ࡱ> FH'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEU@Cbjbj4t| %2:-:-:-8r- ~3<2:&?"@@@@:H@\@ $8RHmO\@@O\O\@@<O\^N@@O\Ow@: 0Am%:-!GR0_0w22wMh@LG6L,Q9 h@h@h@22Dv&]^22v&=830 . . '5@2>=A:>9 @8282:8: <8DK 8 @50;L=>ABL =0E>48BAO ?> 04@5A0<:  HYPERLINK "http://www.magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki.html" http://www.magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki.html http://www.homeopatica.ru/library.shtml?1_description.shtml =830 2K?CA:05BAO 2 A5BL ?>MB0?=>, ?>MB><C 2 40==>9 @0A?5G0B:5 ?@54AB02;5=K B>;L:> 3;02K, @07<5I5==K5 2 =B5@=5B5. !;548B5 70 ?>O2;5=85< =>2KE 3;02! 0 MB8E A09B0E 5I5 =5 ?><5AB8;8 3;02C 50:F8O 0=BC  ;>6=>?>;>68B5;L=0O 4803=>AB8:0. =0 =0E>48BAO ?> 04@5AC: http://home.onego.ru/~agfa/vakcina.html 0;8=0 5B@>2=0 '5@2>=A:0O  : $+  ,!", !   HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/chervonskaya.html"  " ____________________________________________________________________4  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_p.html"  ! " ________________________________________________________5  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_i1.html"   I -   &.  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_i1.html" I. 1. @548A;>285 : # " # $" $&+% "______________________________________________________________________8  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_i2.html" I. 2.  ) #'+%   "# $__________________________________10  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/law_17_06_1998.html"  >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 " # $" $&+% "_____________________________________________________________________13  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_i3.html" I. 3. &/ - =0C:0 > ;5:0@AB25==KE ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8E 18>?@5?0@0B0E - 20:F8=0E___________________________________________________________________________18  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_i4.html" I. 4. !" &+ !"  & $": @50;L=>ABL 8 <8DK________22  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/graf1.html" @0D8: 701>;5205<>AB8 BC15@:C;57>< 45B59____________________________________34  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_i5.html" I. 5. !" -"'!/ !    %  _________35  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_il.html" " "#  : # I_____________________________________________________39  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_ii1.html"   II -% " !" &  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_ii1.html" II. 1. !" &_______________________________________________43  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_ii2.html" II. 2.  !!" %'!% )!", %/)%  !!" &_49  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_ii3.html" >:;04=0O 70?8A:0______________________________________________________________61  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/tab_ii2.html"   : # II "& II. 2. K?8A:0 87 ?@>B>:>;0 8A?KB0=8O B>:A8G=>AB8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE A5@89 :>:;NH=KE 20:F8=___________________________________65  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/tab_ii3.html" "& II. 3. !@02=8B5;L=0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 GC2AB28B5;L=>AB8 :C;LBC@ :;5B>: G5;>25:0: ?5@28G=KE ;8<D>F8B>2 8 ' : B>:A8G5A:><C 459AB28N <5@B8>;OB0 8 !-20:F8=K___________________________66  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/pr_ii1.html"   II. 1. 1>A=>20=85 > =5F5;5A>>1@07=>AB8 >4=>2@5<5==>3> ?@>2545=8O 42CE ?5@2KE ?@8282>: 682>9 ?>;8><85;8B=>9 20:F8=>9 !-20:F8=>9______________67  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/pr_ii2.html"   II. 2. K?8A:0 87 ?@>B>:>;0 70A540=8O "" & 8 !+ " >B 9 D52@0;O 1983 3>40_________________________________________68   . II. 2. B25BK A?5F80;8AB>2, @01>B0NI8E 2 >1;0AB8 873>B>2;5=8O 8 :>=B@>;O !-20:F8=K, =0 2>?@>A: A :0:>9 F5;LN 22>48BAO <5@B8>;OB 2 MBC 20:F8=C 8 ?@>G85 5Q <>48D8:0F88?________________________________________________________69  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/pr_ii3.html"   II. 3. 1 8A?>;L7>20=88 <5@B8>;OB0 2 :0G5AB25 :>=A5@20=B0 4;O !_70  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/pr_ii4.html"   II. 4. 0?@5I5=85 ?@>872>4AB20 <5@B8>;OB0 2 2@>?5________________71  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/pr_ii5.html"   II. 5__________________________________________________________72 " "#  : # II  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_iii1_1.html"   III -  ",  '+% (   # $"  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_iii1_1.html" III.1.  "/   . &__________________________73  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_iii1_2.html"  "/   . &, !____________________________74  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_iii1_3.html"  "/   . &: ?@>B82 ?>;8><85;8B0, 35?0B8B0__81  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_iii1_4.html"  "/   . &: 35<>D8;L=>9, ?@>B82 48DB5@88, >1I85__________________________________________________________________________83  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_iii2.html" III. 2. !. +% &!%  " ?@8 65;0=88 @>48B5;59 20:F8=8@>20BL 45B59 A @07;8G=K<8 E@>=8G5A:8<8 701>;520=8O<8__________86  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_iii3.html" III. . !" - 30@0=B8O <8=8<0;L=>9 157>?0A=>AB8 8 <0:A8<0;L=>9 MDD5:B82=>AB8 20:F8=____________________________________________________________________90  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_iii3_1.html" III. 3. 1. @>B82>?>:070=8O : 20:F8=0F88 - 8<<C=>45D8F8BK__________________________92 III. 3. 2. 5@28G=K5 - 2@>64Q==K5 8<<C=>45D8F8BK_________________________________93  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/tab_iii_1.html" "& III.1.5@28G=K5 8<<C=>45D8F8BK______________________________________94  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_iii3_3.html" III. 3. 3. B>@8G=K5 - ?@8>1@5BQ==K5 8<<C=>45D8F8BK_______________________________96  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_iii3_4.html" III. 3. 4.  "  ' # !""#! '_______________99  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_iii3_5.html" III. 3. 5. %0@0:B5@8AB8:0 ##  ""_____________________100  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/tab_iii_2.html" "& III.2.  "  ' !/ # !""#! '_____________________________________________________________________102  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_iii3_6.html" III. 3. 6.  " "   !"  #""________103  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/tab_iii_3.html" "& III. 3. ! "$", ?>4B25@640NI89 =0;8G85 70I8BK >B 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59_______________________________________________________________________105  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_iii4.html"  REF _Ref97115119 \h  \* MERGEFORMAT III.4. #!% &,  / & -  !%'!   "& &!% "____________________________106  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/tab_iii_4.html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http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/pr_iv0.html" 1V. 4. !"  ",!" $_________________________________116  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_iv1.html" IV. 4. 1.  ', !"&,+% !______________________117  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_iv4_2.html" IV. 4. 2.   / +"+ !# !"+%  +% !  !/'+% +% !&      # % !"&,+% !______________________117  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/pr_iv1.html"   IV____________________________________________________________119 " "#  : # IV  V - -"  & V. 1. )  !"/  -" V. 2. -" <548F8=A:>3> M:A?5@8<5=B0 ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 682>B=KE -  "/ ,( !!" & V. . ," "+ '!  2 <548F8=A:>< M:A?5@8<5=B5 V. 4. &! !!/  ' 8 ?@020 4>1@>2>;LF0 2 M:A?5@8<5=B5  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/post_12.html"   : # V  !" ;02=>3> 3>AC40@AB25==>3> A0=8B0@=>3> 2@0G0 ?> 3. >A:25________________________________________________________121 " "#  : # V  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_z1.html" !" .'/: !, !&!"________________________122 8AL<> >=:>8<<C=>;>30_______________________________________________________122  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_z2.html" 8AL<> DB8780B@0_____________________________________________________________125  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_z5.html" 7 :;8=8G5A:8E =01;N45=89 0:CH5@>2-38=5:>;>3>2________________________________128  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_z4.html"  >48B5;O< XXI 25:0...__________________________________________________________131  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_z3.html" A5 =0A5;5=85 =0H59 AB@0=K - 2 4;8B5;L=>< E@>=8G5A:>< M:A?5@8<5=B5_______________132  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_z6.html" $" + ! !0 - ?>A;54AB28O "25;8G09H53> <548F8=A:>3> >B:@KB8O"______137  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/privivki_z7.html" ! " ________________________________________________140   : .'.  "  0;8=0 5B@>2=0 '5@2>=A:0O - 28@CA>;>3 A <=>3>;5B=8< AB065<. 0G0;0 A2>N =0CG=>-?@0:B8G5A:CN 45OB5;L=>ABL 5I5 1C4CG8 ABC45=B:>9 2 ;01>@0B>@88 >A>1> >?0A=KE 8=D5:F89, ?5@58<5=>20==CN 2 !""#"  #'. "  !!! , B5?5@L - !""#" "   #!+% -&$" (-)  8<. :045<8:0 .. 'C<0:>20 - A>740B5;O MB>3> 8=AB8BCB0. 45AL, >A2>82 <5B>4K ":C;LBC@=>9 28@CA>;>388", ?@8=8<0;0 =5?>A@54AB25==>5 CG0AB85 2 873>B>2;5=88 ?5@2KE A5@89 >B5G5AB25==>3> 20@80=B0 20:F8=K ?@>B82 28@CA>2 ?>;8><85;8B0 (?> ?5@28G=>9 B5E=>;>388 4-@0 !5918=0), 0 B0:65 2 @07@01>B:5 2> 2=54@5=88 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 C=8:0;L=>9 18>;>38G5A:>9 <>45;8 - #,"# + ". >765 0;8=0 5B@>2=0 70I8B8;0 48AA5@B0F8N ?> ?@>1;5<0< E@>=8G5A:8E 28@CA=KE 8=D5:F89 2 !""#" -    (-) 8<. :048<8:0 .$.0<0;58  !!! . 0B5< 12 ;5B ?@>@01>B0;0 2 >A AB0=40@B870F88 8 :>=B@>;O (!5) <548F8=A:8E 18>;>38G5A:8E ?@5?0@0B>2 8<. .."0@0A528G0 8=74@020 !!! , 345 45;0;0 2A5 2>7<>6=>5 4;O A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O 157=0456=> CAB0@52H8E <5B>4>2 >F5=:8 157>?0A=>AB8 20:F8=, 8A?>;L7C5<KE <0AA>2> 2 45BA:>9 ?@0:B8:5 74@02>>E@0=5=8O. 0;8=0 5B@>2=0 - 02B>@ 1>;55 70-8 =0CG=KE AB0B59, =5A:>;L:8E <5B>48G5A:8E @07@01>B>:, CB25@645==KE 8=74@02>< !!!  8 $545@0;L=K< F5=B@>< >AA0=M?84=047>@0 8=74@020 >AA88 (1982,1991,1999). 5B>48G5A:85 8=AB@C:F88 ?>A2OI5=K 8A?>;L7>20=8N #,"# + " 2 :0G5AB25 0;LB5@=0B82=>9 18>;>38G5A:>9 <>45;8, 70<5=ONI59 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE 682>B=KE, ?><>30NI59 ?>;CG0BL 1>;55 4>AB>25@=K5 A2545=8O > 157>?0A=>AB8 ;5:0@AB25==KE ?@5?0@0B>2, A@548 =8E - 20:F8=, 0 B0:65 ?8I5?