?5@525@=5BAO, @07182 24@515738 2A5 3>@H:8. "0G5< =0< B>340", - @07<KH;O;8 AB@0B538 87 3>A45?0@B0<5=B0 - =C6=K :0:85-B> ?5@53>2>@K A 2>7<>6=K<8 CABC?:0<8 8 =5=C6=K<8 >1O70B5;LAB20<8, 5A;8 AC4L1K 0@H02A:>3> 4>3>2>@0 C65 ?8A0;8AL :@>202K< ?0;LF5< =0 H5@H02>9 AB5=5 8AB>@88. 0G5< B>340 ?;0B8BL 4065 <0;CN F5=C 70 B>, GB> <>6=> ?>;CG8BL A>25@H5==> 15A?;0B=>, @5H8;8 E>@>H> ?>=8<0NI85 45;>2CN AB>@>=C ?>;8B8G5A:>3> 187=5A0 20H8=3B>=A:85 AB@0B538.  25A=5 1989 3>40 2K6840B5;L=0O B0:B8:0 0<5@8:0=A:>9 04<8=8AB@0F88 ?@825;0 : :0:><C-B> AB@0==><C 8 =5C:;N65<C 70AB>N 2 A>25BA:>-0<5@8:0=A:8E >B=>H5=8OE. >A;5 B5?;KE, ?>GB8 GB> ?@074=8G=KE >B=>H5=89 A =083@0==> C;K10NI59AO 04<8=8AB@0F859 5930=0 87 0H8=3B>=0 =5>6840==> ?>25O;> E>;>4:>< >BGC645=8O. 5>6840==K5 48?;><0B8G5A:85 70<>@>7:8 <564C A25@E45@6020<8 :070;8AL B5< 1>;55 AB@0==K<8, GB> =>2K9 0<5@8:0=A:89 ?@57845=B 6>@46 >;:5@ CH 8<5; @5?CB0F8N >1@07>20==>3> ;815@0;0 8 2 A2>5 2@5<O 1K; =0AB@>5= 1>;55 1;03>65;0B5;L=> : !>25BA:><C !>N7C, G5< 53> 2>8=AB25==K9 ?@54H5AB25==8:. >;55 B>3>, A>2A5< =5402=>, 2AB@5G0OAL A >@10G52K< 2 LN->@:5, >= 7025@O; A>25BA:8E 3>AB59 2 A2>59 =57K1;5<>9 ?>445@6:5 ?>;8B8:8 ?5@5AB@>9:8 8 B25@4>< =0<5@5=88 =5 B>;L:> ?@>4>;60BL ?0@B=5@A:CN ?>;8B8:C 5930=0, => 84B8 40;LH5 2 =0?@02;5=88 @0AH8@5=8O A>B@C4=8G5AB20 8 CAB@0=5=8O ?>A;54=8E ?@53@04 2 >B=>H5=8OE <564C 8E AB@0=0<8.  GB>1K 25AL <8@ =5 A><=520;AO 2 4@C65AB25==KE =0<5@5=8OE =>2>3> ?@57845=B0 : !>25BA:><C !>N7C, 2A5 B@8 ?@57845=B0, >@10G52, 5930= 8 CH, >B?@028;8AL 2<5AB5 =0 C15@=0B>@A:89 >AB@>2 : ?>4=>6LN <0A>=A:>9 AB0BC8 !2>1>4K, GB> 4>;6=> 1K;> A8<2>;878@>20BL ?@55<AB25==>ABL 0<5@8:0=A:>9 ?>;8B8:8. "5< =5 <5=55, =0G8=0O A MB>3> 2@5<5=8, 2 A>25BA:>-0<5@8:0=A:8E >B=>H5=8OE =5>6840==> =0ABC?8;0 :0:0O-B> =5C4>1=0O, 3;CE0O ?0C70. 5B5@?5;82K9 >@10G52, >68402H89 1KAB@>9 2AB@5G8 A =>2K< 0<5@8:0=A:8< ?@57845=B><, =0G0; >701>G5==> 7>=48@>20BL 0<5@8:0=A:8E 48?;><0B>2 > ?@8G8=0E 7045@6:8 2AB@5G8 =0 2KAH5< C@>2=5. <5@8:0=FK >1KG=> AAK;0;8AL =0 B>, GB> =>20O 04<8=8AB@0F8O =C6405BAO 2 :0:><-B> 2@5<5=8, GB>1K 2K@01>B0BL A2>9 A>1AB25==K9 ?>4E>4 : A>25BA:>9 ?>;8B8:5. -B> 72CG0;> =5A:>;L:> 70304>G=> 8 AB@0==>, B0: :0: B>;L:> 420 <5AOF0 =0704 CH 7025@O; > A2>5< B25@4>< =0<5@5=88 ?@>4>;60BL ?@56=NN @5930=>2A:CN ?>;8B8:C. "5< =5 <5=55, 4>25@G82K5, :0: B5;OB0, >@10G52 8 (520@4=0475 >E>B=> ?@>3;>B8;8 MBC 4578=D>@<0F8N 8 =0 :0:>5-B> 2@5<O CA?>:>8;8AL, ?>:>@=> >6840O A:>@>3> ?@83;0H5=8O 2 0H8=3B>=.  B5< 2@5<5=5< 1C@525AB=8: ?5@5AB@>9:8 8 53> A;02=0O :><0=40 <564C=0@>4=KE M:A?5@B>2 2 A>AB025 (520@4=0475, 5AA<5@B=KE, (0E=070@>20 8 "0@0A5=:> ?@>4>;60;8 C482;OBL <8@ A2>8<8 48?;><0B8G5A:8<8 "D>:CA0<8", @0AH0BK20O ?>A;54=85 873>@>48 =0F8>=0;L=>9 157>?0A=>AB8 >B5G5AB20.  45:01@5 1988 3>40 >@10G52, 2KABC?0O A B@81C=K , ?@>2>73;0A8; >4=>AB>@>==55 A>:@0I5=85 !>25BA:8E 2>>@C65==KE A8; 2 2@>?5 8 A=865=85 2>5==KE @0AE>4>2 =0 10%.  0?@5;5 1989 3>40, 284O, GB> 0<5@8:0=FK =5 @5038@CNB =0 53> ?@56=NN 8=8F80B82C, 8 ?@>4>;60O 157>B25BAB25==CN ?>;8B8:C >4=>AB>@>==8E CABC?>:, >@10G52 >1JO28; > 70:@KB88 42CE O45@=KE 702>4>2, 0 2 <05, ?@8=8<0O 59:5@0, ?@54;>68; A>:@0B8BL :>;8G5AB2> -@0:5B 1;86=53> 459AB28O =0 5%.  >B25B =0 MB> 20H8=3B>=A:85 "?0@B=5@K" 4065 =5 <>@3=C;8 3;07><, 8 65;05<>3> ?@83;0H5=8O 2 <5@8:C >@10G52 B0: 8 =5 ?>;CG8;. 0?@0A=> =5A<5;> ?@>B5AB>20;8 >15A?>:>5==K5 A;>682H59AO :@8B8G5A:>9 A8BC0F859, >GC<52H85 2 3@>E>B5 ?5@5AB@>9:8 /7>2, E@><552 8 @NG:>2. C4CB ;8 "3830=BK @CAA:>3> >7@>645=8O" >1@0I0BL 2=8<0=85 =0 1@54=8 70:>A=5;KE "@5B@>3@04>2"? 0 ?@>BO65=88 ;5B0 1989 3>40 =5CB><8<0O A>25BA:0O 48?;><0B8O, 157@57C;LB0B=> ?KB02H0OAO 2K25AB8 04<8=8AB@0F8N CH0 87 ;5B0@38G5A:>3> A=0, 2K428=C;0 5I5 =5A:>;L:> ?@54;>65=89 > A>:@0I5=88 @07=>3> @>40 @0:5B=KE A8AB5< 8 70?@5I5=88 E8<8G5A:>3> >@C68O. "5?>=OB;82K5" 0<5@8:0=FK ?@>4>;60;8 BO=CBL 2>;K=:C. 02=>4CH85 0<5@8:0=F52 A>2A5< =5 >15A:C@068;> >@10G520 8 (520@4=0475, :>B>@K5, GB>1K 4>:070BL 0H8=3B>=C A2>N =5?>:>;518<CN ?@825@65==>ABL =>2>?@8>1@5B5==K< 70?04=K< 4CE>2=K< F5==>ABO<, ?@>4>;60;8 ?>=>A8BL A2>N AB@0=C, 55 8AB>@8N 8 A>F80;8AB8G5A:89 >1@07 687=8.  >:BO1@5 1989 3>40 (520@4=0475 ?C1;8G=> 70:;59<8; ?>7>@>< ?@56=55 A>25BA:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> 70 157=@02AB25==>5 8 ?@5ABC?=>5 2B>@65=85 2 D30=8AB0=. 5 >BAB020;8 >B =53> 2 <>@0;L=>< A0<>18G520=88 8 4@C385 :@5<;52A:85 ;845@K, =0?5@51>9 8728=OOAL ?5@54 ?>;O:0<8, G5E0<8, 25=3@0<8, G5G5=F0<8, :@K<A:8<8 B0B0@0<8 8 <=>38<8 4@C38<8 "65@B20<8" A>25BA:>3> 8<?5@80;87<0.  MB> 45;0;8 B5 A0<K5 ;N48, :>B>@K5 1K;8 ?@8720=K 70I8I0BL =5 B>;L:> =0F8>=0;L=K5 8=B5@5AK A>25BA:8E ;N459, => B0:65 8E <>@0;L=>5 4>AB>8=AB2>. B> 8 :>340 A;KH0;, GB>1K 0<5@8:0=FK ?C1;8G=> 8728=O;8AL ?5@54 :0:8<8-=81C4L 65@B20<8 A2>8E 03@5AA89, >1;820;8 3@O7LN A2>9 A?>A>1 687=8 8;8 ?>=>A8;8 A2>5 8AB>@8G5A:>5 =0A;5485? > =0H8 ?5@5AB@>9I8:8, 157 A><=5=8O, AG8B0;8 A51O 2KH5 2AO:8E =0F8>=0;L=KE "?@54@0AAC4:>2". >;L=> 8< C6 E>B5;>AL ?>:070BL 2A5<C <8@C A2>N 2KA>:CN :C;LBC@=>ABL 8 4>:070BL 70>:50=A:8< 4@C7LO<, GB> >=8 B>65 70A;C6820NB 1KBL ?@83;0H5==K<8 2 ">1I89 52@>?59A:89 4><".  A2>59 <0=8;>2A:>9 D0=B0788 >@10G52 4065 4>H5; 4> B>3>, GB> "=0 A5@8>" ?@54;030; A>740BL <8@>2>9 C<AB25==K9 B@5AB, :>B>@K9 1K O2;O;AO G5<-B> 2@>45 <8@>2>3> ?@028B5;LAB20 8 A>AB>O; 87 ;0C@50B>2 =>15;52A:>9 ?@5<88 8 4@C38E 7=0<5=8B>AB59. =0O A:@><=>ABL >@10G520 2 >F5=:5 A2>8E A?>A>1=>AB59, >=, 157 A><=5=8O, C65 2845; A51O 2 @>;8 ?@57845=B0 MB>3> "?@>A25I5==>3>" ?@028B5;LAB20. 58725AB=>, >B:C40 C ?@>AB>3> :@5ABLO=A:>3> ?0@=O 87 !B02@>?>;LA:>3> :@0O <>3;8 27OBLAO B0:85 M;8B0@8ABA:85 AB@5<;5=8O? 0B> 2A5< E>@>H> 8725AB=>, GB> B0:>5 <0A>=A:>5 8;;N<8=8@>20==>5 <8@>2>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> 10=:8@>2 402=> C65 ACI5AB2C5B, 8 2 53> 8=B5@5AK A>2A5< =5 2E>48B A>740=85 :0:>3>-B> 10;01>-;>G=>3> C<AB25==>3> B@5AB0 8;8 5<C ?>4>1=KE :>=:C@5=B=KE >@30=870F89. 5B>< 1989 3>40 2 >A:2C ?@85E0; >G5@54=>9 A5@45G=K9 4@C3 >@10G520, @>:D5;;5@>2A:89 <0;LG8: =0 ?>153CH:0E 8 70O4;K9 ?@>B82=8: !!!  183=52 6578=-A:89. C4CG8 5I5 <0;LG8:><, 1KH5: 6578=A:89 M<83@8@>20; A @>48B5;O<8 2 <5@8:C, =5 701K2 ?@8E20B8BL A A>1>9 G5<>40=G8: ?0B>;>38G5A:>3> ?@57@5=8O 8 =5=028AB8 :> 2A5<C @CAA:><C, =0 :>B>@K5 A?>A>1=K B>;L:> =0A;54AB25==K5 ?>;LA:85 =0F8>=0;8ABK. /2;OOAL A?>A>1=K< 6C@=0;8AB>< 8 ?>;8B>;>3><, >= >4=8< 87 ?5@2KE @07@01>B0; =5:>B>@K5 F5=B@0;L=K5 0A?5:BK A>F80;L=>-?>;8B8G5A:>9 B5>@88 AB@>8B5;LAB20 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0 8 B5< A0<K< >1@0B8; =0 A51O 2=8<0=85 2KAH53> <0A>=A:>3> "A8=>40" 2 !(. @>94O >:>=G0B5;L=CN 70:0;:C 2 A>740==>9 >:D5;;5@>< <0A>=A:>9 "@5EAB>@>==59 ><8AA88, >= 1K; =07=0G5= @C:>2>48B5;5< 0F8>=0;L=>9 57>?0A=>AB8 !( 2 04<8=8AB@0F88 ?@57845=B0 0@B5@0, 345 70@5:><5=4>20; A51O A0<K< O@K< 8 =5?@8<8@8<K< 0=B8A>25BG8:><. >A;5 2B>@65=8O !>25BA:8E 2>9A: 2 D30=8AB0= >= 1K; 3;02=K< 0@E8B5:B>@>< >@30=870F88 1>9:>B0 ;8<?89A:8E 83@ 1980 3>40 2 >A:25. %>BO 53> ?>;8B8G5A:0O :0@L5@0 D>@<8@>20;0AL 2 @O40E 5<>:@0B8G5A:>9 ?0@B88, 4CE>2=> >= 1K; 7=0G8B5;L=> 1;865 : <0A>=C CHC, G5< : A2>5<C 1K2H5<C "1;03>45B5;N" 520=35;8ABC 0@B5@C. 0 MB>B @07 >= ?@81K; 2 !!!  A "=5>D8F80;L=K<" 2878B>< ?> ?>@CG5=8N ?@57845=B0 CH0, GB>1K ?>;CGH5 @07C7=0BL A8BC0F8N =0 <5AB5 8 ?@8 A;CG05 5I5 @07 ?><CB8BL 3>;>2K A>25BA:8< ;N4O<, 8 157 B>3> >10;452H8< >B 3@>E>B0 "3;0A=>AB8". >B5@O2H0O ?>A;54=89 8=AB8=:B ?>;8B8G5A:>3> A0<>A>E@0=5=8O 15AB>;:>20O ":@0A=0O" =><5=:;0BC@=0O M;8B0 25745 53> 2AB@5G0;0 A =0AB>OI8< M=BC7807<>< ?>4E0;8<>2 8 =87:>?>:;>=F52, ?>GB8 :0: 25;8:>3> =0F8>=0;L=>3> 35@>O. 0AB>;:>202 :@5<;52A:8< "70?04=8:0<" 8 <>A:28G0<, ?>G5<C >=8 ?;>E85 8 GB> 8< =C6=> A45;0BL, GB>1K AB0BL E>@>H8<8, MB>B =>A8B5;L 2KAH59 <0A>=A:>9 <C4@>AB8 >B?@028;AO 2 15;>@CAA:CN 0BK=L, 345 157 :0:8E-;81> D0:B8G5A:8E 4>:070B5;LAB2 >128=8; AB0;8=A:>5  2 8AB@51;5=88 ?;5==KE ?>;LA:8E >D8F5@>2. >=OB=>, GB> ?@8 MB>< =>2>>1JO2;5==K9 ?@825@65=5F ?5@5AB@>9:8 =5 <>3 871560BL A>1;07=0, GB>1K =5 @07@078BAO >G5@54=>9 0=B8A>25BA:>9 D8;;8??8:>9. >72@0BOAL 2 0H8=3B>=, 6578=A:89 A @04>ABLN 4>;>68; CHC, GB>, ?> 53> <=5=8N, ?>;8B8G5A:0O A8BC0F8O 2 >AB>G=>9 2@>?5 C65 A>7@5;0 4;O =0=5A5=8O @5H8B5;L=>3> C40@0, 8 >= =5 ?@542848B =8:0:8E ?@5?OBAB289 0<5@8:0=A:8< 459AB28O< A> AB>@>=K @5<;O. F5=820O A>1KB8O 1989 3>40, 70?04=K5 8AB>@8:8 >1KG=> ?>4G5@:820NB A45@60==>ABL 8 4065 @>1:CN =5A<5;>ABL CH0 2 53> 2>AB>G=>-52@>?59A:>9 ?>;8B8:5, >1JOA=OO MB> 53> ?>;8B8G5A:>9 =5>?KB=>ABLN 8 G@57<5@=K< C2;5G5=85< <5@:C@80;L=K< >@10G52K<.  459AB28B5;L=>AB8 "=5>?KB=>ABL" 8 "A45@60==>ABL" CH0 1K;8 <0A:8@>2>G=>9 G0ABLN 03@5AA82=>9 >?5@0F88, =0?@02;5==>9 =0 @07@CH5=85 0@H02A:>3> 4>3>2>@0 8 >A;01;5=85 >AA88. ;;N7>@=0O ?>;8B8G5A:0O A45@60==>ABL 0<5@8:0=A:>9 04<8=8AB@0F88 A;C68;0 48?;><0B8G5A:8< :0<CD;O65< 4;O ?>A;54>20B5;L=>9 8 03@5AA82=>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 & # 8 4@C38E 70?04=KE A?5FA;C61.  459AB28B5;L=>AB8 6>@46 CH O2;O;AO >4=8< 87 A0<KE 3@0<>B=KE, 2KH:>;5==KE 8 C<=KE 0<5@8:0=A:8E ?@57845=B>2 A> 2@5<5= $. . C725;LB0. -B>B >?KB=K9, ?@03<0B8G=K9 8 8A:CA=K9 ?>;8B8:, ?>4=0B>@52H89 =0 A;C615 & # 8 >BH;8D>202H89 A2>9 857C8BA:89 8=B5;;5:B 2 48A:CAA8OE <0A>=A:>3> 1@0BAB20, ?@5:@0A=> >F5=8; <564C=0@>4=CN A8BC0F8N 8 B>;L:> >6840; ?>4E>4OI53> <><5=B0, GB>1K =0=5AB8 @5H0NI89 C40@. <C =5 =C6=0 1K;0 ?>1540 2 >4=>9 18B25, 5<C 1K;0 =C6=0 ?>1540 2 2>9=5. I5 25A=>9 1989 3>40 ><8B5B 0F8>=0;L=>9 57>?0A=>AB8 !( 2K@01>B0; =>2CN 2=5H=5?>;8B8G5A:CN 4>:B@8=C 70 ! 23 ?>4 =0720=85< "8@5:B82K =0F8>=0;L=>9 157>?0A=>AB8", :>B>@0O 7=0<5=>20;0 ?5@5E>4 >B ?>;8B8:8 2>5==>3> A45@6820=8O !!!  : 0:B82=K< 459AB28O<, =0?@02;5==K< =0 C=8GB>65=85 0@H02A:>3> 4>3>2>@0 8 @0AG;5=5=85 !>25BA:>3> !>N70.  :>=FC 1989 3>40 2A5<, :@><5 >18B0B5;59 @5<;52A:>9 A;>1>4:8, AB0;> OA=>, GB> 0<5@8:0=FK =0<5@5=K ?>;=>ABLN 2>A?>;L7>20BLAO 2=CB@5==8<8 B@C4=>ABO<8 !>25BA:>3> !>N70, GB>1K >:>=G0B5;L=> 87<5=8BL A>>B=>H5=85 A8; 2 <8@5 2 A2>N ?>;L7C. !B@0==>, GB> 8=8AB5@AB2> 8=>AB@0==KE 45; !!!  A>25@H5==> =5 >1@0B8;> 2=8<0=8O =0 ?>O2;5=85 =>2>9 0<5@8:0=A:>9 2=5H=5?>;8B8G5A:>9 48@5:B82K. 070;>AL, GB> 4;O A>25BA:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20 CAB=K5 7025@5=8O 8 ?@>B>:>;L=K5 ;N157=>AB8 20H8=3B>=A:8E ?>;8B8:>2 1K;8 206=55, G5< >D8F80;L=K5 @5H5=8O 0<5@8:0=A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20. @82K:H85 ?>-10@A:8 >B=>A8BLAO : A2>59 3>AC40@AB25==>9 1N@>:@0B88, : 2>;N=B0@8AB8G5A:><C @5H5=8N 206=KE ?@>1;5< 8 : ?>AB>O==K< >B:;>=5=8O< >B ?@8=OBKE ?>AB0=>2;5=89, A>25BA:85 ;845@K =082=> ?@54?>;030;8, GB> B0:8<8 65 ?@8=F8?0<8 @C:>2>4AB2C5BAO 0<5@8:0=A:89 ?@028B5;LAB25==K9 <5E0=87<. "5< 2@5<5=5< =5?>A54;82K9 >@10G52 2 ?>3>=5 70 45H52>9 ;5ABLN, =5 >1@0I0O 2=8<0=8O =0 1KAB@> CEC4H0NI55AO ?>;>65=85 2 AB@0=5, ?@>4>;60; 2>O68@>20BL ?> 3>AB5?@88<=K< 703@0=8F0<. 8G53>, GB> :0640O 53> ?>574:0, :0: ?@028;>, 70:0=G820;0AL =>2>9 1@5HLN 2 >1>@>==>< I8B5 AB@0=K 8 >G5@54=K< =570A;C65==K< C=865=85< 4;O A>25BA:>3> =0@>40. 0AA<0B@820O 2 @5B@>A?5:B825 2=5H=5?>;8B8G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL >@10G520 2 1989 8 1990 3>40E, B@C4=> =5 70<5B8BL, GB> >=0 =5 B>;L:> >:>=G0B5;L=> 701;C48;0AL 2 A;>6=KE ?5@8?5B8OE <564C=0@>4=KE A>1KB89, => B0: 65 A2>1>4=>, :0: @C:0 2 ?5@G0B:C, 2E>48;0 2 @0<:8 B09=KE 0<5@8:0=A:8E ?;0=>2. >340 2 1992 3>4C 8725AB=>3> 0<5@8:0=A:>3> ?C1;8F8AB0 8 ?>;8B8G5A:>3> >1>7@520B5;O 0AA5;0 59:5@0 A?@>A8;8, GB>, ?> 53> <=5=8N, ?>A;C68;> 3;02=>9 ?@8G8=>9 @0720;0 !>25BA:>3> !>N70, B> C<C4@5==K9 >?KB>< ?>;8B>;>3 =5 <>3 =09B8 ;CGH53> >1JOA=5=8O, G5< ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> >@10G52, =025@=>5, 1K; 0<5@8:0=A:8< H?8>=><.  1989 3>4C >@10G52 2K;57 87 A>1AB25==>9 H:C@K, GB>1K C3>48BL A2>8< =>2K< 4@C7LO< - 70AB028BL L5B=0< 2K25AB8 A2>8 2>9A:0 87 A>A54=59 0<1>468, G53> C65 402=> 8 157CA?5H=> 4>1820;8AL 0<5@8:0=FK.  0?@5;5 MB>3> 65 3>40 >@10G52 >B?@028;AO =0 40;5:CN C1C, 345 157CA?5H=> ?@>1>20; A:;>=8BL AB@>?B82>3> $845;O 0AB@> =0 :0?8BC;OF8N ?5@54 <5@8:>9. 5A<>B@O =0 C3>2>@K 8 C3@>7K A2>53> 2KA>:>3> 3>ABO, 0AB@> >AB0;AO =5?>:>;518<.  ?@>B82>?>;>6=>ABL 28B02H5<C 2 @>7>2KE >1;0:0E 8;;N789 >@10G52C, >= =5 8<5; =8 <0;59H53> A><=5=8O 2 "8A:@5==>AB8" =0<5@5=89 0H8=3B>=0 8, 2 >B;8G85 >B 2>AB>G=>-52@>?59A:8E 15AE@515B=KE ;8F5<5@>2, >= =5 1>O;AO A:070BL B>, GB> 4C<0;, 4065 A0<>=045O==><C 2>64N <8@>2>3> A>F80;8AB8G5A:>3> ;035@O.  ?0<OB8 :C18=A:>3> =0@>40 5I5 1K;8 A2568 :>H<0@=K5 2>A?><8=0=8O > "?5@54>2><" A?>A>15 0<5@8:0=A:>3> >1@070 687=8 8 ?@8B>==>9, 10=48BA:>9 F828;870F88 @568<0 0B8ABK.  1>;LH><C =5C4>2>;LAB28N =5 B5@?OI53> 2>7@065=89 :0?@87=>3> >@10G520, 0AB@> ?@O<> 70O28;, GB> :0?8BC;O=BA:0O ?>;8B8:0 A>25BA:>3> @C:>2>4AB20 =5 ?@>AB> >H81>G=0, => G@520B0 A<5@B5;L=>9 >?0A=>ABLN 4;O 157>?0A=>AB8 !!!  8 @07@CH8B5;L=0 2 A2>8E ?>A;54AB28OE 4;O 45;0 A>F80;87<0 2> 2A5< <8@5. 5 A:@K20O A2>53> @074@065=8O, "25@=K9 ?@>4>;60B5;L 45;0 25;8:>3> 5=8=0" E>;>4=> ?>?@>I0;AO A C?@O<K< $845;5<, B0: 8 =5 2K?>;=82 3;02=>3> B@51>20=8O CH0 > ?@5:@0I5=88 :C18=A:>9 ?><>I8 @52>;NF8>==K< 42865=8O< 2 8:0@03C0 8 !0;L204>@5, 70 GB> ?>765 =0 0;LB5 ?>;CG8; "271CG:C" >B 0<5@8:0=A:>3> ?@57845=B0. > 2 >48=>G:C A>;840@=0O C10 <=>3>3> A45;0BL =5 <>3;0, 8 >AB02H85AO 157 =5>1E>48<>9 703@0=8G=>9 ?><>I8 0=B80<5@8:0=A:85 @52>;NF8>==K5 42865=8O 0B8=A:>9 <5@8:8 ?>AB5?5==> C30A;8. > MB> 1K;8 B>;L:> 25A5==85 F25B>G:8, A;04:85 O3>4:8 A>7@5;8 ?>4 :>=5F 1989 3>40.  >:BO1@5 MB>3> 65 3>40 3;02=K9 70I8B=8: A>F80;8AB8G5A:>3> ;035@O 8 ;8G=K9 "4@C3" %>==5:5@0 .!. >@10G52 >B?@028;AO 2 >?@OB=K9 8 =0@O4=K9 5@;8= =0 ?@074=>20=85 50-;5B8O A>740=8O  , =0?5@54 @5H82, GB> MB0 3>4>2I8=0 4>;6=0 1KBL ?>A;54=59 2 687=8 =5<5F:>3> A>F80;8AB8G5A:>3> 3>AC40@AB20.  @073>2>@0E A -. %>==5:5@>< >= 45<>=AB@8@>20; E>;>4=CN =04<5==>ABL, 48?;><0B8G5A:CN 15AB0:B=>ABL 8 ?@>AB> G5;>25G5A:>5 =5C2065=85, ?>CG0O AB0@>3>, 1>;L=>3> G5;>25:0, :0: A;54C5B C?@02;OBL AB@0=>9 8 ?>G5<C 2A5< =C6=> C2060BL ?@020 G5;>25:0. 0:8<8 1K =8 1K;8 ;8G=K5 8;8 ?>;8B8G5A:85 :0G5AB20 :><<C=8AB8G5A:>3> 48:B0B>@0. >AB>G=0O 5@<0=8O 8<5;0 A0<K9 2KA>:89 687=5==K9 C@>25=L A@548 A>F80;8AB8G5A:8E AB@0=, 0 M:>=><8:0 @5A?C1;8:8 1K;0 =081>;55 MDD5:B82=>9 2 >AB>G=>9 2@>?5. @074=CO 45=L @>645=8O 1@0BA:>9 AB@0=K, 2KA>:89 A>25BA:89 3>ABL =5 B5@O; 2@5<5=8 40@><, 70:C;8A=> ?>4AB@5:0O "@5D>@<0B>@A:8" =0AB@>5==KE 2>AB>G=>35@<0=A:8E :><<C=8AB>2 ?@>3=0BL "@50:F8>=5@0" %>==5:5@0 8 >@30=87>20BL 2 AB@0=5 45<>:@0B8G5A:CN ?5@5AB@>9:C.  E>BO %>==5:5@ <=>3> ;5B 25@>9 8 ?@024>9 A;C68; 8=B5@5A0< !>25BA:>3> !>N70, ?>A;54=85 4=8 A2>59 687=8 5<C ?@8H;>AL 4>6820BL 2 ?>;CD0H8ABA:>9 '8;8. 9-3> =>O1@O 1989 3>40, =0 3;070E >AB>;15=5;>3> <8@0, A 3@>E>B>< @07@CH8;0AL 5@;8=A:0O AB5=0, >4=8< <0E>< =0:@K2 A>1>9 2A5 702>520=8O A>25BA:8E ;N459 2 5;8:>9 B5G5AB25==>9 2>9=5. 0@>4, ?>=5AH89 =58AG8A;8<K5 <0B5@80;L=K5 ?>B5@8 8 G5;>25G5A:85 65@B2K 2 3>4K 2>9=K, GB>1K 8<5BL ?@02> <8@=> 68BL 8 B@C48BLAO E>BO 1K 2 >B=>A8B5;L=>9 157>?0A=>AB8, 2 =5A:>;L:> 4=59 157 548=>3> 2KAB@5;0 ?>B5@O; 2A5. >765 2 @073>2>@5 A . 8AA5=65@>< . @8<0:>2 ?@87=0;AO, GB> 2 A2>5 2@5<O A>25BA:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> =5 8<5;> =8 <0;59H53> ?>=OB8O > 40;5:> 84CI8E ?>A;54AB28OE @07@CH5=8O 5@;8=A:>9 AB5=K. >B5@O   2K720;0 F5?=CN @50:F8N F5;>3> @O40 B@038G5A:8E ?>A;54AB289, =0G8=0O A @0720;0 0@H02A:>3> 4>3>2>@0 8 :>=G0O @0AH8@5=85< " : 3@0=8F0< >AA88. "5?5@L, :>340 >A=>2=0O G0ABL ?;0=0 & # 1K;0 CA?5H=> >ACI5AB2;5=0, . CH 2=570?=> A>3;0A8;AO =0 4>;3>640==CN 2AB@5GC A >@10G52K<. AB@5G0 A>AB>O;0AL 2 =0G0;5 45:01@O 1989 3>40 =0 A:@KB>< <564C D@8:>9 8 2@>?>9 C548=5==>< 8 B08=AB25==>< >AB@>25 0;LB5. K1>@ 2AB@5G8 =0 70B5@O2H5<AO 2 78<=8E HB>@<0E !@54875<=>3> <>@O =5CNB=>< >AB@>25 1K;, ?> 2A59 25@>OB=>AB8, =5 A;CG09=K<. N182H89 C:@0H0BL 206=K5 8AB>@8G5A:85 A>1KB8O 4>?>;=8B5;L=K< <8AB8G5A:8< A8<2>;87<><, CH @5H8;, GB> >:>=G0B5;L=CN ?>154C 0?040 2 E>;>4=>9 2>9=5 A;54>20;> >B?@074=>20BL C AB5= 3@0=8B=>3> ;>3>20 0;LB89A:8E @KF0@59. C4CG8 B5A=> A2O70==>9 A 0B8:0=><, 4@52=OO <0A>=A:0O ;>60 0;LB89A:8E @KF0@59 O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 3;02=KE A>N7=8:>2 =LN-9>@:A:8E ?>?5G8B5;59 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0. 5 A;CG09=> 2?5@2K5 =0 0;LB5 . CH A B>@65AB2>< ?@>@>:0, >1JO2;ONI53> =>2>5 20=35;85, >D8F80;L=> ?@>2>73;0A8; ?@8H5AB285 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0. #A?5H=> ?@>25@=C2 >?5@0F8N ?> 873=0=8N "@CAA:8E" 87 >AB>G=>9 2@>?K, 0<5@8:0=FK ?@85E0;8 =0 0;LBC A G5<>40=>< =>2KE B@51>20=89, =0?@02;5==KE =0 40;L=59H55 >A;01;5=85 !>25BA:>3> !>N70. 4=> 87 3;02=KE 0<5@8:0=A:8E B@51>20=89 - > =5?@8<5=5=88 A8;K ?> >B=>H5=8N : =0F8>=0;8AB8G5A:8< 8 A5?0@0B8ABA:8< 42865=8O< 2 ?@810;B89A:8E @5A?C1;8:0E - O2;O;>AL =5?@8:@KBK< 2<5H0B5;LAB2>< 2> 2=CB@5==85 45;0 AB@0=K. ;O 0<5@8:0=A:>3> @C:>2>4AB20, :0:, 2?@>G5<, 4;O :064>3> =>@<0;L=>3> G5;>25:0, 1K;> OA=>, GB> =5?@8<5=5=85 A8;K ?@>B82 & #, 2>8=AB2CNI8E =0F8>=0;8AB8G5A:8E 42865=89 >7=0G05B =587156=CN ?>B5@N ?@810;B89A:8E @5A?C1;8: A ?>A;54CNI8< 70:>=><5@=K< @0720;>< >AB0B:>2 !>N70.  B> 65 2@5<O 25@=K9 A2>5<C AB8;N @09:><>2-A:>3> ?@>?030=48AB0 >@10G52 ?@81K; =0 2AB@5GC A>25@H5==> =5?>43>B>2;5==K<, A 3>;>A;>2=K<8 @0AAC645=8O<8 > 3@O4CI59 :0G5AB25==> =>2>9 M?>E5 2 >B=>H5=8OE <564C 0?04>< 8 >AB>:><. 025@=>5, ?>4 2;8O=85< <>@A:>9 :0G:8 (2AB@5G0 ?@>E>48;0 =0 ?0@>E>45 2 ?>@BC) >@10G52 ?>G5<C-B> @5H8;, GB> B5?5@L, :>340 !>25BA:89 !>N7 A45;0; B0: <=>3> >4=>AB>@>==8E CABC?>: 8 B5< A0<K< ?@54>AB028; ;CGH85 4>:070B5;LAB20 A2>59 4>1@>9 2>;8 2 >B=>H5=88 70?04=>3> <8@0, 0<5@8:0=FK A @04>ABLN ?>94CB =0 2AB@5GC A>25BA:8< ?@54;>65=8O<. !:;04K20;0AL B@038:><8G5A:0O, ?0@04>:A0;L=0O A8BC0F8O, :>340 ?>B5@?52H0O ?>@065=85 AB>@>=0 2K42830;0 :0:85-B> =5C<5AB=K5 B@51>20=8O 8 =0AB0820;0 =0 A2>8E CA;>28OE ?>A;52>5==>3> CAB@>9AB20. # A0<>4>2>;L=KE 0<5@8:0=F52 B0:0O =082=>ABL A>25BA:>9 45;530F88 2K720;0 B>;L:> A<5E. =8 40;8 >@10G52C =542C7=0G=> ?>=OBL, GB> 2 8E ?@82KG:C =5 2E>48B ?;0B8BL 70 B>, GB> 8< 8 B0: C65 ?@8=04;568B, 0 1C4CI85 >B=>H5=8O A !>25BA:8< !>N7>< 1C4CB 7028A5BL, <564C ?@>G8<, >B =>2KE CABC?>: A 53> AB>@>=K. 1A>;NB=0O >B>@20==>ABL >@10G520 >B @50;L=>3> <8@0 8 53> ?>;8B8G5A:0O 1573@0<>B=>ABL AB0;8 5I5 1>;55 >G5284=K<8, :>340 >= ?@54;>68; CHC, GB>1K 5@<0=8O ?@8=04;560;0 A@07C : 42C< 2>5==K< A>N70<, 0@H02A:><C 4>3>2>@C 8 ".  ?@028B5;LAB25==KE :>@84>@0E 0H8=3B>=0 C65 402=> E>48;8 0=5:4>BK > M:>=><8G5A:8E ?>7=0=8OE >BF0 ?5@5AB@>9:8. "5?5@L 0<5@8:0=FK <>3;8 2>>G8N C1548BAO 2 53> A>;84=>9 48?;><0B8G5A:>9 ?>4:>20==>AB8. AB@5G0 =0 0;LB5 40;0 2>7<>6=>ABL CHC 3;C165 ?@8A<>B@5BLAO : 45;>2K< 8 ?>;8B8G5A:8< :0G5AB20< A>25BA:>3> ;845@0.  B>, GB> >= 2845;, 5<C G@572KG09=> =@028;>AL. >@10G52 =0 :064>< H03C 45<>=AB@8@>20; ?>25@E=>AB=>5 ?>=8<0=85 <564C=0@>4=KE A>1KB89, =082=>ABL 8 A>25@H5==CN M:>=><8G5A:CN =53@0<>B=>ABL, GB> 4020;> 0<5@8:0=F0< 2>7<>6=>ABL ;53:> >12>48BL 53> 2>:@C3 ?0;LF0.  0<5@8:0=A:>< ?@028B5;LAB25 <=>385 2 =0A<5H:C AB0;8 =07K20BL >@10G520 "M:>=><8G5A:8< M:A?5@B><", E>BO ?C1;8G=> =587<5==> >B7K20;8AL > =5< :0: > <C4@>< 8 >B25BAB25==>< 3>AC40@AB25==>< 45OB5;5. 0?04=K5 A@54AB20 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 =5 M:>=><8;8 M?8B5B>2 8 <5B0D>@, GB>1K 2>AA;028BL 25;8:>5 8<O >BF0 ?5@5AB@>9:8. ?LO=5==K5 <8HC@>9 ?@>?030=4K, :C<8@>-?>:;>==8G5A:85 >1K20B5;8 70?04=KE AB@0= AG8B0;8 53> GCBL ;8 =5 ?><070==8:>< >688<. A5 MB> <>3;> 2A:@C68BL 3>;>2C 8 <5=55 BI5A;02=K< ;8G=>ABO<. 4=8< 87 ;N18<KE ?@85<>2 70?04=KE A?5FA;C61 8 48?;><0B88 1K;> ?>41@0AK20=85 4578=D>@<0F88 > "A5@L57=KE" @0AE>645=8OE <564C 3>AC40@AB20<8 " ?> :;NG52K< ?>;8B8G5A:8< 2>?@>A0<. #<AB25==K9 B@5AB A>25BA:8E <564C=0@>4=KE A?5F80;8AB>2, 2:;NG0NI89 2 A2>8 @O4K (0E=070@>20, "0@0A5=:>, /:>2;520, @10B>20 8 8< ?>4>1=KE E@0=8B5;59 ;CGH8E B@048F89 @>AA89A:>9 48?;><0B88, >E>B=> ?@>3;>B8;8 ?>41@>H5==CN 4578=D@<0F8>==CN ?@8<0=:C, A>25BCO >@10G52C 8 (520@4=0475 :0: <>6=> ;CGH5 8A?>;L7>20BL MB8 "@07=>3;0A8O". 04> 218BL AB0;L=>9 :;8= <564C 2@>?>9 8 <5@8:>9, @5H8;8 :C7=5FK A>25BA:>9 48?;><0B88. >AB0B>G=> GB>1K ?@57845=B >@10G52 ;8G=> ?>2;8O; =0 ">1I5AB25==>5" <=5=85 2 70?04=KE AB@0=0E. 'B>, CG8BK20O 8AB5@8G5A:CN ?>?C;O@=>ABL A>25BA:>3> <8@>B2>@G5A:>3> <5AA88, 4>;6=> 1K;> ?@>9B8 157 ACG:0 8 704>@8=:8. N182H89 ?CB5H5AB2>20BL >@10G52 >E>B=> @07J5760; 24>;L 8 ?>?5@5: >B45;L=KE AB@0= 8 F5;KE :>=B8=5=B>2, =5 ?>=8<0O, GB> @07=>3;0A8O <564C :@C?=K<8 70?04=K<8 AB@0=0<8 O2;ONBAO G8AB> :>A<5B8G5A:8<8 8 GB>, =5A<>B@O =0 ?>25@E=>AB=>5 @0AE>645=85 ?> =5:>B>@K< 2B>@>AB5?5==K< 2>?@>A0<, >=8 2A5340 2KABC?0NB 548=K< D@>=B><. >@10G52 1K; A>25@H5==> C25@5=, GB> 5<C ;53:> C40ABAO ?@>B82>?>AB028BL 5@<0=8N $@0=F88 8 =3;8N <5@8:5. "0:, =0?@8<5@, >@10G52 A 53> >B:@KB>9, 6064CI59 G8AB>9 4@C61K A;02O=A:>9 4CH>9, 2A5340 25@8; 2 8A:@5==>ABL 4@C65A:8E A;>2 0@30@5B "MBG5@, 5;L<C-B0 >;O 8 $@0=AC0 8B5@0=0, G0AB> 60;COAL 8< =0 =5A3>2>@G82>3> CH0. >=OB=>, GB> :064>5 53> A;>2> 1K;> =5<54;5==> 4>=5A5=> "3;02=>:><0=4CNI5<C" 70?04=K< A>4@C65AB2><, 2 0H8=3B>=. 'B>1K >:>=G0B5;L=> 70?CB0BL "25;8:>3> @5D>@<0B>@0" 8 B0:8< >1@07>< ?>;CG8BL 5I5 1>;LH5 40@<>2KE CABC?>:, >4=8 @C:>2>48B5;8 70?04=KE AB@0= @07K3@K20;8 ?5@54 =8< @>;L E>@>H8E, 0 4@C385 ?;>E8E. '0AB> CH, AAK;0OAL =0 C?@O<AB2> 8 =5A3>2>@G82>ABL A>N7=8:>2 ?> :0:8<-B> 2>?@>A0<, ?>AK;0; >@10G520 2 >== 8;8 0@86, GB>1K B0< =0 <5AB5 @5H8BL 2>7=8:HCN "42CAB>@>==NN" ?@>1;5<C. "0:8< >1@07><, 2 4>?>;=5=85 : C65 A45;0==K< CABC?:0< 0H8=3B>=C !>25BA:89 !>N7 1K; 2K=C645= 45;0BL 40;L=59H85, A>25@H5==> =5 =C6=K5 CABC?:8 4@C38< AB@0=0< ".  45:01@5 1989 3>40, :>340 ?@8H;0 ?5G0;L=0O >G5@54L C<K=88, 1K; B0:65 @07@CH5= N6=K9 D;0=3 >1>@>=K =0H59 AB@0=K. !?>:>9=> 8 >1K45==> =0G02H89AO 4;O A>25BA:8E ;N459 =5?@8<5G0B5;L=K9 1989 3>4 =5>6840==> 70:>=G8;AO 3C;:8< 27@K2>< 3@0=48>7=>9, =52840==>9 4>A5;5 ?> 8AB>@8G5A:8< <0AHB010< =0F8>=0;L=>9 :0B0AB@>DK. 0 ?>A;54=85 B@8 <5AOF0 1989 3>40 @CAA:85 ;N48 ?>B5@O;8 ?>GB8 2A5, GB> 1K;> 702>520=> :@>2LN, ?@8A>548=5=> A8;>9 8 2:;NG5=> 48?;><0B8G5A:8< 8A:CAAB2>< <=>38E ?>:>;5=89 25;8:8E :=O759, 15;KE F0@59 8 :@0A=KE :><8AA0@>2. "K =5 1>8<AO C3@>7, <K ?@>AB> =5=02848< ;>6L". $845;L 0AB@>  D8=0=A>2>5 <8@>2>5 3>A?>4AB2> =LN-9>@:A:8E 10=:8@>2, 2> 8<O :>B>@>3> AB@>8BAO =>2K9 <8@>2>9 ?>@O4>:, 1K;> 1K =52>7<>6=> >ACI5AB28BL B>;L:> >4=8<8 M:>=><8G5A:8<8 A@54AB20<8. B> 70E>G5B ?> A>1AB25==><C 65;0=8N =0;>68BL =0 A2>N H5N C4CH0NI55 O@<> <564C=0@>4=>3> D8=0=A>2>3> A?@CB0. >MB><C 206=59H59 7040G59 =LN-9>@:A:8E 703>2>@I8:>2 1K;> 8 >AB05BAO AB@5<;5=85 A>E@0=8BL ?>402;ONI55 ?@58<CI5AB2> 0<5@8:0=A:8E 2>>@C65==KE A8;, O2;ONI8EAO 2>5==>-?>;8B8G5A:8< E@51B>< =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0. 'B>1K 1KBL 2 A>AB>O=88 2K?>;=8BL 2>7;>65==CN =0 =55 >1O70==>ABL <8@>2>3> 60=40@<0, 0<5@8:0=A:0O 0@<8O 4>;6=0 ?>AB>O==> ?>445@6820BL 2>5==>-B5E=8G5A:>5, AB@0B538G5A:>5 8 >@30=870F8>==>5 ?@52>AE>4AB2> =04 0@<8O<8 A2>8E ?>B5=F80;L=KE ?@>B82=8:>2. C6=> 157>3>2>@>G=> ?@87=0BL, GB> ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O E>;>4=>9 2>9=K 0<5@8:0=A:85 2>>@C65==K5 A8;K =5 B>;L:> A>E@0=8;8 A2>5 B@048F8>==>5 ?@58<CI5AB2>, => B0:65 7=0G8B5;L=> C25;8G8;8 A2>9 1>52>9 ?>B5=F80; ?> A@02=5=8N A 0@<8O<8 4@C38E 254CI8E AB@0= <8@0. * * * 725AB=>, GB> :0: 2 187=5A5, B0: 8 2 ?>;8B8:5 0<5@8:0=FK O2;ONBAO 45;>2K<8 ;N4L<8. =8 =8:>340 =5 C?CABOB A;CG0O, GB>1K =5 2K60BL 2AN, 4> ?>A;54=59 :0?;8, :>@KABL 87 :064>9 1;03>?@8OB=>9 A8BC0F88.  >B;8G85 >B <54;8B5;L=KE, 0 B> 8 ?@>AB> ;5=82KE A;02O=, :>B>@K5 ;N1OB ?>G820BL =0 ;02@0E <8=C2H8E CA?5E>2, ?@54?@88<G82K5 0<5@8:0=FK ?>AB>O==> =0F5;5=K =0 =>2K5 ?@8>1@5B5=8O. 070;>AL 1K, GB> ?>A;5 @0720;0 !>25BA:>3> !>N70 0<5@8:0=F0< =8G53> =5 >AB0=5BAO 45;0BL, :0: 1;03>4CH=> 278@0BL A> A2>53> ?>4=515A=>3> ;8<?0 =0 ?>25@65==KE 2 ?@0E 2@03>2. "5< =5 <5=55 ;>38:0 A>E@0=5=8O 702>520==KE ?>78F89 ?>4B0;:8205B 8E : =>2K< ?@8>1@5B5=8O< 8 @0AH8@5=8N A2>59 AD5@K 2;8O=8O. >182H8AL 2 =0G0;5 90-E 33. 873=0=8O @>AA8O= 87 >AB>G=>9 2@>?K 8 459AB2CO ?> ?@8=F8?C, GB> 2@030 <0;> @0718BL, 53> =C6=> C=8GB>68BL, 0<5@8:0=FK A@07C 65 ?@8=O;8AL 70 8A:>@5=5=8O @CAA:>3> 2;8O=8O =0 0;:0=0E. %>BO .3>A;028O A> 2@5<5= B>@>9 <8@>2>9 2>9=K 1K;0 A>F80;8AB8G5A:>9 AB@0=>9, >=0 =8:>340 =5 2E>48;0 2 A>AB02 0@H02A:>3> 4>3>2>@0, 0 ?>A;5 :>=D;8:B0 2 1948 3>4C <564C "8B> 8 !B0;8=K< ?@>2>48;0 =57028A8<>N ?>;8B8:C, 1>;55 2K3>4=CN 0?04C, G5< !>25BA:><C !>N7C. "0: 65, :0: 8 !>25BA:89 !>N7, .3>A;028O A:;04K20;0AL 87 @O40 A>N7=KE @5A?C1;8:, C45@68205<KE 2 A>AB025 >4=>3> 3>AC40@AB20 65;57=>9 @C:>9 <0@H0;0 >A8D0 @>7 "8B>. >A;5 A<5@B8 "8B> =0F8>=0;L=K5 B@5=8O <564C N3>A;02A:8<8 @5A?C1;8:0<8 70<5B=> >1>AB@8;8AL, G5< =570<54;8B5;L=> 2>A?>;L7>20;8AL 70?04=K5 A?5FA;C61K. > <5@5 >A;01;5=8O !>25BA:>3> !>N70 2A5 1>;LH5 CA8;820;>AL ?>;8B8G5A:>5 2<5H0B5;LAB2> 0?040 2> 2=CB@5==85 45;0 .3>A;0288, :>B>@>5 2 :>=5G=>< 8B>35 ?@825;> : @0A?04C D545@0F88 8 =0G0;C 3@0640=A:>9 2>9=K. >;59 AC@>2>9 AC4L1K 42C< 25;8:8< ?@02>A;02=K< A;02O=A:8< =0@>40<, @>AA8O=0< 8 A5@10<, 2<5AB5 2K=5AH8< =5 >4=> BO65;>5 8AB>@8G5A:>5 8A?KB0=85, ?@8H;>AL >4=>2@5<5==> 8A?8BL 3>@L:CN G0HC =0F8>=0;L=>3> C=865=8O 8 AB@040=8O. > 2 >B;8G85 >B >AA88, :>B>@0O, ?> :@09=59 <5@5 4> :>=F0 80-E O2;O;0AL E>7O9:>9 A2>59 AC4L1K, ?;0G52=0O CG0ABL !5@188 A A0<>3> =0G0;0 1K;0 ?@54@5H5=0 20H8=3B>=A:8<8 45:>@0B>@0<8 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0. ;O 0H8=3B>=0 3@0640=A:0O 2>9=0 2 1K2H59 .3>A;0288 >:070;0AL >B;8G=K< ?@54;>3>< 4;O B>3>, GB>1K >:>=G0B5;L=> "2KB>;:0BL" >AA8N 87 2@>?K 8 A0<8< 70:@5?8BAO 2 AB@0B538G5A:8 206=>< 0;:0=A:>< @538>=5. @8 =587<5==>9 8 A8;L=>9 ?>445@6:5 0<5@8:0=A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20 2A5 @5A?C1;8:8 1K2H59 .3>A;0288, :>B>@K5 >4=>AB>@>==5 ?@>2>73;0A8;8 3>AC40@AB25==CN =57028A8<>ABL, =570<54;8B5;L=> ?>;CG8;8 <564C=0@>4=>5 ?@87=0=85. "57028A8<K5 8 >1J5:B82=K5" A@54AB20 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 0?040 >1JO28;8 A5@1>2 @076830B5;O<8 2>9=K, 0 8E ;845@0< ?@8F5?8;8 O@;K: 2>5==KE ?@5ABC?=8:>2. >A;CH=0O 2>;5 0H8=3B>=0  =0;>68;0 =0 !5@18N B>@3>2K5 8 ?>;8B8G5A:85 A0=:F88, :>B>@K5 2K720;8 3;C1>:89 D8=0=A>2K9 8 M:>=><8G5A:89 :@878A 2 87>;8@>20==>9, 2> <=>3>< 7028AOI59 >B 8=>AB@0==>3> 8<?>@B0 AB@0=5. >=0G0;C 4065 <=>385 A5@1K (?@58<CI5AB25==> ?>;8B8G5A:85 ?@>B82=8:8 A>F80;-45<>:@0B8G5A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20 !;>1>40=0 8;>H528G0), =5 @07>1@02H8AL ?>@O4:>< 2 8AB8==KE =0<5@5=8OE 20H8=3B>=A:8E AB@0B53>2, 4@C6=> ?>4?520;8 ?>4 4C4:C 0<5@8:0=A:>9 ?@>?0-30=4K. !=0G0;0 8< ?>:070;>AL, GB> 0<5@8:0=FK =54>2>;L=K B>;L:> B25@4>;>1K< A>F80;8AB>< 8;>H528G5<, 0 5A;8 53> C40;8BL A ?>;8B8G5A:>9 AF5=K, @57>=5@AB2>20;8 >=8, B> 20H8=3B>=A:85 @045B5;8 ?@02 G5;>25:0 A@07C 65 A<5=OB 3=52 =0 <8;>ABL 8 ?>;N1OB ?@>70?04=CN 45<>:@0B8G5A:CN !5@18N. > 2A:>@5 4065 8< AB0;> ?>=OB=>, GB> 0<5@8:0=FK ?@8H;8 =0 0;:0=K =5 ?5@5AB@0820BL, => @07@CH8BL 8E >B5G5AB2>. C4L >=0 A>F80;8AB8G5A:0O 8;8 :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:0O, A8;L=0O !5@18O =0 =5CAB>9G82KE 0;:0=0E =5 2?8AK20;0AL 2 AB@0B538G5A:85 ?;0=K 0<5@8:0=A:8E AB@>8B5;59 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0. @03<0B8G5A:8 <KA;OI85 0<5@8:0=A:85 <564C=0@>4=K5 M:A?5@BK E>@>H> ?