@>4C:B>2, :>A<5B8G5A:8E A@54AB2, 8745;89 <548F8=A:>3> 7=0G5=8O 8 4@. '5@2>=A:0O O2;O5BAO >A=>2=K< 8A?>;=8B5;5< 42CE 87>1@5B5=89 (1984, 1986) 8 A>02B>@>< B@5E <>=>3@0D89: & $"    ' (1994),   -"# (1998), -": ?@8=F8?K, ?@028;0, ?@>1;5<K (1998). 0;8=0 5B@>2=0 ?@8=8<0;0 CG0AB85 2 @07@01>B:5 70:>=>2 > 74@02>>E@0=5=88 $ - "A=>2K 70:>=>40B5;LAB20 >1 >E@0=5 74>@>2LO 3@0640=" (1993), " ;5:0@AB25==KE A@54AB20E" (1998), => 3;02=K9 55 B@C4 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8 - 70:>=  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/law_17_06_1998.html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iatros - 2@0G, genes - ?>@>6405<K9) - ?>2@5645=8O, ?>@>6405<K5 2@0G0<8 (9-11). 0:F8=>;>38O - <5648AF8?;8=0@=0O >1;0ABL 7=0=89, MB>: - 8<<C=>;>38O A 8<<C=>4803=>AB8:>9 8 8<<C=>?0B>;>3859, >BAN40 ?@>B82>?>:070=8O : 22545=8N 20:F8=; - 35=5B8:0 8 8<<C=>35=5B8:0; - <8:@>18>;>38O - 28@CA>;>38O 8 10:B5@8>;>38O A A>2@5<5==K<8 8<<C=>;>38G5A:8<8 0A?5:B0<8 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 - ?5480B@8O 8 =5>=0B>;>38O; - ?0B>D878>;>38O 8 F8B>?0B>;>38O; - >=:>;>38O , 0 A59G0A 5I5 1>;55 AB@0H=>5 2 45BA:>9 >=:>;>388 - ;59:>7; - D5@<5=B>?0B88; - 18>@8B<K - E@>=>18>;>38O 8 E@>=><548F8=0; - 87<5=5=85 :;8<0B8G5A:8E CA;>289, M:>;>388 27@>A;>3> G5;>25:0; - <548F8=A:0O ?A8E>;>38O; - 18>MB8:0 :0: >A=>20 ?@02>2KE 8 70:>=>40B5;L=KE >B=>H5=89 <564C 3@0640=8=><-?0F85=B>< 8 >@30=0<8 74@02>>E@0=5=8O, 8 @O4 4@C38E 48AF8?;8=. @0G, ?@8G0AB=K9 : MB>9 8<<C=>18>;>38G5A:>9 >?5@0F88, 4>;65= 1KBL >A254><;5= > =>259H8E 4>AB865=8OE 2 A<56=KE 2KH5?5@5G8A;5==KE 48AF8?;8=0E, > =>2KE <5B>40E 4803=>AB8:8, 2 40==>< A;CG05 ?@5645 2A53> - 8<<C=>4803=>AB8:8 (12, 13), 4>;65= >1;040BL 8=BC8F859 8 2845=85< <=>3>G8A;5==KE 18>;>38G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2, ?@>8AE>4OI8E ?>4 2;8O=85< GC65@>4=>3> 15;:0-20:F8=K, 0D878>;>38G=> 8 =0A8;LAB25==> ?>ABC?0NI59 2 >@30=87< @515=:0, :0: ?@028;>, ?>A@54AB2>< C:>;0.  ' /+ ",: - 74>@>2 ;8 @515=>: 8 =5 8<55B ;8 ?@>B82>?>:070=89, :>B>@K5 <>3CB 8 =5 C:;04K20BLAO 2 ?5@5G5=L ACI5AB2CNI8E, 0 3;02=>5 - 65;0=85 @>48B5;59 70I8B8BL ?>4>1=K< >1@07>< A2>53> @515=:0 >B 8=D5:F8>==>9 1>;57=8; - > 2>7<>6=>9 @50:F88 @515=:0 =0 C:>;, ?>A:>;L:C C:>; 2>2A5 =5 8=48DD5@5=B=0O ?@>F54C@0 4;O ?A8E8:8 =>@<0;L=>3> @515=:0; - A>2@5<5==K5 <5B>4K 4803=>AB8:8; - > 2>7<>6=KE ?>AB20:F8=0;L=L3E >A;>6=5=8OE, 2 B>< G8A;5 =0 A>AB02 20:F8=K, 2 :>B>@>9 <>3CB 1KBL E8<8G5A:85 25I5AB20; - A;54>20B5;L=>, >1O70B5;L=> 7=0BL A>AB02 20:F8=; - 1KBL 8=D>@<8@>20==K< > ?@58<CI5AB20E 8 =54>AB0B:0E 22545=8O 27@>A;>9 4>7K 20:F8=K 45BO<, : A;>2C 3>2>@O, "2> 2A5< <8@5", :0: ?@>4>;60NB >?@024K20BLAO 20:F8=0B>@K ?@8 <0AA>2KE >E20B0E, 4;O >?@545;5==>3> 45BA:>3> 2>7@0AB0 ?@8<5=ONB A>>B25BAB2CNI85 4>7K 20:F8=, 8<5=C5<K5 ?5480B@8G5A:8<8. # =0A >BACBAB2C5B ?>4>1=0O ?@0:B8:0. 5>1E>48<> 8A?>;L7>20BL MB> ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:>5 A@54AB2> B0:, :0: 2 A2>5 2@5<O @5:><5=4>20; A0< -4. 65==5@ - >A=>2>?>;>6=8: 20:F8=0F88: "@0G >1O70= 7=0BL > 20:F8=5 2A5... ?@>A;56820BL ?@>F5AA ?@82820=8O"... #2K!  A>60;5=8N, ?@8E>48BAO :>=AB0B8@>20BL D0:BK :@09=5 15A?5G=>3> >B=>H5=8O : ?@8282:0< 8 A>AB02C 20:F8= >B5G5AB25==KE 2@0G59, "C;CGH0NI8E" ?@8@>4C G5;>25:0 C65 A =>2>@>645==>AB8. !0<0 65 ?@8@>40 A;8H:>< <C4@0, M:>=><8G=0, 2848<>, 70 AG5B MB>3> ?>:0 8 2K68205<... 725AB=K9 >B5G5AB25==K9 18>;>3, 0:045<8: ... >;O=A:89 =0?><8=05B: "548F8=0 - MB> 18>;>38O, >1@0I5==0O 2 ?@0:B8:C. @0G, 2>>@C6Q==K9 4> 7C1>2 A>2@5<5==>9 B5E=8:>9, =5 4>;65= 701K20BL A2>59 :;0AA8G5A:>9 35=50;>388 - 18>;>30, 5AB5AB2>8A?KB0B5;O H8@>:>3> :@C3>7>@0 8 M@C48F88, C<5NI53> A>548=OBL G0AB=>5 8 >1I55, 2;045NI53> 1;87:8<8 =0C:0<8, 8E >1I8<8 70:>=><5@=>ABO<8. '5;>25:, =5 7=0NI89 18>;>388, =5 <>65B 1KBL E>@>H8< A?5F80;8AB>< 2 <548F8=5..." (14). 0: BCB =5 2A?><=8BL > =0H5< A>>B5G5AB25==8:5 - 18>;>35 7>>;>35 - . . 5G=8:>25, ?>;>682H5< =0G0;> :;5B>G=>9 8<<C=>;>388, C4>AB>5==>< 70 MB> >15;52A:>9 ?@5<88 2 >1;0AB8 <548F8=K! !./. >;5F:89 :>=AB0B8@C5B: "A53> 100 ;5B =0704... ?5480B@K 1K;8 "M;8B>9" 2@0G51=>9 :>@?>@0F88.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O H8@>:> >1@07>20==K9 ?5480B@ AB0; 2AB@5G0BLAO @565..." (15). 1 MB>< 65, => =5A:>;L:> 2 4@C3>9 D>@<5, ?>AB>O==> 3>@520; 8725AB=K9 A>25BA:89 35=5B8: .. 052 (16)... 8 =5 B>;L:> >=. N10O =0C:0 >A=>2K205BAO =0 ;>38:5. 548F8=A:0O ;>38:0 4>;6=0 >A=>2K20BLAO =0 >1I518>;>38G5A:8E 70:>=0E ?@8@>4K G5;>25:0 (14-17). 5;L7O >B<5=OBL MB8 70:>=K ?@8 <0AA>2>< <548F8=A:>< 2<5H0B5;LAB25, CA<0B@820O 2 B0:>9 "?><>I8" 8A:;NG8B5;L=CN "?>;L7C", 40 5I5 8 "4;O 2A5E ?>4@O4", :0: AG8B0NB =5:>B>@K5 20:F8=0B>@K(18, 19). ! B>G:8 7@5=8O >1I59 18>;>388 G5;>25:0 ?>AB>O==0O 4>?>;=8B5;L=0O =03@C7:0 =0 8<<C==CN A8AB5<C 70AB02;O5B 5Q @01>B0BL A25@E =>@<K - 2 @568<5, =5 A2>9AB25==>< >@30=87<C :>=:@5B=>3> @51Q=:0, GB> 2545B : 38?5@B@>D88 :;5B>: =5 B>;L:> 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K, @0==5<C 8E 87=0H820=8N 8 ?@56452@5<5==><C AB0@5=8N. 5=5B8G5A:8 >1CA;>2;5=>, GB> :064K9 @>482H89AO @515=>: 8<55B A2>8 -8=48284C0;L=K5 2>7<>6=>AB8 040?B0F88, :>B>@K5 4>?CAB8<> 8A:CAAB25==> <5=OBL 2 >?@545;5==KE ?@545;0E 4;O 5B@>20, => =5 4;O 20=>20 8;8 !84>@>20 (20-25). 5@8>4 040?B0F88 ?>A;5 CB@>1K <0B5@8 C :064>3> @515=:0 A2>9 - 8 MB> 5IQ >4=0 ?@>1;5<0 2 20:F8=>;>388, :>B>@0O A>25@H5==> =5 CG8BK205BAO ?@8 20:F8=0F88 & 2 @>44><0E. =B@>?>35==K5 2>7459AB28O, A>740205<K5 A0<8< G5;>25:><, 8 157 B>3> CA;>6=8;8 53> 040?B0F8>==K5 @5AC@AK. 0 MB>< D>=5 ?>AB>O==0O 8A:CAAB25==0O ?><>IL - <=>3>:@0B=>5 2<5H0B5;LAB2> 2 8=48284C0;L=K5 A?>A>1=>AB8 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K 70AB02;ONB >@30=87< ?5@5AB@0820BLAO, ?@8A?>A01;820BLAO, 040?B8@COAL : 4>?>;=8B5;L=>9 =03@C7:5, ?5@5@010BK20O 5Q 2A5<8 8<5NI8<8AO 70I8B=K<8 A@54AB20<8.  B0:>9 ?@>F5AA ?@>4>;605BAO A @>645=8O 4> N=>H5A:>3> 2>7@0AB0. @8 MB>< 87<5=5=8O =5 <>3CB ?@>8AE>48BL ">48=0:>2> E>@>H>" 8;8 ">48=0:>2> ?;>E>" C "2A5E ?>4@O4", B.:. 2 ;N1>< A;CG05 B0:>5 2<5H0B5;LAB2> =0@CH05B 3><5>AB07, ?@82>48B : "70<5H0B5;LAB2C" DC=:F89 2A5E :;5B>: >@30=87<0. 1I58725AB=>, GB> ""-+" - @074@060NI85 D0:B>@K 4;O 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K. !>1AB25==>, 70 AGQB MB>3> @074@065=8O 8 ?@>8AE>48B AB8<C;OF8O @01>BK :;5B>: 8, 2 >4=>< A;CG05 - : 70I8B5 >B 8=D5:F8>==>3> 035=B0, 0 2 4@C3>< - : ?0@0;8GC DC=:F89 8<<C=>:><?5B5=B=KE :;5B>: (8,20-23,25-28). 5 <>3C >B25G0BL 70 "25AL <8@", => 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 :@8B5@85< MDD5:B82=>AB8 1>@L1K A 8=D5:F8>==K<8 1>;57=O<8 ?@>4>;605B A;C68BL 548=AB25==K9 ?>:070B5;L - ">E20B ?@8282:0<8 2A5E ?>4@O4" (18, 19). 0 40==>< MB0?5, =5A<>B@O =0 ?@8=OB85 70:>=0, =5 >B<5G05BAO @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O A>2@5<5==>3> 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>3> 8 8<<C=>35=5B8G5A:>3> ?>4E>4>2 2 "?@>D8;0:B8:5 74>@>2LO =0H8E <0;KH59". !:>@55, =0>1>@>B - ?@>4>;605BAO "20:F8=0;L=K9 '5@=>1K;L", ?>A:>;L:C B5<8 65 20:F8=0B>@0<8 @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO A>2@5<5==0O "M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=0O" B5=45=F8O ?@8282>: B5<8 65 20:F8=0<8, =>... >A;01;5==KE 45B59, 8<5NI8E BC 8;8 8=CN ?0B>;>38N.  A2O78 A ?>A;54=8< E>GC =0?><=8BL 5I5 @07 A;>20 -4. 65==5@0, A:070==K5 8< 2 XVIII 25:5: "@0G 4>;65= 7=0BL >1 MB>9 >?5@0F88 2AQ, 8 O =0AB0820N =0 MB><... =5;L7O 20:F8=8@>20BL >A;01;5==KE 45B59 A> A;01> @0728BK< ?>4:>6=>-68@>2K< A;>5<... =5 ?@8=OB> B0:65 ?@82820BL 45B59 2 ?5@2K5 =545;8 687=8..." (F8B. ?> 29, 30). =0=85 @0745;>2 20:F8=>;>388 ?><>305B ?@8>B:@KBL =5:>B>@K5 <5E0=87<K, A ?><>ILN :>B>@KE <>6=> >1JOA=8BL, ?>G5<C >4=0 8 B0 65 20:F8=0 2K7K205B @07=K5 ?0B>;>38G5A:85 ?@>F5AAK 8 :;8=8G5A:85 8E ?@>O2;5=8O, :>340 5Q ?@8<5=ONB "2A5< ?>4@O4". -B> >1O7K205B 20:F8=0B>@0 7=0BL A>AB02 20:F8=K, :0: ;N1>3> 4@C3>3> ;5:0@AB25==>3> A@54AB20. 0G5AB2> B0:8E 18>?@5?0@0B>2 7028A8B >B <5B>4>2, 2KO2;ONI8E 8 @53;0<5=B8@CNI8E C@>2=8 8E 157>?0A=>AB8, 2 B>< G8A;5 =5A?5F8D8G5A:>9 157>?0A=>AB8. <5AB5 A B5< 8725AB=>, GB> 4> 2002 3. <5B>4K, ?@8<5=O5<K5 4;O >F5=:8 157>?0A=>AB8 20:F8=, =5 A>>B25BAB2CNB =8 <564C=0@>4=K< B@51>20=8O<, =8 4065 @C:>2>4AB20<, ?@8<5=O5<K< 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 : ;5:0@AB25==K< D0@<0:>;>38G5A:8< ?@5?0@0B0<. K ?8H5< >1 MB>< 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 A 70-E 33., 0 2 !-A 1988 3. (81-83). @0G >1O70= ?><=8BL, GB> 157>?0A=>ABL 8 MDD5:B82=>ABL ?@8282:8 7028A8B >B :0G5AB20 20:F8=K, >B 74>@>2LO @515=:0 8 MB8:8 ?@>2545=8O MB>9 8<<C=>18>;>38G5A:>9 >?5@0F88. !;>68;0AL 4>2>;L=> AB@0==0O B@048F8O: 20:F8=>;>388 - 48AF8?;8=K, ?@54<5B0 - :0: 1K 8 =5 ACI5AB2C5B 2 <548F8=5, 0 "=5?@8:0A05<K5" ?@8282:8 =5 >B=>AOBAO :... 8<<C=>;>388. <<C=>?@>D8;0:B8:0 157 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K! !BC45=B0<-<548:0< 2>?@>A 20:F8=0F88 >A25I05BAO ;8HL A >4=>9 AB>@>=K 8 B>;L:> ?>;>68B5;L=>9 - "?>;L7K 2 ?>1545 =04 8=D5:F8>==K<8 1>;57=O<8".  F5;>< 65 MB0 <548F8=A:0O "?><>IL" 2 1KBCNI5< 20@80=B5 =8:0: =5 A>>B=>A8BAO =8 A> 74>@>2L5< A>2@5<5==KE 45B59, =8 A 87<5=82H59AO >:@C60NI59 A@54>9, =8 A M2>;NF8>==K<8 >A>15==>ABO<8 <8:@>>@30=87<>2, =8 A 87=0G0;L=K<8 ?@54AB02;5=8O<8 > ?@54=07=0G5=88 20:F8=. 5B8 ?@>4>;60NB ?>425@30BLAO <0AA8@>20==><C <548F8=A:><C 2<5H0B5;LAB2C, =0G8=0O A =>2>@>645==>AB8 4> N=>H5A:>3> 2>7@0AB0. !1>@ <0B5@80;>2 ?> 0=0;878@C5<K< 2>?@>A0< 70=O; C <5=O 1>;55 30 ;5B, 87 =8E 12 ;5B @01>BK 2 !5. =D>@<0F8O, :>B>@CN O 745AL ?@54AB02;ON, 2:;NG05B: A>1AB25==K5 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 40==K5 (3-5); =5 B>;L:> <>8, => 8 A>2<5AB=K5 @01>BK, 0 B0:65 ?C1;8:0F88 <=>3>G8A;5==KE 02B>@>2, 2 8E G8A;5 8 :>=B@>;5@>2 !0 > =87:>< C@>2=5 :0G5AB20 >B5G5AB25==KE 20:F8=, 402=> CAB0@52H8E <5B>4>2 87CG5=8O 8E 0:B82=>AB8 8 157>?0A=>AB8; >A>15==> <=>3> ?C1;8:0F89 > "=5CA>25@H5=AB2>20==>9 20:F8=5 !", > G5< ?8HCB A> 4=O 5Q 2=54@5=8O 2 ?@0:B8:C 45BA:>3> 74@02>>E@0=5=8O; <564C B5<, 8<5==> B0:CN 20:F8=C ?@>4>;60NB 22>78BL =0< 8 70@C156=K5 "?><>I=8:8", 0 <K ?@>4>;605< 22>48BL 5Q <0AA>2> 3@C4=K< 45BO< (!); ?C1;8:0F88 > <0;>9 MDD5:B82=>AB8 & 2 1>@L15 A BC15@:C;Q7>< 8 5Q >?0A=>AB8 4;O =>2>@>64Q==KE, >A>15==> A >A;01;5==>9 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<>9; 7=0=85 >1AB0=>2:8 =0 >B5G5AB25==KE ?@54?@8OB8OE, ?@>872>4OI8E ?@>B82>28@CA=K5 8 0=B810:B5@80;L=K5 20:F8=K; 4>:C<5=BK !0 >1 CA;>288 873>B>2;5=8O 8 :>=B@>;O 20:F8=, > G5< O 2 A2>5 2@5<O ?8A0;0: "0:@>9 MB>B :>=B@>;L=K9 >@30=, =0H8 20:F8=K >B MB>3> =5 1C4CB =8 ;CGH5, =8 EC65..."; A2545=8O (1;03>40@O <>5<C ?@51K20=8N 2 !5) > B><, GB> =8 >4=0 20:F8=0 =5 87CG5=0 ?> 5Q 2;8O=8N =0 8<<C=>:><?5B5=B=K5 :;5B:8, =5 ?>AB02;5=> =8 >4=>3> M:A?5@8<5=B0 =0 682>B=KE 2 B0:>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8, :0: 22>4OB 20:F8=K 45BO<, >BACBAB2C5B ?@>3=>7 >B40;Q==KE ?>A;54AB289 >B A>AB>O=8O "=0?@O65==>AB8 8<<C=8B5B0", ?@>4>;60NI53>AO <=>385 3>4K; ?@>B82>?>:070=8O, ACI5AB2>202H85 4> 90-E 3>4>2, => <0;> :><C 8725AB=K5 8 A>25@H5==> =5 CG8BK205<K5 2@0G0<8 ?@8 >ACI5AB2;5=88 ?@8282>:; ?>;>65=8O > 4803=>AB8G5A:8E A;C610E, >B25G0NI8E =0 2>?@>AK: =C6=> 8 <>6=> ;8 20:F8=8@>20BL :>=:@5B=>3> @515=:0; > ACI5AB2>20=88 ?@8:070 !260 >B 11 0?@5;O 1960 3. 8=74@020 !!!@ > B><, GB> =5>1E>48<> C:><?;5:B>20BL A0=8B0@=>-M?848<8>;>38G5A:85 AB0=F88 2@0G0<8-8<<C=>;>30<8, ?>A:>;L:C "?>;=>F5==>ABL @01>BK 2 >1;0AB8 A?5F8D8G5A:>9 ?@>D8;0:B8:8 2 7=0G8B5;L=>9 <5@5 7028A8B >B :20;8D8:0F88 2@0G59-8<<C=>;>3>2"& #2K! - "0 2>7 8 =K=5 B0<"& =0;8G85 ?5@5G=O ">18;8O ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89", ?@5645 2A53> =0 ! 8 !; 4>:C<5=BK - =0CG=K5 ?C1;8:0F88, F8=8G=> 8 >B:@KB> 45<>=AB@8@CNI85 8A?>;L7>20=85 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 =5>3@0=8G5==>3> G8A;0 45B59 - "4>1@>2>;LF52 2 M:A?5@8<5=B5" - ?@8 87CG5=88 0:B82=>AB8 8 157>?0A=>AB8 =>2KE 20:F8=, A@548 =8E 8 8<?>@B=KE, > G5< =5 AB02OB 2 8725AB=>ABL @>48B5;59(!!!); A2545=8O > :><8B5B0E ?> 18>MB8:5, > F5;OE 8 7040G0E 18>MB8:8 , ?@>1;5<0E 8 ?5@A?5:B820E, @53C;8@CNI8E ?@02>2K5 8 70:>=>40B5;L=K5 2708<>>B=>H5=8O <564C 3@0640=8=><-?0F85=B>< 8 >@30=0<8 74@02>>E@0=5=8O; 4>:C<5=BK "-B8G5A:>3> :>45:A0 !>25B0 <564C=0@>4=KE <548F8=A:8E >@30=870F89 ?> ?@>2545=8N M:A?5@8<5=B>2 A 8A?>;L7>20=85< 682>B=KE" (87 ?C1;8:0F89 8 ;8G=KE :>=B0:B>2), 0 B0:65 7=0=8O > =5:0G5AB25==><, 20=B8G5;>25G5A:><" , =5AB0=40@B=>< A>45@60=88 ?>4>?KB=KE 682>B=KE 2 =0H8E 2820@8OE, ?@8=04;560I8E ?@54?@8OB8O< ?> 873>B>2;5=8N 20:F8= 8 !C, >1 0=B83C<0==> 8 157=@02AB25==>< >1@0I5=88 A =8<8, >1 >3@0=8G5==>< 8A?>;L7>20=88 0;LB5@=0B82=KE 18>;>38G5A:8E <>45;59, ?><>30NI8E ?>;CG0BL 7=0G8B5;L=> 1>;55 4>AB>25@=K5 @57C;LB0BK; >BACBAB285 :0G5AB25==KE M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE <>45;59 A45;0;> =0H8 ?@5?0@0BK 2>AB@51>20==K<8 B>;L:> C =0A 2 AB@0=5 - =0 =0F8>=0;L=>< C@>2=5, 2KE>4 =0 <564C=0@>4=K9 @K=>: 70:@KB! "0:8< >1@07><, H8@>G09H89 480?07>= 2>?@>A>2 ?> <5648AF8?;8=0@=K< 8AA;54>20=8O< 405B ?@54AB02;5=85 > B><, GB> B0:>5 20:F8=>;>38O, :0: >=0 =5>4=>7=0G=0, :>340 @0AA<0B@8205BAO A B>G:8 7@5=8O 8<<C=>;>388, 8<<C=>35=5B8:8 8 <=>3>G8A;5==KE 4@C38E ?@>1;5<. @8282:0 20:F8=>9 - 20:F8=>?@>D8;0:B8:0, :0: ;N1>5 >B:@KB85, 8<55B A2>N 8AB>@8N: >B 7025B>2 -4. 65==5@0 (29, 30) 4> "4LO2>;LA:>3> C?>@AB20  " (31)...  40==>< A;CG05 87CG5=85 8AB>@88 =5>1E>48<> =5 B>;L:> @048 7=0=89 8AB8==>3> ?@54=07=0G5=8O 20:F8=, => 8 4;O B>3>, GB>1K <>;>4Q6L <>3;0 A@02=820BL, A>25@H5=AB2>20BL 8 2K18@0BL ;CGH55 2 ?@54;0305<>9 ?@>D8;0:B8:5 74>@>2LO. 04> A:070BL, GB> 2 ;N1>9 48AF8?;8=5 5ABL ?@8<5@K, >B=>AOI85AO : @07@O4C E@5AB><0B89=KE, :>B>@K5 45AOB8;5B8O<8 :>GCNB 87 AB0BL8 2 AB0BLN, 87 <>=>3@0D88 - 2 4@C3CN <>=>3@0D8N, =0<5@B2> 2@0AB0O F8B0B0<8 =5 B>;L:> 2 AB@0=8FK CG51=8:>2, => 8 2 A>7=0=85 G5;>25:0. <5==> ?> B0:>9 AE5<5 ?5@5?8AK20NB ?C1;8:0F88 > ?>1545 >A?K, >45@60==>9 1C4B> 1K 1;03>40@O "?>3>;>2=>9 ?@>B82>>A?5==>9 20:F8=0F88 2A5E 68B5;59 2A5E AB@0=" (260, A. 5). > <0;> :><C 8725AB=K 8=K5, >G5=L 206=K5 A2545=8O (4065 2@0G0<-20:F8=0B>@0<!) > B><, GB> 704>;3> 4> >1JO2;5==>9  ?>154K =04 >A?>9 (1980 3.) <=>3>G8A;5==K5 AB@0=K >B:070;8AL >B ?@8<5=5=8O >A?>20:F8=K 87-70 =0@0AB0=8O ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89, 2 >A=>2=>< - =0 F5=B@0;L=CN =5@2=CN A8AB5<C (10, 11, 32, 33). 3@><=>5 G8A;> ?C1;8:0F89 ?> ?>AB20:F8=0;L=K< >A;>6=5=8O< A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, GB> =5B =8 >4=>9 >1;0AB8 <548F8=K, :C40 1K ?@8282:8 =5 ?@82=5A;8 OB@>35=OK5 ?>2@5645=8O. <5H0B5;LAB2> 2 8<<C==CN A8AB5<C =5 <>65B @0AA<0B@820BLAO :0: =5GB> 87>;8@>20==>5 >B DC=:F89 4@C38E A8AB5< - >@30=>2, B:0=59, :;5B>: >@30=87<0 2 F5;><.  "G5@:0E 8AB>@88 74@02>>E@0=5=8O >AA88" (?>4 @54. 0:04.  .. )5?8=0, , 1999 3.) =0 A. 419 G8B05<: "1JO2;5==0O >A=>2=K< ?@8=F8?>< A>25BA:>3> 74@02>>E@0=5=8O ?@>D8;0:B8:0, AK3@02H0O 1>;LHCN @>;L =0 ?5@2>< MB0?5 @0728B8O 74@02>>E@0=5=8O 2 1>@L15 A M?845<8O<8, ?>AB5?5==> >1@>A;0 ?CABK<8 45:;0@0F8O<8, >1I8<8 ;>7C=30<8 8 =0 45;5 ?5@5AB0;0 1KBL <5B>4>< 0:B82=>9 1>@L1K 70 A>E@0=5=85 74>@>2LO =0@>40" (2K45;5=> <=>9.- .'.). !:070==>5 B5< 1>;55 206=>, GB> ?@>D8;0:B8:0 "B>;L:> ?@8282:0<8" =5 <>65B >15A?5G8BL A0=8B0@=>-M?845<8>;>38G5A:>5 1;03>?>;CG85 =8 =0A5;5=8O, =8 3>AC40@AB20: 2A?KH:8 48DB5@88 ?@>4>;60NBAO, BC15@:C;Q7 =5 B>;L:> =5 8AG57, => 8 :0B0AB@>D8G5A:8 @0AB5B G8A;> 701>;52H8E 8<... !B@0B538O 20:F8=0F88 2 :064>9 AB@0=5 A2>O, 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B M?845<8>;>38G5A:>9 =5>1E>48<>AB8. "0:, 2 !(, >G5284=>, CG8BK20O 2A5 A>2@5<5==K5 M:>;>38G5A:85 154K, >1@CH82H85AO =0 45B59 2 XX 25:5, ?@8282:8 >ACI5AB2;ONB ?> <5B>40< 8 A8AB5<5, @57:> >B;8G0NI59AO >B =0H59. >AB0B>G=> A:070BL >1 >BACBAB288 20:F8=0F88 ! =>2>@>645==KE, 0 ?@8282:8 ?@>B82 ?>;8><85;8B0 >ACI5AB2;ONBAO C18B>9 (8=0:B828@>20==>9) 20:F8=>9. 1.4. !" &+ !"  & $": @50;L=>ABL 8 <8DK =0:><AB2> 2 >1I8E G5@B0E A <0=8?C;OF859 20:F8=0F88 40;5:> =54>AB0B>G=> 4;O B>3>, GB>1K A45;0BL 2@0G0 A?>A>1=K< 2K?>;=8BL >A?>?@82820=85; 2@0G 4>;65= >1;040BL B>G=K< 7=0=85< 53>, 8 O =0AB0820N =0 MB><. -4. 65==5@ " "    ",/,! # !" " (31)... 025B -4C0@40 65==5@0 - >A=>2>?>;>6=8:0 20:F8=0F88 >1 ">1;040=88 B>G=K< 7=0=85<" ?@>F5AA0 ?@8282>: >A>15==> F5=5= 2 A>2@5<5==KE, @57:> 87<5=82H8EAO M:>;>38G5A:8E CA;>28OE, 2 M:>;>388 G5;>25:0 A @57:> 87<5=5==>9 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<>9 45B59 (31, 34-36).  1996 3. <8@ >B<5B8; 200-;5B85 ?5@2>9 20:F8=0F88 (=5 ?@8282>:!), ?@>872545==>9 2 1796 3. 0=3;89A:8< 2@0G>< -4. 65==5@><. >GB8 30 ;5B (!) 65==5@ ?>A2OB8; =01;N45=8O< 8 87CG5=8N O2;5=8O, :>340 ;N48, ?5@51>;52 ":>@>2L59 >A?>9", =5 70@060;8AL =0BC@0;L=>9 >A?>9 G5;>25:0. 0::0 - >B ;0B8=A:>3> A;>20 v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variola) 0@8>;OF8N ?@>2>48;8 2 @07=>9 D>@<5: 22>48;8 74>@>2K< 45BO< >A?5==K5 45B@8BK, =04520;8 @C10H:8 A >A?5==KE 1>;L=KE. @0<8=K, ?@>2>482H85 ?@8282:8 1>;55 F828;87>20==> - 2 >A>1KE CA;>28OE >?@545;Q==>9 AB5@8;L=>AB8 - 45;0;8 =53;C1>:85 =04@57K =0 ?@54?;5GLOE, 22>4O 2 @0=:8 A>45@68<>5 ?0?C; (2578:C; - >A?5==KE ?C7K@L:>2). > ?@>H5AB288 >?@545;5==>3> 2@5<5=8 ?>425;8 8B>38 @57C;LB0B>2 B0:>9 <5B>48:8 ?@8282>:. :070;>AL, GB> 1;03>40@O MB>9 ?@>F54C@5 @0A?@>AB@0=5==>ABL =0BC@0;L=>9 >A?K @57:> 2>7@>A;0. !>740;>AL ?>;>65=85, :>B>@>5 =0720;8 ">A?5==K< 154AB285< %#( AB>;5B8O", 8 20@8>;OF8O 1K;0 >B<5=5=0 - ">AB02;5=0 2A5< >1@07>20==K< <8@><, 70?@5I5=0 4065 70:>=0<8" (29). ">, GB> A45;0;0 :0B5@8=0 II 2 1768 3., ?@8282 >A?C A515 8 1C4CI5<C <?5@0B>@C 02;C, 4;O G53> 1K; 2K720= 87 =3;88 7=0<5=8BK9 >A?>?@82820B5;L 4>:B>@ 8<AB0;L, B>65 1K;0 20@8>;OF8O - ?@8282:0 =0BC@0;L=>9 >A?K A?>A>1>< ">B @C:8 : @C:5". "0:0O ?@8282:0 1K;0 =5157>?0A=>9, => 20:F8=K, :0: B0:>2>9, 5I5 =5 ACI5AB2>20;>. > A2545=8O< >4=8E 8AB>@8:>2, >A?5==K9 <0B5@80; 4;O :0B5@8=K "1K; 27OB C A5<8;5B=53> <0;LG8:0 0=8;>20, ?>;CG82H53> 2?>A;54AB288 >B <?5@0B@8FK 42>@O=A:>5 720=85 8 D0<8;8N "A?5==K9"", ?> A2545=8O< 4@C38E - C :045B0 <>@A:>3> :>@?CA0 0A>20. > :0: 1K B0< =8 1K;>, 2 40==>< A;CG05 ?@8282:0 - 20@8>;OF8O ?@>H;0 157 :0:8E-;81> =5?@8OB=KE ?>A;54AB289 (29, 30). 65==5@ =5 87>1@5B0; 20:F8=C! = CA>25@H5=AB2>20; <5B>4, > :>B>@>< 7=0;8 70 800 ;5B 4> >645AB20 %@8AB>20, > GQ< A2845B5;LAB2C5B :=830 "Sancteya grantham" (30, ;5:F8O 1, A. 4). 0 8 A0< 65==5@ =5 A:@K20; 8 ?>AB>O==> C?><8=0; 2 A2>8E ?C1;8:0F8OE > ?@54H5AB25==8:0E: "> =5 701>;520=88 4>8;LI8F O 2?5@2K5 CA;KH0; >B >4=>9 :@5ABLO=:8 3>@=>9 (>B;0=488", - F8B8@C5B 65==5@0 ?@>D5AA>@ .. C=4>18= (30). -B>B A;CG09 - >48= 87 B5E AG0AB;82KE, :>340 0BL-@8@>40 ?><>3;0 A>740BL "=>2CN =0BC@0;L=CN =0C:C", GB> <>6=> A@02=8BL A A>1KB8O<8 7=0G8B5;L=> 1>;55 ?>74=8<8 - ?>;CG5=85< $;5<8=3>< ?5=8F8;;8=0 87 ?;5A5=8. > 65==5@ AG8B0;, GB> @8A: 22545=8O 682>9 8=D5:F8>==>9 AC1AB0=F88 74>@>2><C G5;>25:C, B5< 1>;55 - 45BO<, 1K; >G5=L 25;8:. >MB><C : A2>5<C "72574=><C G0AC" - : ?>548=:C A> AB@0H=>9 1>;57=LN 25; ?>GB8 30 ;5B.  B> 2@5<O AG8B0;8 5IQ, GB> 2>71C48B5;5< >A?K O2;O5BAO... 10:B5@8O, 0 =5 28@CA. 8@CAK, :0: A>25@H5==> =>20O 3@C??0 2>71C48B5;59 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59, 1K;8 >B:@KBK B>;L:> A?CABO 100 ;5B (1892 3>4) @>AA89A:8< 1>B0=8:>< .. 20=>2A:8<. !0< 65==5@, :0: C?><8=0;>AL 2KH5, >B=>A8;AO : ?@8282:0< >A?>20:F8=>9 :0: : A5@LQ7=>9 18>;>38G5A:>9 >?5@0F88, =0AB0820O =0 B><, GB>1K "2@0G8 1K;8 >A=>20B5;L=> 7=0:><K A ?@028;L=K< B5G5=85< :>@>2L59 >A?K C G5;>25:0, =5 C?@>I0O MBC E8@C@38G5A:CN >?5@0F8N, AB@>3> A>1;N40O ?@028;0 0A5?B8:8..," (29). !B>@>==8:8 65==5@0 B0:65 =0?><8=0;8 ?>GB8 100 ;5B A?CABO: "5AL<0 5AB5AB25==>, GB> 4;O @5H5=8O 2>?@>A0 > ?>;L75 >A?>?@82820=8O =5>1E>48<> @5H8BL A=0G0;0 8725AB=K5 A0=8B0@=>-38385=8G5A:85 B@51>20=8O", 81>: "A?>?@82820=85 4>;6=> 1KBL 4;O ?@0:B8G5A:8E 2@0G59 45;>< G5AB8. @>AB>9 C:>; =0AB>;L:> 65 70A;C68205B 2=8<0=8O 2@0G0, =0A:>;L:> 4@C385 E8@C@38G5A:85 >?5@0F88" (30, A. 11; 37, A. 344).  A>60;5=8N, 402=K<-402=> 701KBK =5 B>;L:> MB8, => 8 4@C385 <=>3>G8A;5==K5 7025BK 65==5@0 8 5N ?>A;54>20B5;59, :0: B>:   ", ! , ! !#)!"#" #  !+(  -  #% $&+% ("70@07=KE") ;   ", "   +  ,  " ! "! "+ - + !" (30, ;5:F8O 2, A. 29). >6=> ?@825AB8 <=>65AB2> ?@8<5@>2 87 =0H59 A>2@5<5==>9 687=8, :>340 ?@8=8<0NBAO ?@O<> ?@>B82>?>;>6=K5 @5H5=8O ?> 20:F8=0F88, =0?@8<5@, 2A5< 8725AB=K5 <0AA>2K5 ?@8282:8 ?@>B82 BC15@:C;Q70, ?>;8><85;8B0, 48DB5@88 8 B.4. 2> 2@5<O M?845<88 3@8??0 8;8 ?>AB>O==KE 20:F8=0F89 2> 2@5<O =8:>340 =5 ?@5:@0I02H8EAO =0 B5@@8B>@88 >AA88 2A?KH5: 48DB5@88, BC15@:C;Q70... "0:8< >1@07><, 1;03>40@O 35=80;L=>9 =01;N40B5;L=>AB8 (!!!) 65==5@0 25;8:89 40@ ?@8@>4K - 5AB5AB25==> >A;01;5==K9 (0BB5=C8@>20==K9) G5@57 >@30=87< 682>B=>3> - :>@>2K - 28@CA =0BC@0;L=>9 >A?K 1K; ?@54;>65= 2 :0G5AB25 20:F8=K.  B> 2@5<O B0:>5 A@54AB2> 5IQ 4>;3> 1K;> 548=AB25==K< 284>< 70I8BK ?@>B82 2A53> ;8HL >4=>9 8=D5:F8>==>9 1>;57=8. 5A<>B@O =0 MB> 8 ?5@2K5 >1=04Q6820NI85 CA?5E8, :0B53>@8G5A:85 ?@>B82=8:8 ?@8282>: =5 ?@8=8<0;8 MBC ?><>IL :0: <0AA>2>5 A@54AB2> 70I8BK 4065 =0 A;CG09 M?845<89. =8, 2 G0AB=>AB8, CB25@640;8, GB> "2A;54AB285 >A?>?@82820=8O >A;01;O5BAO >@30=87< =0AB>;L:>, GB> 3@>78B =0@0AB0=8N A;01KE, 1>;57=5==KE ?>:>;5=89, GB> A@54=OO ?@>4>;68B5;L=>ABL 687=8 G5;>25:0 C<5=LH8BAO, 0 B0:65 G5@57 >A?>20:F8=C ?5@5405BAO A8D8;8A, G0E>B:0, 7>;>BCE0, 0=3;89A:0O 1>;57=L, @>60 8 B.?." (29, A. 37). =>3>5 87 ?@54?>;>65=89, : A>60;5=8N, 8<5;> <5AB> C65 2 B5 2@5<5=0, =5<0;> ?@>3=>7>2 ?>4B25@6405BAO 8 B5?5@L, >A>15==> ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 682KE 20:F8= - B0:8E, :0:>9 1K;0 >A?>20:F8=0 (3, 9-11, 20, 29-31, 37). 0< 1K 2A?><=8BL 2AQ MB> 8 ?@8A;CH0BLAO...  :>=F5 XIX 25:0 (1881 3.) ?@>87>H;> 5I5 >4=> A>1KB85 2 8<<C=>;>388 - >B:@KB85 ?