>=8<0NB, GB>, ?>:0 =0 0;:0=0E ACI5AB2C5B A8;L=>5 A5@1A:>5 3>AC40@AB2>, 2A5340 1C45B ACI5AB2>20BL >?0A=>ABL 2>72@0I5=8O >AA88 2 MB>B =52@0;38G5A:89 @538>= 2@>?K. 'B>1K ?@54>B2@0B8BL 2>7<>6=>ABL A>740=8O 2 1C4CI5< 548=>3> D@>=B0 10;:0=A:8E ?@02>A;02=KE AB@0=, 0H8=3B>= A> A2>8<8 70?04=>52@>?59A:8<8 A>N7=8:0<8 @5H8;8 87>;8@>20BL !5@18N, >:@C682 55 :>;LF>< 2@06451=KE A>A5459. !;54>20;> 2K18BL @07 8 =02A5340 87 3>;>2 C?@O<KE A5@1>2 =0F8>=0;8AB8G5A:CN 845N > 8E A?5F80;L=>9 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 8 @5;838>7=>9 <8AA88 =0 0;:0=0E. 070;>AL 1K, GB> C 0<5@8:0=F52 1K;0 5I5 >4=0 ?>;8B8G5A:0O 0;LB5@=0B820.  8<5==>, A ?><>ILN A2>59 ?OB>9 :>;>=K ?>?@>1>20BL CAB0=>28BL 2 !5@188 4@C65A:89, "45<>:@0B8G5A:89" @568< A ?>A;54CNI8< 53> "CAK=>2;5=85<" 2 ". >, 7=0O ?@> @>AA89A:85 A8<?0B88 ?@>AB>3> A5@1A:>3> =0@>40, 0<5@8:0=FK @5H8;8, GB> MB> 1K; 1K ?;>E>9 ?>;8B8G5A:89 187=5A. 54L ", 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L, 4>;6=> 1KBL =0F5;5=> =0 2>7<>6=K9 :>=D;8:B A >AA859. C45B ;8 @07C<=> 2 B0:>< A;CG05 @0AAG8BK20BL =0 1>52>9 70?0; @CA>D8;LA:8E A5@1>2? >B ?>;O:8, 25=3@K 8;8 ?@810;BK - MB> A>2A5< 4@C3>5 45;>. 5 >48= @07, B> ;8 2 >1>75 0?>;5>=0, B> ;8 8B;5@0 >=8 <0@H8@>20;8 ?> 15A:@09=5<C @>AA89A:><C 1574>@>6LN =0 =5=028AB=CN >A:2C.  E>BO <0;> :><C 87 ?@56=8E 020=BN@8AB>2 C40;>AL C=5AB8 A2>8 =54>@0728BK5 :>AB8 87 =53>AB5?@88<=>9 >AA88, 8E B5?5@5H=85 "=8G5<C =5 =0CG82H85AO 8 =8G53> =5 701K2H85" ?>B><:8 3>B>2K E>BL A53>4=O >B?@028BLAO 2 =>2K9 ?>E>4 =0 >AB>:. #65 2 1989 3>4C 0<5@8:0=A:>5 & #, =5 4>6840OAL 2KE>40 >;LH8 8 5=3@88 87 0@H02A:>3> ?0:B0, 2ABC?8;> 2 B5A=>5 A>B@C4=8G5AB2> A @07254:0<8 MB8E AB@0=.  1997 3>4C >48= 2KA>:>?>AB02;5==K9 @57845=B 0<5@8:0=A:>9 @07254:8 2 0@H025 >B:@KB> ?@87=0;AO (?>A:>;L:C B5?5@L MB> C65 =5 A5:@5B), GB> C65 2 1989 3>4C, :>340 >;LH0 5I5 >D8F80;L=> 2E>48;0 2 0@H02A:89 4>3>2>@, <564C & # 8 ?>;LA:>9 @07254:>9 1K;> CAB0=>2;5=> B5A=>5, @01>G55 A>B@C4=8G5AB2>. 0G8=0O A 1990 3>40, >D8F5@K ?>;LA:>9 @07254:8 @53C;O@=> ?@>E>4OB AB068@>2:C 2 3>@>45 03;59 HB0B0 8@468=8O, 345 =0E>48BAO 3;02=0O HB01-:20@B8@0 & #. 5B@C4=> 4>3040BLAO, ?>G5<C 40;5:> ;560I0O >B AB@0B538G5A:>9 =5DB8 5@A84A:>3> 70;820 >;LH0 24@C3 ?@52@0B8;0AL 2 F5=B@ @07254K20B5;L=KE >?5@0F89 & # 8 ?@>B82 :>3> =0?@02;5=K MB8 >?5@0F88. >9=0 70 N3>A;02A:>5 "=0A;5485" 1991-1995 33. ?@54>AB028;0 20H8=3B>=A:8< AB@0B530< 8A:;NG8B5;L=CN 2>7<>6=>ABL @5H8BL >4=>2@5<5==> 425 A2>8 3;02=K5 2=5H=5?>;8B8G5A:85 7040G8: 2>-?5@2KE, >A;018BL ?>;8B8G5A:>5 2;8O=85 >AA88 2 2@>?5 8, 2>-2B>@KE C:@5?8BL 8 @0AH8@8BL ". !>740==K9 2 1949 3>4C !525@>-B;0=B8G5A:89 2>5==K9 A>N7 2KAB>O; <=>385 :@878A=K5 8A?KB0=8O 2@5<5= E>;>4=>9 2>9=K. 0=8G5A:89 AB@0E ?5@54 C3@>7>9 A>25BA:>3> 8<?5@80;87<0 8 ?C30;>< "1571>6=>3>" :><<C=87<0, A;>2=> M;5:B@8G5A:>9 A20@:>9, A?0O; :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:85 AB@0=K 0?04=>9 2@>?K 8 !525@=>9 <5@8:8 2 548=CN 2>5==CN AB@C:BC@C. 070;>AL 1K, GB> ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: >@10G52 A>1AB25==>@CG=> @07>3=0; >@30=870F8N 0@H02A:>3> >1>@>=8B5;L=>3> 4>3>2>@0, >4=>2@5<5==> >B?0;0 2AO:0O =04>1=>ABL 2 A>E@0=5=88 "2A:>3> A>N70. -B>3> B@51>20;8 =5 B>;L:> ?@>ABK5 ;N48 0?04=>9 2@>?K, => >1 MB>< B0:65 >B:@KB> ?>3>20@820;8 2 :>@84>@0E 2KAH59 ?>;8B8G5A:>9 2;0AB8 70?04=>-52@>?59A:8E AB>;8F, 345 B5?5@L =5 2845;8 1>;LH>3> ?@>:C 2 40;L=59H5< ACI5AB2>20=88 MB>9 4>@>3>AB>OI59 @5;8:288 2@5<5= E>;>4=>9 2>9=K. "5< 1>;55, GB> A0<8 !>548=5==K5 (B0BK, 2 C30@5 ?@>?030=48ABA:8E ?5@51@0=>: 2 3>4K E>;>4=>9 2>9=K, G0AB> CB25@640;8, GB> " ACI5AB2C5B 8A:;NG8B5;L=> :0: 2>5==K9 ?@>B82>25A 0@H02A:><C 4>3>2>@C 8 1C45B =570<54;8B5;L=> @0A?CI5=, :0: B>;L:> 8AG57=5B C3@>70 A> AB>@>=K !>25BA:>3> !>N70. @8<5@=> B> 65 A0<>5, => C65 2 48?;><0B8G5A:>9 >1@01>B:5, >15I0;>AL >@10G52C :0: F5=0 70 @>A?CA: 0@H02A:>3> 4>3>2>@0 8 2>AA>548=5=85 5@<0=88. %>BO B5?5@L 0<5@8:0=FK 15AABK4=> CB25@640NB, GB> >=8 B0:8E >15I0=89 =8:>340 A>25BA:8< ;845@0< =5 4020;8, 8E 65 A>1AB25==K9 1K2H89 ?>A>; 2 !!!  65: MB;>: =5 B0: 402=>, 2 1994 3>4C, ?C1;8G=> ?@87=0;AO, GB> B0:85 7025@5=8O 2 A2>5 2@5<O >@10G52C 1K;8 40=K. 020O ?CABK5 >15I0=8O, 0<5@8:0=FK 2 459AB28B5;L=>AB8 =8:>340 A5@L57=> 4065 =5 4C<0;8 > 2>7<>6=>< @>A?CA:5 !525@>-B;0=B8G5A:>3> A>N70, :>B>@K9 O2;O5BAO 8E 3;02=K< 2>5==K< >@C485< 2 45;5 ?>445@60=8O A2>53> <8@>2>3> 3>A?>4AB20. >-?5@2KE, A>E@0=5=85 " ?>72>;O5B !( AB0-F8>=8@>20BL O45@=>5 >@C685 2 2@>?5, GB> 405B 0<5@8:0=F0<, 2 A;CG05 2>5==>3> :>=D;8:B0, @5H0NI55 AB@0B538G5A:>5 ?@58<CI5AB2> =04 >AA859.  B> 2@5<O, :>340 @>AA89A:8< <56:>=B8=5=B0;L=K< @0:5B0< ?>=04>18;>AL 1K ?>;G0A0 2@5<5=8, GB>1K 4>AB028BL A2>9 O45@=K9 3@C7 : A525@>0<5@8:0=A:8< 15@530<, 0<5@8:0=A:8< B0:B8G5A:8< @0:5B0< ?>B@51C5BAO 2A53> =5A:>;L:> <8=CB, GB>1K 87 A2>8E "2A:8E 107 ?>@078BL @>AA89A:CN B5@@8B>@8N..  B><C 65, 2 A;CG05 2>5==>3> :>=D;8:B0 >AA88 ?@8H;>AL 1K 8A?>;L7>20BL 7=0G8B5;L=K5 @5AC@AK A2>53> O45@=>3> ?>B5=F80;0 4;O C=8GB>65=8O AB@0B538G5A:8E >1J5:B>2 2 2@>?5, :>B>@0O, B0:8< >1@07><, ?@52@0B8;0AL 1K 2 3;02=K9 B50B@ 2>5==KE 459AB289. :@04K205BAO ?>4>7@5=85, GB> 1@02K5 ?5=B03>=>2A:85 AB@0B538 C:@0;8 MBC :>=F5?F8N 2545=8O 2>9=K C :@0A=>3> <0@H0;0 >@>H8;>20, :>B>@K9 B>65 E>B5; 2>520BL "=0 GC6>9 B5@@8B>@88 8 <0;>9 :@>2LN". >-2B>@KE, E>@>H> =0;065==0O A8AB5<0 2>5==KE 107 2 2@>?5 405B 2>>@C65==K< A8;0< !( ;53:89 8 C4>1=K9 4>ABC? =0 25G=> =5A?>:>9=K9, ?>AB>O==> ?>B@OA05<K9 87@08;LA:>9 03@5AA82=>9 ?>;8B8:>9 ;86=89 >AB>:, :>B>@K9 : B><C 65 O2;O5BAO @538>=>< 0<5@8:0=A:8E 687=5==> 206=KE 8=B5@5A>2. , =0:>=5F, 2-B@5BL8E, 3;025=AB2CNI0O @>;L 0<5@8:0=F52 2 " ?>72>;O5B 8< ?@>872>;L=> 2<5H820BLAO 2 ?>;8B8:C 4@C38E AB@0= G;5=>2 >@30=870F88 MB>3> A>N70 8 :>=B@>;8@>20BL 8E =0F8>=0;L=K5 2>>@C65==K5 A8;K. AE>4O 87 2KH587;>65==>3>, <>6=> A<5;> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> 20H8=3B>=A:85 AB@0B538 =8:>340 A5@L57=> 4065 =5 "10;>20;8AL" <KA;LN > 2>7<>6=>AB8 @>A?CA:0 8;8 E>BO 1K >3@0=8G5=8O A2>53> ;N18<>3> 2>5==>3> 45B8I0. 0:>9 4C@0: 1C45B @570BL =0 >154 A515 :C@8FC, :>B>@0O 8A?@02=> =5A5B 5<C 7>;>BK5 O9F0? @0640=A:0O 2>9=0 2 1K2H59 .3>A;0288, :>B>@0O, =5 ?><5H05B ;8H=89 @07 =0?><=8BL, 1K;0 "A20@30=5=0" 20H8=3B>=A:8<8 703>2>@I8:0<8, ?@5:@0A=> 2?8AK20;0AL 2 0<5@8:0=A:85 ?;0=K 40;L=59H53> >A;01;5=8O >AA88, C:@5?;5=8O " 8 @0AH8@5=85 A2>53> 2;8O=8O 2 2@>?5.  0?@5;5 1991 3>40, A;54CO C:07:0< & #, A0<>720==>5 <CAC;L<0=A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> ;L8 70@153>28G0 >1JO28;> > A2>5< 2KE>45 87 A>AB020 .3>A;02A:>9 D545@0F88 8 ?@>2>73;0A8;> 3>AC40@AB25==CN =57028A8<>ABL >A=88-5@F53>28=K. #G8BK20O MB=8G5A:89 A>AB02 A<5H0==>3> =0A5;5=8O @5A?C1;8:8 8 A?5F8D8:C CA;>289 55 M:>=><8G5A:>9 687=8, B0:>5 @5H5=85 A0@052A:>3> @568<0 >7=0G0;> =587156=CN 3@0640=A:CN 2>9=C. @5420@OO 1>A=89A:89 @5D5@5=4C< > =57028A8<>AB8, 48?;><0BK =5 B>;L:> >AA88 8 !5@188, => B0:65 1>;LH8=AB20 AB@0= 2@>?K C?@0H820;8 0<5@8:0=A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> =5 A?5H8BL A ?@87=0=85< 1>A=89A:>3> 3>AC40@AB20, B0: :0: 2 A8;C MB=8G5A:>3> 8 @5;838>7=>3> A>AB020 =0A5;5=8O MB> =570<54;8B5;L=> ?@825;> 1K : 3@0640=A:>9 2>9=5. 025@=>5, =5 ?>=8<0;8 =54>B5?K, GB> :0: @07-B> 1@0B>C189AB25==0O 2>9=0 8 1K;0 =C6=0 0<5@8:0=A:8< <8@>B2>@F0<. 5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> >A=88 :0: AC25@5==>3> 3>AC40@AB20 =8:>340 ?@5645 =5 ACI5AB2>20;>, 8 A>25@H5==> 83=>@8@CO 34% A5@1A:>3> =0A5;5=8O, :>B>@>5 1>9:>B8@>20;> ?@>2>:0F8>==K9 @5D5@5=4C<, !>548=5==K5 (B0BK 8 8E A>N7=8:8 =570<54;8B5;L=> ?@87=0;8 B>;L:> GB> ?@>2>73;0H5==>5 <CAC;L<0=A:>5 3>AC40@AB2>. !5@1K, :>B>@K5 8A?>:>= 25:>2 68;8 =0 1>A=89A:>9 75<;5 8 70:>==> 2;045;8 65% 75<5;L=>3> 8<CI5AB20 @5A?C1;8:8, 70 >48= 45=L 1K;8 ?@52@0I5=K 2 3@0640= 2B>@>3> A>@B0 2 A2>5< A>1AB25==>< >B5G5AB25. #=865==K5 8 703=0==K5 2 B5<=K9 C3>; A2>53> @>4=>3> 4><0, >=8 =5 8<5;8 4@C3>3> 2KE>40, :0: 27OBLAO 70 >@C685, GB>1K 70I8B8BL A2>5 8<CI5AB2>, G5ABL 8 4>AB>8=AB2>. "0: =0G0;0AL ?>43>B>2;5==0O 8 A?@>2>F8@>20==0O 0<5@8:0=A:8< 8<?5@80;87<>< 3@0640=A:0O 2>9=0 2 >A=88. >4 ;8F5<5@=K< ?@54;>3>< >3@0=8G5=8O 3@0640=A:>9 2>9=K 2 1K2H59 .3>A;0288 0<5@8:0=A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> "?@>B>;:0;>" G5@57  <564C=0@>4=K9 70?@5B =0 ?>AB02:C >@C68O 2>NNI8< AB>@>=0<. >=OB=>, GB> B@C4K ?@8A<>B@0 70 8A?>;=5=85< M<10@3> 0<5@8:0=FK >E>B=> 8 4>1@>2>;L=> 27O;8 =0 A0<8E A51O. !>740;0AL :C@L57=0O A8BC0F8O, :>340, 3>2>@O A;>20<8 8725AB=>3> @CAA:>3> 87@5G5=8O, ":>75; >B?@028;AO 2 >3>@>4 AB>@>68BL :0?CABC". 'B>1K >?@0240BL A2>N 0=B8A5@1A:CN ?>;8B8:C 2 0;:0=A:>< :>=D;8:B5, A@54AB20 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 !( @0725@=C;8 8AB5@8G5A:CN ?@>?030=48ABA:CN :0<?0=8N =5=028AB8, >1<0=0 8 :;525BK, 87>1@060O A5@1A:89 =0F8>=0;87< :0: 8AB8==CN ?@8G8=C 2>9=K 8 >128=OO A5@1A:8E @C:>2>48B5;59 2 03@5AA82=>9 ?>;8B8:5 8 2>5==KE ?@5ABC?;5=8OE.  4>102>: !>548=5==K5 (B0BK, >?OBL B0:8 ?CB5< 2K:@CG820=8O @C: 2 , =0;>68;8 =0 ">1@570==CN" .3>A;028N (!5@18N 8 '5@=>3>@8N) 4>?>;=8B5;L=K5 M:>=><8G5A:85 A0=:F88. > 2A59 MB>9 70:C;8A=>9 2>7=5 2  BO65;> 1K;> ?>=OBL ;>38:C @>AA89A:>9 48?;><0B88, :>B>@0O 157@>?>B=> A;54>20;0 20H8=3B>=A:>9 ?>;8B8:5, =0?@02;5==>9 =0 C4CH5=85 !5@188. "5< 1>;55, GB> 2 B> 2@5<O 1K;> 5I5 =5 ?>74=> A?CB0BL :0@BK 20H8=3B>=A:8E AB@0B53>2, A:0702 B25@4>5 "=5B" 0<5@8:0=A:8< 03@5AA82=K< ?>?>;7=>25=8O< =0 0;:0=0E. =>385 52@>?59A:85 AB@0=K ", >?0A0OAL 45AB018;870F88 27@K2>>?0A=>9 A8BC0F88 2 .3>->AB>G=>9 2@>?5 8 2>7<>6=>3> 2BO3820=8O 2 :>=D;8:B 4@C38E AB@0= 0;:0=A:>3> ?>;C>AB@>20, A>25B>20;8 0<5@8:0=F0< =5 A?5H8BL 8 459AB2>20BL >A<>B@8B5;L=>. E =5 @04>20;0 A><=8B5;L=0O ?5@A?5:B820 1KBL 2BO=CBK<8 2 GC6CN 2>9=C, :>B>@0O, :@><5 =0?;K20 A>B=8 BKAOG =>2KE 2>5==KE 1565=F52, =8G53> 4@C3>3> 8< =5 AC;8;0.  B><C 65 52@>?59A:85 AB@0=K ", =5 1C4CG8 4> :>=F0 C25@5==K<8, :0: 2 A;CG05 MA:0;0F88 2>9=K =0 0;:0=0E ?>ABC?8B >AA8O, ?@>AB> 1>O;8AL "1>;LH>9" 2>9=K.  MB>9 A8BC0F88 @>AA89A:>9 48?;><0B88 A;54>20;> <0:A8<0;L=> 8A?>;L7>20BL =0<5B82H85AO ?@>B82>@5G8O 2 =0-B>2A:>< ;035@5, 4020O OA=> ?>=OBL, GB> >AA8O 1C45B B25@4> AB>OBL =0 AB>@>=5 A5@1>2. "0:0O =542C7=0G=0O ?>78F8O @>AA89A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20 <>3;0 1K 70AB028BL =5:>B>@K5 AB@0=K " 42064K ?>4C<0BL ?5@54 B5<, :0: A;5?> A;54>20BL 0<5@8:0=A:><C 1>52><C :;8GC. 725AB=>, GB> 2 >48=>G:C 0<5@8:0=FK 2>520BL =5 ;N1OB. 03;O4=K< ?@8<5@>< <>65B A;C68BL ?>ABK4=> ?@>20;82H0OAO ?>A;54=OO ?>?KB:0 0<5@8:0=F52 ?@>CG8BL C?@O<>3> !0440<0 %CA59=0. !>AB@O?02 8A:CAAB25==CN ?@>1;5<C 2>:@C3 45OB5;L=>AB8 8=A?5:B>@>2  2 @0:5, 0<5@8:0=A:85 "<8@>B2>@FK" ?>?@>1>20;8 1K;> >@30=87>20BL =>2K9 ":@5AB>2K9" ?>E>4 A2>8E =0B>2A:8E >@C65=>AF52 ?@>B82 =5?>:>@=>3> !0440<0. 5;> 2 B><, GB> 1@83040 "<564C=0@>4=KE 8 =5?@5427OBKE" 8=A?5:B>@>2  2 @0:5, A>AB>O2H0O ?>GB8 157 8A:;NG5=8O 87 <0AB8BKE 0<5@8:0=A:8E H?8>=>2, :>B>@K5, ?5@525@=C2 225@E =>30<8 2A5 2>5==K5 8 3@0640=A:85 ?@54?@8OB8O AB@0=K, => B0: 8 =5 =094O C?@OB0==>9 :>20@=K< 8@0:A:8< 48:B0B>@><, =025@=>5, 345-B> 2 ?5I5@5 ;8 01K, 0B><=>9 1><1K, ?>B@51>20;8 A2>1>4=>3> 4>ABC?0 : ?@57845=BA:8< 42>@F0<. <5@8:0=FK >B;8G=> ?>=8<0;8, GB> A2>5=@02=K9 %CA59=, :0:, 2?@>G5<, :064K9 C2060NI89 A51O 3;020 AC25@5==>3> 3>AC40@AB20, =0 ?>4>1=>5 C=865=85 =5 ?>945B, GB> ?@54>AB028B 8< C4>1=CN 2>7<>6=>ABL @07 8 =02A5340 2K@20BL MBC 70=>7C 87 87@08;LA:>9 704=8FK. > =0 MB>B @07 "?@>7@52H0O" @>AA89A:0O 48?;><0B8O, 70@CG82H8AL ?>445@6:>9 D@0=FC7>2 8 :8B09F52, CA?5H=> @0AAB@>8;0 ?>?KB:8 7048@8AB>3> 0H8=3B>=0 A>740BL 548=K9 0=B88@0:A:89 D@>=B. AB02H85AO 2 >48=>G:C =5CAB@0H8<K5 0<5@8:0=A:85 "B5@<8=0B>@K" ?>ABK4=> >BABC?8;8 8 >AB028;8 "=0E0;L=>3>" !0440<0 =0 :0:>5-B> 2@5<O 2 >B=>A8B5;L=>< ?>:>5.  A>60;5=8N, 2 =0G0;5 >A=89A:>9 2>9=K 48?;><0B8G5A:89 :>@?CA 15AE@515B=>3> >7K@520, : 157<5@=><C C482;5=8N 2A53> >AB0;L=>3> <8@0, 15A?@5:>A;>2=> ?>445@60; 2A5 0<5@8:0=A:85 @57>;NF88 2 , =0?@02;5==K5 ?@>B82 4@C65;N1=>3> >AA88 A5@1A:>3> =0@>40. #6 >G5=L E>B5;>AL =0G8B0==K< @>AA89A:8< 70?04=8:0< 4>:070BL A2>8< 70>:50=A:8< :C<8@0<, GB> 2 >B:@KB>9 @>AA89A:>9 4CH5 =5 >AB0;>AL 8 :@>H:8 2@06451=>AB8 : 1K2H5<C ?@>B82=8:C 2 E>;>4=>9 2>9=5. 0: 1C4B> 0<5@8:0=A:8E "?A8E>;>3>2" <>3;> 8=B5@5A>20BL, GB> B2>@8BAO 2 8ICI59 A5=B8<5=B0;L=>9 4CH5 ?>25@65==>3> ?@>B82=8:0. >A?>;L7>202H8AL A3>2>@G82>ABLN 8 C3>4;82>ABLN @CAA:>9 48?;><0B88, 0<5@8:0=FK 1KAB@> =025;8 65;57=CN 48AF8?;8=C 2 =5A:>;L:> @0AA;0182H8EAO =0-B>2A:8E @O40E 8 45;>28B> ?@8=O;8AL 70 >ACI5AB2;5=8O A2>8E 2>5==>-?>;8B8G5A:8E ?;0=>2 =0 0;:0=0E. 5 65;0O @8A:>20BL 687=LN A2>8E 1@02KE 68-09-6>, ?@028B5;LAB2> !>548=5==KE (B0B>2 =0G0;> 0:B82-=> 2>>@C60BL 8 >1CG0BL @2CI85AO 2 1>9 A2565A>740==K5 0@<88 >A=88 8 %>@20B88, GB>1K @C:0<8 MB8E A2>8E E>;C52 CAB0=>28BL =>2K9 ?>@O4>: =0 0;:0=0E. -<10@3> , 70?@5I0NI55 ?>AB02:C >@C68O 8 2>5==KE <0B5@80;>2 2>NNI8< AB>@>=0<, @01>B0;> 8A:;NG8B5;L=> ?@>B82 A5@1>2, :>B>@K5 B5?5@L 2 A2O78 A A0<>CAB@0=5=85< >AA88 <>3;8 @0AAG8BK20BL B>;L:> =0 A2>8 A>1AB25==K5 A8;K.  B> 2@5<O, :>340 A5@1K 704KE0;8AL ?>4 1@5<5=5< A0=:F89 , 20AA0;L=K5 ?@028B5;LAB20 03@510 8 !0@052> ?@>4>;60;8 ?>;CG0BL I54@CN 2>5==CN 8 M:>=><8G5A:CN ?><>IL 87 <=>3>G8A;5==KE <564C=0@>4=KE 8AB>G=8:>2 8, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L, >B !>548=5==KE (B0B>2. <5@8:0=A:85 2>5==K5 :>@01;8, 148B5;L=> ?0B@C;8@CNI85 2>4K 4@80B8G5A:>3> <>@O, 8A?@02=> 7045@6820;8 2A5, 4065 3C<0=8B0@=K5 3@C7K 45BA:8E ?@>4C:B>2 8 ;5:0@AB2, ?@54=07=0G5==K5 4;O A5@1>2, 8 2 B>65 2@5<O A>2A5< "=5 70<5G0O" ?>B>:0 2>5==KE ?>AB02>:, B5:CI8E 2 >A=8N 8 %>@20B8N. >, =5A<>B@O =0 2A5 CA8;8O, @0AE>4K 8 CE8I@5=8O I54@KE 70>:50=A:8E A?>=A>@>2, 1>5A?>A>1=>ABL, >3@><=>9 10AC@<0=A:>9 0@<88 A0@052A:>3> @568<0 >AB020;0AL =0 ?;0G52=> =87:>< C@>2=5.  1>;LH><C >3>@G5=8N 0<5@8:0=A:8E HB018AB>2, "4>1;5AB=K5" <CAC;L<0=A:85 2>O:8 1KAB@> ?>B5@O;8 75% B5@@8B>@88 2 >A=88, 8 :0640O 8E ?>?KB:0 ?5@5E20B8BL 2>5==CN 8=8F80B82C 8;8 E>BO 1K =5<=>6:> C;CGH8BL ?>;>65=85 =0 >B45;L=KE CG0AB:0E D@>=B0 70:0=G820;0AL >G5@54=>9 ?>ABK4=>9 =5C40G59. 'B>1K :0:-B> 2K83@0BL 4@03>F5==>5 2@5<O, AB018;878@>20BL 1KAB@> @0720;820NI89AO D@>=B 8 ?5@53@C??8@>20BL =54>18B:8 <CAC;L<0=A:>3> 2>9A:0, 0<5@8:0=FK =0AB>O;8 =0 @07<5I5=88 2 %>@20B88 8 >A=88 <8@>B2>@G5A:8E A8; . ;O A>740=8O 2848<>AB8 =59B@0;8B5B0 <8@>B2>@G5A:8E A8; 2 >A=88 >AA8O 8 #:@08=0 B>65 1K;8 ?@83;0H5=K ?@8=OBL CG0AB85 2 MB>9 >?5@0F88. @0240, "=5 CAB>O2" ?>4 =068<>< 1>A=89A:>3> <CAC;L<0=A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20, "15AA8;L=>5" :><0=4>20=85 <8@>B2>@G5A:8<8 A8;0<8 2 1K2H59 .3>A;0288 1K;> 2K=C645=> @07<5AB8BL @>AA89A:85 >B45;K ?>40;LH5 >B "=52@>;>38G5A:8E" B>G5: :>=D;8:B0. >AA89A:85 A>;40BK 1K;8 70A;0=K 2 40;5:85 >B D@>=B0 8 70AK?0==K5 A=53>< 682>?8A=K5 A5@1A:85 45@52=8, 345 =0H8< =>2>1@0=F0< =8G53> =5 >AB020;>AL 45;0BL, :0: ?8BL A0<>@>1=CN A;82>28FC 8 CE06820BL 70 <5AB=K<8 :@0A028F0<8.  459AB28B5;L=>AB8, B0: =07K205<K5 <8@>B2>@G5A:85 A8;K  2 @5A?C1;8:0E 1K2H59 .3>A;0288 A;C68;8 C4>1=>9 H8@<>9, 70 :>B>@>9 0H8=3B>= >ACI5AB2;O; A2>8 G5AB>;N182K5 ?;0=K ?5@5CAB@>9AB20 3>AC40@AB25==KE 3@0=8F =0 0;:0=0E 8 C25:>25G820=8O A2>53> 2>5==>3> ?@8ACBAB28O 2 MB>< @538>=5. >-?5@2KE, 107K <8@>B2>@G5A:8E >B45;>2 70?04=KE AB@0= A;C68;8 ?5@520;>G=K<8 ?C=:B0<8, G5@57 :>B>@K5 ?>ABC?0;8 ?>AB02:8 2>>@C65=89 4;O <CAC;L<0=A:>9 8 E>@20BA:>9 0@<89. >-2B>@KE, @0A?>;030O A2>1>4>9 15A?@5?OBAB25==>3> ?5@542865=8O ?> B5@@8B>@88 2>NNI8E AB>@>=, >=8 A>18@0;8 8 ?5@54020;8 2 HB01K " @07254K20B5;L=CN 8=D>@<0F8N > 48A;>:0F88, G8A;5==>AB8 8 2>>@C65=88 A5@1A:8E 2>8=A:8E G0AB59. -B@5BL8E, =0 B5@@8B>@88 107 <8@>B2>@G5A:8E A8; :20@B8@>20;8AL 0<5@8:0=A:85 8=AB@C:B>@K 8 2>5==K5 A>25B=8:8, :>B>@K5 >1CG0;8 <CAC;L<0=A:8E A>;40B 8 ?;0=8@>20;8 2>5==K5 >?5@0F88 ?@>B82 A5@1>2. -G5B25@BKE, =0B>2A:85 "<8@>B2>@FK" A;C68;8 A?0A8B5;L=K< 701>@><, 70 :>B>@K< ?@OB0;8AL =54>18B:8 <CAC;L<0=A:8E 8 E>@20BA:8E 2>O: ?>A;5 :064>9 >G5@54=>9 =5C40G=>9 2K;07:8. , =0:>=5F, 2-?OBKE, "=59B@0;L=K5" <8@>B2>@FK >1A;C6820;8 ?@>?030=48ABA:85 =C64K 0<5@8:0=A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20, A=0160O 53> 2A52>7<>6=K<8 C;8:0<8 8 "4>:070B5;LAB20<8" > "=5A;KE0==KE" A5@1A:8E 2>5==KE ?@5ABC?;5=8OE. !0<> A>1>9 @07C<55BAO, GB> :0640O E>@20BA:0O 8;8 <CAC;L<0=A:0O 2>5==0O ?@>2>:0F8O ?@5?>4=>A8;0AL <8@>2><C >1I5AB25==><C <=5=8N :0: A2845B5;LAB2> ?0B>;>38G5A:>9 A5@1A:>9 03@5AA82=>AB8 8 8E C?@O<>3> =565;0=8O <8@=>3> C@53C;8@>20=8O 2>5==>3> :>=D;8:B0. 0?@8<5@, A5@8O B0:8E ?@5ABC?=KE ?@>2>:0F89 1K;0 >ACI5AB2;5=0 <CAC;L<0=A:8<8 2;0ABO<8 !0@052> 2 O=20@5 8 D52@0;5 1994 3>40. !;54CO 857C8BA:>9 =0C:5 & #, 1>A=89A:85 3>;>2>@57K =5 <>3;8 ?@84C<0BL =8G53> ;CGH53>, :0: =0G0BL ;C?8BL ?@O<>9 =02>4:>9 87 ?CH5: ?> A2>8< A>1AB25==K< 15770I8B=K< A>3@0640=0<.  >4=>< A;CG05 >B ?@O<>3> ?>?040=8O A=0@O4>< ?>381;> A5<5@> 83@0NI8E 2> 42>@5 2 DCB1>; 45B59.  4@C3>< >B @07@K20 A=0@O40 1K;> C18B> 8 ?>:0;5G5=> =5A:>;L:> G5;>25:, B5@?5;82> <5@7H8E 2 >G5@548 70 E;51><. 4=> 87 A0<8E 3=CA=KE ?@5ABC?;5=89 1K;> A>25@H5==> 5-3> D52@0;O 1994 3>40, :>340 "=58725AB=K5" ?@5ABC?=8:8 ?>425@3;8 0@B8;;5@89A:><C >1AB@5;C ?5@5?>;=5==K9 =0@>4>< F5=B@0;L=K9 @K=>: !0@052>. %>BO 4065 =0B>2A:85 A?5F80;8ABK >B 10;;8AB8:8, ?5@5:@CG820O 8 872@0I0O 8<5NI85AO D0:BK, =5 <>3;8 >:>=G0B5;L=> CAB0=>28BL, :B> 8 >B:C40 AB@5;O;, A@54AB20 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 0?040, ?>A;CH=> A;54CO 0<5@8:0=A:><C A83=0;C, =0G0;8 :0B53>@8G5A:8 >128=OBL ":@>2>604=KE" A5@1>2 2 MB8E 20@20@A:8E 0:B0E. >;>A;>2=> >128=OO A5@1>2 2 A>45O==>< ?@5ABC?;5=88, 0<5@8:0=A:85 A;54>20B5;8 B0: 8 =5 A<>3;8 A>AB@O?0BL C1548B5;L=>3> C3>;>2=>3> 45;0. <5@8:0=F52 >A>15==> @074@060;8 =5A3>2>@G82K5 D@0=FC7K, :>B>@K5 C?@O<> >B:07K20;8AL ?>4?8AK20BL ;8?>2K5 70:;NG5=8O "?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> 8 15A?@8AB@0AB=>3> <564C=0@>4=>3>" A;54AB28O. >;55 B>3>, ?> D@0=FC7A:><C B5;52845=8N ?>765 1K; ?>:070= 4>:C<5=B0;L=K9 D8;L<, 2 :>B>@>< D@0=FC7A:85 A;54>20B5;8 CB25@640;8, GB> 2 A>>B25BAB288 A> 2A5<8 8725AB=K<8 70:>=0<8 10;;8AB8:8 ?>@0782H85 @K=>: ?CH5G=K5 2KAB@5;K =8 2 :>5< A;CG05 =5 <>3;8 1KBL ?@>872545=K A ?>78F89 A5@1>2.  E>BO 1>A=89A:89 @568< ;88 75B153>-28G0 ?@O<> F5 >128=O;AO 2 A>45O==>< ?@5ABC?;5=88, :064K9 74@02><KA;OI89 G5;>25: <>3 ;53:> ?@84B8 : =5E8B@><C 2K2>4C, :B> 8 70G5< AB@5;O;. 0B5<0B8G5A:85 @0AG5BK 2>5==KE A;54>20B5;59 A>2A5< =5 A<CB8;8 20H8=3B>=A:8E ?@024>8A:0B5;59 8 CA5@4=> 8< 2B>@OI8E 70?04=KE "70I8B=8:>2" ?@02 G5;>25:0. 5@5?>;=5==K5 =53>4>20=85< 0<5@8:0=A:85 ?@54AB028B5;8 2  B@51>20;8 ?@8=OB8O =570<54;8B5;L=KE AB@>38E <5@ 4;O =0:070=8O A5@1A:8E "?@5ABC?=KE" 03@5AA>@>2.  B> 65 2@5<O ?>4AB@5:05<K5 0<5@8:0=A:>9 ?@5AA>9 ?@028B5;LAB20 =5:>B>@KE "4@C65AB25==KE" 0H8=3B>=C <CAC;L<0=A:8E AB@0= B@51>20;8 2  A=OB8O 2>5==>3> M<10@3> A >A=88 8 <564C=0@>4=>9 2>5==>9 8=B5@25=F88 =0 0;:0=0E. D8F80;L=K9 @C?>@ =LN-9>@:A:8E D8=0=A>2KE :@C3>2, 0<5@8:0=A:85 3075BK "LN->@: "09<5" 8 "0H8=3B>= >AB", ?@87K20;8 0<5@8:0=A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> : >B:@KB><C 2>5==><C 2<5H0B5;LAB2C 2 >A=89A:CN 3@0640=A:CN 2>9=C, GB>1K ?>;>68BL :>=5F ?@5ABC?=><C "35=>F84C" ?@>B82 <CAC;L<0=A:>3> =0A5;5=8O. 5@5:@CG820O 8 @0ABO3820O 4> ?@545;0 8AB>@8G5A:85 D0:BK, 0<5@8:0=A:0O ?@>?030=48ABA:0O <0H8=0 B@C18;0 =0 25AL <8@ > 2B>@>< "E>;>:>AB5" 8 =53>4CNI5 ABK48;0 25AL <8@ 70 <>;G0;82>5 157@07;8G85 : 15770I8B=K< 65@B20< A5@1A:>3> ?@5ABC?;5=8O.  87>1@065=88 0<5@8:0=A:>9 ?@>?030=4K ?@5ABC?;5=8O ?@>B82 1>A=89A:8E <CAC;L<0= ?@8@02=820;8AL : =0F8ABA:><C F5;5=0?@02;5==><C 8 A8AB5<0B8G5A:><C 8AB@51;5=8N 52@552 2 3>4K B>@>9 <8@>2>9 2>9=K. 5 3>2>@O C65 > B><, GB> >4=8 B0:85 ;682K5 0=0;>388 4>;6=K 1K 1K;8 2>7<CB8BL :064>3> G5AB=>3> 52@5O, A@02=5=85 A5@1>2, :>B>@K5 2=5A;8 >3@><=K9 2:;04 2 @073@>< 38B;5@>2A:>9 5@<0=88, A D0H8ABA:8<8 3>;>2>@570<8 1K;> A>2A5< =5C<5AB=K< 8 4065 :>IC=AB25==K< 4;O ?0<OB8 <8;;8>=>2 65@B2, ?>381H8E 2 307>2KE :0<5@0E A25=F8<0 8 "@51;8=:8. > B5?5@5H=8< G20=;82K< 2>64O< <564C=0@>4=>3> A8>=87<0 8 8E 25@=K< A>N7=8:0<, D8=0=A>2K< 2>@>B8;0< LN->@:0, =C6=0 4@C30O, 1>;55 ":>=JN=:BC@=0O" 8 2K3>4=0O 8=B5@?@5B0F8O 8AB>@88, :>B>@0O 1K 2?8AK20;0AL 2 8E 3@0=48>7=K5 ?;0=K B>B0;L=>3> 8AB>@8G5A:>3> @52878>=87<0. 0:>5 8< B5?5@L 45;> 4> B>3>, GB> D0H8AB2CNI85 E>@20BA:85 >B@O4K CAB0H59 70:0?K20;8 682K<8 A5@1>2 8 52@552 2 >4=8E 1@0BA:8E <>38;0E, 40;5:> ?@52>AE>4O 87>I@5==>9 65AB>:>ABLN A2>8E 35AB0?>2A:8E CG8B5;59. 025@=>5, =5254><> 4;O =8E 8 B>, GB> ?> B@CI>10< 8 ?>420;0< >::C?8@>20==>3> !0@052> H0AB0;8 2A?><>30B5;L=K5 D>@<8@>20=8O <CAC;L<0=A:8E 1>528:>2, 4>1@>A>25AB=> 2K;02;820NI8E 2A5E 52@552 4;O >B?@02:8 8E 2 :>=F5=B@0F8>==K5 ;035@O "@5BL53> @59E0. 'B> 4;O =8E A2OI5==0O ?0<OBL 70<CG5==KE ?@54:>2, 5A;8 A53>4=O E>@20BA:89 =0F8>=0;87< 8 1>A=89A:89 8A;0< <>6=> 2K3>4=> ?5@525AB8 2 25A><K9 ?>;8B8G5A:89 :0?8B0;. @>2>4O 8AB>@8G5A:CN ?0@0;;5;L <564C AC4L10<8 52@552 2 3>4K B>@>9 <8@>2>9 2>9=K 8 ?>;>65=85< 1>A=89A:8E <CAC;L<0= 2 ?5@8>4 @07@CH5=8O .3>A;0288, 0<5@8:0=A:85 AB@>8B5;8 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0 ?KB0;8AL >4=8< 2KAB@5;>< C18BL A@07C 42CE 709F52. >-?5@2KE, ?@54AB02;OO A5@1>2 @076830B5;O<8 2>9=K, 0 8E 3>AC40@AB25==KE 45OB5;59 2>5==K<8 ?@5ABC?=8:0<8, 0<5@8:0=FK ?>43>B>28;8 A>>B25BAB2CNI85 ?>;8B8G5A:85 CA;>28O 4;O ?@O<>3> 2>>@C65==>3> 2<5H0B5;LAB20 A8; " 2 N3>A;02A:89 :>=D;8:B 8, B0:8< >1@07><, CAB0=>2;5=8O =0 0;:0=0E A2>53> ?>AB>O==>3> 2>5==>3> ?@8ACBAB28O. >-2B>@KE, 2KABC?0O 3@><>3;0A=> 2 70I8BC 1>A=89A:8E <CAC;L<0=, 20H8=3B>=A:85 <0=8?C;OB>@K ?KB0;8AL >B25AB8 2=8<0=85 <CAC;L<0=A:8E AB@0= >B 0@0-1>-87@08;LA:>3> :>=D;8:B0 8, CG8BK20O B>B D0:B, GB> B>= 0=B8A5@1A:>9 :@8B8:5 704020;0 :>=B@>;8@C5<0O A8>=8AB0<8 0<5@8:0=A:0O ?@5AA0, A>74020;0AL 2848<>ABL 52@59A:8E A8<?0B89 : <CAC;L<0=0< =0@>40<. C6=> >B40BL 4>;6=>5 1>;LH8=AB2C 0@01A:8E AB@0=, :>B>@K5 A@07C @0A?>7=0;8 2>;:0 2 >25GL59 H:C@5 8 =5 ":;N=C;8" =0 MBC A8>=8ABA:>-0<5@8:0=A:CN ?@>?030=48ABA:CN C4>G:C. > 70B> =570<54;8B5;L=> >B:;8:=C;8AL =0 ?@87K2 0H8=3B>=0 53> B@048F8>==K5 <CAC;L<0=A:85 4@C7LO, :>B>@K5 8 B0: 1K;8 2K=C645=K >B@010BK20BL 25G=CN ?>28==>ABL 0<5@8:0=A:8< @M:5B8@0<. 5DBO=K5 :>@>;8, M<8@K 8 H59E8 87 @09>=0 5@A84A:>3> 70;820 157 ;8H=53> HC<0 2K;>68;8 =0 1>G:C A2>8 >B:C?=K5 <8;;8>=K, GB>1K >?;0B8BL ?>AB02:8 0<5@8:0=A:>3> 2>>@C65=8O, ?>ABC?0NI55 =5 AB>;L:> 1>A=89A:8< <CAC;L<0=0<, A:>;L:> E>@20BA:8< :0B>;8:0<. "C@F8O, D30=8AB0= 8 0:8AB0= ?@8 =0;8G88 >BACBAB28O 45=53 2KA;0;8 2 >A=8N A2>8E 70:0;5==KE 2 15A:>=5G=KE ;>:0;L=KE @071>@:0E "4>1@>2>;LF52-<C460E548=>2". AB0;L=K5 "4@C65AB25==K5" AB@0=K <CAC;L<0=A:>3> 25@>8A?>254>20=8O, =5 8<5NI85 =8 45=53, =8 >E>B=8:>2 =0 35@>8G5A:CN A<5@BL 2 40;5:8E GC68E :@0OE, 2=>A8;8 A2>N ;5?BC 2 >1I55 45;> ?><>I8 1>A=89A:8< <CAC;L<0=0<, 3@><:> ?>=>AO .3>A;028N A B@81C= :064>9 <564C=0@>4=>9 :>=D5@5=F88, 3=52=> ?>@8F0O <8@>2>5 A>>1I5AB2> 70 "?@5ABC?=CN" 15745OB5;L=>ABL 8 4@C6=> ?@>B0;:820O G5@57  :064CN 0<5@8:0=A:CN @57>;NF8N. 'B>1K E>@>H> ?@>CG8BL A2>8E =0AB>OI8E ?@>B82=8:>2 8 70?C30BL 1C4CI8E. !>548=5==K5 (B0BK, ?>4 ?@8:@KB85< @5H5=89 , >@30=87>20;8 2 0035 2 1993 3>4C <564C=0@>4=K9 2>5==K9 B@81C=0; 4;O AC40 =04 2>5==K<8 ?@5ABC?=8:0< N3>A;02A:>9 2>9=K. 8G53> C4828B5;L=>3>, GB> 90% >B G8A;0 2A5E >128=O5<KE >:070;8AL MB=8G5A:8<8 A5@10<8, 3;02=K<8 A@548 :>B>@KE O2;ONBAO 1K2H89 ?@57845=B !5@1A:>9 @5A?C1;8:8 2 >A=88 04>20= 0@0468G 8 3;02=>:><0=4CNI89 2>>@C65==K<8 A8;0<8 35=5@0; 04:> ;048G.  2>B ?>A;CH=K9 ?@57845=B >A=88 ;LO 70@153>-28G, :>B>@K9 ?>4 =068<>< 0<5@8:0=F52 @072O70; 3@0640=A:CN 2>9=C, 0 ?>765 ?@8:070; "2KG8AB8BL" ?>3>;>2=> 2A5E A5@1>2 87 !0@052>, A>3;0A=> 0<5@8:0=A:><C ?>=OB8N 3C<0==>AB8 8 A?@0254;82>AB8 70A;C68205B, ?> :@09=59 <5@5. >15;52A:>9 ?@5<88 <8@0. >;LH8< ?>G5B>< 2 0H8=3B>=5 ?>;L7CNBAO B0:65 4@C385 284=K5 0:B5@K 10;:0=A:>9 4@0<K. !@548 =8E >A>1> <>6=> 2K45;8BL ?@57845=B0 %>@20B88 $@0=L5 "C46<0=0 8 53> =5402=> C<5@H53> <8=8AB@0 >1>@>=K >9:> !CA0:0. 73>=OO A5@1>2 87 02B>=><=>9 @5A?C1;8:8 @09=0, >=8 ?@8:070;8 A2>8< =58AB2CNI8< CAB0H0< A 3@0640=A:8< =0A5;5=85< =5 F5@5<>=8BAO 8 ?;5==KE =5 1@0BL. =8 4065 =5 ?KB0NBAO A:@K20BL A2>8E C15645=89, GB> B>;L:> <5@B2K9 A5@1 5ABL E>@>H89 A5@1. @8 MB>< 3;CE> <>;G0;8 =0 25AL <8@, A;>2=> 70H5?B0==K5 7;K< :>;4>2AB2><, 70?04=K5 A@54AB20 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88, >1KG=> ;N1OI85 ?>CG0BL 8 >128=OBL.  70A>@5==>< G5?CE>9 MD8@5 =5 72CG0;8 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O B0: ?>;N182H85AO 0<5@8:0=A:8< ?@>?030=48AB0< A;>20 >1 MB=8G5A:>9 G8AB:5 8 ?@5ABC?=>< 35=>F845 ?> >B=>H5=8N : <8@=><C A5@1A:><C =0A5;5=8N. 5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> $@0=L5 "C46<0= =8:>340 =5 A:@K20; A2>53> 4CE>2=>3> @>4AB20 A E>@20BA:8< AB02;5==8:>< 8B;5@0 2@5<5= B>@>9 <8@>2>9 2>9=K 35=5@0;>< 02;8G5<, >= ?>G5<C-B> AG8B05BAO :5<-B> 2@>45 181;59A:>3> 0@E0=35;0 A@548 0<5@8:0=A:8E 52@552. > 70<KA;C <AB8B5;L=>3> 0H8=3B>=0 <564C=0@>4=K9 B@81C=0; 2 0035 4>;65= 1K; AB0BL =>2K< N@=15@3A:8< ?@>F5AA><, :>B>@K9 ?>:0@05B =5?>:>@=KE 8 C70:>=8B ?@8BO70=8O <5@8:8 =0 @>;L 25@E>2=>3> <8@>2>3> AC4L8. > 2AO @074CB0O ?><?57=0O 70B5O A 2>7@>645==K< N@=15@3>< >:070;0AL >1K:=>25==K< <K;L=K< ?C7K@5<. =0<5=8B>5 87@5G5=85 0@:A0, GB> ":064>5 8AB>@8G5A:>5 A>1KB85 ?5@2K9 @07 A>25@H05BAO, :0: B@03548O, 0 2B>@>9 @07 ?>2B>@O5BAO, :0: D0@A" :0: =5;L7O ;CGH5 ?>4E>48B 4;O A@02=8B5;L=>9 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 N@=15@3A:>3> 8 003A:>3> B@81C=0;>2. 065 52@>?59A:85 A>N7=8:8 !( ?> ", 70 8A:;NG5=85< ?>4E0;8<AB2CNI59 =3;88, ?@0:B8G5A:8 83=>@8@CNB MB> B@038:><8G5A:>5 AC48;8I5. 0 ?OBL ;5B A2>53> 2KA>:>1N465B=>3> ACI5AB2>20=8O >5==><C B@81C=0;C 2 0035 C40;>AL >AC48BL B>;L:> =5A:>;L:> =8:><C =5 8725AB=KE 1>A=89A:8E 75<;5?0HF52, 4518;L=K9 284 8 1573@0<>B=0O @5GL :>B>@KE =5 <>3;8 ?@>1C48BL B2>@G5A:>3> =53>4>20=8O 4065 C 70;8E20BA:8E 0<5@8:0=A:8E ?8A0:. CGH8< ?>4B25@645=85< "2KA>:>3> 02B>@8B5B0" 003A:>3> B@81C=0;0 O28;>AL 8A:@5==55 ?@87=0=85 D@0=FC7A:>3> <8=8AB@0 >1>@>=K ;0=0 8G0@40, :>B>@K9, 2KABC?0O ?5@54 6C@=0;8AB0<8 2 45:01@5 1997 3>40, >E0@0:B5@87>20; 003A:>5 AC48;8I5 :0: "F8@:>2>5 ?@54AB02;5=85" 8 70?@5B8; D@0=FC7A:8< >D8F5@0< 2KABC?0BL 2 :0G5AB25 A2845B5;59 =0 MB>< AC45. 5;> 2 B><, GB> <=>385 D@0=FC7A:85 >D8F5@K, A>E@0=82H85 B@048F8>==CN 8< <C6A:CN 30;0=B=>ABL 8 A5@L57=> ?@8=8<0O >D8F5@A:89 :>45:A G5AB8 8 4>AB>8=AB20, 70O28;8 <8=8AB@C, GB> 5A;8 >=8 1C4CB 2K=C645=K 4020BL ?>:070=8O > 2>5==KE ?@5ABC?;5=8OE 2 >A=88, B> 8< ?@845BAO @0A:@KBL 2AN ?@024C.  ?@0240-B> <CG8B5;L=> 8ICI5<C "A?@0254;82>AB8" 003A:><C 2>5==><C B@81C=0;C A>2A5< =5 =0 @C:C. 'B> 2 B0:>< A;CG05 >AB020;>AL 45;0BL ?>?02H5<C 2 I5:>B;82>5 ?>;>65=85 D@0=FC7A:><C ?@028B5;LAB2C? 5 1C45B >=> 87-70 AB0@><>4=KE "?@54@0AAC4:>2" A2>8E "701C15==KE" >D8F5@>2 ?>@B8BL >B=>H5=8O A <AB8B5;L=K< 0H8=3B>=><, 0 B5< 1>;55 A> AB>OI8< 70 =8< =53>4CNI8< 8 6064CI8< :@>28 =5?