@8=F8?0 8A:CAAB25==>3> A>740=8O 20:F8=. @8=04;568B >=> D@0=FC7A:><C E8<8:C C8 0AB5@C, 4>:0702H5<C 2>7<>6=>ABL M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9 @07@01>B:8 A?>A>10 0BB5=C0F88 8AE>4=KE A2>9AB2 2>71C48B5;59 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 4;O ?>A;54CNI53> ?>;CG5=8O 682KE 20:F8=. 7CG0O A2>9AB20 2>71C48B5;O :C@8=>9 E>;5@K, . 0AB5@ CAB0=>28;, GB> 2 >?@545;Q==>9 4>75 MB8 10:B5@88 >G5=L 1KAB@> C1820NB :C@. ... >4=064K, ?@5@202 A2>8 8AA;54>20=8O, 0AB5@ C5E0; >B4KE0BL. C;LBC@C :C@8=>9 E>;5@K >AB028; ?@8 :><=0B=>9 B5<?5@0BC@5 2 ;01>@0B>@88. 5@=C2H8AL, ?@>4>;68; 8AA;54>20=8O A 701KB>9 - "?>AB0@52H59" 10:B5@80;L=>9 ACA?5=7859. 'B>1K ?@>25@8BL 5Q 0:B82=>ABL, >= 22Q; "701KBK5" 10:B5@88 :C@0<. B8FK >AB0;8AL 74>@>2K<8 8 4065 =5 701>;5;8. @>25@OO A256CN :C;LBC@C E>;5@K, 0AB5@ 22Q; 5Q G8ABK< :C@0< 8 B5<, :>B>@K5 @0=LH5 ?>;CG8;8 "A>AB0@82HCNAO". '8ABK5 - :>=B@>;L=K5 :C@K ?>381;8, 0 ?@5420@8B5;L=> "8<<C=878@>20==K5" 701KBK<8 10:B5@8O<8-2K68;8. 0G8=0O A MB8E >?KB>2, ?CBQ< 8A:CAAB25==>3> >A;01;5=8O 2>71C48B5;59 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59, 0AB5@ ?>;CG8; =5A:>;L:> 284>2 682KE 20:F8=, A@548 =8E - ?@>B82 A818@A:>9 O72K, ?@>B82 15H5=AB20. 5H5=AB2> - =5 <5=55 AB@0H=>5 701>;520=85, G5< >A?0, ?>A:>;L:C 70:0=G8205BAO 8 B5?5@L G0I5 2A53> A<5@BLN ?>A;5 C:CA0 1>;L=K<8 8;8 E@>=8G5A:8 8=D8F8@>20==K<8 A>10:0<8, ;8A0<8, 2>;:0<8, ;5BCG8<8 <KH0<8 8 =5:>B>@K<8 4@C38<8 682>B=K<8. >4B25@482 <=>3>:@0B=> A2>N 845N 2 M:A?5@8<5=B0E =0 682>B=KE, 0AB5@, :0: 8 65==5@, 4>;3> =5 @5H0;AO ?@8<5=OBL 873>B>2;5==CN 20:F8=C ?@>B82 15H5=AB20 =0 G5;>25:5, C:CH5==>< 1>;L=K< 682>B=K<, B.5. 2>7<>6=> C65 =0 701>;52H5< G5;>25:5.  40==>< A;CG05 MB>B 18>?@5?0@0B 8A?>;L7C5BAO A ;5G51=>-?@>D8;0:B8G5A:>9 F5;LN, A?0A0O >B 701>;520=8O 15H5=AB2>< ?>A;5 C:CA0 - ?@82=5A5=8O 8=D5:F8>==>3> 035=B0. !CBL 2 B><, GB> 2>A?@88<G82K9 G5;>25: 701>;5205B 2 B>< A;CG05 (5A;8 682>B=>5 8=D8F8@>20=>), :>340 28@CA 15H5=AB20 ?@>=8:05B G5@57 @0=K - <5AB0 C:CA0 - 2 :;5B:8 F5=B@0;L=>9 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K - 2 <>73: ?CBL =5 :>@>B:89 8 B@51C5B =5<0;>3> 2@5<5=8. =:C10F8>==K9 (A:@KBK9) ?5@8>4 4;O @0728B8O MB>3> 8=D5:F8>==>3> ?@>F5AA0 3>@074> ?@>4>;68B5;L=55, G5< ?@8 <=>38E 4@C38E 28@CA=KE 8=D5:F8OE, 8 <>65B ?@>4>;60BLAO =5A:>;L:> =545;L 8 4065 <5AOF52. <5==> MB> "AG0AB;82>5" >1AB>OB5;LAB2> 8 8<5; 2 284C . 0AB5@: CA?5BL "?5@53=0BL" @0728B85 701>;520=8O, <>18;87>202 <>I=K5 70I8B=K5 A8;K >@30=87<0 A ?><>ILN ?@8282:8, ?@53@0482 ?CBL ?@>42865=8O 28@CA0 : <>73C. #2K, 40;5:> =5 2A5340 8 A59G0A 20:F8=0 4065 2 :><?;5:A5 A> A?5F8D8G5A:8< 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=>< (3>B>2K<8 0=B8B5;0<8 ?@>B82 28@CA0 15H5=AB20) ?><>305B AB>?@>F5=B=>. =:C10F8>==K9 ?5@8>4 2 40==>< A;CG05 7028A8B, :@><5 B>3>, 8 >B <5AB0 C:CA0 (:0: 1;87:> >B 3>;>2K), ?>MB><C-B> 20:F8=0 =0 >?@545;Q==>< MB0?5 <>65B @01>B0BL :0: B5@0?52B8G5A:>5 A@54AB2>. 0AB5@C 1K;> B@C4=> ?@8ABC?8BL : A?0A5=8N C65, 2>7<>6=>, 8=D8F8@>20==KE ?0F85=B>2 (!), =0G0BL M:A?5@8<5=B =0 ;N4OE, =C640NI8EAO 2 ?><>I8... 0: 65 C?@>IQ= ?>4E>4 : >?KB0<...  "/% (!!!) 70 ?>A;54=85 G5BK@5 45AOB8;5B8O, :>340 2@0G8-M:A?5@8<5=B0B>@K 8A?>;L7CNB 2 8AA;54>20=8OE ?@8 87CG5=88 MDD5:B82=>AB8 8 157>?0A=>AB8 =>2KE 20:F8= 4> =5A:>;L:8E A>B <0;KH59 @07=>3> 2>7@0AB0, =5 B>;L:> ?@5420@8B5;L=> =5 AB02O 2 8725AB=>ABL >1 MB>< @>48B5;59, => 8 =5 284O 2 MB>< =8G53> ?@54>AC48B5;L=>3>! 0==K5 >1 "-:A?5@8<5=B0E =0 ?@0:B8G5A:8 74>@>2KE 45BOE" 2?5@2K5 >1>1I5=K 2 >:;045-A1>@=8:5 "0:F8=>?@>D8;0:B8:0 8 ?@020 G5;>25:0", 8740==>< 2 1994 3.   (3). AE>4O 87 >1I518>;>38G5A:8E ?>;>65=89, 4>;30 ?5@54 ?@8@>4>9 G5;>25:0, A>2A5< =5?@>AB> ?5@5=>A8BL C40G=K5 >?KBK A 682>B=KE =0 ;N459, >B>645AB2;OO B5G5=85 ?@>F5AA>2 C 682>B=KE 8 G5;>25:0, B5< 1>;55 - =0 @0ABCI89 >@30=87< 45B59 - 2 ?;0=5 >B40;Q==KE ?>A;54AB289. -B> 5IQ >4=0 ?@>1;5<0 2 <548:>-18>;>38G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=8OE, :>B>@0O =5 <>65B >1E>48BL AB>@>=>9 8 20:F8=>;>38N. 0AB5@ @8A:=C;, 8 2 1885 3. A?0A ?5@2>3> <0;LG8:0, 8A:CA0==>3> 15H5=>9 A>10:>9. @><5 MB>3>, H8@>:> 8725AB5= A;CG09 > A?0A5=88 0AB5@>< =5A:>;L:8E @>AA89A:8E :@5ABLO=, ?>1K202H8E 2 7C10E C 15H5=>3> 2>;:0. -B8 :@5ABLO=5 @07KA:0;8 0AB5@0, O282H8AL : =5<C 2 ;01>@0B>@8N... 87 F0@A:>9 >AA88 2> $@0=F8N! #A?5E 0AB5@0 2A:>;KE=C; 2AN <8@>2CN >1I5AB25==>ABL. >A;5 ?@>8AH54H8E A>1KB89 =0 45=L38, A>1@0==K5 ?> <564C=0@>4=>9 ?>4?8A:5, 1K; A>740= 0AB5@>2A:89 8=AB8BCB, ACI5AB2CNI89 2> $@0=F88 8 ?>=K=5, ?>;>682H89 =0G0;> >B:@KB8N "?0AB5@>2A:8E F5=B@>2" 2 1>;LH8=AB25 AB@0= <8@0. G5=L C2;5:0B5;L=> ?8H5B >;L 45 @N8 (45 @09D) >1 MB8E 8 4@C38E A>1KB8OE, ?@>8AE>482H8E 4> 1950 3. 2 <8:@>18>;>388 8 8<<C=>;>388 B>3> C@>2=O 2 A2>59 :=835 "E>B=8:8 70 <8:@>10<8" (38). #<5AB=>, =025@=>5, 2A?><=8BL 8 > B><, GB> 2B>@>9 AB@0=>9, >B:@K2H59 ?0AB5@>2A:CN AB0=F8N, 1K;0 >AA8O. >340 AB0;> 8725AB=>, GB> 20:F8=0F8O ?> <5B>4C 0AB5@0 A?0A05B 2 =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE >B 15H5=AB20, >48= 87 M=BC780AB>2 2=QA 2 45AA:>5 >1I5AB2> <8:@>18>;>3>2 BKAOGC @C1;59, GB>1K =0 MB8 45=L38 1K; =0?@02;5= 2 0@86 2@0G 4;O 87CG5=8O >?KB0 0AB5@0. K1>@ ?0; =0 <>;>4>3> 4>:B>@0 . $. 0<0;5N, :>B>@K9 ?>765 - 13 8N=O 1886 3. A45;0; 2 45AA5 ?5@2K5 ?@8282:8 425=04F0B8 C:CH5==K<.  A>25BA:>5 2@5<O 8<O ?>GQB=>3> 0:045<8:0  !!!  . $. 0<0;58 ?@8A2>5=> =AB8BCBC M?845<8>;>388 8 <8:@>18>;>388 , 345 2 >B45;5 28@CA>;>388 <=5 ?>AG0AB;828;>AL ?@>@01>B0BL 12 ;5B =04 2>?@>A0<8 E@>=8G5A:8E 28@CA=KE 8=D5:F89 8 70I8B8BL 48AA5@B0F8N ?>4 @C:>2>4AB2>< M?845<8>;>30-28@CA>;>30 0:045<8:0  !!!  .. !>;>2LQ20. 8A: ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 682KE 20:F8=, A>740NI8E A>AB>O=85 "<0;>9 1>;57=8" - E@>=8G5A:>9 8=D8F8@>20==>AB8, 1K; 8 >AB05BAO ?> A59 45=L. 5 O2;O;0AL 8A:;NG5=85< 8 6820O 20:F8=0 ?@>B82 15H5=AB20, 2 A2O78 A G5< C65 =5A:>;L:> 45AOB8;5B89 3>B>28BAO C18B0O - 8=0:B828@>20==0O 0=B8@018G5A:0O 20:F8=0. 0:F8==>-AK2>@>B>G=>5 ?@>872>4AB2> @0728;>AL >A>15==> 8=B5=A82=> 2 XX 25:5, ?@52@0B82H8AL 2 :@C?=K5 =0CG=>-?@><KH;5==K5 :><?;5:AK 8 D8@<K.  845N 0AB5@0 - 8A:CAAB25==CN 0BB5=C0F8N (>A;01;5=85 8=D5:F8>==KE A2>9AB2) 2>71C48B5;O, 2 <>48D8F8@>20==>< 20@80=B5 8A?>;L7>20;8 0;L<5BB 8 5@5= (. Cflmette, !. Guerin), A>7402 2 1920 3. 682CN 0=B810:B5@80;L=CN 20:F8=C !! (10F8;;0 0;L<5BB0 8 5@5=0) - ?@>B82 BC15@:C;Q70, :>B>@0O B0:65 2K7K20;0 8 ?@>4>;605B 2K7K20BL A><=5=8O 8 =0@5:0=8O, =8GCBL =5 <5=LH85, G5< 4@C385 682K5 20:F8=K (39-43). >;LH8=AB2> AB@0= >B:070;8AL >B ?@8<5=5=8O &, =0?@8<5@, !(, "C@F8O, $ , 5;L38O, (25F8O 8 @O4 4@C38E AB@0=. 5:>B>@K5 3>AC40@AB20 1K2H53> A>F80;8AB8G5A:>3> ;035@O >B:07K20;8AL >B =0H59 &, 5I5 1C4CG8 2 A>N75 A =0<8, =0?@8<5@, '5E>A;>20:8O 8 ?@.  =081>;55 7=0G8<K< A>1KB8O< XX 25:0 2 873>B>2;5=88 20:F8= A;54C5B >B=5AB8 A>740=85 2 50-5 3>4K ?@5?0@0B>2 ?@>B82 28@CA>2 ?>;8><85;8B0 I, , ( B8?>2. 0: 8725AB=>, "?@828;538O" 701>;520=8O ?>;8><85;8B>< ?@8=04;568B B>;L:> G5;>25:C, G0I5 - 45BO<. #18B0O 20:F8=0 87>1@5B5=0 4>:B>@>< 6>=0A>< !>;:>< (Salk), >| G5< C?><8=0;>AL 745AL @0=LH5, 0 4@C30O - 6820O ?@>B82 ?>;8><85;8B0 - B>65 0<5@8:0=A:8< 28@CA>;>3>< ;L15@B>< !5918=>< (Sabin). B5G5AB25==K9 20@80=B 682>9 ?>;8>20:F8=K, ?@83>B>2;5==K9 ?> @5F5?BC-B5E=>;>388 4>:B>@0 !5918=0, A>740= 2 :>=F5 50-E 33. ?>4 @C:>2>4AB2>< ?@>D5AA>@>2 .. 'C<0:>20 (>A:20) 8 - .. !<>@>48=F520 (5=8=3@04) (44-46). "5?5@L 8<O 0:045<8:0 .. 'C<0:>20 =>A8B A>740==K9 8< 2 B5 3>4K =AB8BCB ?>;8><85;8B0 8 28@CA=KE M=F5D0;8B>2 (-) . C4CG8 5IQ ABC45=B:>9, O ?@8=8<0;0 CG0AB85 2 A>740=88 MB>9 20:F8=K C .. 'C<0:>20. !:06C 1>;LH5: <>Q A;C65=85 28@CA>;>388, <>O =0CG=>-?@0:B8G5A:0O 45OB5;L=>ABL =0G0;0AL A =AB8BCB0 ?> 87CG5=8N ?>;8><85;8B0 - B0: =07K20;AO 2 50-5 33. XX AB>;5B8O -. !>1KB8O, ?@>8AE>482H85 2 B> 2@5<O 2 MB>< 8=AB8BCB5, :0A0;8AL, ?@5645 2A53>, @07@01>B:8 8 2=54@5=8O 2 28@CA>;>388 =0H59 AB@0=K 18>;>38G5A:>9 <>45;8 - :C;LBC@K :;5B>: (). ;03>40@O MB>9 0;LB5@=0B82=>9 18>;>38G5A:>9 <>45;8 (), 70<5=82H59 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE 682>B=KE 8;8 @57:> A>:@0B82H59 CG0AB85 "1@0BL52 =0H8E <5=LH8E" 2 ;01>@0B>@=KE 8AA;54>20=8OE, O 2K1@0;0 ?@>D5AA8N 28@CA>;>30, ?@8>1@5;0 7=0=8O ?> ":C;JBC@0;J=>9 28@CA>;>388", 0 B0:65 ?> 3C<0=870F88 <548F8=A:>3> M:A?5@8<5=B0, GB> 2 ?>A;54=85 ?>;25:0 O2;O5BAO >A=>2>9 <548:>-18>;>38G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=89 (3-5). AB>@8O ":C;LBC@0;L=>9 28@CA>;>388" 2 1K2H5< !!!  =0G0;0AL A >@30=870F88 =AB8BCB0 ?> 87CG5=8N ?>;8><85;8B0 8 A @07@01>B:8 ?>;8>20:F8=K. "0:8< >1@07><,  - 5IQ >48= >G5=L 206=K9 @0745; 2 20:F8=>;>388 8 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8:5. 5 1K;> 1K , =5;L7O 1K;> 1K A>740BL B0:>5 :>;8G5AB2> ?@>B82>28@CA=KE 20:F8=: ?@>B82 :>@8, ?0@>B8B0 (A28=:8), 35@?5A0, M=F5D0;8B0 8 =5:>B>@KE 4@C38E. >, :@><5 B>3>, 1;03>40@O  2K45;5=K 8 845=B8D8F8@>20=K <=>385 B8?K 28@CA>2, 87CG5=> 8E 2;8O=85 =0 :;5B:8 8 AC1:;5B>G=K5 AB@C:BC@K, ?@>0=0;878@>20=K ?@>F5AAK =5:>B>@KE E@>=8G5A:8E 28@CA=KE 8=D5:F89 (3, 5,47-50). N1K5 28@CAK, :0: 8725AB=>, @07<=>60NBAO 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 2 682>9 :;5B:5: 2 :;5B:0E G5;>25:0, 682>B=KE, @0AB5=89, @K1, =0A5:><KE 8 4065 10:B5@89 - 10:B5@8>D030.  DC=40<5=B0;L=KE 8AA;54>20=8OE 8 2 ?@0:B8:5 >4=8E 48AF8?;8=  @57:> A>:@0I05B :>;8G5AB2> 682>B=KE, 8A?>;L7C5<KE 2 M:A?5@8<5=B5, 2 4@C38E, :0: 2 28@CA>;>388 - ?@0:B8G5A:8 ?>;=>ABLN 8E 70<5=O5B. "0:, 8<<C=>;>38O, 35=5B8:0, >=:>;>38O 8 <>;5:C;O@=0O 18>;>38O <=>38<8 A2>8<8 4>AB865=8O<8 B0:65 >1O70=K MB>9 70<5G0B5;L=>9 , A?>A>1AB2CNI59 =5 B>;L:> ?>;CG5=8N 1>;55 4>AB>25@=KE @57C;LB0B>2, G5< >@30=87< 682>B=>3>, => 8 ?><>30NI59 MB8G5A:><C AB0=>2;5=8N M:A?5@8<5=B0B>@0 (3, 5, 12,13, 51-53). !;54C5B C?><O=CBL, GB>  C =0A 2 28@CA>;>388 ?>=0G0;C ?@87=020;0AL A 1>;LH8< B@C4><. !:>;L:> CA8;89 ?@8;>68; . . 'C<0:>2 : 2=54@5=8N MB>9 ! 0<5=0 682>B=KE =0 :;5B:8 in vitro (2 AB5:;5, 2 ?@>18@:5) 2K7K20;0 =5 ?@>AB> C482;5=85, => :0B53>@8G5A:>5 >B@8F0=85: "KBL =5 <>65B... :0: MB> - 2<5AB> <KH8 - :;5B:8 2 ?@>18@:5?!" 0@O4C A 01A>;NB=K< =5?@8OB85<  <=>38<8 >B5G5AB25==K<8 28@CA>;>30<8, 0 B0:65 G8=>2=8:0<8 8=74@020 (:>B>@K5 8 A59G0A B>@<>7OB 2=54@5=85 , =0?@8<5@, 2 B>:A8:>;>388 8 38385=5), <8@>20O <548F8=A:0O >1I5AB25==>ABL >B=>A8;0AL : ?>4>1=>9 2>7<>6=>AB8 M:A?5@8<5=B0 8=0G5. !5@LQ7=>ABL 8 206=>ABL ?>O2;5=8O  2 28@CA>;>388 >B<5G5=0 =0 >G5=L 2KA>:>< C@>2=5.  1954 3., :>340 2 !( 1>@L10 A ?>;8><85;8B>< 1K;0 2 ?>;=>< @0730@5, 0@>;8=A:89 8=AB8BCB ?@8AC48; >15;52A:CN ?@5<8N ?> D878>;>388 8 <548F8=5 B@Q< 0<5@8:0=A:8< 8AA;54>20B5;O< - . -=45@AC, $. >118=AC 8 ". #M;;5@C 70 :C;LB828@>20=85 :;5B>: G5;>25:0 8 2>7<>6=>ABL @07<=>65=8O 2 =8E 28@CA>2 ?>;8><85;8B0. @8 MB>< ?@>87>H;0 70<5=0 682>B=KE - >157LO= (!)... =0 :;5B:8 2 ?@>18@:5. 5@20O , GC2AB28B5;L=0O : F8B>?0B>35==><C 459AB28N 28@CA>2 - @07@CH8B5;L=><C 459AB28N 28@CA>2 =0 :;5B:8 (&), 1K;0 ?