>:>@=KE A5@1>2 A8>=8ABA:8< ;>118. 8G53> =5 @074@0605B MB8E 3>A?>4 1>;LH5, G5< ?@>O2;5=85 :5<-B> <>@0;L=>9 ?>@O4>G=>AB8, B25@4>AB8 E0@0:B5@0 8 =57028A8<>AB8 <KA;8. 0E>4OAL <564C <>;>B>< 8 =0:>20;L=59, @0AB>@>?=K9 <8=8AB@ >1>@>=K =5 @0AB5@O;AO 8 ?@8=O; ?>-=0AB>OI5<C A>;><>=>2> @5H5=85. 'B>1K >D8F5@K, G53> 4>1@>3>, =5 =03>2>@8;8 B>3>, GB> =5 A;54C5B, ?CABL 2>>1I5 =8G53> =5 3>2>@OB. "5< 2@5<5=5< =0 10;:0=A:8E ?>;OE 2>5==KE A@065=89 0<5@8:0=A:85 35=5@0;K 2A5 5I5 =5 <>3;8 2K@20BLAO 87 70:>;4>20==>3> :@C30 =52575=8O, ?@>AG5B>2 8 ?>@065=89.  1994 3>4C, 1>;LH5 =5 @0AAG8BK20O =0 1>52K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 A2>8E 1>A=89A:8E 8 E>@20BA:8E ?@8A?5H=8:>2, @07>7;5==K5 =5C40G0<8 0<5@8:0=FK A>740;8 A8;K 1KAB@>3> @5038@>20=8O ", :>B>@K5, 2 ?@>B82>@5G85 A2>5<C A>1AB25==><C CAB02C, 1K;8 @07<5I5=K =0 B5@@8B>@88 >A=88 8 %>@20B88. >=OB=>, GB> ?5=B03>=>2A:85 2>5==K5, ?@82K:H85 2K3@510BL :0HB0=K 87 >3=O GC68<8 @C:0<8, ?5@2K<8 2KA;0;8 =0 0;:0=K A2>8E 52@>?59A:8E A>N7=8:>2 ?> ". 0A=565==K< A:;>=0<, ?>:@KBK< ;5A0<8, C3@N<K< 3>@0< 8 ?@540B5;LA:>9 B8H8=5 C7:8E 1>A=89A:8E 4>;8= 1@02K5 0<5@8:0=A:85 2>O:8 ?@54?>G8B0;8 A8@5=52CN G8AB>BC 15A:@09=53> =510, >B:C40 B0: C4>1=> A1@0AK20BL A2>8 "8=B5;;835=B=K5" 1><1K =0 =5?>:>@=K5 A5@1A:85 3>@>40 8 25A8. ;O ?CI53> CAB@0H5=8O =5CABC?G82KE A5@1>2 8 ?>4J5<0 ?>4C?02H53> 1>52>3> 4CE0 A@548 A2>8E E>@20BA:8E 8 <CAC;L<0=A:8E >@C65=>AF52 C 15@53>2 .3>A;0288 >AB>@>6=> ?@8B08;8AL =0 157>?0A=>< @0AAB>O=88 0<5@8:0=A:85 <>@A:85 ?5E>B8=FK, 0 2 >A=8N ?@81K;> 35 BKAOG A>;40B ". 0G0;8AL ?5@8>48G5A:85 1><156:8 A5@1A:8E 2>5==KE 8 3@0640=A:8E >1J5:B>2. ! =0@0AB0NI8< A:@565B>< B0=:>2KE 3CA5=8F 8 ?@>=78B5;L=K< 2873>< A25@E72C:>2KE 8AB@518B5;59 2 42865=85 ?@8H;0 >3@><=0O 2>5==0O <0H8=0 ". ?5@2K5 70 2AN 8AB>@8N A2>53> ACI5AB2>20=8O, 157 B>@65AB25==KE ?@>?030=48ABA:8E D0=D0@ 8 2 B8H8 <564C=0@>4=KE ?@>B5AB>2, 2>9A:0 " ?5@5A5:;8 GC685 @C1568, ?>;>682 =0G0;> ?>;8B8:5 ?@O<>3> 2>5==>3> 2<5H0B5;LAB20 2 45;0 =5 >B=>AOI8EAO : 1;>:C AB@0=.  MB> =5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> CAB02 " =542C7=0G=> 70?@5I05B @07<5I5=85 A2>8E 2>9A: =0 B5@@8B>@88 B@5BL8E AB@0=. %>BO :>=AB8BCF88 F5;>3> @O40 AB@0= " B@51CNB ?0@;0<5=B0@=>3> >4>1@5=8O 2AO:>3> 87<5=5=8O 2 CAB025 8;8 2>5==>9 4>:B@8=5 A>N70, =8:B> 4065 =5 ?>4C<0; ?@>A8BL "45<>:@0B8G5A:85" 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 70?04=KE AB@0= >1AC48BL MB>B 2>?@>A. "0:8< >1@07><, 87 A2>59 ?@56=59 @>;8 2>5==>->1>@>=8B5;L=>3> A>N70 (G5< >= =8:>340, 2?@>G5<, =5 1K;), " =5;530;L=> 8 1571>;57=5==> ?5@5@>48;AO 2 <8@>2>3> 60=40@<0 0<5@8:0=A:>3> 8<?5@80;87<0.  8N;5 1995 3>40 1K;0 ?5@525@=CB0 ?>A;54=OO AB@0=8F0 1>A=89A:>9 4@0<K. %>BO : MB><C 2@5<5=8 1K;8 A>740=K 2A5 ?>;8B8G5A:85 CA;>28O 4;O <8@=>3> @5H5=8O 0;:0=A:>3> :>=D;8:B0, >1J548=5==K5 2>5==K5 A8;K %>@20B88, >A=88 8 " ?@8 ?>445@6:5 0<5@8:0=A:>9 0280F88 @0725@=C;8 H8@>:>5 =0ABC?;5=85 ?> 2A5<C D@>=BC. 5AB=>5 A5@1A:>5 =0A5;5=85 1K;> ?>;=>ABLN A>3=0=> A> A2>8E :>@5==KE 75<5;L 2 >A=88 8 %>@20B88. 025@=>5, >B G@57<5@=>9 70=OB>AB8 "GCB:85" :> 2A5< <0;59H8< =0@CH5=8O< ?@02 G5;>25:0 2 '5G=5 8;8 "815B5, <=>3>G8A;5==K5 3C<0=8B0@=K5 >@30=870F88 , 7>@:89 003A:89 B@81C=0; 8 >?;0G8205<K9 >:D5;;5@0<8 <=5AB8 =B5@=5H5=0; :0:-B> =5 70<5B8;8 MB>3> 459AB28B5;L=>3>, 0 =5 ?@84C<0==>3> E>;>:>AB0 2 A0<>< F5=B@5 2@>?K. @><>;G0;8 >1 MB>< 0<5@8:0=A:85 70I8B=8:8 ?@02 G5;>25:0 8 2> 2@5<O <8@=KE ?5@53>2>@>2 <564C A5@10<8, E>@20B0<8 8 1>A=89F0<8, :>B>@K5 A>AB>O;8AL >A5=LN 1995 3>40 2 0<5@8:0=A:>< 3>@>45 59B>=5. ;02=K< @57C;LB0B>< 59B>=A:8E ?5@53>2>@>2, ?@>E>482H8E ?>4 48:B0B>@A:>9 M384>9 0<5@8:0=A:8E ?@54AB028B5;59, 1K;> C70:>=820=85 =0A8;LAB25==>3> 2KA5;5=8O A5@1>2 A @0=55 70=8<05<KE @09>=>2 %>@20B88 8 >A=88. !5@1K, :>B>@K5 ?5@54 2>9=>9 2;045;8 65% 75<;8 2 >A=88-5@F>-3>28=5, ?> CA;>28O< 59B>=A:>3> <8@=>3> 4>3>2>@0 ?>;CG8;8 B>;L:> 35% 1>A=89A:>9 B5@@8B>@88 8 2K=C645=K 1K;8 A>3;0A8BAO =0 A>740=85 >1I53> A <CAC;L<0=0<8 8 E>@20B0<8 D545@0;L=>3> 3>AC40@AB20. #G8BK20O 8AB>@8G5A:CN "=5A>2<5AB8<>ABL" MB8E B@5E =0@>4>2, 1>;LH8=AB2> 52@>?59A:8E AB@0= AG8B0;>, GB> 1K;> 1K 1>;55 @07C<=K< ?@8=OBL @5H5=85 > @0745;5 >A=88 <564C A5@10<8, E>@20B0<8 8 1>A=89A:8<8 <CAC;L<0=0<8. > B0:>5 @5H5=85 ?@>1;5<K A>25@H5==> =5 2E>48;> 2 @0AG5BK 0<5@8:0=A:8E 0@E8B5:B>@>2 <=>3>=0F8>=0;L=>3> 3>AC40@AB20. 0A8;LAB25==> @07@CH82 >B=>A8B5;L=> E>@>H> DC=:F8>=8@>202HCN <=>3>=0F8>=0;L=CN .3>A;028N, 20H8=3B>=A:85 ;8F5<5@K ?@>;820;8 :@>:>48;L8 A;57K > AC4L10E <=>3>=0F8>=0;L=>9 >A=88. 8B2C 70 F5;>AB=>ABL >A=88 0<5@8:0=FK 25;8 =5 A>25AB8 @048, => 4;O A2>59 H:C@=>9 :>@KAB8. 'B>1K 70:@5?8BL A2>5 ?>AB>O==>5 2>5==>5 ?@8ACBAB285 =0 0;:0=0E, 0<5@8:0=F0< =5>1E>48<> 1K;> A>740BL 4@C65AB25==>5 8 687=5A?>A>1=>5 3>AC40@AB2>, :0:8< 4>;6=0 AB0BL <CAC;L<0=A:0O >A=8O. @8:@K20OAL ;682>9 701>B>9 > A>E@0=5=88 F5;>AB=>AB8 AB@0=K 8 AAK;0OAL =0 70:;NG8B5;L=K5 4>:C<5=BK %5;LA8=:A:>3> A>3;0H5=8O, 0<5@8:0=A:0O 48?;><0B8O, 2848B5 ;8, "?@8=F8?80;L=>" >BAB0820;0 548=AB2> >A=89A:>9 D545@0F88. 'B>1K ?@840BL A2>59 ?>78F88 5I5 8 <>@0;L=K9 25A, 70?04=0O ?@5AA0 =5CAB0==> B@C18;0 =0 25AL <8@ > =5>1E>48<>AB8 A>E@0=5=8O 548=>3> >A=89A:>3> 3>AC40@AB20 :0: O@:>3> ?@8<5@0 <=>3>=0F8>=0;L=>3> 8 30@<>=8G=>3> A>68B5;LAB20 ;N459 @07=KE 25@ 8 =0@>4>2. 025@=>5, 2 AC<0B>E5 ?>A?5H=>3> ?@87=0=8O 2KE>4OI8E 87 .3>A;02A:>9 D545@0F88 @5A?C1;8: 20H8=3B>=A:85 ;8F5<5@K A>25@H5==> 2K?CAB8;8 87 284C, GB> .3>A;028O B>65 1K;0 >4=8< 87 CG0AB=8:>2 %5;LA8=:A:8E A>3;0H5=89, 70 B5@@8B>@80;L=CN F5;>AB=>ABL :>B>@>9 0<5@8:0=A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> @CG0;>AL A2>59 A>1AB25==>9 ?>4?8ALN. B4020O 4>;6=>5 701K2G82>AB8 0<5@8:0=A:>3> 3>A45?0@B0<5=B0, =8 2 :>5< A;CG05 =5;L7O =5 ?5@5>F5=8BL 53> ?>AB>O==>9 =5?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8. "0:, 2 A2>5 2@5<O 0<5@8:0=A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2>, GB>1K >?@0240BL @0720; .3>A;0288, 3@><>3;0A=> AAK;0;8AL =0 "A2OI5==K9" ?@8=F8? 45<>:@0B8G5A:>3> @5D5@5=4C<0 8 =5>BJ5<;5<>5 ?@02> :064>3> =0@>40 =0 =0F8>=0;L=>5 A0<>>?@545;5=85. ?OBL 65, :>340 1>A=89A:85 8 E>@20BA:85 A5@1K ?>65;0;8, 2A;54 70 >AB0;L=K<8 =0@>40<8 1K2H59 .3>A;0288, 2>A?>;L7>20BLAO MB8< ?@8=F8?>< 8 ">?@545;8BLAO", GB>1K 68BL 2 548=>< A5@1A:>< 3>AC40@AB25, 0<5@8:0=A:85 ?@8=F8?80;K, :0: 70;8E20BA:85 F8@:>2K5 =0574=8:8, <3=>25==> ?5@5A:>G8;8 =0 4@C3>9 C4>1=K9 ?@8=F8? =5=0@CH5=88 3>AC40@AB25==KE 3@0=8F. "0:CN 0<5@8:0=A:CN A?@0254;82>ABL 8 ?@8=F8?80;L=>ABL <>6=> 1K 1K;> A@02=8BL A 0=0@E8ABA:>9 G5AB=>ABLN 0B0<0=0 >?0=4>?C;> 87 D8;L<0 "!204L10 2 0;8=>2:5", :>340 >= "G5AB=>" 45;8; =03@01;5==K5 B@O?:8, ?5@5:;04K20O 2A5 =0 A2>N :CGC 8 ?@8 MB>< ?@83>20@820O: "-B> B515, 8 MB> B515, 8 MB> B>65 B515". !:;5820O 2>548=> @0718BK9 3>@H>: 1>A=89A:>9 3>AC40@AB25==>AB8, 0<5@8:0=FK A>740;8 =5>1E>48<K5 CA;>28O 4;O A2>53> 4>;3>A@>G=>3> 2>5==>3> ?@8ACBAB28O 2 10;:0=A:>< @538>=5. =8 E>@>H> ?>=8<0NB, GB> AH8B>5 87 2@06451=KE =0F8>=0;L=KE ;>A:CB8:>2 1>A=89A:>5 3>AC40@AB2> 1C45B 5I5 4>;3> >AB020BLAO >G03>< =5AB018;L=>AB8 8 =0?@O65=8O, 0 MB>, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, 40AB 8< C4>1=K9 ?@54;>3, GB>1K ?>AB>O==> <CB8BL 2>4C =0 0;:0=0E. 'B>1K >:>=G0B5;L=> =5 70?CB0BLAO 2 A2>59 ?@8=F8?80;L=>AB8, 0<5@8:0=A:85 7=0B>:8 <564C=0@>4=>3> ?@020 2 ?5@2>< 0:B5 :@>202>9 N3>A;02A:>9 4@0<K "G8AB> A;CG09=>" 2K?CAB8;8 87 284C ?@02> =0 A0<>>?@545;5=85 0;10=A:8E <CAC;L<0= 2 N3>A;02A:>9 ?@>28=F88 >A>2>. 57 ;8H=8E F5@5<>=89 7048@8ABK< 0;10=F0< 1K;> ?@8:070=> 2@5<5==> CB8E><8@8BAO 8 "=5 ;57BL ?5@54 10BL:>9 2 ?5:;>". /2;OOAL 8AB>@8G5A:8< F5=B@>< D>@<8@>20=8O A5@1A:>9 3>AC40@AB25==>AB8, >A>2> A 4@52=8E 2@5<5= 1K;> =5>BJ5<;5<>9 G0ABLN !5@188. > 2> 2@5<O <=>3>25:>2>9 BC@5F:>9 >::C?0F88 2 >A>2> ?5@5A5;8;>AL <=>3> 0;10=A:8E <CAC;L<0=, :>B>@K5, 2 >B;8G85 >B 48A:@8<8=8@>20==>3> A5@1A:>3> ?@02>A;02=>3> =0A5;5=8O, ?>;CG0;8 >B BC@5F:8E 2;0AB59 @07=>3> @>40 =0;>3>2K5 >A2>1>645=8O 8 ?@02>2K5 ?@828;5388. !> 2@5<5=5<, 2 A2O78 A 2KA>:8< C@>2=5< @>6405<>AB8 A@548 <CAC;L<0=A:>3> =0A5;5=8O, 45<>3@0D8G5A:0O A8BC0F8O 2 ?@>28=F88 @5H8B5;L=> 87<5=8;0AL 2 8E ?>;L7C.  :>=FC 80-E 33. <CAC;L<0=5 A>AB02;O;8 1>;LH5 85% >B >1I53> 42CE<8;;8>==>3> =0A5;5=8O ?@>28=F88.  MB><C 2@5<5=8 2 >A>2> =0G0;8AL A5@L57=K5 =0F8>=0;8AB8G5A:85 70<>@>G:8, :>B>@K5 2K=C48;8 N3>A;02A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> 2@5<5==> C?@074=8BL 02B>=><8N ?@>28=F88, ?@54>AB02;5==CN 59 <0@H0;>< "8B> 5I5 2 1974 3>4C.  2>AL<845AOBK5 3>4K 2 70?04=>9 ?@5AA5 <=>3> ?8A0;>AL > 27@K2>>?0A=>9 A8BC0F88 2 MB>9 =5A?>:>9=>9 ?@>28=F88. !>74020;>AL 2?5G0B;5=85, GB>, 5A;8 .3>A;028O :>340-=81C4L A:0B8BAO 2 ?@>?0ABL <564>CA>1=>9 @57=8, B> =0G=5BAO >=0 =5<8=C5<> 2 MB>9 25G=> 1C@;OI59 ?@>28=F88. >340 65 2 =0G0;5 452O=>ABKE 3>4>2 2 .3>A;0288 =0:>=5F =0G0;0AL 402=> ?@54A:070==0O 3@0640=A:0O 2>9=0, B> =0 C482;5=85 2A5< 2 <O3:>< ?>41@NHL5 .3>A;02A:>9 D545@0F88 F0@8;> =515A=>5 A?>:>9AB285. A;8 1K 2 B> 2@5<O :>20@=K9 0H8=3B>= B>;L:> ?>65;0;, B> <>3 1K ;53:> 27>@20BL MB=8G5A:CN ?>@>E>2CN 1>G:C >A>20. > B>340 2>9=0 2 MB>9 ?@>28=F88 ?> =5:>B>@K< ?@8G8=0< =5 2E>48;0 2 @0AG5BK 0<5@8:0=A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20. ;02=>9 ?@8G8=>9 1K;0 "?@8=F8?80;L=0O" 0<5@8:0=A:0O ?>78F8O - =5 =0@CH0BL ACI5AB2CNI85 3@0=8FK. A;8 1K 2 B> 2@5<O 0<5@8:0=FK AB0;8 =0 ?>78F8N =0F8>=0;L=>3> A0<>>?@545;5=8O 4;O 0;10=F52 2 >A>2>, B> 8< 1K 1K;> B@C4=> >1JOA=8BL <8@>2><C >1I5AB25==><C <=5=8N, ?>G5<C >=8 E>BOB ;8H8BL B0:>3> 65 2K1>@0 A5@1>2 2 >A=88 8 %>@20B88. >65B 1KBL, >AA88, A;54CO ?@8<5@C =5C3><>==>3> 0H8=3B>=0, B>65 1K AB>8;> 8=>340 ?@8?><=8BL > =0F8>=0;L=>< A0<>>?@545;5=88 @>AA89A:>3> =0A5;5=8O 2 AB@0=0E 1;86=53> 70@C156LO. 54L B0< 2> <=>38E @5A?C1;8:0E 1K2H53> !>N70 >=> G0AB> A>AB02;O5B ?@5A;54C5<>5 8 15A?@02=>5 1>;LH8=AB2>. >;55 B>3>, 0<5@8:0=A:85 48?;><0BK, ?KB0NI85AO 1KAB@55 C3>2>@8BL "B>;AB>H:C@=>3>" A5@1A:>3> ?@57845=B0 8;>H528G0 A>3;0A8BLAO =0 BO65;K5 8 C=878B5;L=K5 4;O A5@1>2 CA;>28O 59B>=A:>3> <8@=>3> 4>3>2>@0, 4020;8 5<C ?>=OBL, GB> !>548=5==K5 (B0BK =5 1C4CB 2>7@060BL ?@>B82 @0AA5;5=8O A5@1A:8E 1565=F52 87 >A=88 8 %>@20B88 2 >A>2>. > =5 CA?5;8 5I5 ?@>A>E=CBL G5@=8;0 =0 B>;L:> GB> ?>4?8A0==>< 59B>=A:>< A>3;0H5=88, :0: 2 >A>2>, A;>2=> ?> 2>;H51=><C <0=>25=8N =52848<>9 @C:8, >?OBL =0G0;8AL =0F8>=0;8AB8G5A:85 2>;=5=8O, :>B>@K5 G0AB> A>?@>2>640;8AL B5@@>@8AB8G5A:8<8 0:B0<8, >ACI5AB2;O5<K<8 B0: =07K205<>9 A2>1>48B5;L=>9 0@<859 >A>20. 5 =C6=> 8<5BL C<0 @0:5B=>3> :>=AB@C:B>@0, GB>1K 4>3040BLAO, :B> 8 70G5< 2>>@C605B 1573@0<>B=KE 0;10=A:8E ?>4@>AB:>2, A>AB02;ONI8E 1>52>9 E@515B MB>3> B5@@>@8AB8G5A:>3> 42865=8O. "5?5@L, :>340 A5@1K >:070;8AL 1572>72@0B=> 2K3=0==K<8 A ?@0454>2A:8E 75<5;L 2 >A=88 8 %>@20B88, 8 I5:>B;82>9 ?@>1;5<K A 8E A0<>>?@545;5=85< 1>;LH5 =5 ACI5AB2C5B (?> :@09=59 <5@5, 2 0<5@8:0=A:>< ?>=8<0=88 A8BC0F88 =0 0;:0=0E), 0<5@8:0=A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> >?OBL 25@=C;>AL :, :070;>AL 1K, C65 701KB><C 8< ?@8=F8?C 45<>:@0B8G5A:>3> A0<>>?@545;5=8O 4;O :>-A>2A:8E 0;10=F52. 23 A5=BO1@O 1998 3>40 !>25B 57>?0A=>AB8  ?@8=O;, :070;>AL 1K, @O4>2CN, =8G5< =5 ?@8<5G0B5;L=CN @57>;NF8N, ?@87K20NICN : ?@5:@0I5=8N 2>5==KE 459AB289 2 >A>2> 8 <8@=><C C@53C;8@>20=8N 0;10=A:>9 ?@>1;5<K.  @57>;NF88 =8G53> =5 3>2>@8;>AL > <564C=0@>4=KE >1>7@520B5;OE ?> ?>445@60=8N <8@0 2 >A>2> 8;8, B5< 1>;55, > :0:>9-;81> @>;8 " 2 @5H5=88 MB>9 2=CB@5==59 ?@>1;5<K .3>A;0288.  2>>1I5, @57>;NF8O 2K3;O45;0 B0: 157>184=> 8 >1K45==>, GB> 4065 =0AB>@>65==0O @>AA89A:0O 45;530F8O ?@>3>;>A>20;0 70 55 ?@8=OB85. "5< =5 <5=55, 2 20H8=3B>=A:>9 8=B5@?@5B0F88 <564C=0@>4=>3> ?@020 MB0 @57>;NF8O >B:@K;0 4>@>3C 4;O 2>>@C65==>3> =0?045=8O AB@0= " =0 .3>A;028N. 8:0:85 ?@>B5ABK >AA88, C25I520=8O A8<?0B878@CNI8E .3>A;0288 =5:>B>@KE AB@0= 8 CG5=K5 @5G8 A?5F80;8AB>2 <564C=0@>4=>3> ?@020 =5 <>3;8 >ABC48BL 63CG53> 65;0=8O ?5=B03>=>2A:8E AB@0B53>2 8 8E 25@=KE =0B>2A:8E 0?>AB>;>2 1@>A8BLAO 2 :@>202K9 1>9, GB>1K A?0AB8 "15770I8B=K5 65@B2K A5@1A:>3> 35=>F840". :07K205BAO, GB> A53>4=O @02=>4CH=>5 <8@>2>5 A>>1I5AB2> =5 8<55B ;CGH53> 8 1>;55 GCB:>3> 70I8B=8:0 ?@02 G5;>25:0, G5< 701>B;82>5, "<O3:>A5@45G=>5" ". 5?@8:@KB0O, O@>AB=0O 8 7;>1=0O 03@5AA82=>ABL 0H8=3B>=0, =0:>=5F, ?@>1C48;0 >B ;5B0@38G5A:>9 A?OG:8 4065 =K=5H=89 157>B25BAB25==K9 @>AA89A:89 @568<, :>B>@K9 A> 2A59 C60A0NI59 4;O A51O OA=>ABLN =0:>=5F >A>7=0;, GB> 8E =0B>2A:85 "?0@B=5@K 2 70:>=5" AB@5<OBAO =5 B>;L:> ?@52@0B8BL !5@18N 2 "1>;L=>3>" G5;>25:0 0;:0=, => ?@5645 2A53> >:>=G0B5;L=> 87>;8@>20BL >AA8N =0 <564C=0@>4=>9 0@5=5. >=O2, GB> A?>:>9=> >BA845BLAO 8< 2 A2>5< C45;L=>< :=O65AB25 =5 C40ABAO, 8 GB> 2>5==>5 70@52> ?@81;860NI8EAO =0B>2A:8E >@4 2A5 1;865 ?>4?>;705B : @C1560< 8E 2>BG8=K, ?5@5?C30==K5 :@5<;52A:85 2@5<5=I8:8 =0:>=5F @5H8;8 GB>-B> ?@54?@8=OBL 4;O A2>59 70I8BK. > =5 ?>74=> ;8, 3>A?>40, 20A, =0:>=5F, >A5=8;> 1>52K< 4CE><? >G5<C 2K ?>ABK4=> C:;>=O;8AL >B 0<5@8:0=A:>3> ?@>2>:0F8>==>3> 2K7>20, :>340 " 15A?@5?OBAB25==> >::C?8@>20;> >A=8N, 8;8 :>340 !525@>-B;0=B8G5A:89 A>N7 >1702>48;AO =>2K<8 G;5=0<8? "0: ;8 C6 B@C4=> 1K;> 20< ?>=OBL, 2 :0:>< =0?@02;5=88 :0BOB :>;5A> 8AB>@88 0<5@8:0=A:85 AB@>8B5;8 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0, :>340 20A A8AB5<0B8G5A:8, 3>4 70 3>4><, AB0;:820;8 A ?;>E8E 35>?>;8B8G5A:8E ?>78F89 =0 EC4H85? >65B 1KBL, 2K =045O;8AL 70I8B8BL A51O 8 45<>@0;87>20==CN AB@0=C 702>520==K< :@>2LN A>25BA:8E ;N459 8 >AB02;5==K< 20< 2 =0A;5485 D83>2K< ?@02>< 25B> 2 !>25B5 57>?0A=>AB8? C<05BAO, GB> 0<5@8:0=A:85 CG8B5;O B5?5@L 40;8 OA=> ?>=OBL 2A5< 157 8A:;NG5=8O, :0:>5 7=0G5=85 2 A53>4=OH=5< @50;L=>< <8@5 8<55B A8<2>;8G5A:>5 ?@02> 25B> 2 !>25B5 57>?0A=>AB8, :0:, 2?@>G5<, 8 25AL 02B>@8B5B ?>87=>H5==>3> . 5C<>;8<K5 2 A2>5< AB@5<;5=88 ?>;=>ABLN @0745;0BLAO A !5@1859, 0<5@8:0=FK =0AB>9G82> ?KB0NBAO 2K@20BL 87 >AB0B:>2 .3>A;02A:>9 D545@0F88 ?>A;54=NN =5 A5@1A:CN @5A?C1;8:C, '5@=>3>@8N 8 B5< A0<K< A>740BL 548=CN, =5?@5@K2=CN =0B>2A:CN ?>;>AC, =0456=> >B@570NICN >AA8N >B !@54875<=>3> <>@O. 0: 8 A5@1K, G5@=>3>@FK B>65 8A?>254CNB ?@02>A;02=CN @5;838N, 8 :>340 2 =0G0;5 452O=>ABKE 3>4>2 87 A>AB020 .3>A;0288 2KH;8 2A5 4@C385 @5A?C1;8:8, <0;5=L:0O '5@=>3>@8O 2K@078;0 B25@4>5 @5H5=85 >AB0BLAO 2 >1I5< A>N75 A !5@1859. 025@=>5, 1C45B 87;8H=8< ?>4G5@:820BL 745AL, GB> 0<5@8:0=F0< B0:>5 ?>2545=85 '5@=>3>@88 =5 <>3;> ?@89B8AL ?> 2:CAC, =>, 1C4CG8 2 B> 2@5<O 70=OBK<8 1>;55 =0ACI=K<8 ?@>1;5<0<8 2 4@C38E 1;87;560I8E <5AB0E, >=8 ?@8B2>@8;8AL, GB> 8E A>2A5< =5 15A?>:>8B 65;0=85 A2>5=@02=KE 3>@F52 @0745;8BL A2>N AC4L1C A =5 <5=55 C?@O<K<8 A5@10<8. 5A<>B@O =0 A2>8 A:@><=K5 35>3@0D8G5A:85 @07<5@K 8 <0;>G8A;5==>ABL =0A5;5=8O, '5@=>3>@8O 70=8<05B AB@0B538G5A:8 206=>5 ?>;>65=85 =0 0;:0=0E, GB> =5 <>3;> 871560BL ?@8AB0;L=>3> 2=8<0=8O =0B>2A:8E AB@0B53>2. >-?5@2KE, @0AAC640;8 0<5@8:0=A:85 :0@B>3@0DK, ?>B5@O2 '5@=>3>@8N, !5@18O ;8H8BAO 548=AB25==>3> 2KE>40 : <>@N, GB> ?@82545B : 55 =5 B>;L:> : 2>5==><C, => 8 : 40;L=59H5<C M:>=><8G5A:><C >A;01;5=8N. >-2B>@KE, 2KB5A=82 2>8=AB25==KE A5@1>2 87 '5@=>3>@88, >=8 7=0G8B5;L=> C:@5?OB D;0=38 =0B>2A:8E 2>9A: 2 >A=88. -B@5BL8E, 27O2 ?>4 :>=B@>;L 2A5 ?>15@56L5 4@80B8G5A:>3> <>@O, 0<5@8:0=A:85 0280=>AFK A<>3CB 15A?@5?OBAB25==> C3@>60BL 2A5<C 0;:0=A:><C @538>=C. >MB><C A@07C 65 ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O 2>9=K 2 %>@20B88 8 >A=88 0H8=3B>= =570<54;8B5;L=> ?@8ABC?8; : 1>;57=5==>9 >?5@0F88 ">B?8;820=8O" '5@=>3>@88 >B .3>A;02A:>9 D545@0F88. >=0G0;C 0<5@8:0=FK @0AAG8BK20;8, GB> B>@3>2K5 A0=:F88, =0;>65==K5 =0 .3>A;028N, ?@8254CB : D8=0=A>2>-M:>=><8G5A:><C E0>AC 2 AB@0=5, 8 G5@=>3>@FK, ?>=O2 A2>N ">H81:C", 1KAB@> C153CB 87 D545@0F88. > ?@82K:H85 @0AA<0B@820BL 2A5, 4065 4CE>2=K5 G5;>25G5A:85 F5==>AB8, 2 B>@30H5A:8E :0B53>@8OE, 20H8=3B>=A:85 ?A8E>;>38 =5 >F5=8;8 4> :>=F0 70:0;5==>3> AC@>2K<8 8A?KB0=8O<8 8AB>@88 4CE>2=>3> 8 :C;LBC@=>3> 548=AB20 MB8E 42CE 1@0BA:8E ?@02>A;02=KE =0@>4>2. 5A<>B@O =0 =5?@5@K2=CN ?>4@K2=CN 45OB5;L=>ABL & #, ?>;8B8G5A:>5 402;5=85 0?040 8 A>1;07=8B5;L=K5 >15I0=8O D8=0=A>2>9 ?><>I8, G5@=>3>@FK 2 ?>402;ONI5< 1>;LH8=AB25 >AB0;8AL =5?>:>;518<K 2 A2>5< @5H5=88 >AB0BLAO 2 A>AB025 .3>A;0288. ">340 A?5FA;C61K 70?04=KE AB@0= ?@8153;8 : A2>5<C AB0@><C 8A?KB0==><C <5B>4C A>740=8O ?>A;CH=>9 8< ?OB>9 :>;>=K, 8;8, 4@C38<8 A;>20<8 3>2>@O, ?>4:C?0 2;8OB5;L=KE ?>;8B8G5A:8E 45OB5;59 8=B5@5ACNI59 8E AB@0=K, :>B>@K5 ?>254CB A;5?K5 <0AAK 2 =C6=>< 4;O 70>:50=A:8E E>7O52 =0?@02;5=88. 725AB=K9 "465=B;L<5=A:89" ?@8=F8? 0=3;89A:>9 48?;><0B88 "@0745;O9 8 2;0AB2C9" 20H8=3B>=A:85 AB@>8B5;8 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0 70<5=8;8 1>;55 A>>B25BAB2CNI8< 4CEC =0H53> ?@>A25I5==>3> 2@5<5=8 ;>7C=3>< "?>4:C?09 8 2;0AB2C9". 5 =094O A@548 "<0;>:C;LBC@=KE" 3>@F52 =8:>3> 1>;55 ?>4E>4OI53>, & # @5H8;> ?>AB028BL A2>8 :0@BK =0 35-;5B=53> <5AB=>3> ?86>=0 8;> N:0=>28G0, 8725AB=>3> A2>8< 070@B=K< ?@8AB@0AB85< : 4>@>38< 8B0;LO=A:8< :>ABN<0<, @>:>GCI8< A?>@B82=K< <0H8=0< 8 4@C38< 0B@81CB0< 2KA>:>3> A>F80;L=>3> AB0BCA0. >4<070==K9 A>;84=K<8 0<5@8:0=A:8<8 4>;;0@0<8 8 >?8@0OAL =0 :@CBCN <5AB=CN <0D8N, :>B>@0O, 8A?>;L7CO 2K3>4=>5 35>3@0D8G5A:>5 ?>;>65=85 '5@=>3>@88 8 ?>?CAB8B5;LAB2> 70?04=KE ?>3@0=8G=KE A;C61, >A=>20B5;L=> @0768@5;0 =0 B>@3>2;5 =0@:>B8:0<8 8 4@C38E >?5@0F8OE ?@81K;L=>9 :>=B@010=4K, <8AB5@ N:0=>28G A<0AB5@8; A515 A>1AB25==CN, 83@CH5G=CN "45<>:@0B8G5A:CN" ?0@B8N. 5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> =0 A>AB>O2H8EAO 2 >:BO1@5 1997 3>40 ?@57845=BA:8E 2K1>@0E ?>402;ONI55 1>;LH8=AB2> =0A5;5=8O 3>;>A>20;> ?@>B82 =53>, :0:8<-B> =5>1JOA=8<K< 783703>< AC4L1K 5<C C40;>AL ?>;CG8BL <8:@>A:>?8G=>5 1>;LH8=AB2> 3>;>A>2. =0NI85 ?>;8B8G5A:85 @50;88 8718@0B5;L=KE <0=8?C;OF89 F8=8:8 2A5340 CB25@640;8, GB> =5 206=>, :B> 3>;>AC5B, => 206=>, :B> AG8B05B 3>;>A0. @54?@88<G82K5 0<5@8:0=FK, ;N1OI85 2A5 ?5@545;K20BL 8 CA>25@H5=AB2>20BL, =5 >AB0=>28;8AL =0 AB0@>9 D>@<C;5 "45<>:@0B8G5A:>3>" 2>;587JO2;5=8O, 4>:0702, GB> =5 206=>, :B> 3>;>AC5B 8 4065 :B> AG8B05B, 206=>, :B> ?>445;K205B 8718@0B5;L=K5 1N;;5B5=8. ;03>, GB> 2 =0H :><?LNB5@=K9 25: ?>4>1=0O 8718@0B5;L=0O 0;E8<8O =5 B@51C5B G@57<5@=>3> C<AB25==>3> =0?@O65=8O. >340 2 O=20@5 1998 3>40, =0:>=5F, ?@8H;> 4>;3>640==>5 2@5<O 8=0C3C@0F88 "A45;0==>3>" 2 ;01>@0B>@8OE & # ?@57845=B0, =5A?>:>9=>5 =0A5;5=85 '5@=>3>@88 <0AA>2> 2K20;8;> =0 C;8FK >43>@>48FK, ?@>B5ABCO ?@>B82 MB>3> >G5284=>3> 2K1>@=>3> <>H5==8G5AB20. 0 ?><>IL >A0645==><C N:0=>28GC =570<54;8B5;L=> ?>A?5H8; 53> ?>:@>28B5;L, 0<5@8:0=A:89 A?5F80;L=K9 ?>A;0==8: =0 0;:0=0E >15@B 5;10@4. <5AB5 A =8< ?> :@CBK< 3>@=K< B@>?8=:0< 2 @5A?C1;8:C ?@>A>G8;8AL >45BK5 2 3@0640=A:>5 E>@20BA:85 8 <CAC;L<0=A:85 1>528:8 A8; >A>1>3> =07=0G5=8O, :>B>@K5 70<5B=> C<=>68;8 @O4K ;8G=>9 320@488 ":@5AB=>3> >BF0" G5@=>3>@A:>9 <0D88. /2;OOAL A>25@H5==K< ?@>4C:B>< A0<>C25@5==>9 0<5@8:0=A:>9 48?;><0B88, 3>A?>48= 5;10@4 =570<54;8B5;L=> ?CAB8; 2 E>4 2A5 A2>8 1;5ABOI85 C<5=8O 70?C3820BL, >15I0BL 8 2@0BL. KA>:89 0<5@8:0=A:89 ?>A;0==8: =542C7=0G=> 70O28;, GB> 5A;8 8E AB02;5==8: =5 AB0=5B ?@57845=B><, B> =0 !5@18N 8 '5@=>3>@8N 1C4CB =0;>65=K 4>?>;=8B5;L=K5 M:>=><8G5A:85 A0=:F88. 5 8A:;NG0;0AL B0:65 2>7<>6=>ABL 2>>@C65==>9 =0B>2A:>9 8=B5@25=F88.  A;CG05, 5A;8 G5@=>3>@FK ?@8<CB =8A?>A;0==>3> ?@57845=B0, C25@O; <8AB5@ 5;10@4, B>340 @5A?C1;8:0 A@07C 65 ?>;CG8B 2 ?>40@>: 2 <8;;8>=0 4>;;0@>2, 70 :>B>@K<8, :0: 87 @>30 87>18;8O, ?>AK?;NBAO =>2K5 ?>40G:8.  GB>1K :0:-B> >?@0240BL 2 3;070E <8@>2>3> >1I5AB25==>3> <=5=8O 15AABK4=>5 0<5@8:0=A:>5 2<5H0B5;LAB2> 2> 2=CB@5==85 45;0 MB>9 <0;5=L:>9 @5A?C1;8:8, 87>1@5B0B5;L=K9 <8AB5@ 5;10@4 CB25@640;, GB> <0AA>2K9 ?@>B5AB G5@=>3>@F52, 45A:0BL, >?;0G8205BAO 45=L30<8 A5@1A:>3> ?@57845=B0 8;>H528G0. !>3;0A=> A<5E>B2>@=K< 8=A8=C0F8O< 0<5@8:0=A:>3> ?>A;0==8:0, >1=8I0;0O !5@18O 1K;0 2 A>AB>O=88 70?;0B8BL 1>;LH5, G5< 1>30B0O <5@8:0. "5< 2@5<5=5<, >?0A0OAL 3>@OG53> 87;8O=8O GC2AB2 A>1AB25==KE A>3@0640=, >B5F G5@=>3>@A:>9 45<>:@0B88 2 A>?@>2>645=88 A28BK 70?04=KE ?>:@>28B5;59 =570<5B=> C;87=C; 87 A2>59 =5A?>:>9=>9 AB>;8FK >43>@8FK 8 B@CA;82> C:@K;AO 70 ?>@>AH8<8 <E>< :@5?>AB=K<8 AB5=0<8 A@54=525:>2>3> :>@>;52A:>3> 70<:0 2 &5B8=L5. 45AL 15 O=20@O 1998 3>40, =5<=>3> >GCE02H8AL >B 8A?C30, >= B>@65AB25==> ?@8=O; ?@57845=BA:CN ?@8AO3C 2 ?@8ACBAB288 2KA>:8E ?>A;>2 70?04=KE AB@0=, =5 ?@5<8=C2 ?@8 MB>< ?>>15I0BL ?>A065==><C >BFC G5@=>3>@A:>9 =57028A8<>AB8 <8AB5@C 5;10@BC > A2>5< =57K1;5<>< =0<5@5=88 >B>@20BL '5@=>3>@8N >B 1@0BA:>9 !5@188.  MB>B 65 G5@=K9 45=L A5@10< ?@8H;>AL 8A?8BL 5I5 >4=C G0HC =0F8>=0;L=>3> C=865=8O.  AB>;8F5 >AB>G=>9 !;02>=88 C:>20@5 1K; A?CI5= A5@1A:89 D;03, 8 <8@>B2>@G5A:85 A8;K  >D8F80;L=> ?5@540;8 2;0ABL E>@20BA:>9 04<8=8AB@0F88. "5?5@L AB8A=CB0O A> 2A5E AB>@>= 8 ?5@5?>;=5==0O >1>@20==K<8 1565=F0<8 !5@18O 1C45B 2K=C645=0 ?@8=OBL 5I5, ?> <5=LH59 <5@5, AB> BKAOG =>2KE A2>8E A>3@0640= 87 >AB>G=>9 !;02>=88. "0:8< >1@07><, BC?0O, =8 A G5< =5 AG8B0NI0OAO, >7;>1;5==0O A8;0 0@<03544>=A:>3> GC4>28I0, >:>=G0B5;L=> 70B>?B0;0 =04564K 2>;59 A;5?>3> ?@>2845=8O ?>?02H53> 59 ?>4 =>38 <0;5=L:>3> A5@1A:>3> =0@>40 - =04564K <8@=> 68BL >4=>9 =0F8>=0;L=>9 A5<L59 =0 A2>59 ?@0454>2A:>9 75<;5. 0B> 3;02=0O F5;L :>20@=KE ?@5B5=45=B>2 =0 <8@>2>5 3>A?>4AB2> =0 0;:0=0E 1K;0 =0:>=5F 4>AB83=CB0. >9A:0 ", "2@5<5==>" ?@8H54H85 2 >A=8N "<8@8BL" 2@064CNI85 AB>@>=K, ?@>G=> 8 =04>;3> >:>?0;8AL 2 MB>< AB@0B538G5A:8 206=>< @538>=5.  45:01@5 1997 3>40 0<5@8:0=A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2>, :>B>@>5 >15I0;> 2K25AB8 A2>8 2>9A:0 87 >A=88 2 B5G5=88 H5AB8 <5AOF52, ?@>4;8;> 8E <0=40B ?@51K20=8O =0 0;:0=0E 157 >3@0=8G5=8O A@>:0. 5B A><=5=8O, GB> >AB0;L=K5 G;5=K " B>65 ?>A;54CNB ?@8<5@C A2>53> ?0B@>=0. "0:8< >1@07><, 8A?>;L7>202 =5@5H8B5;L=>ABL 8 4065 ?>?CAB8B5;LAB2> >AA88 2 ?>A;54=59 10;:0=A:>9 4@0<5, 0<5@8:0=F0< C40;>AL A@02=8B5;L=> ;53:> @5H8BL N3>A;02A:CN ?@>1;5<C 2 A2>N ?>;L7C. @O<K< ?@>4>;65=85< ?>154K 8E ?>;8B8:8 =0 0;:0=0E O28;>AL C:@5?;5=85 8 @0AH8@5=85 03@5AA82=>3> A>N70 " 2 2@>?5, 3;02=>3> 2>5==>3> @KG030 2 0<5@8:0=A:>< AB@5<;5=88 : <8@>2>9 3535<>=88. KABC?0O 13 O=20@O 1998 3>40 ?5@54 0<5@8:0=A:8< >=3@5AA><, 3>AA5:@5B0@L !( 04;5= ;1@09B, =5 A:@K20O @04>AB8, E20AB;82> 70O28;0, GB> 3;02=>5 "8A?KB0=85 0<5@8:0=A:>9 @C:>2>4OI59 @>;8" 2 <8@>2KE 45;0E, 0 8<5==> @0AH8@5=85 " 8 @07<5I5=85 0<5@8:0=A:8E 2>9A: 2 >A=88, 1K;> CA?5H=> >ACI5AB2;5=>. "5?5@L 2>5==K9 A>N7 " @0A?>;0305B 2 >A=88 35 BKAOG0<8 2>5==>A;C60I8E, GB> B>;L:> =0 425 BKAOG8 <5=LH5, G5< 0<5@8:0=A:89 2>5==K9 :>=B8=35=B 2 .6=>9 >@55. 5B@C4=> 4>3040BLAO, 70G5< 8 ?@>B82 :>3> A>740= MB>B 1@>=8@>20==K9 :C;0: =0 0;:0=A:>< ?>;C>AB@>25.  =081>;55 B@52>6=K5 2@5<5=0 =0B>2A:>3> 1KB8O 1990-1993 3>4>2, :>340 ?5@54 MB>9 >@30=870F859 AB>O; 8725G=K9 30<;5B>2A:89 2>?@>A "1KBL 8;8 =5 1KBL", :>340 1>;LH8=AB2> 70?04=>-52@>?59A:8E AB@0= AG8B0;>, GB> !525@>0B;0=B8G5A:89 A>N7 2K?>;=8; A2>N 8AB>@8G5A:CN <8AA8N 8 4>;65= 1KBL @0A?CI5=, 24@C3, :0: ?> <0=>25=8N 2>;H51=>9 ?0;>G:8, ?>AK?0;8AL 70O2;5=8O > 2ABC?;5=88 2 " =0H8E 1K2H8E 40;5:8E 8 1;87:8E 1@0BL52. - >B :0:85 2K =54>B5?K 8 ?@>AB>D8;8, - A 87452:>9 2 3>;>A5 ?>CG0;8 0<5@8:0=FK A2>8E 70?04=>52@>?59A:8E ?0@B=5@>2. - 0< 1>;LH5 =5 E>G5BAO @0AE>4>20BL 45=L38 =0 A>45@60=85 "<0B5@8-"", :>B>@0O ?@83@5;0 20A =0 3@C48 2 AC@>2K5 3>4K E>;>4=>9 2>9=K. 0< E>G5BAO 25@8BL, GB> >?0A=>ABL 1572>72@0B=> <8=>20;0, 8 @CAA:89 <54254L C65 =8:>340 =5 ?@>1C48BAO >B 3;C1>:>9 78<=59 A?OG:8. "0: ;CGH5 ?>A;CH09B5, GB> =0< 3>2>@OB 20H8 2>AB>G=K5 A>A548, :>B>@K5 ?@5:@0A=> 7=0NB E8I=8G5A:85 ?>204:8 A818@A:>3> <54254O. A5 >=8, :0: >48=, A>25@H5==> C15645=K 2 3@O4CI5< @>AA89A:>< ?>E>45 =0 0?04. 48= 87 2KA>:>?>AB02;5==KE @01>B=8:>2 87 0H8=3B>=A:>3> F5=B@0 ?> @07@01>B:5 ?>;8B8:8 " ?@O<> 70O28; :>@@5A?>=45=BC "LN->@: "09<5 !5@28A5A", GB> 2>AB>G=>-52@>?59A:85 AB@0=K, "E>@>H> 7=0O @CAA:8E, ;CGH5 >A254><;5=K > 2@06451=>9 @>AA89A:>9 C3@>75, :>B>@0O 2A5 5I5 ACI5AB2C5B".  MB0 15AABK60O ;>6L >B:@KB> @07=>A8BAO 0<5@8:0=A:>9 ?@>?030=4>9 ?> 2A5<C <8@C =5A:>;L:> ;5B ?>A;5 B>3>, :0: 8C4CH:0 >@10G52 "@C:>B2>@=>" @07>3=0; 0@H02A:89 4>3>2>@, :>340 >10;45;0O >AA8O 4>1@>2>;L=> ?>65@B2>20;0 A2>8< ?>A;54=8< 52@>?59A:8< 4>1@>65;0B5;5< !5@1859 8 :>340 @>AA89A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> 4065 =5 E>G5B 70I8I0BL A2>8 687=5==> 206=K5 ?>78F88 2 1;86=5< 70@C156L5. <5@8:0=A:85 ;5:B>@K 87 20H8=3B>=A:>3> >B45;0 ?@>?030=4K, 5A;8 1K ?>65;0;8, <>3;8 1K =09B8 1>;LH5 ?>4>1=KE C1548B5;L=KE ?@8<5@>2 @>AA89A:>9 "03@5AA82=>AB8". ?@>G5<, B@51>20BL >B MB8E 3>A?>4 2=OB=>AB8 8 ;>38G=>AB8 2 8E C<>70:;NG5=8OE, =025@=>5, 1K;> 1K =5G5AB=>. >4>1=> C<AB25==K< ?>@K20< C2O40NI59 65=I8=K 2 =5A?>:>9=K9 ?5@8>4 55 <5=>?0C7K, 0<5@8:0=A:0O 2=5H=OO ?>;8B8:0 8<55B A2>N A?5F8D8G5A:CN ;>38:C 8AB>;:>20=8O D0:B>2 8 A>1KB89 >:@C60NI59 459AB28B5;L=>AB8. 0: 1K B0< =8 1K;>, => >BG0O==K5 :@8:8 > ?><>I8, 4>=>A82H85AO 87 0@H02K, C40?5HB0 8 AB>;8F ?@810;B89A:8E 3>AC40@AB2, 40;8 0<5@8:0=A:8< ?>;8B8:0< C4>1=K9 ?@>?030=48ABA:89 0@3C<5=B 2 8E AB@5<;5=88 A>E@0=8BL 8 @0AH8@8BL ". @><5 CA8;5=8O 0<5@8:0=A:8E AB@0B538G5A:8E ?>78F89 2 2@>?5, 2ABC?;5=85 =>2KE G;5=>2 2 " 405B 0H8=3B>=C F5;K9 @O4 4@C38E G8AB> B5E=8G5A:8E ?@58<CI5AB2, :>B>@K5 ?>72>;OB 5<C 5I5 1>;LH5 C:@5?8BL A2>N @C:>2>4OICN ?>78F8N 2 !525@>0B;0=B8G5A:>< A>N75. 5;> 2 B><, GB> A>3;0A=> CAB02C !525@>0B;0=B8G5A:>3> 4>3>2>@0, 2A5 53> G;5=K D>@<0;L=> AG8B0NBAO @02=>?@02=K<8. >=OB=>, GB> MB>B 45<>:@0B8G5A:89 ?@8=F8? =8:>340 8 =8:5<, 0 B5< 1>;55 0<5@8:0=F0<8, A5@L57=> =5 2>A?@8=8<0;AO, => B5< =5 <5=55 8=>340 ?5=B03>=>2A:8< 35=5@0;0< ?@8E>48;>AL CABC?0BL ?5@54 ;8F>< >??>78F88 A2>8E =5A3>2>@G82KE A>N7=8:>2. A>15==> <=>3> E;>?>B ?@8=>A8;8 0<5@8:0=F0< BO65;>25A=K5 AB@0=K ", B0:85 :0: $@0=F8O (?5@54 2KE>4>< 87 "), =3;8O (?5@54 >1JO2;5=85< ">=8 ;M@0) 8 2@5<5=0<8 4065 ?>:;048AB0O 5@<0=8O, :>B>@K5 8=>340 <>3;8 A515 ?>72>;8BL =5 A>3;0A8BAO A 70>:50=A:8< 1>AA>< ?> =5:>B>@K< 2B>@>AB5?5==K< 2>?@>A0<.  B0:8E A;CG0OE, GB>1K ?@>BO=CBL =C6=CN 8< @57>;NF8N, 0<5@8:0=F0< ?@8E>48;>AL 70 :C;8A0<8 ?@>@010BK20BL ";53:>25A=KE" G;5=>2 A>N70, B0:8E :0: A?0=8O, "C@F8O, >@BC30;8O 8 8< ?>4>1=KE A5@KE ;>H04>: =0B>2A:>9 C?@O6:8. "5?5@L 65, :>340 2 A>N7 5I5 2>94CB @01>;5?=> ?>A;CH=K5 8< >;LH0, 5=3@8O 8 '5E8O, 0H8=3B>= 2A5340 A<>65B @0AAG8BK20BL =0 8E A2>52@5<5==CN 8 157CA;>2=CN ?>445@6:C.  :>340 2 1C4CI5< : =0B>2A:>9 :><?0=88 ?@8102OBAO 5I5 @810;B8:0, C<K=8O, >;30@8O 8 ?@>G85 AC1J5:BK 1K2H53> 0@H02A:>3> 4>3>2>@0, B>340 2>>1I5 70 =0B>2A:8< AB>;>< 2>F0@8BAO =5@CH8<>5 548=>3;0A85. 5 2K45@68205B A5@L57=>9 :@8B8:8 8 4@C3>9 ?A524>0@3C<5=B 0<5@8:0=A:>9 ?@>?030=4K, GB> @0AH8@5=85 ", O:>1K, A?>A>1AB2C5B C:@5?;5=8N <8@0 8 AB018;L=>AB8 2 2@>?5. 54L, 70<0=820O 2 A2>8 @O4K 2>AB>G=>-52@>?59A:85 AB@0=K, :>B>@K5 8<5NB <0AAC @07=>3> @>40 8AB>@8G5A:8E >184 =0 >AA8N, 8 >4=>2@5<5==> ?>4:@04K20OAL, O:> B0BL, =0 B0=:0E 1;865 : @C1560< =0H59 AB@0=K (548=AB25==>3> 3>AC40@AB20, :>B>@>5 2 A>AB>O=88 40BL O45@=CN A40GC 0<5@8:0=A:8< AB@>8B5;O< =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0), " =5 C<5=LH05B, =>, =0>1>@>B, C25;8G8205B ?>;8B8G5A:CN =0?@O65==>ABL 2 2@>?5. 