>;CG5=0 87 :>6=>-<KH5G=>9 B:0=8 M<1@8>=0 G5;>25:0 - 01>@B82=>3>, "1@>A>2>3>" <0B5@80;0, =8:><C =5 =C6=>3> 2 B5 2@5<5=0. -B> A59G0A D5B0;L=K5 B:0=8 G5;>25:0 F5=OBAO AB>;L 2KA>:>!  MB> 5IQ >4=0 8AB>@8O - 8A?>;L7>20=85 D5B0;L=KE B:0=59 G5;>25:0 2 @07=KE >1;0ABOE <548F8=K... ! MB8< <>6=> A?>@8BL, =5 A>3;0H0BLAO, ?@8=8<0BL 8;8 =5 ?@8=8<0BL, >AC640BL, => D0:B ?@0:B8G5A:>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O D5B0;L=KE B:0=59 G5;>25:0 2> 1;03> 74>@>2LO 1>;L=>3> ?@8<5=O5BAO >G5=L H8@>:>. 0=LH5 MBC B:0=L 2K1@0AK20;8 - CB8;878@>20;8 70 =5=04>1=>ABLN, B5?5@L : =59 ?@>O2;O5BAO ?>2KH5==K9 8=B5@5A.  B><C 65, AC4O ?> <=>3>G8A;5==K< >1JO2;5=8O< 2 3075B0E 8 6C@=0;0E >AA88, 70?@5I5=85 01>@B>2, =530B82=>5 : =8< >B=>H5=85 =5 4>AB8305B ?>:0 65;05<KE @57C;LB0B>2, 0 ?@8<5=5=85 :>=B@0F5?B82>2, :0: AB0;> 8725AB=>, =5157>?0A=> 4;O 74>@>2LO <>;>4Q68 (54). >MB><C, =04> ?>;030BL =54>AB0B:0 2 MB>9 B:0=8 =5 1C45B...  >B;8G85 >B ?@>G53>, 4;O ?@83>B>2;5=8O 28@CA=KE 20:F8= B@51C5BAO >G5=L 1>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> :;5B>: - :;5B>G=>9 <0AAK. 5@28G=0O  (), ?>;CG5==0O 87 D5B0;L=>9 B:0=8 G5;>25:0, =5 <>3;0 C4>2;5B2>@8BL ?>B@51=>AB8 ?@>872>4AB20 ?>;8>20:F8=K. >MB><C ?>8A:8 A>>B25BAB2CNI53> :;5B>G=>3> AC1AB@0B0 ?@>4>;60;8AL. "0:8<8 65 GC2AB28B5;L=K<8 : & 28@CA>2 ?>;8><85;8B0 >:070;8AL :;5B:8 ?>G5: <0:0: @57CA, ?>765 - 75;Q=KE <0@BKH5:. !59G0A 745AL ?>O28;8AL A2>8 ?@>1;5<K, =>, B5< =5 <5=55, 1>;55 40 ;5B ?>;8>20:F8=0 3>B>28BAO =0  75;5=KE <0@BKH5:. K1>@ ?@85<;5<>AB8 :;5B>G=>3> AC1AB@0B0 4;O 873>B>2;5=8O ?@>B82>28@CA=KE ?@5?0@0B>2 >A=>2K205BAO, :@><5 B>3>, =0 :>=F5?F88 > B><, GB> 2 ?@>872>4AB25 20:F8= 4>;6=K 8A?>;L7>20BLAO :;5B:8 >B :;8=8G5A:8 74>@>2KE >157LO=. 45AL B0:65 2>7=8:;8 B@C4=>AB8. 07@01>B:8 ?@825;8 : A>740=8N 48?;>84=KE :C;LBC@ :;5B>: G5;>25:0 ('), 2>A?@>87254Q==KE 87 >4=>9 :;5B:8 - :;>=0 :;5B>: 74>@>2>3> 4>=>@0. ' >1;040NB A?>A>1=>ABLN ?>445@6820BLAO 2 ?0AA060E >?@545;Q==>5 2@5<O. E <>6=> ?5@5A520BL 2 B5G5=85 ?>;C3>40 - 50-55 ?0AA0659, =0:0?;820O 7=0G8B5;L=>5 :>;8G5AB2> :;5B>:, ?@52>AE>4OI55 8AE>4=>5 G8A;>. 5@52820OAL, ' E0@0:B5@87CNBAO >3@0=8G5==K< A@>:>< 687=8, ?>MB><C =07K20NBAO 5IQ ?>;C?5@528205<>9  (55). 3@0=8G5==K9 A@>: 687=8 ;8<8B8@C5B 8 :>;8G5AB2> :;5B>:, GB> =5 >G5=L C4>1=> 8 2K3>4=> 4;O 873>B>2;5=8O 20:F8=.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O =081>;55 ?5@A?5:B82=K<8 AG8B0NB ?5@528205<K5 ;8=88 :;5B>: (), :>B>@K5 >1;040NB @O4>< ACI5AB25==KE ?@58<CI5AB2 ?5@54  8 '. @5645 2A53>, >=8 >1;040NB =5>3@0=8G5==K< A@>:>< 687=8, GB> ?>72>;O5B A>74020BL 10=:8 B0:8E :;5B>: - ?>A52=>9-<0B>G=>9 8 ?@>872>4AB25==>9 , E0@0:B5@87CNI8EAO 5IQ 8 ?@>4>;68B5;J=K<8 A@>:0<8 E@0=5=8O 8E 2 684:>< 07>B5. -B> >15A?5G8205B ?@54?@8OB8O ?> 873>B>2;5=8N 18>?@5?0@0B>2 =0 45AOB8;5B8O (!) :;5B:0<8 A 70@0=55 87CG5==K<8 8 2A5AB>@>==5 >E0@0:B5@87>20==K<8, AB0=40@B=K<8 A2>9AB20<8. @8 MB>< A>2@5<5==K5 <5B>4K >G8AB:8, >15A?5G820O 2KA>:CN AB5?5=L 157>?0A=>AB8 >B GC65@>4=>9 :;5B>G=>9 , ?>72>;ONB A=860BL 5Q A>45@60=85 2 >4=>9 4>75 20:F8=K 4> 10 ?3 (56, 57). ;03>40@O  1K;8 AD>@<C;8@>20=K =>2K5 B@51>20=8O : ?@>872>4AB2C ?@>B82>28@CA=KE 20:F8= (56-58). -B8 B@51>20=8O >?@545;ONB C@>25=L ?@>872>4AB20, :>=B@>;O 8 A8AB5<K ?>445@60=8O =5>1E>48<KE =0 ?@>872>4AB25 :;5B>G=KE ;8=89 (56-58). "C;LBC@0" - 2>745;K20=85, 2 =0H5< A;CG05 - 2>745;K20=85 :;5B>:. >A;5 =0:>?;5=8O 4>AB0B>G=>3> 8E :>;8G5AB20, 70B5< 28@CAA>45@60I59 684:>AB8, >B25G0NI59 >?@545;Q==K< ?0@0<5B@0< 4;O ?>A;54CNI53> 873>B>2;5=8O 20:F8=K, @01>B0 254QBAO =04 ?@83>B>2;5=85< A0<>3> ?@5?0@0B0. 5@2K5 <=>3>G8A;5==K5 MB0?K 87CG5=8O 0:B82=>AB8 8 157>?0A=>AB8 ?>;8><85;8B=>9 20:F8=K ?@>8AE>4OB B>65 2 . 0 MB>< MB0?5  ?@8<5=O5BAO :0: 2KA>:>GC2AB28B5;L=0O <>45;L-8=AB@C<5=B =5 B>;L:> 2 >F5=:5 MDD5:B82=>AB8 20:F8=K, => 8 2>7459AB28O @07;8G=KE B>:A8G5A:8E 4>102>:. A;8 1K 3>B>20O D>@<0 8=0:B828@>20==>9 20:F8=K ?@>B82 28@CA>2 ?>;8><85;8B0 >1;040;0 :0:8<-B> B>:A8G5A:8< 459AB285<, :0: >B5G5AB25==0O ! 8 5Q <>48D8:0F88 (!- 8 ?@.), B> C1820;0 1K A0<C M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=CN <>45;L - . "0:>5 A2>9AB2> 8A:;NG0;> 1K 2>7<>6=>ABL :>=B@>;O >A=>2=KE ?>:070B5;59 :0G5AB20 ?>;8>20:F8=K. !0<>5 206=>5 2 ?@>872>4AB25 ?@>B82>28@CA=KE 20:F8=, :0: 8 A0<>3> :C;LB828@>20=8O :;5B>:: AB@>609H55 A>1;N45=85 0A5?B8G5A:8E AB5@8;L=KE CA;>289 @01>BK (?>4>1=> ?@>2545=8N ;N1>9 E8@C@38G5A:>9 >?5@0F88!).  40==>< A;CG05 A>25@H5==> =54>?CAB8<> 4>?>;=8B5;L=>5 22545=85 0=B818>B8:>2, @07=>>1@07=KE 18>F84>2 8 ?@>G8E 0=B810:B5@80;L=KE E8<8G5A:8E 25I5AB2 =0 A;CG09 ?>4AB@0E>2:8 AB5@8;L=>9 @01>BK, :0: MB> ?@0:B8:C5BAO ?@8 873>B>2;5=88 2A5E >B5G5AB25==KE 0=B810:B5@80;L=KE 20:F8= (3, 5).  :0G5AB25 20:F8= 8 <5B>40E 87CG5=8O 8E A?5F8D8G5A:>9 8 =5A?5F8D8G5A:>9 157>?0A=>AB8 <K @0AA:065< 2 A?5F80;L=>< @0745;5 - ?> 18>MB8:5 2 20:F8=>;>388 (@0745; V).  ',  '!"+   , / ", !!" &! 025@H0O B5<C ?> 8AB>@88 2=54@5=8O  2 20:F8=>;>388, 4>102;N, GB> 2A5 B@8 2840 :C;LB828@C5<KE :;5B>: - ?5@28G=K5, 48?;>84=K5 8 ?5@528205<K5 - H8@>:> ?@8<5=ONBAO 1>;55 G5B25@B8 25:0 2 D0@<0:>;>3>-B>:A8:>;>3>-38385=8G5A:8E 8AA;54>20=8OE 2 !(, /?>=88 8 <=>38E AB@0=0E 2@>?K (5,12,13, 51-54).  >AA88, :0: 8 2 1K2H5< !!! , "0:BC0;L=>ABL 8 ?5@A?5:B82=>ABL, M:>=><8G=>ABL 8 F5;5A>>1@07=>ABL" ?@8<5=5=8O MB>9  2 ?@0:B8G5A:>9 <548F8=5 (B>:A8:>;>388, 38385=5 8 ?@.) <K ?@>4>;605< >1AC640BL... 1AC645=85 70BO=C;>AL =0 45AOB8;5B8O - 8 2 MB>< <K 4>AB83;8 B0:>9 ABC?5=8 =57=0=8O, :0: 1C4B> A?5F80;L=> AB8@05< 3@0=L <564C @50;L=>ABLN 8 2>>1@0605<K<8 B@C4=>ABO<8 2 @01>B5 A .  "'!# !,.   "'!"  #! + /+ # !  + ,  #!# .. '##! ">;L:> 53> B8B0=8G5A:0O M=5@38O, =5C:@>B8<K5 ?@8=F8?K A<>3;8 ?@>18BL 1@5HL 2 50-A 3>4K (!) 2 AB0=5 "=5A>3;0A=KE" A>25BA:8E G8=>2=8:>2. "@C4=>AB8, 2 1>@L15 A :>B>@K<8 'C<0:>2 >BAB0820; 2AQ (!) 4;O B>3>, GB>1K =0G0BL @01>BK A 8A?>;L7>20=85< , 1K;8 B0: 25;8:8, GB> >?8A0BL 8E 2@O4 ;8 2>7<>6=>, E>BO <=>3><C O ;8G=> 1K;0 ?@O<K< A2845B5;5<. 0;> A:070BL "25;8:8": B>340 ":C;LBC@0;L=0O 28@CA>;>38O" :070;>AL 01A>;NB=> =5@50;L=>9 8 D0=B0AB8G5A:>9 - :0: A59G0A 4;O >B5G5AB25==KE B>:A8:>;>3>2. > 'C<0:>2 - A?;02 E0@0:B5@>2. !;KHC 8 A59G0A 53> 3;CE>20BK9, => 2=CH8B5;L=K9 3>;>A, 8<?5@0B82=K5 8=B>=0F88. = 1K; A;>6=K<, 15A:><?@><8AA=K< 8 @57:8< G5;>25:>< G5AB=> 8 1577025B=> ?@540==K< =0C:5 8 B5G5AB2C @57@5=85 : BC?>AB8, : >BACBAB28N 7=0=89 8 =565;0=8N 7=0BL (!), G20=AB2C G8=>2=8:>2 :> 2A5<C, GB> B>@<>78;> @0728B85 ?@>3@5AA0 2 28@CA>;>388, 1K;> A>25@H5==> =5A:@K205<K<. 0 MB> >= =068; =5<0;> 2@03>2, >A>15==> A@548 C?@02;5=F52 74@02>>E@0=5=85<! 57C;LB0BK B@C4>2 8E08;0 5B@>28G0 2 MB>< =0?@02;5=88 >3@><=K 5IQ 8 ?>B><C, GB> @07@01>B:0 8 2=54@5=85  2 =0H59 AB@0=5 - >ICB8<K9 DC=40<5=B, ?>72>;82H89 >B5G5AB25==K< 28@CA>;>30< =5 >4=> 45AOB8;5B85 >1I0BLAO A 70@C156=K<8 A?5F80;8AB0<8 =0 >4=>< C@>2=5. / 8 ?>=K=5 2;N1;5=0 2 A2>N ?@>D5AA8N 28@CA>;>30 1;03>40@O B><C, GB> 2 B5 40;Q:85 2@5<5=0 .. 'C<0:>2 4>25@8; <=5 >G5=L >B25BAB25==K5 CG0AB:8 @01>BK: ?>;CG5=85 , A>25@H5=AB2>20=85 <5B>4>2 :C;LB828@>20=8O :;5B>:, 2K45;5=85 28@CA>2 ?>;8><85;8B0, ?5@2K5 AB0488 ?@>25@:8 20:F8=K, 0 B0:65 >?@545;5=85 A?5F8D8G5A:8E 0=B8B5; ?@>B82 28@CA>2 ?>;8><85;8B0 4> 8 ?>A;5 ?@8282:8... ;N1;5=0 1;03>40@O :C;LBC@5 :;5B>: - A0<>9 3C<0==>9 18>;>38G5A:>9 <>45;8, 8A?>;L7C5<>9 2 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=>9, 4803=>AB8G5A:>9 28@CA>;>388, 2 5Q DC=40<5=B0;L=KE 8AA;54>20=8OE. @02OBAO 8;8 =5 =@02OBAO :><C-B> B0:85 2>A?><8=0=8O, =5 ACBL 206=>, B5< 1>;55 GB> > 20:F8=0E 'C<0:>20 O =0?8A0;0 2 @0745;5 "5<C0@K XX 25:0" 0;L<0=0E0 "-2@8:0" (1993, ! 4). !25B;0O 5<C ?0<OBL! AB>@8O, >4=0:>, 1C45B =5?>;=>9, 5A;8 =5 @0AA:070BL > <C65AB25==KE ?>ABC?:0E @07@01>BG8:>2 20:F8=. 8:@>18>;>38O, :0: 2 F5;>< <548F8=0, 1>30B0 ?@8<5@0<8, :>340 2@0G8, CGQ=K5, ABC45=BK, D5;L4H5@K, <54A5AB@K ?@>25@O;8 =0 A515 ?5@2K5 A5@88 20:F8=. -B8 ?>ABC?:8 >B=>AOBAO, ?> ACI5AB2C, 5IQ : >4=><C @0745;C 20:F8=>;>388 - : 45>=B>;>388, : 2>?@>A0< 18>MB8:8 (4, 5). 5>= - 4>;6=>5, 4>;3... 5:>B>@K< 0A?5:B0< MB>9 ?@>1;5<K ?>A2OI5=K AB@0=8FK 2 @0745;5 ?> 18>MB8:5. -:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 682>B=K5 - 40. >... >=8 =5 8=D>@<8@>20BL > A2>8E >ICI5=8OE. 1I58725AB=> 8 4@C3>5: 2 >@30=87<5 682>B=KE <=>3>5 ?@>O2;O5BAO 8=0G5, =565;8 2 >@30=87<5 G5;>25:0, B5< 1>;55 - 2 45BA:>< >@30=87<5 (2, 3, 5, 51). A5340 B@51>20;AO 8 ?@>4>;605B 1KBL =5>1E>48<K< M:A?5@8<5=B =0 G5;>25:5! .$. 0<0;5O 8A?KB0; ?5@2CN 20:F8=C ?@>B82 E>;5@K, ?>;CG5==CN 2 >AA88, =0 A515 (1902-1905 33.). 6. !>;:, ?@5645 G5< ?@8ABC?8BL : M:A?5@8<5=B0< "=0 >3@0=8G5==>< :>=B8=35=B5 45B59", A45;0; ?@8282:8 B@Q< A2>8< AK=>2LO<. !?CABO =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O ?@>872>4AB2> ?>;8>20:F8=K 1K;> ?>@CG5=> :@C?=K< D0@<0F52B8G5A:8< D8@<0< <5@8:8. . !5918= 20:F8=8@>20; A2>8E 4>G5@59.  MB>< A;CG05, A <>59 B>G:8 7@5=8O, =C6=0 1K;0 >A>10O AB>9:>ABL >BF0, G5;>25:0, CGQ=>3> 8 01A>;NB=0O C25@5==>ABL 2 157C:>@87=5==>AB8 2A5E ?@5420@8B5;L=KE M:A?5@8<5=B>2 in vitro 8 =0 >157LO=0E. 5H0;0AL AC4L10 74>@>2KE 45B59 ?@8 22545=88 8< >A;01;5==>3> (0BB5=B8@>20==>3>), => 682>3> (!) ?>;8>28@CA0. .. 'C<0:>2 8 .. !<>@>48=F52 ?>A;5 A>740=8O 20:F8=K 2 !!!  <=>3>:@0B=> AB028;8 M:A?5@8<5=BK =0 A515. >, :0: C65 3>2>@8;>AL, 1>;5NB ?>;8><85;8B>< 2 >A=>2=>< 2>A?@88<G82K5 45B8. AE>4O 87 MB>3>, !<>@>48=F52 @5H8;AO, :070;>AL 1K, =0 =525@>OB=>5: 22Q; 20:F8=C A2>59 2=CG:5... AQ >1>H;>AL 1;03>?>;CG=>. >;=>9 4@0<0B8G5A:8E >6840=89 1K;0 ?>A;54CNI0O 20:F8=0F8O 45B59 A>B@C4=8:>2 <>A:>2A:>3> 8 ;5=8=3@04A:>3> 8=AB8BCB>2, ?> ACB8, O2;O2H0OAO ?@>4>;65=85< M:A?5@8<5=B0. 8 >48= @51Q=>: =5 701>;5;. !B@0=8FK 8AB>@88 ?@>25@:8 682>9 20:F8=K ?@>B82 ?>;8><85;8B0 7025@H8;8AL H8@>:><0AHB01=>9 20:F8=0F859 45B59 =5:>B>@KE @5A?C1;8: 1K2H53> !!!  (44-46).  687=8 8 45OB5;L=>AB8 =5:>B>@KE @>AA89A:8E 28@CA>;>3>2, M?845<8>;>3>2, 8=D5:F8>=8AB>2, ?@>O282H8E 1577025B=K9 3C<0=87< 8 A0<>>B25@65==>ABL 2 A;C65=88 =0C:5, ?>25AB2C5B =51>;LH0O :=830 ?@>D5AA>@0 !.. ;8=:8=0 "5@>8G5A:85 1C4=8 <548:>2" (.: 548F8=0, 1980). #A?5E8 2 87CG5=88 2>?@>A>2 ?>;8><85;8B0 8 2 >@30=870F88 A?5F8D8G5A:>9 ?@>D8;0:B8:8 A ?><>ILN A>25BA:>9 20:F8=K =081>;55 O@:> A:070;8AL 2 B><, GB> >1I5AB25==>ABL /?>=88 ?>B@51>20;0 CA:>@5==>9 70:C?:8 =0H53> ?@5?0@0B0, GB> 8 1K;> >ACI5AB2;5=> 2 =0G0;5 60-E... 4=0:>, 2A?><8=0O 8AB>@8N, 8 A?@0254;82>AB8 @048, A;54C5B >B<5B8BL, GB> 2 !( - =0 @>48=5 MB>3> 87>1@5B5=8O - ?@8<5=5=85 53> 1K;> @07@5H5=> 7=0G8B5;L=> ?>765, =565;8 2 !!! , G5<C, @07C<55BAO, 5ABL A2>8 ?@54?>AK;:8, ?>4B25@640NI85 B>B D0:B, GB> 2 ?@8<5=5=88 682KE 20:F8= 40;5:> =5 2AQ B0: >4=>7=0G=> 8 ?@>AB> (44-46, 60, 61). >A;54=55 B5< 1>;55 206=> ?>B><C, GB> 2 !( 8 A59G0A ?5@2K5 425 ?@8282:8 ?@>B82 ?>;8><85;8B0 >ACI5AB2;ONB C18B>9 20:F8=>9 !>;:0, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: 2 >AA88 ?@>4>;605BAO H8@>:><0AHB01=0O 20:F8=0F8O 682>9 ?