5;L7O A:070BL, GB>1K >?0A=0O 83@0 20H8=3B>=A:8E AB@0B53>2 2 2@>?5 =5 B@52>68;0 74@02><KA;OI8E ;N459 ?> >15 AB>@>=K B;0=B8G5A:>3> >:50=0. "0:0O F5;L 8 =5>1E>48<>ABL @0AH8@5=8O "", @8B>@8G5A:8 A?@0H8205B 2 0<5@8:0=A:>< !5=0B5 28@468=A:89 A5=0B>@ 6>= 5@=5@, :>B>@K9 =5 2848B =8 <0;59H59 ?>;L7K =8 4;O 8=B5@5A>2 !(, =8 4;O 157>?0A=>AB8 2>AB>G=>-52@>?59A:8E AB@0= 2 C<KH;5==KE ?@>2>:0F8OE ?@>B82 >AA88.  :0:>9 AB018;870F88 2 2@>?5 <>65B 84B8 @5GL, 5A;8 =>2K5 G;5=K " >B:@KB> <=>60B B5@@8B>@80;L=K5 ?@5B5=788 : A2>8< A>A54O<, 8 5A;8 1@>=8@>20==0O 0@<040 =0B>2A:8E 2>9A: 2A5 1;865 ?>4BO38205BAO : 3@0=8F0< >AA88? >=8<0O, GB> =K=5H=OO 0<5@8:0=A:0O ?>;8B8:0 C3@>7 8 ?@>2>:0F89 ?> >B=>H5=8N : >AA88 <>65B ?@825AB8 : 2>7>1=>2;5=8N E>;>4=>9 2>9=K 8;8 4065 : O45@=><C :>=D;8:BC, <=>385 ?>;8B8G5A:85 45OB5;8 =0 0?045 >B:@KB> 2KABC?0NB ?@>B82 @0AH8@5=8O ". 54L >A;01;5==0O, C=865==0O 8 703=0==0O 2 C3>; >AA8O, 2 A;CG05 2>5==>3> :>=D;8:B0, =5 1C45B 8<5BL 4@C3>3> 2KE>40, :0: ?@8153=CBL : O45@=><C >@C68N. 725AB=K9 0<5@8:0=A:89 48?;><0B 6>= 5==0=, :>B>@K9 ?5@2K< 50 ;5B =0704 ?@54;>68; 7=0<5=8BCN ?>;8B8:C A45@6820=8O !>25BA:>3> !>N70 8 :>B>@>3> BO65;> 1K;> 1K 70?>4>7@8BL 2 ?@>@>AA89A:8E A8<?0B8OE, @0AF5=8; @0AH8@5=85 " =0 >AB>: :0: "A0<CN @>:>2CN >H81:C 0<5@8:0=A:>9 2=5H=59 ?>;8B8:8 ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O E>;>4=>9 2>9=K". > ?>=8<0NB ;8 MB> B0<, 70 1C3@><, 2 0H8=3B>=5? >=5G=> 65, ?@5:@0A=> ?>=8<0NB, => A>7=0B5;L=>, 84CB =0 @0AAG8B0==K9 @8A: A =04564>9, GB> 48?;><0B8G5A:>5 A>?@>B82;5=85 >AA88 =5 1C45B 4;8BLAO 4>;3>, 8 2 :>=5G=> 8B>35 8E A<5;K9 30<18B ?@8=5A5B 8< 65;05<K5 @57C;LB0BK. ;O =8E =5AB018;L=>ABL 8 =0?@O65==>ABL 2 >AB>G=>9 2@>?5 =C6=0, :0: 2>40, 2@0I0NI0O ;>?0AB8 8E ?>;8B8G5A:>9 <5;L=8FK. >4AB@5:0O ?@028B5;LAB20 2>AB>G=>-52@>?59A:8E AB@0= 2KABC?0BL A> 2AO:>3> @>40 01AC@4=K<8 ?@5B5=78O<8 8 ;>6=K<8 >128=5=8O<8 2 04@5A >AA88, 0<5@8:0=FK A>740NB 4;O A51O 1;03>?@8OB=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 <0=8?C;OF88 A>1KB8O<8, 459AB2CO 87-70 :C;8A. -B> G0AB> ?>72>;O5B !>548=5==K< (B0B0< 2KABC?0BL 2 @>;8 0@18B@>2 <564C :;OC7=8:0<8-A>A54O<8 8 >AA859, 70?CBK20O @>AA89A:CN 48?;><0B8N 2 A5B8 2K4C<0==KE <5;:8E ?@>1;5<, :>B>@K5 >=8, O:>1K, ?><>30NB @5H8BL. 45AL =5 ?><5H05B 70<5B8BL, GB> 2 @57C;LB0B5 MB>9 <0::8025;852A:>9 ?>;8B8:8 0<5@8:0=A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20 AB@0405B =5 B>;L:> >AA8O, => 8 55 =54>1@>65;0B5;L=K5 A>A548. >;O:8 8 25=3@K, :>B>@K5 B5?5@L AB@5<OBAO :0: <>6=> 1KAB@55 ?5@5<0E=CBL 70 >1>@>=8B5;L=K5 20;K ", =045OAL >BBC40 157=0:070==> "302:0BL" =0 >AA8N, =5 ?>=8<0NB B>9 ?@>AB>9 8AB8=K, GB> >=8 B0< =C6=K, ?>:C40 2 =8E =C640NBAO 20H8=3B>=A:85 AB@>8B5;8 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0. 5C65;8 74@02><KA;OI85 ;N48 2 0@H025 8 C40?5HB5 459AB28B5;L=> A5@L57=> 25@OB, GB> 0<5@8:0=A:0O <>@A:0O ?5E>B0 :>340-=81C4L ?>65;05B ;5GL :>ABL<8 =0 15@530E C30, ;B02K 8;8 "8AK. AB0B8, B5 65 ?>;O:8 C65 8<5;8 E>@>H89 >?KB A 0=3;89A:8<8 30@0=B8O<8 2 1939 3>4C. A;8 1K =5 35@>8G5A:89 @0B=K9 ?>4283 @CAA:8E A>;40B, <>38;K :>B>@KE A53>4=O >A:25@=ONBAO 4518;L=K<8 20=40;0<8 2 >;LH5, 345 1K B5?5@L 1K;> ?>;LA:>5 3>AC40@AB2> A> 2A5<8 53> 1@8B0=A:8<8 30@0=B8O<8. 07C<=> 2 A2>5 2@5<O ?@54>AB5@530; A2>8E =5@07C<=KE A>3@0640= 1K2H89 ?>;LA:89 ?@57845=B 35=5@0; /@C75;LA:89, =5>4=>:@0B=> ?>2B>@OO, GB> =5 A;54C5B 8A:0BL 4@C759 70 >:50=><, 0 2@03>2 ?>4 1>:><. >, :0: 2A5< E>@>H> 8725AB=>, C<=K5 A>25BK >F5=820NBAO B>;L:> 2 B@C4=K5 2@5<5=0. I5 =58725AB=>, :0:8<8 1;03>45O=8O<8 >AK?;NB 0<5@8:0=FK A2>8E =>2KE 1@0BL52 ?> >@C68N, => =5B =8 <0;59H53> A><=5=8O 2 B><, GB> 70 ;N1K5 =0B>2A:85 "30@0=B88" 8< ?@845BAO 70?;0B8BL 4>@>3CN F5=C. 5 3>2>@O C65 > B><, GB> =>2K< G;5=0< ?@845BAO ?>4>3=0BL A2>8 2>>@C65==K5 A8;K ?>4 =0B>2A:CN <5@:C, 0 MB> >7=0G05B 2K:C?8BL <0AAC 70;560;>3> 0<5@8:0=A:>3> 2>>@C65=8O 8 >1<C=48@>20=8O (GB>1K 8E, G53> 4>1@>3>, 70 @CAA:8E =5 ?@87=0;8), 8E <>;>4K< A>;40B0<, ?> 2A59 25@>OB=>AB8, ?@845BAO 4>:07K20BL A2>N E@01@>ABL 8 ;>O;L=>ABL =>2K< E>7O520< 2 :0:8E-=81C4L <0;O@89=KE 46C=3;OE D@8:8 8;8 @0A:0;5==KE ?5A:0E 25G=KE ?CABK=L ;86=53> >AB>:0. !53>4=O ?5=B03>=>2A:85 >?5@0B82=8:8 4065 =5 ?KB0NBAO A:@K20BL >B A2>8E A>N7=8:>2, GB> 2 =540;5:>< 1C4CI5< 2>9A:0 !525@>0B;0=B8G5A:>3> A>N70 1C4CB 8A?>;L7>20=K 4;O 2>5==KE 459AB289 70 3@0=8F0<8 2@>?K. KABC?0O =0 :>=D5@5=F88 <8=8AB@>2 8=>AB@0==KE 45; AB@0= ", :>B>@0O A>AB>O;0AL 2 @NAA5;5 2 45:01@5 1997 3>40, 3>AA5:@5B0@L !( 04;5= ;1@09B, =025@=>5, 4> A<5@B8 >1@04>20;0 A2>8E 52@>?59A:8E :>;;53, A>>1I82 8<, GB> "=>2K9", @0AH8@5==K9 A>N7 4>;65= 2K9B8 70 3@0=8FK 2@>?K 8 0:B82=> 2:;NG8BLAO 2 1>@L1C ?@>B82 <=>3>G8A;5==KE 2@03>2 0?04=>3> <8@0. 7 CAB E>@>H> >A254><;5==>9 ?>A;0==8FK "B09=>3> <8@>2>3> ?@028B5;LAB20" 87C<;5==K5 <8=8AB@K C7=0;8, GB> B5?5@L 8E 2@030<8 O2;ONBAO =5 :>=:@5B=K5 AB@0=K, 0 :0:>9-B> =01>@ 70:>48@>20==>9 35>3@0D8G5A:8 B5>;>38G5A:>9 B5@<8=>;>388. >:0702, GB> >=0 <>65B ?@>8725AB8 >H5;><;ONI55 2?5G0B;5=85 =5 B>;L:> A2>59 =>2>9 ?@8G5A:>9, => B0:65 A2>8<8 ?>7=0=8O<8 2 >1;0AB8 <564C=0@>4=KE >B=>H5=89, <0A>=A:0O "?@8=F5AA0" 0<5@8:0=A:>9 48?;><0B88 =0G0;0 ?>CG0BL @0AB5@O2H8EAO <8=8AB@>2, GB> B5?5@L 3;02=0O C3@>70 4;O 2@>?K 8AE>48B >B :0:>3>-B> 35>3@0D8G5A:>3> 381@840 ?>4 =0720=85< 2@078O.  =K=5H=8E CA;>28OE, ?@>4>;60;0 =5A@02=5==0O 04;5=, " 4>;6=> =0?@028BL A2>8 CA8;8O =0 ?@54>B2@0I5=85 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O O45@=>3>, E8<8G5A:>3> 8 18>;>38G5A:>3> >@C68O, 0 B0:65 25AB8 =5CAB0==CN 1>@L1C A 8A;0<A:8< DC=40<5=B0;87<><. 0<5BLB5, GB> 2 <8AB8G5A:>< 60@3>=5 0<5@8:0=A:>3> ?>;8B8G5A:>3> A;>20@O =0A B5?5@L 25;8G0NB =5 >AA859, => 2@07859. -B>, =025@=>5, 4;O B>3>, GB>1K A8;L=55 ?>459AB2>20BL =0 ?C3;82>5 2>>1@065=85 70?04=KE >1K20B5;59. ;O <=>38E 87 =8E 2@078O 2A5 5I5 >B>645AB2;O5BAO A :@>2>604=K<8 >@40<8 A28@5?>3> '8=387E0=0, :>B>@K5 2 A2>5 2@5<O B5@@>@87>20;8 "<8@>;N182CN" 2@>?C. ?5H82H85 >B B0:8E =5>6840==KE ?@54;>65=89, <8=8AB@K 1K;8 4065 =5 2 A>AB>O=88 7040BL 2KOA=ONI8E 2>?@>A>2, :0A0NI8EAO A=>3AH810B5;L=KE 87<5=5=89 2 =0B>2A:>9 2>5==>9 4>:B@8=5. >=OB=>, GB> <>;G0=85 @0AB5@O==KE A>N7=8:>2 1K;> @0AF5=5=> 0<5@8:0=A:8< ?@028B5;LAB2>< :0: A2845B5;LAB2> "B25@4>9" ?>445@6:8 A2>59 =>2>9 ?>;8B8:8. 0 8 > G5< B0< 1K;> 48A:CB8@>20BL. "A5 @02=> ?>-=0H5<C =5 1C45B", - <C4@> @5H8;8 A?5H82H85 =0 >154 <;04H85 ?0@B=5@K 0H8=3B>=0.  B5< 2@5<5=5< AB0@0B5;L=K5 35=5@0;K 5=B03>=0 ?@8=O;8AL 70 40;L=59HCN, 1>;55 45B0;L=CN @07@01>B:C 1C4CI59 2>5==>9 AB@0B5388 !525@>0B;0=B8G5A:>3> A>N70, :>B>@0O 2 3;02=KE G5@B0E C65 1K;0 87;>65=0 . ;-1@09B =0 @NAA5;LA:>9 :>=D5@5=F88. >20O AB@0B538G5A:0O 4>:B@8=0 " 1C45B >D8F80;L=> ?@8=OB0 =0 B>@65AB25==>< ?@074=>20=88 50-;5B8O A>740=8O MB>9 "G8AB> >1>@>=8B5;L=>9" >@30=870F88, :>B>@>5 A>AB>8BAO 2 1999 3>4C 2 0H8=3B>=5. @8=8<0O 2> 2=8<0=85 A8;L=CN C<AB25==CN ;5=L 0<5@8:0=A:>3> 35=5@0;L=>3> HB010, =5 A;54C5B C482;OBLAO, 5A;8 4;O ?@>AB>BK 45;0 >=8 4>1@>A>25AB=> A:>?8@CNB 38B;5@>2A:89 ?;0= "0@10@>AA0". >B 20<, B>20@8I >@10G52, 8 .@L52 45=L! "5< 1>;55 GB> =0 ?>;8B8G5A:>< ?>?@8I5 A2>59 45OB5;L=>AB8 0<5@8:0=A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> 2A5 G0I5 ?@815305B : 87C25@A:8 1>30B><C >?KBC 38B;5@>2A:>3> @568<0, ?> 2A59 25@>OB=>AB8 @0AF5=820O 53> :0: =>@<0;L=CN ?@0:B8:C 2 <564C=0@>4=KE >B=>H5=8OE. >4>1=> A2>8< =0F8ABA:8< CG8B5;O<, 20H8=3B>=A:85 2>7<CB8B5;8 <8@>2>3> ?>;8B8G5A:>3> A?>:>9AB28O G0AB> >4=>AB>@>==5 =0@CH0NB ?>4?8A0==K5 8<8 65 <564C=0@>4=K5 4>3>2>@0, :0: B>;L:> >=8 AB0=>2OBAO =0 ?CB8 8E 03@5AA82=KE ?;0=>2 8;8 ?> :0:8<-B> ?@8G8=0< ?5@5AB0NB C4>2;5B2>@OBL 0<5@8:0=A:85 8=B5@5AK. 0: =5:>340 ?@5ABC?=K9 D0H8ABA:89 @568< 2 5@<0=88, A53>4=OH=89 8<?5@A:89 0H8=3B>= A2OB> 25@8B 2 AB0@K9 10=48BA:89 ?@8=F8?, GB> B>;L:> 3@C10O 2>5==0O A8;0 @5H05B 2A5, 8 GB> ?>1548B5;59 =5 AC4OB. "0: 65, :0: 2 A2>5 2@5<O 38B;5@>2A:85 020=BN@8ABK, B5?5@5H=85 20H8=3B>=A:85 "<8@>B2>@FK" A?5F80;878@CNBAO 2 A>740=88 :@878A=KE A8BC0F89 B0<, 345 8< =C6=>, 8 B>340, :>340 8< =C6=>. @8 MB>< >=8 2K18@0NB, :0: ?@028;>, 7=0G8B5;L=> CABC?0NICN A515 2 2>5==>< >B=>H5=88, D0:B8G5A:8 15770I8B=CN 65@B2C. A>15==> A8;L=>5 2?5G0B;5=85 =0 2>>1@065=85 0<5@8:0=A:>3> 35=5@0;8B5B0 2A5340 ?@>872>48;0 =5<5F:0O AB@0B538G5A:0O 4>:B@8=0 "1;8F:@83>2". >4>1=> B><C, :0: =5<5F:85 35=5@0;K CA?5H=> @5H0;8 1KAB@K9 8AE>4 2>5==KE :0<?0=89 1939-1941 3>4>2 A ?><>ILN ?8:8@CNI8E 1><10@48@>2I8:>2 8 B0=:>2KE :>B;>2, 8E B5?5@5H=85 ?5=B03>=>2A:85 045?BK F5;8:>< C?>20NB =0 A2>N "=5C;>28<CN" 0280F8N 8 C40@=CN <>IL 1@>=8@>20==KE 0@<04. >=OB=>, GB> =5 <>3;0 CA:>;L7=CBL >B 2=8<0=8O 0<5@8:0=A:>3> 3>A45?0@B0<5=B0 8 MDD5:B82=>ABL 38B;5@>2A:8E <5B>4>2 48?;><0B8G5A:>3> H0=B060, C;LB8<0BC<>2 8 C3@>7. 0: ?>:070;8 ?>A;54=85 A>1KB8O =0 0;:0=0E 8 ;86=5< >AB>:5, 0<5@8:0=A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> >:>=G0B5;L=> ?5@5H;> =0 AB8;L @01>BK @8115=B@>?>2-A:>3> @59EA:><8AA0@80B0, 70<5=82 B@048F8>==K5 D>@<K <564C=0@>4=KE ?5@53>2>@>2 48?;><0B859 3@C1KE C3@>7 8 =0E0;L=KE B@51>20=89. 0 A5@K<8 AB5=0<8 0<5@8:0=A:>3> 3>A45?0@B0<5=B0 B5?5@L @0725;>AL <=>65AB2> 7048@8ABKE ?@>B03>=8AB>2 "2>>@C65==>9 48?;><0B88", => ;CGH8< A@548 =8E, 157 A><=5=8O, O2;O5BAO A0<>C25@5==K9 8 15AB0:B=K9 20H8=3B>=A:89 OAB@51 8G0@4 >;-1@C:.  =03@04C 70 A2>5 C<5=85 AB028BL C;LB8<0BC<K 8 70?C3820BL A;01KE >= B5?5@L ?@>G8BAO A2>8<8 <0A>=A:8<8 ?>:@>28B5;O<8 =0 ?@5AB86=K9 ?>AB 0<5@8:0=A:>3> ?@54AB028B5;O 2 . @5645 G5< C?>20BL =0 A2>N 157=0:070==>ABL, MB8< 3>A?>40< A;54>20;> 1K 2A?><=8BL AC4L1C =04<5==KE ?>A;>2 ?5@A84A:>3> F0@O 0@8O, 48?;><0B8G5A:89 A;>20@L :>B>@KE >3@0=8G820;AO >4=>9 D@07>9 B@51>20=8O 75<;8 8 2>4K.  :>=5G=>< @57C;LB0B5, >=8 ?>;CG8;8 8 B>, 8 4@C3>5 =0 4=5 ?@>BCEH53> 0D8=A:>3> :>;>4F0. 5;L7O =5 70<5B8BL B0:65 ?>;=>9 B>645AB25==>AB8 <564C 0<5@8:0=A:>9 8 =0F8ABA:>9 ?>;8B8:>9 2 ?@85<0E 8=B5@=0F8>=0;870F88 2=CB@5==8E ?@>1;5< 8=B5@5ACNI8E 8E 3>AC40@AB2, A B5< GB>1K A>740BL 4;O A51O C4>1=K9 ?>2>4 4;O 2>5==>-?>;8B8G5A:>3> 2<5H0B5;LAB20.  A2>5 2@5<O 8B;5@ C<5;> 8=B5@=0F8>=0;878@>20; AC45BA:CN ?@>1;5<C '5E>A;>20:88 8 340=LA:>3> :>@84>@0 2 >;LH5, GB>1K 2 :>=5G=>< 8B>35 >::C?8@>20BL MB8 AB@0=K. >?8@CO A2>8E =5<5F:8E CG8B5;59 ?>GB8 B>G:0 2 B>G:C, 0<5@8:0=A:85 ?>;8B8G5A:85 OAB@51K 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O CA?5H=> 8=B5@=0F8>=0;878@>20;8 2=CB@5==85 ?@>1;5<K .3>A;0288 8 @0:0. 57=0456=> AB@040O A8=4@><>< A>1AB25==>3> ?@52>AE>4AB20, !(, :0: 8 D0H8ABA:0O 5@<0=8O, >48=0:>2> @><0=B8G5A:8 2;N1;5=K 2 A2>5 2>5==>5 <>3CI5AB2> 8 >E20G5=K =5@0F8>=0;L=>9 25@>9 2 =5?>1548<>ABL A2>8E 2>>@C65==KE A8;. 0: 8 D0H8ABA:0O 5@<0=8O, !( 157=0456=> AB@040NB @><0=B8G5A:>9 2;N1;5==>ABLN 2 A2>5 <>3CI5AB2> 8 =5@0F8>=0;L=>9 25@>9 2 =5?>1548<>ABL A2>8E 2>>@C65==KE A8;. 0: 8725AB=>, @><0=B8G5A:89 <8D =5?>1548<>AB8 25@<0EB0 1K; =02A5340 ?>E>@>=5= =0 702LN65==KE ?>;OE >AA88. 45-B> 21;878 MB8E <5AB A53>4=O =5A?>:>9=>, A;>2=> ?@8BO38205<K9 <03=8B>< AC4L1K, @KI5B 53> =5?>A54;82K9 0<5@8:0=A:89 42>9=8:. ?@>G5<, 1K;> 1K =5A?@0254;82K< ?@5C25;8G5=85< CB25@640BL, GB> B5?5@5H=OO @0D8=8@>20==0O 20H8=3B>=A:0O 04<8=8AB@0F8O 70=O;0AL 15AA<KA;5==K< ?;0380B>< 020=BN@8AB8G5A:>9 ?>;8B8:8 <0;>>1@07>20==KE 2>6459 "@5BL53> @59E0.  >B;8G85 >B 15AH010H=>3> 8B;5@0, :>B>@K9 E>B5; 2 >48=>G:C ?>:>@8BL 25AL <8@ A8;>9 =5<5F:>3> >@C68O, 0 A>N7=8:>2 8A?>;L7>20; B>;L:> 4;O 2B>@>AB5?5==KE F5;59, A53>4=OH=85 0<5@8:0=A:85 DN@5@K ?@8CG8;8AL C3@>60BL 4@C38< AB@0=0< 87-70 A?8=K A2>8E =0B>2A:8E A>N7=8:>2.  B> 2@5<O, :0: 03@5AA82=0O ?>;8B8:0 8B;5@0 >?@545;O;0AL AC3C1> =0F8>=0;L=K< M3>87<>< 8 ?@>2>48;0AL ?>4 ;>7C=3>< 70I8BK ?@02 =5<5F:>3> =0A5;5=8O 2 8=>AB@0==KE 3>AC40@AB20E 8 =5>1E>48<>ABLN @0AH8@5=8O 687=5==>3> ?@>AB@0=AB20 4;O 0@89A:>3> =0@>40, B5?5@5H=OO 0<5@8:0=A:0O 03@5AA82=>ABL ?@5?>4=>A8BAO >1I5AB25==><C <=5=8N :0: 2>;587JO2;5=85 <8@>2>3> A>>1I5AB20 8, 45A:0BL, 48:BC5BAO :>;;5:B82=K<8 8=B5@5A0<8 2A5E "F828;87>20==KE" AB@0=. ">340 :0: 65@B2K D0H8ABA:>9 03@5AA88 >128=O;8AL 2 =5C2065=88 : 4>AB>8=AB2C 25;8:>9 5@<0=88 8 2@06451=>AB8 : =5<5F:>9 =0F88, =5 C3>482H85 ?> :0:8<-B> ?@8G8=0< 0<5@8:0=F0< AB@0=K B@0D0@5B=> >128=ONBAO 2 =5C2065=88 : 2>;5 , =0@CH5=88 ACI5AB2CNI53> <564C=0@>4=>3> ?>@O4:0 8 ?>?@0=88 ?@02 A2>8E A>1AB25==KE 3@0640=. >;55 =0?>@8ABK9 8 ?@O<>;8=59=K9 8B;5@ =5 2845; 4;O A51O =8:0:>3> ?@>:0 2 <564C=0@>4=KE >@30=870F8OE 8 5I5 2 1933 3>4C 2K25; A2>N AB@0=C 87 838 0F89, :>B>@0O <>3;0 5<C ?><5H0BL 2 45;5 ?5@52>>@C65=8O AB@0=K 8 =0:;04K20;0 >3@0=8G5=8O =0 53> 03@5AA82=K5 =0G8=0=8O. "@CA;82K9 0H8=3B>=, E>BO B>65 >B=>A8BAO A B0:8< 65 ?@57@5=85< : <564C=0@>4=><C ?@02C, :0: 8 53> =5<5F:89 ?@54B5G0 B5< =5 <5=55, ?>:0 ?@54?>G8B05B 1@OF0BL >@C685< 87-70 H8@>:>9 A?8=K . C 0 ?>:0, 1;C640O ?> AB@0B538G5A:8< =0?@02;5=8O<, =5:>340 ?@>B>?B0==K< 38B;5@>2A:8< 020=BN@87<><, 0<5@8:0=A:0O 2>5=I8=0 A?5H8B 1KAB@55 70?>;=8BL A2>8< 2>5==K< ?@8ACBAB285< 2>5==>-?>;8B8G5A:89 20:CC<, A>7402H89AO 2>:@C3 @>AA89A:>3> 3>AC40@AB20 ?>A;5 @>A?CA:0 0@H02A:>3> 4>3>2>@0 8 @0720;0 !>25BA:>3> !>N70. =0;878@CO 3;02=K5 =0?@02;5=8O 0<5@8:0=A:>9 ?>;8B8:8 ?>A;54=8E ;5B, =52>7<>6=> =5 70<5B8BL, GB> AB@>8B5;8 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0 ?;0=><5@=>, <5B>48G=> 8 F5;5CAB@5<;5==> A>740NB >?@545;5==K5 M:>=><8G5A:85 8 ?>;8B8G5A:85 CA;>28O, 254CI85 : 40;L=59H5<C >A;01;5=8N >AA88, A >G5284=>9 F5;LN 55 ?>A;54CNI53> @0AG;5=5=8O. A;8 1K A53>4=O 2 0H8=3B>=5 =0H5;AO E>BL >48= >B:@>25==K9 3>AC40@AB25==K9 45OB5;L, B>, 157 ?@5C25;8G5=8O, >= <>3 1K ?>2B>@8BL A;>20 8B;5@0, A:070==K5 8< 2A53> 70 =5A:>;L:> 4=59 ?5@54 70:;NG5=85< A>25BA:>-35@<0=A:>3> ?0:B0 > =5=0?045=88. ">340, A5BCO =0 ?>;8B8G5A:89 40;LB>=87< 8 =5?>=OB;82>ABL 3>AC40@AB25==KE ;845@>2 0?040, 8B;5@ A 3>@5GLN A:070;: "54L 2A5, GB> O ?@54?@8=O; 4> MB>3> 2@5<5=8, 1K;> =0?@02;5=> 8A:;NG8B5;L=> ?@>B82 >AA88". #G8BK20O >AB@K5 ?@>1;5<K A53>4=OH=53>, 2> <=>38E G0ABOE ?5@5=0A5;5==>3> 8 G0AB> M:>=><8G5A:8 8AG5@?02H53> A51O <8@0, 1K;> 1K =082=> A?@0H820BL, 70G5< 0H8=3B>= AB@5<8BAO : ?>;=><C >A;01;5=8N =0H59 AB@0=K. )54@> =045;5==0O >3>< ?@8@>4=K<8 1>30BAB20<8 8 A@02=8B5;L=> <0;> 70A5;5==0O, >3@><=0O B5@@8B>@8O >AA88, :0: 38?=>B8G5A:0O, =5C45@68<0O A8;0, ?@8BO38205B =5=0AKB=K5 273;O4K AB@>8B5;59 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0. 0 AG5B =0H59 AB@0=K >=8 =045NBAO @5H8BL <=>385, B5?5@5H=85 8 1C4CI85, ?@>1;5<K A2>59 <8@>2>9 8<?5@88. 5B A><=5=8O, GB> 4;O @5H5=8O <8@>2>9 45<>3@0D8G5A:>9 ?@>1;5<K "<8@>2>5 ?@028B5;LAB2>" @0AAG8BK205B @0AA5;8BL <=>3>G8A;5==>5, :8H0I55, :0: 2 C;L5, =0A5;5=85 =0H8E =5A?>:>9=KE A>A5459 =0 <0;>=0A5;5==K5 75<;8 >AA88. >1@02H8AL 4> @>AA89A:>9 =5DB8, 7>;>B0, 3070, ;5A0 8 2>4K, >=> @0AAG8BK205B ?>43;N:>-78BL 4@OE;5NICN M:>=><8:C @0728BKE AB@0= 8 B5< A0<K< 5I5 =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O 8A:CAAB25==> ?>445@60BL 2KA>:89 687=5==K9 C@>25=L 2 @0728BKE AB@0=0E. >=5G=>, 4;O :0:8E-=81C4L 3>;;0=4F52, 15;L389F52 8;8 87@08;LBO=, 3>;>2K :>B>@KE 1>30BK 2A52>7<>6=K<8 845O<8, => 8E :0@;8:>2K5 >B5G5AB20 A:C4=K =0 ?@8@>4=K5 @5AC@AK, >G5=L 4065 C4>1=> 2A:>G8BL =0 ?>4=>6:C =5ACI53>AO ?> ?@>AB>@0< >B:@KB>3> 8 A2>1>4=>3> @K=:0 0<5@8:0=A:>3> ?>5740 AB@>8B5;59 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0, GB>1K =0 =5< 709F5< 4><G0BLAO : GC6>9 =5DB8, ;5A0< 8 2>45. >=OB=>, GB> 703@0=8F0 2 =0:;045 =5 >AB0=5BAO.  >1<5= =0 40@K I54@>9 @CAA:>9 75<;8 <K ?>;CG8< <0AAC =87:>?@>1=>9 3>;;82C4A:>9 ?>@=>3@0D88, 1@0:>20==>5 E8<8G5A:>5 10@0E;>, ?>45@60==K5 02B><0H8=K, ?@>A@>G5==K5 <OA=K5 :>=A5@2K, 4>@>385 B01;5B:8 >B 3>;>2=>9 1>;8, 15A?;0B=K9 ! 8 F5;K9 :>=B59=5@ 8=>3> 4>1@0 A><=8B5;L=>3> :0G5AB20. 53:> 8 >4=>7=0G=> @5H82 ?5@2K9 2>?@>A: 70G5< 8< =C6=0 A;015=L:0O, @07<>=B8@>20==0O >AA8O, AB@>8B5;8 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0 @07>H;8AL =5<=>3> 2> <=5=8OE, :0:8< A?>A>1>< 1K;> 1K ?@>I5 2A53> =0;>68BL A2>N ;0?C =0 @>AA89A:>5 4>AB>O=85. B>@>9 8 ?>A;54=89 2>?@>A 4>AB02;O5B <8@>2><C C<AB25==><C B@5ABC 7=0G8B5;L=> 1>;LH5 E;>?>B 8 ?@>1;5<. $0:B8G5A:8, : MB><C A2>4OBAO 2A5 @07=>3;0A8O <564C 0<5@8:0=A:8<8 AB>@>==8:0<8 8 ?@>B82=8:0<8 @0AH8@5=8O ". @>B82=8:8 >?0A0NBAO, GB> =0E0;L=> 2K7K20NI55 @0AH8@5=85 " <>65B ?@56452@5<5==> A?C3=CBL >AA8N 8 4065 ?@825AB8 : 15AA<KA;5==>9 O45@=>9 2>9=5. >MB><C >=8, ?@54?>G8B0O ;CGH5 8<5BL A8=8FC 2 @C:5, G5< 6C@02;O 2 =515, A>25BCNB =5B5@?5;82><C 0H8=3B>=C 157 =C64K =5 ?@>2>F8@>20BL >A:2C, => ?CB5< 3@0<>B=>3> 8 B5@?5;82>3> ?@8@CG5=8O @>AA89A:>9 2;0AB2CNI59 :0ABK ?>AB5?5==> 0AA8<8;8@>20BL >AA8N 2 0<5@8:0=A:CN <8@>2CN 8<?5@8N.  B> 65 2@5<O AB>@>==8:8 @0AH8@5=8O " AG8B0NB, GB> 2 A;>682H8EAO CA;>28OE 3>@074> 1>;LH5 >ICB8<>9 ?>;L7K <>65B ?@8=5AB8 ?>;8B8G5A:>5 2K<>30B5;LAB2> 8 2>5==>5 402;5=85 =0 =5?>A;54>20B5;L=CN 8 =5@5H8B5;L=CN >A:2C. =8 >?0A0NBAO, GB> 5A;8 B5?5@5H=89 C4>1=K9 <><5=B 1C45B C?CI5=, 8 >=8 =5 CA?5NB =0BO=CBL =0 >AA8N @578=>2CN @C10H:C <564C=0@>4=>9 87>;OF88, B> 2 1C4CI5< =>2>5, 1>;55 =0F8>=0;8AB8G5A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> 2 @5<;5 <>65B ?><5H0BL 8< 15A?@5?OBAB25==> 70?>;=8BL ACI5AB2CNI89 ?>;8B8G5A:89 20:CC< 2>:@C3 =0H59 AB@0=K. >MB><C, 459AB2CO ?> ?@8=F8?C, :B> =5 @8A:C5B, B>B =5 ?L5B H0<?0=A:>5, >=8 @5H8;8, GB> 83@0 AB>8B A25G. 'B>1K ?@>25@8BL =5@2=CN 2K45@6:C 8 7@5;>ABL @>AA89A:>3> ?@02OI53> @568<0, 42C;8:89 0H8=3B>= <5B>48G5A:8 4@07=8B 53> ?@>2>:0F8>==K<8 2>5==>-?>;8B8G5A:8<8 459AB28O<8, 3;02=K<8 87 :>B>@KE O2;O5BAO @0AH8@5=85 ", 8=B5@25=F8O =0 0;:0=0E 8 ?@>8A:8 2 @8:0A?88. !:07:8 0A?89A:>3> <>@O #AB0=>282 A2>Q 3>A?>4AB2> =0 0;:0=0E 8 @0A?>;>682 =0B>2A:89 ;035@L C A0<KE AB5= >AA88, 0<5@8:0=A:85 AB@0B538 =0G0;8 ?>43>B02;820BL A2>9 A;54CI89 E>4 22 @8A:>20==>9 35>?>;8B8G5A:>9 83@5, =0 MB>B @07 2 40;Q:>9 !@54=59 788 8 =5A?>:>9=>< 0:02:07L5. !N40 8E 70<0=8;8 =5 AC@>2K5 :@0A>BK 02:07A:8E 3>@ 8 =5 AB@>9=K5 D>@<K 4@52=8E 1CE0@A:8E <8=0@5B>2, 8 4065 =5 M:7>B8G5A:0O 0B<>AD5@0 <5AB=KE 1070@>2, => >3@><=59H85, 2 =5:>B>@KE <5AB0E 2>>1I5 5I5 =5 B@>=CBK5 70;568 =5DB8 8 3070. 0720; !>25BA:>3> !>N70 ?@8H5;AO :0: @07 2 ?>4E>4OI89 <><5=B 4;O =LN-9>@:A:>9 D8=0=A>2>9 1@0B88. ;03>40@O 4>;3>;5B=5<C E8I=8G5A:><C ?>B@51;5=8N 70?04=K<8 :>@?>@0F8O<8 45H52>3> M=5@35B8G5A:>3> AK@LO A ;86=53> >AB>:0, =5:>340 1>30BK5 70?0AK =5DB8 8 3070 2 MB>< @538>=5 =0G0;8 1KAB@> 8AB>I0BLAO. >MB><C, :0: B>;L:> <CAC;L<0=A:>5 ?>41@NHL5 !!!  @074@>18;>AL =0 =57028A8<K5 8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=K5 3>AC40@AB20, 0H8=3B>= 157 ?@><54;5=8O ?@>2>73;0A8; AK?CG85 ?5A:8 @8:0A-?8O >G5@54=>9 7>=>9 A2>8E 687=5==> 206=KE 8=B5@5A>2. >, :0: 8725AB=> :064><C, E8B@K9 >AB>: B@51C5B A2>53> >A>1>3> ?>4E>40. @82K:=C2 2 ?>A;54=55 2@5<O : >B=>A8B5;L=> ;53:8< ?>1540< =04 A2>8<8 ?@>B82=8:0<8, 0<5@8:0=FK @0AAG8BK20;8 1KAB@> 8 157 HC<0 2KB>;:0BL >1=8I0;CN >AA8N B0:65 87 !@54=59 788. 0:>2> 65 1K;> 8E C482;5=85, :>340 <>;>4>9 @>AA89A:89 :0?8B0;, E>BO =5 1>30BK9 45=L30<8, => >1;040NI89 =5 <5=LH8<, G5< 0<5@8:0=A:89, ABO60B5;LA:8< 0??5B8B><, =5 70E>B5; 157 1>O CABC?0BL A2>8E ?@8:0A?89A:8E "?0AB18I". !8BC0F8O 4;O 20H8=3B>=A:8E 3@>AA<59AB5@>2 CA;>6=O;0AL B5<, GB> =>2>>1JO2;5==K9 @538>= "687=5==> 206=KE 8=B5@5A>2" =0E>48BAO 70 ":>;NG8< 701>@><" 2@06451=KE 8< <CAC;L<0=A:8E AB@0=, 8 ?>MB><C :064K9 E>4 =>2>9 2>AB>G=>9 ?>;8B8:8 B@51>20; A5@L57=>3> C<AB25==>3> CA8;8O. !;8H:>< <=>3> A;>6=KE 20@80=B>2 83@K, 8 :064K9 87 =8E G@520B 2A52>7<>6=K<8 =5?@8OB=K<8 AN@?@870<8. %>@>H>, E>BL ;>O;L=0O =3;8O A 55 1>;LH8< :>;>=80;L=K< >?KB>< 2 MB>< @538>=5 >:070;0AL ?>4 @C:>9 8 ?>A?5H8;0 =0 ?><>IL "AB0@H5<C 1@0BC". ;O48HL, 8 59 GB>-B> :0?=5B 87 :0A?89A:>3> D>=B0=0 =5DB8. !>2<5AB=K<8 CA8;8O<8 0=3;>-0<5@8:0=A:8E 2>AB>G=KE M:A?5@B>2 1K; @07@01>B0= ?@8<5@=> B0:>9 <=>3>ABC?5=G0BK9 AF5=0@89 CAB0=>2;5=8O 0<5@8:0=A:>3> ?>;8B8G5A:>3> 8 M:>=><8G5A:>3> 3>A?>4AB20 2 @8:0A-?88. 5@2K< 45;><, ?@8:@K20OAL <0A:>9 M:>=><8G5A:>9 ?><>I8 8 D8=0=A>2KE 8=25AB8F89, A;54>20;> D878G5A:8 CAB0=>28BL A2>5 ?@8ACBAB285 2 MB>< @538>=5. -B0 G0ABL ?;0=0 ?@>H;0 157 ACG:0 8 704>@8=:8. 1=8I0;K5 ?@028B5;LAB20 =>2>8A?5G5==KE A0<>AB>OB5;L=KE 3>AC40@AB2 8 ;8H5==K5 A>2@5<5==>9 =5DB54>1K20NI59 B5E=>;>388 <5AB=K5 AK >E>B=> >B:;8:=C;8AL =0 0<5@8:0=A:85 ?@54;>65=8O A>2<5AB=>9 @07@01>B:8 =5DBO=KE 70;5659 8 D8=0=A>2>9 ?><>I8 2 AB@>8B5;LAB25 =5DB5?@>2>4>2 : ?>@B0< '5@=>3> <>@O. >A;5 CAB0=>2;5=8O 0<5@8:0=A:>3> 45;>2>3> ?@8ACBAB28O 2 @538>=5 =0G0;AO 2B>@>9 MB0? 70?;0=8@>20==>9 >?5@0F88 ?> CAB0=>2;5=8N ?>;8B8G5A:>3> :>=B@>;O =04 3>AC40@AB25==K<8 AB@C:BC@0<8 ?@8:0A?89A:8E AB@0= 8 2KB5A=5=8N >BBC40 @>AA89A:>3> ?>;8B8G5A:>3> 8 M:>=><8G5A:>3> 2;8O=8O. ;O MB>3> 1K;8 C?>B@51;5=K 4C@<0=OI85 A@54AB20 :>@@C<?8@>20==>3> @072@0I5=8O <5AB=>9 ?@02OI59 M;8BK.  A2>5<C ?>;=><C C4>2>;LAB28N 0<5@8:0=FK >1=0@C68;8, GB> ?@82K:H85 : 27OB:0< 5I5 A 7>;>BKE 1@56=52A:8E 2@5<5= <5AB=K5 A0B@0?K >:070;8AL ?>=OB;82K<8, =0456=K<8 8 A3>2>@G82K<8 ?0@B=5@0<8. @0240, A=0G0;0 =0 B>;:CG5< @K=:5 27OB>: 2>7=8:;0 ?>@O4>G=0O =5@0715@8E0. !;8H:>< <=>3> >:070;>AL 65;0NI8E, 8 705768< <74>402F0< BO65;> 1K;> @07>1@0BLAO, :><C A;54C5B 4020BL, 0 :>3> A;54C5B ?>?@>ABC 3=0BL 270H59. >48 745AL @0715@8AL, 345 BCB A>;84=K5, ?>-=0AB>OI5<C 2;8OB5;L=K5 6C;8:8, 0 345 ?@>AB> H?0=0 8 6C;L5. C6=> >B40BL 4>;6=>5 70>:50=A:8< 8A:0B5;O< G5@=>3> 7>;>B0, :>B>@K5 >:070;8AL B0:65 =01;N40B5;L=K<8 ?A8E>;>30<8 8 2 A@02=8B5;L=> :>@>B:>5 2@5<O, ?>AB83=C2 D8;>A>D8N A>2@5<5==>3> 2>AB>G=>3> 3>AB5?@88<AB20, =0G0;8 A>20BL "2 ;0?C" B>;L:> 2;8OB5;L=K< 8 7=0G0I8<AO 3>AC40@AB25==K< <C60<. =0G8B5;L=> B@C4=55 1K;> =09B8 25@=K9 ?CBL 2 >:CB0==>< <@0:>< A54KE 25:>2 @5;838>7=><, ?;5<5==>< 8 ?>;8B8G5A:>< ;018@8=B5 @538>=0. >2>>A2>1>645==K5 =0@>4K >AB>:0 @52=82> A;548;8 70 @0740G59 0<5@8:0=A:8E A8<?0B89. >?@>1C9, C3>48 2A5< =0 @07. 45AL =5 B> GB> ?@>=K@;82K5 1@8B0=A:85 :>;>=80;8ABK, => 4065 <C4@K9 %>460 0A@5448= =5 A<>3 1K 40BL B>;:>2>3> 8 >4=>7=0G=>3> A>25B0. B4KH02H8AL 8 >3;O452H8AL =5<=>3> ?> AB>@>=0<, 0<5@8:0=A:85 =5DBO=K5 <8AA8>=5@K @5H8;8 >AB0=>28BL A2>9 2K1>@ =0 AB@0B538G5A:>< #715:8AB0=5 8 =5DB54>9=>< 75@109460=5. 5@54 @0A?04>< !>25BA:>3> !>N70 >AB>@>6=K5 20H8=3B>=A:85 AB@0B538 >?0A0;8AL, GB> 2 !@54=59 788 : 2;0AB8 <>3CB ?@84B8 =54@C65AB25==K5 ?> >B=>H5=8N : <5@8:5 8 7@08;N 8A;0<A:85 DC=40<5=B0;8ABK. 725AB=>, GB> B>;L:> 2 >4=>9 CE0@5, :>B>@0O 2 A2>5 2@5<O 1K;0 2B>@K< ?> 7=0G8<>AB8 3>@>4>< 2 <CAC;L<0=A:>< <8@5, =0AG8BK20;>AL 80 8A;0<A:8E H:>; 8 380 <5G5B59.  AG0ABLN 4;O 0<5@8:0=F52, A>25BA:89 ":>;>=80;87<" 2>7=5A =0@>4K >AB>:0 =0 4>AB0B>G=> 2KA>:89 :C;LBC@=K9 8 >1@07>20B5;L=K9 C@>25=L, GB>1K 8< B5?5@L 70E>B5;>AL 25@=CBLAO 2 B5<=K5 25:0 @5;838>7=>3> 45A?>B87<0. 0: 3;0A 2>?8NI53> 2 ?CABK=5, =0?@0A=> ?> ?OB=8F0< =0?>;=ONB CB@5==NN B8H8=C CE0@K 8 !0<0@:0=40 70C=K2=K5 3>;>A0 8<0<>2, BI5B=> A7K20NI8E 25@=KE <CAC;L<0= : <>;8B25 8 ?>:0O=8N. >;LH8=AB2> ;N459, :0: ?>-AB0@8=:5, ?@54?>G8B0NB 84B8 =0 @01>BC, =0 1070@ 8;8 ?@>AB> =0 ?@>3C;:C. 5 A?5H0B 1>;LH5 =0 ?><>IL >BG0O2H8<AO 8<0<0< @5;838>7=> ?@>1C640BL 70:>AB5=5;K9 =0@>4 8 8E 1K2H85 4@C7LO 87 & #, :>B>@K5 2 70-E 8 80-E 3>40E =5 60;5;8 =8 45=53, =8 B@C4>2, 701@0AK20O #715:8AB0= @5;838>7=>9 ;8B5@0BC@>9 2 =045645 @0AH0B0BL !>25BA:89 !>N7.  A>60;5=8N, 2<5AB5 A >1@07>20=85< 8 A>2@5<5==K< >1@07>< 687=8 @CAA:89 :>;>=80;87< >AB028; 2 =0A;5485 =0@>40< >AB>:0 B0:85 ?;>4K A>25BA:>9 A8AB5<K, :0: M3>87<, 27OB>G=8G5AB2>, G8=>?>:;>=AB2> 8 =5?@>3;O4=K9 1N@>:@0B8G5A:89 ?@>872>;. <5AB> CE0<<540 ;N48 ?@82K:;8 745AL ?>:;>=OBAO :@5AB=K< >BF0< ?0@B89=>9 <0D88. CGH59 :C;LBC@=>-?>;8B8G5A:>9 ?>G2K 4;O 70:;04:8 =0 >AB>:5 DC=40<5=B0 =>2>3> <8@>2>3> ?>@O4:0 70>:50=A:8< 7>4G8< =5G53> 1K;> 8 65;0BL. 7 2A5E @07=>>1@07=KE 8 :>;>@8B=KE AB@0= @8:0A-?8O >A>15==> ?> 2:CAC ?@8H5;AO 70>:50=A:8< AB@0==8:0< 3>AB5?@88<=K9 #715:8AB0=. -B0 3CAB>=0A5;5==0O AB@0=0 A 23 <8;;8>=0<8 =0A5;5=8O 8<55B <=>385 ?@82;5:0B5;L=K5 35>?>;8B8G5A:85 :0G5AB20, :>B>@K5 ?@8H;8AL ?> 2:CAC 20H8=3B>=A:8< ?>;8B8G5A:8< 453CAB0B>@0<. =0 2K3>4=> @0A?>;>65=0 2 A0<>< F5=B@5 !@54=59 788, 8 >BAN40 ;53:> <>6=> 2<5H820BLAO 2 45;0 F5;>9 4N68=K A20@;82KE A>A54=8E 3>AC40@AB2. ;03>?@8OB=K< >:070;AO 4;O 0<5@8:0=F52 8 ?>;8B8G5A:89 :;8<0B 2 #715:8AB0=5, 345 2@06451=K5 0=B8@>AA89A:85 =0AB@>5=8O ?@>O2;ONBAO 3>@074> @5;L5D=59, G5< 2 A>A54=8E AB@0=0E. !;>2=> ?> 27<0EC =52848<>9 48@865@A:>9 ?0;>G:8, 2 3>AB5?@88<=K9 #715:8AB0= 4@C6=> 70B>@>?8;8AL <=>3>G8A;5==K5 70?04=K5 :>@?>@0F88, 3CAB> C:@0A82H85 A2>8<8 O@:> 1;5ABOI8<8 D8@<5==K<8 2K25A:0<8 70?K;5==K5, C=K;K5 8 >4=>>1@07=K5 C;8FK "0H:5=B0, CE0@K 8 !0<0@:0=40. !@548 2A5E A>2@5<5==KE 25;8:8E ;8G=>AB59 >AB>:0 >A>1>9 ;N1>2LN 8 ?>G5B>< C 40;5:>3> 0H8=3B>=0 ?>;L7C5BAO "=5?>B>?;O5<K9" A;0< 0@8<>2, 1K2H89 AB>9:89 ;5=8=5F 8 4>;3>;5B=89 ?5@2K9 A5:@5B0@L #7, 0 B5?5@5H=89 ?@57845=B 8A;0<A:>-45<>:@0B8G5A:>3> #715:8AB0=0. 025@=>5, ?@8OB=K< M?87>4>< 2 2>A?><8=0=8OE 0@8<>20 =02A5340 >AB0=5BAO 53> 2878B 2 !(, :>B>@K9 >= ?@54?@8=O; 2 1996 3>4C. >A;5 <=>38E 3>@OG8E 2AB@5G 8 ;5AB=KE A;>2 2 @07=KE 3>@>40E 4@C65AB25==>9 <5@8:8 >= A ?><?57=K< ?>G5B>< 1K; ?@8=OB 2 F570@A:>-25;8G5AB25==>< 5;>< 4><5, 345 53> 2>AE20;O;8 :0: <C4@>3> 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 45OB5;O 8 =07K20;8 30@0=B>< A2>1>4K 8 45<>:@0B88. =B5@5A=>, ?>G5<C 8<5==> B5?5@L 2 0H8=3B>=5 =0:>=5F 70<5B8;8 8 >F5=8;8 ;8G=K5 8 3>AC40@AB25==K5 :0G5AB20 3>A?>48=0 0@8<>20 8 53> ?@8AB@0AB85 : ?@8=F8?0< A2>1>4K 8 45<>:@0B88? >65B, 2KG8B0;8 >=8 MBC 8=D>@<0F8N 87 <=>3>G8A;5==KE ?;0:0B>2 8 0D8H, :>B>@K5 ?>2A5<5AB=> C:@0H0NB >1;C?;5==K5 E@CI52:8 2 :064>< C715:A:>< 3>@>48H:5? 065 1571>6=0O 65=0 0<5@8:0=A:>3> ?@57845=B0, @LO=0O D5<8=8AB:0 %8;0@8 ;8=B>= =0=5A;0 2KA>:89 2878B 2 AB@0=C 15;KE E;>?:>2KE ?>;59 8 4@52=8E H5;:>2KE ?CB59, GB>1K >:070BL 7=0:8 3;C1>:>3> 0<5@8:0=A:>3> @0A?>;>65=8O C715:A:><C "?0?5", :0: 0@8<>20 ;N1>2=> =07K20NB 2 C715:A:>< =0@>45.  4>:070B5;LAB2> A2>59 ?>A;CH=>AB8 =>2K< 70>:50=A:8< E>7O520< C715:A:>5 ?@028B5;LAB2> >B:070;>AL ?>4?8A0BL A >AA859 =>2K5 2708<>2K3>4=K5 ?>H;8==K5 A>3;0H5=8O 8 B5?5@L A ?><>ILN B5E 65 0<5@8:0=F52 ?@>B0?BK205B =>2K5 B>@3>2K5 ?CB8 4;O M:A?>@B0 A2>53> E;>?:0 G5@57 D30=8AB0= 8 0:8AB0=. > ?@8=OB><C =0 CA8 >1KG0N =0< >AB0;>AL B>;L:> ?>65;0BL 8< 4>1@>3> ?CB8. > =0CI5=8N 20H8=3B>=A:8E "468-=>2" C715:8 ?5@5:@K;8 A2>N 3@0=8FC A "0468:8AB0=><, 2 :>B>@>< 5I5 =0E>48BAO 20 BKAOG @>AA89A:8E A>;40B.  MB> =5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> @>AA89A:85 G0AB8 2 "0468:8AB0=5 ?KB0NBAO >AB0=>28BL 8A;0<A:8E DC=40-<5=B0;8AB>2 "0;810=0, :>B>@K5 AB@5<OBAO 45AB018;878@>20BL 25AL A@54=50780BA:89 @538>=. "5< 1>;55, GB> 2 D30=8AB0=5 B0;810=A:85 <@0:>15AK ?@8 0<5@8:0=A:>9 D8=0=A>2>9 8 2>5==>9 ?><>I8 254CB =5?@8<5=8<CN 2>9=C ?@>B82 <5AB=KE C715:A:8E ?;5<5=. >701K2 > A2>59 A0<>720==>9 @>;8 "=>A8B5;59 2KA>:8E 3C<0=8AB8G5A:8E" F5==>AB59, 0<5@8:0=A:85 <>@0;8ABK A2O70;8AL A> A@54=525:>2K<8 @5;838>7=K<8 D0=0B8:0<8 87 "0;810=0 8 A 8E ?><>ILN ?@>1CNB ?@52@0B8BL !@54=NN 78N 2 8AB>G=8: ?>AB>O==>9 =5AB018;L=>AB8 =0 N6=KE @C1560E >AA88. "5< 2@5<5=5< C715:A:85 ?@54AB028B5;8 2 , 2 ;CGH8E B@048F8OE 2>AB>G=>3> @01>;5?AB20, =5 C?CAB8;8 =8 >4=>3> A;CG0O, GB>1K =5 ?@>3>;>A>20BL 70 2A5 0<5@8:0=A:85 ?@54;>65=8O, :>B>@K5 G0AB> 1K;8 =0m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