>;8>20:F8=>9. @><5 B>3>, 2 !( =5 20:F8=8@CNB 45B59 2 @>44><0E 20:F8=>9 &.  1974 3. 27-O A5AA8O A5<8@=>9 AA0<1;58 4@02>>E@0=5=8O ?@8=O;0 @57>;NF8N : @07@01>B:5 8 >ACI5AB2;5=8N  (=0?><=N - 0AH8@5==>9 @>3@0<<K <<C=870F88) 8 M?845<8>;>38G5A:>3> =047>@0 70 48DB5@859, :>:;NH5<, AB>;1=O:>< =>2>@>64Q==KE ?>;8><85;8B><, BC15@:C;Q7><, :>@LN 8 >A?>9: " 7028A8<>AB8 >B =5>1E>48<>AB8 4;O :064>9 AB@0=K... 0==0O ?@>3@0<<0, >A=>2=>5 2=8<0=85 :>B>@>9 1K;> A>A@54>B>G5=> =0 @072820NI8EAO AB@0=0E (2 B5 2@5<5=0 <K : B0:8< =5 >B=>A8;8AL! - .'.), =0?@02;5=0 =0 A>:@0I5=85 701>;5205<>AB8 8 A<5@B=>AB8 >B 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 4> C@>2=O, :>B>@K9 =5 ?@54AB02;O5B A5@L57=KE ?@>1;5< 4;O 74@02>>E@0=5=8O" (62). =K<8 A;>20<8, 4065 , =0 :>B>@CN >1KG=> AAK;0NBAO 20:F8=0B>@K 2A5E @0=3>2 =0H59 AB@0=K, =5 ?@54CA<0B@820;0 ";8:2840F88" 2A5E 2KH5?5@5G8A;5==KE 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59, => @5:><5=4>20;0 A>:@0B8BL 701>;5205<>ABL "4> C@>2=O, :>B>@K9 =5 ?@54AB02;O5B A5@LQ7=KE ?@>1;5< 4;O 74@02>>E@0=5=8O". "@C4=> A:070BL, :>340 8 2 A2O78 A G5<  ?@52@0B8;0AL 2 ?@>3@0<<C ";8:2840F88" 2>71C48B5;59 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59. > MB> - >48= 87 <8D>2 > ";8:2840F88 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 A ?><>ILN ?@8282>: 2A5E ?>4@O4". "8:2840F8O" - @01>B0 =51;03>40@=0O, ?@0:B8G5A:8 =52K?>;=8<0O ?> A2>59 =5?@54A:07C5<>AB8, 40 8 =5157>?0A=0O: "#=8GB>68BL 8 =5 640BL >B25B=>3> C40@0, =5 ?>4C<02, 0 =5 709<CB ;8 >A2>1>482H55AO <5AB> ?>4 A>;=F5< 4@C385, :C40 1>;55 03@5AA82=K5 <8:@>1K?" - ?@54>AB5@530; 02B>@ 48DB5@89=>3> 0=0B>:A8=0 0AB>= 0<>= (F8B. ?>: 616, A. 83). "0=8<0NB", 5IQ :0: 70=8<0NB! - 3@5AA82=K5 AB@5?B>:>::8, =>2K5 HB0<<K <8:>10:B5@89 BC15@:C;Q70, 2K7K20NI85 BC15@:C;Q7 :>AB59, ACAB02>2, :>68, :8H5G=8:0, <>G5?>;>2>9 A8AB5<K - A@548 "?@028;L=>" ?@828BKE ?@>B82 BC15@:C;Q70 20:F8=>9 &; <=>3>;8:85 35?0B8BK 8 28@CAK 35@?5A0 8 B. 4. >=5G=> 65, =081>;55 687=5==>9 8 >1;040NI59 2KA>:>9 =0CG=>-?@0:B8G5A:>9 F5==>ABLN ?@54AB02;O5BAO D>@<C;0 ";8:2840F8O <0AA>2KE 701>;520=89", :0: 8 ?>=8<0;8 ?><>IL 74@02>>E@0=5=8N <=>385 M?845<8>;>30, 8=D5:F8>=8ABK, ?5480B@K... 40;Q:>3> ?@>H;>3> (3, 8, 20, 22, 25, 28-31, 41, 61 - 66), A>:@0I5=85 701>;5205<>AB8 4> C@>2=O, =5 ?@54AB02;ONI53> A5@LQ7=KE ?@>1;5< 4;O 3>AC40@AB20 (62). @8 MB>< =04> ?>AB>O==> 8<5BL 2 284C, GB> >A=>2=>5 ?@54=07=0G5=85 20:F8= - 70I8B0 :>=:@5B=>3> G5;>25:0 8;8 3@C??K ;8F, 2>A?@88<G82KE : B>9 8;8 8=>9 8=D5:F8>==>9 1>;57=8. # =0A 8 745AL ?@>87>H;0 ?>4<5=0 ?>=OB89: "70I8B0 G5;>25:0" =0 "A45@6820=85 M?845<89". -B> B>65 87 >1;0AB8 2@54=KE 8;;N789, 01A>;NB=> =5=0CG=KE 8459, ?>A:>;L:C A45@6820=85 M?845<89 - :064>4=52=0O @01>B0 A0=M?84A;C61 - :><?;5:A ?@>B82>M?845<8G5A:8E <5@>?@8OB88 A> AB@>609H8< A>1;N45=85< M?845<8>;>38G5A:>3> =047>@0, A CG5B>< 35>3@0D8G5A:8E, :;8<0B8G5A:8E @538>=>2, 2 @57:> 87<5=82H8EAO M:>;>38G5A:8E CA;>28OE 0=B@>?>35==KE =03@C7>: =0 45BA:89 >@30=87<, 0 B0:65 87<5=5=88 2 <8:@><8@5 - A@548 2>71C48B5;59 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59. 5;L7O 8 745AL B0: 15A?>I04=> M:A?;C0B8@>20BL 8A:;NG8B5;L=> G5;>25G5A:89 D0:B>@, ?@52@0B82 2A5E (!) 2 8A:CAAB25==> =52>A?@88<G82KE : 2>71C48B5;O< 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59, :0: 1K CA>25@H5=AB2>202 ?@8@>4C G5;>25:0... 2> 8<O A?0A5=8O 2A53> G5;>25G5AB20 (?!). !:>;L:> C6 2> 8<O MB>3> CA>25@H5=AB2>20=>... 2> 2@54 74>@>2LN G5;>25:0...! >;55 ?>;C25:0 ?KB05<AO ;8:2848@>20BL 48DB5@8N, GB> =5@50;L=> A45;0BL A ?><>ILN 0=0B>:A8=0, 2E>4OI53> 2 A>AB02 ! 8 5Q <>48D8:0F88. 5 ACI5AB2C5B 20:F8=K ?@>B82 48DB5@88: 8:2840F8O 48DB5@88 =52>7<>6=0 A ?><>ILN 0=0B>:A8=0, >15A?5G820NI53> 2K@01>B:C =0?@O6Q==>AB8 0=B8B>:A8G5A:>3>, => =5 0=B810:B5@80;L=>3> 8<<C=8B5B0, - CB25@6405B M?845<8>;>3, @57845=B  A A>02B>@0<8, 0 B0:65 564C=0@>4=0O A;C610 ?> ;8:2840F88 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 (670, A. 17; 68). 02=> 8725AB=>, GB> 20:F8=0 & A>25@H5==> =5?@83>4=0 4;O ;8:2840F88 BC15@:C;Q70 (41- 43). 5@0F8>=0;L=>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 5Q ?@82>48B : ?@O<> ?@>B82>?>;>6=K< @57C;LB0B0<  =0@0AB0=8N BC15@:C;Q70... !>25@H5==> =5 704C<K205<AO <K =04 B5<, :0: <=>3> AB0;> 8725AB=> 70 ?>A;54=85 50 ;5B 2 >1;0AB8 8<<C=>;>388, 8<<C=>;>388 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59, M:>;>388 G5;>25:0, 2 =5>=0B>;>388 8 2 4@C38E >1;0ABOE 7=0=89. 5 E>B8< 70<5G0BL =>2CN <548F8=A:CN 48AF8?;8=C - =5>=0B>;>38N - =01;N45=85 70 @51Q=:>< 2 ?5@2K5 28 - 30 4=59 687=8. 01;N45=85!!! 5 CG8BK205< D5@<5=B>?0B89, => 20:F8=8@C5< 2 @>44><5 &... 5 E>B8< ?>4C<0BL =04 B5<, GB> 2A5 20:F8=K D0:B8G5A:8 873>B02;820NBAO ?> B5E=>;>388 2@5<Q=... 65==5@0 8 0AB5@0!  ;N1>9 35==>-8=65=5@=K9 ?@>4C:B =5 87CG5= ?>:0 5IQ =0 >B40;5==K5 ?>A;54AB28O, GB> A;54C5B >A>15==> CG8BK20BL ?@8 22545=88 53> 45BO<! @>4>;605< ;8:2848@>20BL ?CBQ< >E20B0 2A5E ?>4@O4.  @57C;LB0B5 8<55< ?0@04 8=D5:F89 ?>B><C, GB> =8G53> =5 <>65B 1KBL 15A?5@A?5:B82=55, G5< >1JO2;5=85 > ;8:2840F88 B>9 8;8 8=>9 8=D5:F8>==>9 1>;57=8 ?CB5< ?@8:070.  :0G5AB25 >B25B0 =0 MB> =587156=> ?>A;54C5B 2>;=0 >G:>2B8@0B5;LAB20, - ?8A0; 8725AB=K9 45BA:89 M?845<8>;>3 5IQ 2 60-5 3>4K (!) XX AB>;5B8O. 0: >B<5G0;>AL @0=55, : <0AA>2><C 8A?>;L7>20=8N 20:F8= 2@0G8 ?>2A5<5AB=> >B=>A8;8AL >G5=L =5>4=>7=0G=>, 0 =5:>B>@K5 87 =8E C65 1 ;5B =0704 AG8B0;8: "A?>?@82820=85 C?>B@51;O5BAO A:>@55 :0: C:>@5=82H0OAO ?@82KG:0, >1KG09, G5< @0F8>=0;L=K9 <5B>4 ?@54>E@0=5=8O @>40 G5;>25G5A:>3> >B =0BC@0;L=>9 >A?K" (30, ;5:F8O 2, A. 32). 07;8G=K5 273;O4K =0 ?@8<5=5=85 ?@8282>: A:070;8AL 8 =0 A0<>9 A8AB5<5 8E ACI5AB2>20=8O. "0:, 2> $@0=F88, A0<>9 1N@>:@0B8G5A:>9 AB@0=5, ?@02> 20:F8=8@>20BLAO 1K;> ?@54>AB02;5=>, B5< =5 <5=55 =0 ;8G=>5 CA<>B@5=85 3@0640=. >4>1=K9 ?>@O4>: 3>A?>4AB2>20; 2 B0;88, 5;L388, >;;0=488 8 4@C38E AB@0=0E.  2>B 2 =3;88 A 402=8E ?>@ 1K; CAB0=>2;5= 70:>= >1 >A?>?@82820=88 45B59 2 B5G5=85 ?5@2KE B@QE <5AOF52 ?>A;5 @>645=8O.  2AQ-B0:8 "B@QE <5AOF52", 0 =5 =0 B@5BL8 ACB:8 ?>A;5 @>645=8O!  /?>=88 70:>=>40B5;L=> - >1O70B5;L=>5 >A?>?@82820=85 ?@54CA<0B@820;>AL B>;L:> =0 A;CG09 2>7<>6=>9 M?845<88.  (259F0@88 8 ?> A59 45=L 2 :064>< :0=B>=5, :0: 8 2 :064>< HB0B5 !(, A2>8 ?>@O4:8, 0 A XVIII 25:0 2 (259F0@88 ">1O70B5;L=>ABL ?@8282>: >B<5=5=0 =0@>4><" (30, ;5:F8O 2, A. 33).  >AA88 20:F8=0F8O 22545=0 2 1801 3. 2 F0@AB2>20=85 8<?5@0B>@0 02;0 I. @8 MB>< "?@>5:B :0: >1O70B5;L=K9 2 >AA88 =5 ?>;CG8; CB25@645=8O..., B>;L:> 2 =5:>B>@KE 75<A:8E 3C15@=8OE 4>?CI5=0 CA;>2=0O >1O70B5;L=>ABL" (66).  2 6C@=0;5 " '" 70 1902 3. G8B05<: " 8=80?>;8A5 [8==50?>;8A] (!52. <5@8:0) ?@>872545=0 =0A8;LAB25==0O ?@8282:0 ?@>B82 >A?K. 0:8<8 1K 1;038<8 =0<5@5=8O<8 =8 @C:>2>4AB2>20;>AL 2@0G51=>5 C?@02;5=85 3>@>40, => ?@81530BL : =0A8;LAB25==K< <5@0< =54>AB>9=> 4;O 2@0G51=>3> A>>1I5AB20... K C25@5=K, GB> A@548 @CAA:8E 2@0G59 =5;L7O 1K;> 1K =09B8 =8 >4=>3>, C :>3> 1K ?>4=O;0AL @C:0 4;O ?@>872>4AB20 2 MB>< A;CG05 =0A8;LAB25==>3> C:>;0".  =0H59 AB@0=5 2AQ @57:> 87<5=8;>AL 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8 A ;5=8=A:>3> 45:@5B0 >1 >A?>?@82820=88 2 1919 3. !>25@H5==> >G5284=>, 8 2 40==>< A;CG05 ?@>2>73;0H0;0AL 845>;>38O "2A5>1I53> @025=AB20" ?@8 >ACI5AB2;5=88 ?;0=>2>-<0AA>2>3> >E20B0, 8AE>482H0O 87 ?@>B82>AB>O=8O ?>15482H53> =>2>3> ?>1564Q==><C AB0@><C: C=8GB>65=85 8=48284C0;L=>AB8, GB> ?@>8AE>48;> =5 B>;L:> 2 AD5@5 ?@8282>:. QAB:>5 ?;0=8@>20=85 "45:@5B8@>20==>3> >E20B0" B@51>20;> AB>;L 65 CA:>@5==>3> 8 CA5GQ==>3> ?>4E>40 ?@8 >ACI5AB2;5=88 ?;0=>2, GB> A> 2@5<5=5< ?@52@0B8;>, ?>60;C9, B@8 ?>:>;5=8O A>25BA:8E 2@0G59-20:F8=0B>@>2 2 ;N459, >:07K20NI8E <0;>MDD5:B82=CN 8 157=@02AB25==CN "?><>IL" (18, 19). 8 >4=> 3>AC40@AB2> =5 <>65B ">E20AB0BLAO" B>B0;L=K< >E20B>< ?@8282:0<8, :@><5 =0H53>: "!>25BA:89 !>N7 2A5340 70=8<0; 254CI55 <5AB> 2 <8@5 ?> <0AA>2>AB8 ?;0=>2>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O 20:F8=..., GB> O2;O5BAO >@838=0;L=>ABLN =0H59 ?>78F88" (700, A. 11-12). B>@OB 2KA:07K20=8O< 1K2H53> 3;02=>3> A0=8B0@=>3> 2@0G0 !!!  53> ?>4G8=Q==K5, C?@02;ONI85 A0=M?84=047>@>< 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O: "2>4O ?>;=CN 8<<C=870F8N 45B59, <K 1@0;8 =0 A51O 1>;LHCN >B25BAB25==>ABL - 2 <8@5 =8345 B0:>3> =5 1K;>. @8>@8B5B 2 MB>< ?@8=04;568B !!! " (71).  B><-B> 2AO B@03548O =0H8E <0;KH59 - =8:B> =8 70 GB> =5 >B25G05B: =8 70 0;;5@3870F8N :0: @57C;LB0B "?>;=>9 8<<C=870F88" (70-72), =8 70 ">18;85 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89" (3-5, 9,20). B> 87 @>48B5;59 <>65B ?@825AB8 ?@8<5@ B>3>, GB> CG0AB:>2K9 ?5480B@-20:F8=0B>@ ?@>A;548; 70 ?@828BK< @515=:>< ... E>BO 1K 2 B5G5=85 42CE-B@QE <5AOF52?!  !!! , ?> >D8F80;L=K< A2545=8O<, >A?C "?>1548;8" : 1936 3... "5< =5 <5=55, B>B0;L=0O 20:F8=0F8O =5 ?@5:@0I0;0AL 5IQ 45 ;5B (!), 4> ?>154K =04 >A?>9... 2 D@8:5. @>4>;60;0AL, =5A<>B@O =0 <=>3>>1@0785 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89 - =0 F5=B@0;L=CN =5@2=CN A8AB5<C, 8 =0 ;5B0;L=K5 8AE>4K (3, 9, 20, 33). "@C4=> >@85=B8@>20BLAO =0 :0:CN-B> AB@0=C, B5< 1>;55 =0 "25AL <8@": :0;5=40@8 ?@8282>: 2 :064>9 AB@0=5 A2>8. 4=0:> ?@54AB02;ONBAO =5157K=B5@5A=K<8 A2545=8O, =0?@8<5@, > !(: ?> >4=8< 40==K<, >A?>?@82820=85 1K;> ?@5:@0I5=> 6-5 3>4K XX 25:0 (33), ?> 4@C38< - ?@>1;5<0 >A?K 1K;0 @5H5=0 C65 : 1822 3. (32).  >AA88, :0: C65 >B<5G0;>AL, 4> 1919 3. B>65 =5 AB@5<8;8AL : "?>;=>9 8<<C=870F88" - ">E20BC 2A5E ?>4@O4" (29, 30, 66). =>3>5 87 B>3>, GB> ?@>8AE>48B C =0A A59G0A, >ACI5AB2;O5BAO ?> . F8B8@>20==><C 2KH5 .. @><0H52A:><C (696): ?@8:07K20;8 8... ";8:2848@>20;8" (!), => 48DB5@8O ?>AB>O==> ?@>O2;O5BAO 2> 2A?KH:0E, E>BO ">B25BAB25==K5 @01>B=8:8 A0=M?84A;C61" AG8B0NB MB> M?845<8O<8 (A>3;0A=> 8E A>>1I5=8O< 2 !) - >B >A:2K 4> ;0482>AB>:0... 0 A0<>< 45;5, =8 ?5@2>5, =8 2B>@>5, =8 B@5BL5 =5 A>>B25BAB2C5B 459AB28B5;L=>AB8: =5 1K;> =8:0:8E M?845<89, ?>4>1=KE B5<, GB> >B<5G0;8AL, A:065<, 2 =0G0;5 XX 25:0, :0: 8 =5 1K;0 >ACI5AB2;5=0 ";8:2840F8O". C, 0 5A;8 45;> B>;L:> 2 ?@8282:0E, B> ?>G5<C @0AB5B BC15@:C;Q7, >B=>AOI89AO, :0: <=>385 4@C385 8=D5:F8>==K5 1>;57=8, 1C4B> 1K : "C?@02;O5<K< ?@8282:0<8"?! !;54C5B C?><O=CBL > B><, GB>, =5A<>B@O =0 402;5=85 A> AB>@>=K G8=>2=8:>2, =0 8E AB@>385 C:07K 8 ?@8:07K, AB0@K5 @>AA89A:85 2@0G8 5I5 8 2 A>25BA:>5 2@5<O (4> A5@548=K 70-E 33. XX AB>;5B8O) ?@>4>;60;8 >B=>A8BLAO : ?@8282:0< >G5=L >AB>@>6=>: ":0: : A5@LQ7=>9 8<<C=>18>;>38G5A:>9 >?5@0F88... 157 2C;L30@870F88 MB>9 <548F8=A:>9 ?@>F54C@K" (3, 20, 29, 30, 63). :045<8: ..'C<0:>2 ?8A0; 2 "548F8=A:>9 3075B5" =5 2 B0:85 C6 8 402=85 2@5<5=0 (2 =>O1@O 1988 3.): "0:F8=0F8O C =0A <5@0 >1O70B5;L=0O.  :C40 1K F5;5A>>1@07=55 ?@>2>48BL 5Q =0 4>1@>2>;L=>9 >A=>25...". !;020 >3C, >B<5=8;8 02@0;K 8 =0H5AB28O 20:F8=0B>@>2 =0 ?@54?@8OB8O, D01@8:8, 2 8=AB8BCBK 8 4@C385 ">@30=87>20==K5 CG@5645=8O" A ?@8282:0<8 ?@>B82 3@8??0! @5<O 1568B, 8 7=0G8B5;L=0O G0ABL <>;>4Q68 B5?5@L C65 =5 ?>=8<05B, GB> 7=0G8B A45;0BL ?@8282:C =0A8;L=>: ?>4 C3@>7>9 =52K?;0BK AB8?5=488, 70@?;0BK, 70?@5B0 2K?8A:8 @5F5?B0 =0 45BA:>5 ?8B0=85. 0@O4C A MB8< 2 >AA88 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8:>9 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 ?@>4>;60NB 70=8<0BLAO "A25@EC" - G8=>2=8:8-M?845<8>;>38 8 A0=2@0G8, A>25@H5==> =5 @0718@0NI85AO 2 8<<C=>;>388.  254L =0 =8E 2>7;>65=K A>2A5< 4@C385 >1O70==>AB8... "!=87C" 70 >E20B A "M:>=><8G5A:8< AB8<C;8@>20=85<" (720) >B25G0NB CG0AB:>2K5 ?5480B@K, :>B>@K5, :0: ?>:07K205B ?@0:B8:0 >1I5=8O A =8<8 2 ?>A;54=85 15 ;5B, A>25@H5==> =5 7=0:><K A 8<<C=>;>38G5A:8<8 0A?5:B0<8 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 8 =8:0: =5 A2O7K20NB 8=D5:F8>==K5 1>;57=8, :0: 8 20:F8=>;>38N, A 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<>9. @54AB02;5=85 > ?@8282:0E C =8E >G5=L ?@8<8B82=>5 8 01A>;NB=> :>=:@5B=>5: 2K?>;=8BL ?@8:07 ?> >E20BC - 8 MB> 2AQ, :0: >=8 ?>;030NB, GB> >B =8E B@51C5BAO.  !", ", '"+  ', (.)!/  ##. !!"#, + ""!"  #! #25@5=0: =8 >48= 87 ?5480B@>2 8 A0=2@0G59 =5 ?@>H5; 1K B0:>9 0BB5AB0F88... !CI5AB2CNB 8 1>;55 =530B82=K5 2KA:07K20=8O 2 >B=>H5=88 A?5F80;870F88 =0H8E ?5480B@>2, <564C ?@>G8<, A> AB>@>=K 8E 65 :>;;53-2@0G59: "A53> 100 ;5B =0704 ?5480B@K 1K;8 "M;8B>9" 2@0G51=>9 :>@?>@0F88.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O H8@>:> >1@07>20==K9 ?5480B@ AB0; 2AB@5G0BLAO 2AQ @565... ?5480B@K 4>;6=K A>G5B0BL 7=0=8O <=>38E ?>3@0=8G=KE >1;0AB59, 48AF8?;8=" (15, A. 65), #2K!!! =5=85 2@0G0-45?CB0B0 >A4C<K: "@0G59-?5480B@>2 <=>3>, 254L MB>B :>;8G5AB25==K9 ?>:070B5;L 2 AB@0=5, 345 <K 68;8, 2A5340 AB028;AO 2> 3;02C C3;0, 0 > :0G5AB25 =5 >G5=L-B> 701>B8;8AL. 564C B5< :20;8D8:0F8O 45BA:8E 2@0G59 70G0ABCN =52KA>:0, A8AB5<0 >@30=870F88 8E B@C40 <0;>MDD5:B82=0... 45BA:>5 74@02>>E@0=5=85 C =0A =0E>48BAO =0 =87:>< C@>2=5..." (73). C 8 C6 A>2A5< ?@>AB> 2K@078; A2>N <KA;L ?@54A540B5;L ><8B5B0 ?> 74@02>>E@0=5=8N 3. >A:2K - "3;02=K9 AB>;8G=K9 =0G0;L=8: ?> G0AB8 74>@>2LO" (74): "5:>B>@K5 2@0G8 ?@>AB> =5 <>3CB B@C48BLAO 4>1@>A>25AB=>. 8 >4=0 60;>10 =5 >AB05BAO =5@0AA<>B@5==>9. 5;05< 2AQ GB>1K C<5=LH8BL ?@>F5=B <548:>2, ?>7>@OI8E 74@02>>E@0=5=85...". 45AL :0: 1K 8 =5 > ?5480B@0E, => 3;02=K9 G8=>2=8: 15@QB H8@5 8 3>2>@8B > <548:0E 2 F5;><, 2848<>, 8<5O 2 284C 8 ?5480B@>2... C<05BAO, ?>4>1=K5 ?5480B@K =8 8=B5;;5:BC0;L=>, =8 M<>F8>=0;L=> =5 2 A>AB>O=88 ?>=OBL: ?@8282:0 20:F8=>9 - A;>6=59H0O 8<<C=>18>;>38G5A:0O >?5@0F8O, 8<<C=><>4C;OF8O ?@8@>4=KE 70I8B=KE A8; @51Q=:0. 5@50;L=> "=0 3;07>:", ?CBQ< >A<>B@0 >?@545;8BL, =C6=> ;8 =02O7K205<>5 ?@>B578@>20=85 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K 8 A>AB>O;0AL ;8 70I8B0, 5A;8 2 =59 1K;0 =5>1E>48<>ABL... AB5AB25==>, <>;>4K5 @>48B5;8 A> 2AQ 2>7@0AB0NI8< =54>25@85< >B=>AOBAO : "?@8282>G=><C 45;C" (75) :0: @5<5A;C, =5 ?>4:@5?;Q==><C A>2@5<5==K<8 <5B>48:0<8, =5 8<5NI5<C A>2@5<5==KE =0CG=KE >1>A=>20=89. !?>@K 2>:@C3 <0AA>2>3> ?@8<5=5=8O 20:F8= =5 CB8E0NB =5 B>;L:> 2 =0H59 AB@0=5. > <=>38E 3>AC40@AB20E 459AB2CNB >1I5AB25==K5 0AA>F80F88, ?><>30NI85 @5H0BL :>=D;8:B=K5 A8BC0F88 <564C G8=>2=8:0<8 8 @>48B5;O<8, >B:07K20NI8<8AO >B <0AA>2>-:0;5=40@=KE ?@8282>: A2>8E 45B59.  0AA>F80F8OE @01>B0NB A?5F80;8ABK @07=KE 48AF8?;8=: <8:@>18>;>38 (28@CA>;>38 8 10:B5@8>;>38), 8<<C=>;>38, ?5480B@K, 35=5B8:8, ?A8E>;>38, 0 B0:65 N@8ABK, ?5403>38 8 <>;>4K5 @>48B5;8. "0:85 >@30=870F88 ?><>30NB @>48B5;O<, ?>4@>AB:0< 8 27@>A;><C =0A5;5=8N 2 ?@8=OB88 >1>A=>20==>3>, 3@0<>B=>3> @5H5=8O >1 >ACI5AB2;5=88 20:F8=0F88 8;8 >1 >B:075 >B =5Q, 0 B0:65 8=D>@<8@CNB > D0:B8G5A:>9 A0=8B0@=>-M?845<8>;>38G5A:>9 >1AB0=>2:5 2 :>=:@5B=>< @538>=5 8 >@30=87>20==KE CG@5645=8OE: 2 H:>;0E, 45BA:8E A040E 8 B.4. 0?@8<5@, 2 !( B0:>9 >@30=870F859 O2;O5BAO <5@8:0=A:0O 0AA>F80F8O 5AB5AB25==>9 38385=K, 2> $@0=F88 - 0F8>=0;L=0O ;830 70 >A2>1>645=85 >B ?@8282>:, :>B>@K5 459AB2CNB 2 ?>;=>< A>>B25BAB288 A ACI5AB2CNI8<8 70:>=0<8 > 4>1@>2>;L=>AB8 <548F8=A:>3> 2<5H0B5;LAB20 2 >@30=87< :>=:@5B=>3> @51Q=:0. @8 MB>< A;54C5B ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> G8=>2=8:8, B5< 1>;55 A2O70==K5 A D8@<0<8 ?> ?@>872>4AB2C 8 @50;870F88 20:F8=, 25745 >48=0:>2K5. 725AB=>, C =0A - ";CGH85 2 <8@5". > "B0<" 70 8E @01>B>9 82 MB>9 >1;0AB8 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO >?@545;Q==K9 :>=B@>;L. >;55 B>3>, >1I5AB25==>ABL !( 4>18;0AL 5653>4=>9 ?C1;8:0F88 <548F8=A:>9 AB0B8AB8:8, 0 70B5< 8 :>=B@>;O A> AB>@>=K ?@54AB028B5;59 >1I5AB25==>AB8 70 459AB28O<8 74@02>>E@0=8B5;L=KE >@30=>2 (76), 2 B>< G8A;5, A> AB>@>=K =0720==KE 0AA>F80F89. @8=F8? "!%  /"   !, .  !" ! !"  "    !#)!".  A;CG0OE A ?@8282:0<8 MB> ?>;>65=85 ?@8>1@5B05B >A>1CN A8;C. >-?5@2KE, ?>B><C, GB> 20:F8=K - ;5:0@AB25==K5 18>?@5?0@0BK. >-2B>@KE, MB> ?@5?0@0BK, 8A?>;L7C5<K5 A F5;LN ?@>D8;0:B8:8, =5 ;5G5=8O! !;54>20B5;L=>, 30@0=B88 74>@>2LO ?@54CA<0B@820NB 22545=85 8E 2 74>@>2K9 >@30=87< @515=:0. -B@5BL8E, 20:F8=K 2A5340 AG8B0;8AL "=587156=> =5157>?0A=K<8" (32). -G5B2Q@BKE, =0?><=N 87 :;0AA8G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@K ?> 8=D5:F8>==K< 1>;57=O< 8 ?> M?845<8>;>388, GB> ?>?C;OF8O G5;>25:0 35B5@>35==0 ?> A2>59 2>A?@88<G82>AB8 8;8 =52>A?@88<G82>AB8 : 28@CA0<, 10:B5@8O< 8 4@C38< ?0B>35==K< D0:B>@0< (3, 8,20-25, 39-43,61-65, 69). A;8 1K 2A5 <K 1K;8 >48=0:>2> GC2AB28B5;L=K : BC15@:C;57C, >A?5, ?>;8><85;8BC, 48DB5@88 8 4@C38< 8=D5:F8>==K< 1>;57=O<, B> G5;>25G5AB2> 2K<5@;> 1K 402=K<-402=>. 0:F8=0< 2A53>-B> 200 ;5B, 0 G5;>25G5AB2C?! ;;N78O, GB> 2A5 8=D5:F8>==K5 035=BK 1C4CB ?>15645=K, AB>8B ;8HL ?@>20:F8=8@>20BL "2A5E ?>4@O4", B.5. >4=0 ?@>1;5<0 - >4=> @5H5=85, ?>@>6405B ?@5ABC?=K9 ?>4E>4 : MB><C ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:><C <548F8=A:><C 2<5H0B5;LAB2C 2 ?@8@>4C G5;>25:0. 4=0:> 8<5==> B0:0O A8AB5<0 "87-70 C4>1AB20 A >@30=870F8>==>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O" (18,19) ?@>4>;605B ?@>?030=48@>20BLAO 0@<859 2@0G59 8 G8=>2=8:>2 >B 74@02>>E@0=5=8O, 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 D>@<5 ?@8G0AB=KE : ?@8282:0<, => =5 : 20:F8=>;>388 A >A=>20<8 8<<C=>;>388. @5645 2A53>, =5>1E>48<> 7=0BL, GB>, :0:8<8 1K 2?5G0B;ONI8<8 =8 1K;8 C=8:0;L=K5 A>1KB8O 200-;5B=59 402=>AB8, 4> 68B5;59 =0H53> 3>AC40@AB20 4>=5A5=0 ?>;C?@0240. 0 A0<>< 45;5, B>;L:> A>2>:C?=>ABL ?@>B82>M?845<8G5A:8E <5@>?@8OB89, ?@>D5AA8>=0;87< 8 8A?>;L7>20=85 4>AB865=89 A>2@5<5==>9 8<<C=>;>388, :>B>@>9 1>;55 ?>;C25:0, A<>3CB @5H8BL 7040G8 ?@>B82>8=D5:F8>==>9 70I8BK. ">;L:> B0: <>65B 1KBL A>740=> A0=8B0@=>-M?845<8>;>38G5A:>5 1;03>?>;CG85 =0A5;5=8O 8 3>AC40@AB20 2 F5;><. 5;L7O ";8:2848@>20BL" =8 >4=C 8=D5:F8>==CN 1>;57=L "B>;L:> A ?><>ILN ?@8282>:". >;, ?@82LQHLAO 8 1C45HL 2 157>?0A=>AB8 4;O A51O 8 4;O 2A5E >:@C60NI8E. 0;> A:070BL - <8D, MB> - CB>?8O >1 >G5@54=>< "2A5>1I5< AG0ABL5" 2 A25B;>< 157K=D5:F8>==>< @05, 4>AB83=CB>< O:>1K B>;L:> A ?><>ILN 20:F8=. 59AB28B5;L=>, :0:>5-B> "4LO2>;LA:>5 C?>@AB2>" (31), 4LO2>;LA:>5 =020645=85: 157 ?@8282:8 @51Q=>: 2@>45 1K =5?>;=>F5==K9, E>BO =0 A0<>< 45;5 - A>2A5< =0>1>@>B. =>3>5 87 B>3>, GB> ?@82>48BAO 2 <>=>3@0D88, AB0=5B >B:@>25=85< =5 B>;L:> 4;O A?5F80;8AB>2 @07=KE 48AF8?;8=, :><C 459AB28B5;L=> =5157@07;8G=> 74>@>2L5 @>AA89A:8E 45B59, => 8 4;O B@QE-G5BK@QE ?>:>;5=89 ?5480B@>2-20:F8=0B>@>2, :>B>@K5 >1O70=K =5 B>;L:> ?>4G8=OBLAO ?@8:070< 8=74@020, =>, ?@5645 2A53>, G8B0BL, 4C<0BL 8 0=0;878@>20BL. @8<5@0<8 B0:>3> 0=0;870 <>3CB ?>A;C68BL ;>6=K5 A2545=8O ">1 M?845<88 48DB5@88 2 3. >A:25" 8 > ";8:2840F88 BC15@:C;Q70 ?>A;5 22545=8O  2 @>44><0E" 2 1K2H5< !!! . 5@2K9 ?@8<5@ ?@54AB02;5= 2 2845 B01;8FK, @0A?>;>65==>9 =865, 2B>@>9 - 2 2845  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/graf1.html" 3@0D8:0 (A<. =0 AB@. 34). >>1I5 >1@0I05B =0 A51O 2=8<0=85 >BACBAB285 A:>;L:>-=81C4L =0456=>9 AB0B8AB8:8 8=D5:F8>==KE 701>;520=89. T01;8F0 C156405B =0A 2 MB><. 2B>@45 8 :>340 >?C1;8:>20=>>;8G5AB2> 701>;52H8E 48DB5@859 2 >A:25 2 1992 3>4C1. >=8A>2, >A:><A0=M?84=047>@ "57028A8<0O 3075B0" 24.09.92 "...701>;5205<>ABL 48DB5@859 C25;8G8;0AL 2 420 @070..."2. > 40==K< >A:>2A:>3> >1I5AB20 M?845<8>;>3>2 8 <8:@>18>;>3>2" >AA89A:0O 3075B0" 28.10.92 C65 340 G5;>25:3. (5AB>?0;>2 ., 1K2H89 A0=8B0@=K9 2@0G 3. >A:2K  ?5@540G5 "B:@KB>3> @048>" 30.10.92 C65 600 G5;>25:4. 0@=87 ., ?@54A540B5;L ?>4:><8AA88 "<548F8=0 :0B0AB@>D", G;5=  >AA>25B0 ?> 2>5==K< 2>?@>A0< 8 G@572KG09=K< A8BC0F8O<, =0@>4=K9 45?CB0B"57028A8<0O 3075B0" 04.11.92 C65 688 G5;>25:5. >B>20 #. >A:><A0=M?84=047>@=D>@<0F8>==0O ?@>3@0<<0 "0O:" 17.11.92 C65 499 G5;>25:6. <8B@852 . 2@0G "!:>@>9""-E> >A:2K" 21.11.92 "2K7>2>2 ?> 48DB5@88 C =0A 2 >A:25 =5B..."7. @038=A:0O ., 75@:>2A:89 . "725AB8O" 08.12.92 "2 >A:25 : :>=FC >:BO1@O 701>;5;8 C65 732 G5;>25:8. 075B0 "&5=B@ ?;NA" N. 1, 1993"2 1992 3>4C 2 >A:25 701>;5;8 787 G5;>25:"9. 045648= .">A:>2A:0O ?@0240" 20.05.93 "B>;L:> 2 1992 3>4C 2 >A:25 701>;5;8 938 G5;>25:..."10." >AA89A:0O 3075B0" 29.01.93"B>G=KE A2545=89 70 1992 3. 5I5 =5B"11. !2545=8O ?> >A:25 70 1993 3.">A:>2A:0O ?@0240" 20.05.93 C65 701>;5;8 335 G5;>25: 20.05.93 "...2 B5:CI5< 3>4C 2 >A:25 ?>@065=K MB8< 28@CA><(!?) C65 200 G5;>25:" ><<5=B0@88, :0: 3>2>@OB, 87;8H=8, B5< 1>;55 GB> 2>71C48B5;L 48DB5@88 - =5 28@CA. @><5 B>3>, :0: <>6=> >?@545;8BL "?@0:B8G5A:89 @8A: 701>;520=89", :>340 =0 :>=5F >:BO1@O - B0:>5 @07=>>1@0785? 5 ;CGH59 1K;0 >1AB0=>2:0 ?> "AB0B8AB8G5A:8 4>AB>25@=K< 40==K<" 8 2 1991 3>4C. "0:, >=8A>2 70O28; 2 F5=B@0;L=>9 ?@5AA5, GB> 2 >A:25 2 1991 3>4C 1K;> ">:>;> BKAOG8 701>;52H8E 48DB5@859" ("57028A8<0O 3075B0", 24.09.92), 0 2 >AC40@AB25==>< 4>:;045 " A>AB>O=88 74>@>2LO =0A5;5=8O >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 2 1991 3>4C" =0?8A0=>: "081>;LH55 G8A;> 701>;520=89 48DB5@859 2 1991 3>4C >B<5G5=> 2 >A:25 8 >A:>2A:>9 >1;0AB8 - 604 A;CG0O...". 0 B>B 65 1991 3>4 C 0@=870 A2545=8O A>25@H5==> 8=K5: "...2 1991 3>4C 2 AB>;8F5 701>;5;8 48DB5@859 435 G5;>25:".  2>B A2545=8O ">1 M?845<88 48DB5@88 2 >A:25" 87 ?8AL<0 . (5AB>?0;>20 "1 M?845<8>;>38G5A:>9 >1AB0=>2:5 ?> 48DB5@88 2 >A:25 8 <5@0E ?> 55 AB018;870F88"- >D8F80;L=>3> ?>A;0=8O, =0?@02;5==>3> 2A5< 3;02=K< A0=8B0@=K< 2@0G0< >:@C3>2 3. >A:2K: 8AL<> !7-41/95 >B 17 45:01@O 1991 3.: "...@>AB 701>;5205<>AB8 A@548 45B59 M?845<8>;>38G5A:8 70:>=><5@5= 8 =5 O2;O5BAO =0 A53>4=O =51;03>?@8OB=K< ?@>3=>AB8G5A:8< ?@87=0:><... ?>74=OO 4803=>AB8:0 8 ?>74=OO 3>A?8B0;870F8O 701>;52H8E O2;ONBAO ?@8G8=0<8 @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 8=D5:F88 8 D>@<8@>20=8O 3@C??>2KE >G03>2: 2 ?5@2K5 420 4=O 70 ?><>ILN >1@0I0NBAO 75,5% 45B59, 0 3>A?8B0;878@CNBAO 2 MB8 65 A@>:8 28,8% 2A5E >1@0B82H8EAO...".  "D>@<8@>20=88 >G03>2" 1K;> 8725AB=> 87 ?C1;8:0F89 1986 3. ?@57845=B0  .. >:@>2A:>3> (670): "5A<>B@O =0 <0AA>2>5 ?@>2545=85 ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8E ?@8282>:... D>@<8@CNBAO >G038 3@C??>2KE 701>;520=89... >B<5G0NBAO 8 ;5B0;L=K5 8AE>4K..." 5B =8G53> =5>6840==>3> 8 2 B><, GB> >BACBAB2C5B 8<<C=8B5B : 48DB5@88 C 27@>A;>3> =0A5;5=8O. @>B82>48DB5@89=K9 8<<C=8B5B - D0:B 402=> 8725AB=K9 - O2;O5BAO >B@065=85< 5AB5AB25==>3> "?@>M?845<8G820=8O" =0A5;5=8O. @8 48DB5@88, 2 A;CG05 F8@:C;OF88 2>71C48B5;O A@548 =0A5;5=8O, >B<5G05BAO D5=><5= "1KB>2>9" 8<<C=870F88, B> 5ABL >1@07>20=85 8<<C=8B5B0 5AB5AB25==K< ?CB5< 157 >B<5G05<>3> 701>;520=8O. >MB><C, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 27@>A;>5 =0A5;5=85, 20:F8=8@>20BL <>6=> 8 =C6=> B>;L:> ?>A;5 4803=>AB8:8. 803=>AB8:0 MB> D8;LB@, 2KO2;ONI89 8 >BA5820NI89 ;8F, :>B>@KE =5 =04> ?@82820BL.  B0:8E =5<0;>...  =0H0 A8AB5<0 ?@8282>: A=8605B B8B@K 8<5NI8EAO 0=B8B5; 8 ">3>;O5B" 2>A?@88<G82KE ;N459 : ?>A;54CNI59 2AB@5G5 8E A 48DB5@859. # ?5@51>;52H8E 48DB5@859 2 A:@KB>9 D>@<5 2 2845 0=38=, B>=78;;O@=KE 01AF5AA>2,   8 B.4., 2K@010BK205BAO 8<<C=8B5B, :0: ?@028;>, =0 2AN 687=L, ?@>B82 8 B>:A835==KE, 8 =5B>:A835==KE HB0<<>2. > 4;O 2A59 MB>9 3@040F88 =5>1E>48<0 4803=>AB8:0! =>3> AB@0==>3> 2 MB>9 "M?845<88 48DB5@88", => A0<0O 1>;LH0O AB@0==>ABL A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> 8<<C=8B5B 70:>=G8;AO A@07C C 2A53> 27@>A;>3> =0A5;5=8O 8 ?@8B>< 2 >4=>G0AL5. I5 1>;LH55 C482;5=85 2K7K205B 65;0=85 @C:>2>48B5;59 A0=8B0@=>-M?845<8>;>38G5A:>9 A;C61K "?>1548BL" (2 :>B>@K9 @07!) 48DB5@8N 8A:;NG8B5;L=> ?@8282:0<8. @82820NB 2A5E ?>4@O4, 157 4803=>AB8:8, 157 >?@545;5=8O 8<<C=>AB0BCA0, :>3> =04> 8 :>3> =5 =04>, 0 ?@> "=5;L7O - ?@>B82>?>:070=>" 8 @5G8 =5B. !;54C5B A:070BL 8 > 4@C3><: =5@54:>, 5A;8 G5;>25:C ?>A;5 ?@8282:8 2K7K20NB "A:>@CN", B> CG0AB:>2K9 2@0G, 2K40NI89 ;8AB>: =5B@C4>A?>A>1=>AB8, ?> C:070=8N A25@EC AB028B 70:;NG8B5;L=K9 4803=>7  . K @0A?>;0305< 4>:C<5=B><, 2 :>B>@>< ?5@2>=0G0;L=K9 4803=>7: >A;>6=5=85 =0 !, 0 70:;NG8B5;J=K9 -  .  B5< 2@5<5=5< 2A5 84CB ?@8:07K 8 ?>AB0=>2;5=8O B8?0 ?>AB0=>2;5=8O ;02=>3> 3>AC40@AB25==>3> A0=8B0@=>3> 2@0G0 >AA88: "/, ;02=K9 ... ?>AB0=>2;ON...", 0 2 MB>< "?>AB0=>2;ON" 5ABL ?C=:B 6 - "25AB8 M:>=><8G5A:>5 AB8<C;8@>20=85 <548F8=A:8E @01>B=8:>2 70 A2>52@5<5==>5 ?@>2545=85 8 4>AB865=85 2KA>:>3> C@>2=O >E20B0 ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8<8 ?@8282:0<8". [>AB0=>2;5=85 " <0AA>2>9 8<<C=870F88 =0A5;5=8O ?@>B82 48DB5@88", 02.02.93 3.] -:>=><8G5A:>5 AB8<C;8@>20=85 =5 70 3@0<>B=>5 ?@>2545=85 ?@8282>:, 0 70... >E20B! 0 A;5?>5 2K?>;=5=85 ?;0=0 ?> 20;>2>9 ?@>4C:F88 >E20B0! 5 4>;65= 1KBL =>2>ABLN 4;O 1993 3>40 8 ?@8@>AB 701>;5205<>AB8 48DB5@859 A@548 27@>A;>3> =0A5;5=8O. >-?5@2KE, CA;>28O 687=8 45;0NB 7=0G8B5;L=CN G0ABL =0A5;5=8O 8<<C=>>A;01;5==>9 - 8 2 40==>9 A8BC0F88 ?@828209 - =5 ?@828209, 8A:CAAB25==>3> 8<<C=8B5B0 =5 1C45B. >-2B>@KE, C65 2 1968 3>4C 1K;> 8725AB=> 87 CG51=8:0 "-?845<8>;>38O" ?>4 @540:F859 ?@>D. . . ;:8=0: " =0AB>OI55 2@5<O ?>2A5<5AB=> >B<5G05BAO ?5@542865=85 701>;5205<>AB8 48DB5@859 =0 1>;55 AB0@H85 2>7@0ABK...". "0: GB> 65 ?@>8AE>48B A 48DB5@859: M?845<8O 8;8 >1KG=K5 2A?KH:8, :>B>@K5 1K;8 2A5340?  4;O :0:>9 3@C??K =0A5;5=8O B0:>5 =5OA=>5 ?>;>65=85 O2;O5BAO "=51;03>?@8OB=K< ?@>3=>AB8G5A:8< ?@87=0:><"? 1@0B8<AO >?OBL : <564C=0@>4=>9 ?@0:B8:5 8 @5:><5=40F8O< 3: "-?845<8O 8;8 2A?KH:0 2A5340 >7=0G05B A2>53> @>40 2K7>2 @C:>2>48B5;O< A;C61 74@02>>E@0=5=8O. #A?5H=>5 >ACI5AB2;5=85 8<8 ?@>B82>M?845<8G5A:8E <5@>?@8OB89 B@51C5B >?@545;5==>9 3>B>2=>AB8 : B0:8< A8BC0F8O<, :>B>@0O =5 <>65B 1KBL 8<?@>2878@>20==>9... M?845<8O - MB> 2>7=8:=>25=85 =5>1KG09=> 1>;LH>3> 8;8 =5>6840==>3> 4;O :>=:@5B=>9 B5@@8B>@88 8 2@5<5=8 3>40 G8A;0 A;CG052 701>;520=89..." (3).  GB> <>6=> A:070BL > "=5>6840==>< G8A;5 A;CG052" =0 >A=>20=88 B>9 B01;8FK, :>B>@CN <K A>AB028;8? B0:, =5B 8;8, ?@028;L=55, =5 4>;6=> 1KBL =8:0:>9 =5>6840==>AB8 2 A;CG0OE 701>;520=89 A@548 27@>A;>3> =0A5;5=8O. -B>B ?@>F5AA =0@0AB0;, =0G8=0; A 60-E 3>4>2, :>340 2A5 ?>3>;>2=> 1K;8 >E20G5=K 8 48DB5@8O C65 1K;0 "?>15645=0"! - B0: =0?8A0=> 2 CG51=8:5 ?> M?845<8>;>388 1968 3>40. > 40==K< . (5AB>?0;>20, 48DB5@8O A@548 45BA:>3> =0A5;5=8O "M?845<8>;>38G5A:8 70:>=><5@=0 8 =5 O2;O5BAO =0 A53>4=O =51;03>?@8OB=K< ?@>3=>AB8G5A:8< ?@87=0:><...", 0 ?> @07=>@5G82K< A2545=8O<, ?@82545==K< =0<8 2 B01;8F5, =5@50;L=> >?@545;8BL, <>6=> ;8 >E0@0:B5@87>20BL A8BC0F8N :0: M?845<8N. >;55 B>3>, 2 B>< 65 ?>AB0=>2;5=88 ;02=>3> 3>AC40@AB25==>3> A0=8B0@=>3> 2@0G0 >AA88 >B 02.02.93 3. A:070=>: "...>B<5G0N, GB> 2 AB@0=5 70 ?>A;54=85 B@8 3>40 @57:> >A;>6=8;0AL M?845<8>;>38G5A:0O >1AB0=>2:0 ?> 48DB5@88...".  $545@0;L=>9 F5;52>9 ?@>3@0<<5 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 "0:F8=>?@>D8;0:B8:0" =0 1993 - 1997 33. =0?8A0=>, GB> "701>;5205<>ABL 48DB5@859 70 ?5@8>4 A 1980 ?> 1992 3>4K 2>7@>A;0 2 13 @07...". 0@O4C A MB8< 2 F5=B@0;L=>9 ?@5AA5, ?> @048> 8 B5;52845=8N :20;8D8F8@>20;8 :0: ?@5ABC?=CN =0HC ?5@2CN AB0BLN 2 "><A><>;LA:>9 ?@0245", >?C1;8:>20==CN 2 :>=F5 1988 3>40, 0 2>7=8:=>25=85 "M?845<88" 2<5=8;8 =0< 2 28=C. A;8 1KBL ?>A;54>20B5;L=K<8 8 ;>38G=K<8, B> ?>G5<C 24@C3 70 ?>A;54=85 3>4K 701>;5205B 8 C<8@05B 2 >A=>2=>< 27@>A;K9 :>=B8=35=B ;8F? 54L >=8 4>;6=K 1K;8 1KBL >E20G5=K >B5G5AB25==>9 ! 5I5 2 45BAB25, 2 :>B>@>< ?@51K20;8 8 4> 1980, 8 4> 1988 3>4>2? I5 1>;LHCN ?CB0=8FC 8 =5@0715@8EC 2=>A8B A?>:>9=K9 B>= 87;>65=8O <0B5@80;>2 2 1987 3>4C 2 A1>@=8:5 "!>AB>O=85 8 ?5@A?5:B82K 40;L=59H53> A=865=8O 8=D5:F8>==>9 701>;5205<>AB8 2 !!! " (706, A. 4, 5): "...?> ;5=8=A:8< ?@8=F8?0< A>25BA:>3> 74@02>>E@0=5=8O 8 1;03>40@O AB@>9=>9 A8AB5<5 3>AC40@AB25==>3> A0=8B0@=>3> =047>@0, ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8E 8 ?@>B82>M?845<8G5A:8E <5@>?@8OB89... 48=0<8:0 A=865=8O 701>;5205<>AB8 48DB5@859, :0: 2 75@:0;5, >B@0605B =0H8 CA?5E8& =8G5< ?>4>1=K< =5 @0A?>;0305B =8 >4=0 :0?8B0;8AB8G5A:0O AB@0=0& ". !>25@H5==> =5?>=OB=0 >1JO2;5==0O "M?845<8O 48DB5@88" 2 =0H59 AB@0=5, :>340 >B BC15@:C;570, ?548:C;570, A8D8;8A0, 35?0B8B>2 8 4@C38E 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 3>@074> 1>;LH5 154 8 B@035489, G5< >B 48DB5@89=>9 ?0;>G:8. !?@0H8205BAO, ?>G5<C 48DB5@8O, ACI5AB2CNI0O 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 =5 <5=55 30 ?>A;54=8E ;5B, AC4O ?> ?C1;8:0F8O< >B5G5AB25==KE A?5F80;8AB>2 (40 8 1K;> ;8 2@5<O, :>340 >B =55 =5 C<8@0;8 2 !!! ?), 24@C3 >1JO2;5=0 M?845<859? >65B, ?>B><C, GB> "1>@>BLAO" ;53G5 A B5<, G53> =0 A0<>< 45;5 <5=LH5? 7 <564C=0@>4=>9 ?@0:B8:8. >@40=8O. @>2545==K5 B0< 8AA;54>20=8O ?>:070;8, GB> B@8 4>7K 20:F8=K ! ?>;CG8;8 1>;55 70% 45B59, ?>MB><C 2>7=8:H0O 2A?KH:0 48DB5@88 1K;0 4;O =8E =5>6840==>9. >A;5 3>A?8B0;870F88... ?5@2>3> 1>;L=>3> A ?>4>7@5=85< =0 48DB5@8N, >1A;54>20;8 2A5E ?>4>7@5205<KE 8 :>=B0:B=KE ;8F.  40;LH5 2 >?8A0=88 MB>9 2A?KH:8 (3, A. 12) 8 2>2A5 2A5 :0: 87 >1;0AB8 D0=B0AB8:8. 0?@8<5@, ?0F85=BK, >B:0702H85AO >B 8=J5:F89, ?>;CG0;8 2 B5G5=85 7 4=59 ?5=8F8;;8= ?5@>@0;L=>, 0 B5, C :>3> >= 2K7K20; 0;;5@38G5A:85 @50:F88, GB> 1K;> 8725AB=> 87 ":0@B 74>@>2LO", - M@8B@><8F8=, B>65 2 B5G5=85 7 4=59. '" $" . "" - 2 B01;5B:0E, 8 =8:0:8E C:>;>2, 5A;8 G5;>25: 8E =5 ?@85<;5B... . . 8B8=A:0O, >4=0 87 3;02=KE 8=8F80B>@>2 ?0@5=B5@0;L=>9 20:F8=0F88 =>2>@>64Q==KE, A>>1I05B (, 10.04.92): " 04>20;8 2@0G59 A5<845AOBK5 3>4K. -B> 1K;> A2O70=> A H8@>:8< 2=54@5=85< 2=CB@8:>6=>9 20:F8=0F88 =>2>@>64Q==KE...". 73;O=C2 =0 4803@0<<C (A 65), 157 B@C40, =5 1C4CG8 =8 DB8780B@><, =8 <0B5<0B8:><, <>6=> ?>=OBL, :0: ;682K 55 CB25@645=8O! !59G0A, =5A<>B@O =0 ?5@5AB@>9:C, A>F80;L=K5 ?>B@OA5=8O, >AA8O 5IQ =5 4>AB83;0 B5E "@04>AB59" ?> 701>;5205<>AB8 BC15@:C;Q7><, :>B>@K<8 1C4B> 1K "3>@48;8AL 2@0G8 70-E" ?@>H;>3> 25:0. > 2 B5 2@5<5=0 MB> =5 1K;> M?845<859... >6=> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> >AA8N "703@C78;8" 8<?>@B=K<8 =>2K<8 ?@>B82>BC15@:C;Q7=K<8 ?@5?0@0B0<8, :>B>@K5 =5>1E>48<> ?@>25@8BL =0 27@>A;KE 8 =0 45BOE - !!",  '!  =0H8 45B8 >?OBL 2 M:A?5@8<5=B5! @><5 B>3>, 4>:B>@ @CA8=0 0@8A0 >A8D>2=0 2 @57C;LB0B5 A>1AB25==KE <=>3>;5B=8E :;8=8G5A:8E =01;N45=89 (!) 2708<>A2O7L & A 20:F8=0F859  +% 20:F8=>9 &... $0:B <0;>8725AB=K9, => >B<5G5==K9 <564C=0@>4=>9 ?@5<859. @0D8: 701>;5205<>AB8 BC15@:C;57>< 45B59 01>;5205<>ABL BC15@:C;57>< 45B59 (=0 100 000) >AA8O  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/graf1.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET  @0D8: 87 <0B5@80;>2, ?@54>AB02;5==KE =0 ?0@;0<5=BA:85 A;CH0=LO 2 >AC40@AB25==>9 C<5 15 <0@B0 1999 3. ?> ?@>1;5<0< BC15@:C;570 2 >AA88. 1.5. !" -"'!/ !    %   1. %  , 1965, ! 3, A. 86:  @540:F8>==>< >17>@5 ?> A>2@5<5==K< ?@>1;5<0< 8<<C=>;>388 >A>1>5 2=8<0=85 C45;5=> ?>AB0=>2:5 "687=5==> 206=>3> 2>?@>A0 > B><, GB> ?@8282:8 <>3CB O2;OBLAO =5?>A@54AB25==> 8;8 ?>B5=F80;L=> 2@54=K<8 4;O >@30=87<0 G5;>25:0, ?>A:>;L:C ?@>2>4OBAO 8=B5=A82=K5 8 4;8B5;L=K5 :C@AK, =0G8=0NI85AO A @0==53> 45BAB20 4> N=>H5A:>3> 2>7@0AB0. >4>1=K< >1@07>< 2>?@>A ?>AB02;5= 2 8B>35 2A5AB>@>==53> >1AC645=8O 2 1964 3. 206=59H8E @0745;>2 >1I59 8 ?@8:;04=>9 8<<C=>;>388 254CI8<8 A?5F80;8AB0<8 ?OB8 :><8B5B>2 M:A?5@B>2 . >?@>A ?@0:B8G5A:8 >B>645AB2;O5BAO A =0;8G85< ?@8282>G=KE ?>1>G=KE @50:F89 8 >A;>6=5=89". 2.  $&,+% #"  ! 252, 1981,A. 174: "8:0:0O ?@>3@0<<0 ?> ?@>D8;0:B8:5 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 8 8E ;5G5=8N =5 40QB CA?5E0 157 2A5AB>@>==59 ?>445@6:8 MDD5:B82=>3> M?845<8>;>38G5A:>3> =047>@0... =54>AB0B>G=K9 M?845<8>;>38G5A:89 =047>@ A?>A>1AB2C5B 2>7=8:=>25=8N M?845<89...". 3. N;;5B5=L , 1981, B. 59, ! 3, A. 218: "04564K =0 B>, GB> 8=D5:F8>==>5 701>;520=85 <>65B 1KBL ?>15645=> A ?><>ILN 20:F8=, =0?@02;5==KE ?@>B82 MB>3> 2>71C48B5;O, >:070;8AL A;8H:>< C?@>IQ==K<8, A2O70==K<8 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L A ?@8@>4>9, A2>9AB20<8 8 <5=ONI8<8AO E0@0:B5@8AB8:0<8 2>71C48B5;59". 4. N;;5B5=L , 1984, B. 62, ! 3, A. 18: " 07@01>B:0 C=825@A0;L=KE @5:><5=40F89 ?> 8<<C=870F88 45B59 =5 ?@54AB02;O5BAO 2>7<>6=>9 8;8 65;0B5;L=>9. 0640O AB@0=0 4>;6=0 AD>@<C;8@>20BL A2>8 A>1AB25==K5 ?@8=F8?K, >A=>20==K5 =0 @5:><5=40F8OE <=>3>?@>D8;L=>9 :>=AC;LB0B82=>9 3@C??K. ;O @07@01>B:8 =0F8>=0;L=>9 ?>;8B8:8 =5>1E>48<K: ?@0:B8G5A:0O >F5=:0 @8A:0 701>;520=8O, 0 B0:65 M:>=><8G5A:8E 2K3>4 8 2>7<>6=KE >?0A=>AB59, A2O70==KE A 8<<C=870F859... =8 >4=C 20:F8=C =5;L7O AG8B0BL 01A>;NB=> 157>?0A=>9 2 ?;0=5 ?>O2;5=8O ?>1>G=KE @50:F89". 5. @02G5=:> . ". (<8:@>18>;>3, ?@>D5AA>@, 1K2H89 48@5:B>@ ! 8<. .. "0@0A528G0  !!! ). ,    "!"     '!%   "// 5AB=8:  !!! , 1964, B. 10 A. 52: ">7=8:05B =5>1E>48<>ABL 3;C1>:>3> 87CG5=8O ?@8G8=, 2K7K20NI8E ?>AB20:F8=0;L=K5 >A;>6=5=8O. 0AA<>B@5=K B@8 3@C??K >A;>6=5=89. @><5 B>3>, @5GL 84QB >1 8=AB@C:F8OE ?> ?@8<5=5=8N ?@5?0@0B>2, 2 :>B>@KE BI0B5;L=> >3>2>@5=K ?@>B82>?>:070=8O : ?@8<5=5=8N 20:F8=. !?8A:8 MB8E ?@>B82>?>:070=89 >G5=L >1H8@=K; A>AB02;5=K >=8  ! .  "'!%  '". 6. >A>2 !. . (8=D5:F8>=8AB-:;8=8F8AB ?> ?@>1;5<0< 45BA:>9 8=D5:F8>==>9 ?0B>;>388, 0:045<8:  !!! ) /  $"'!%    "!  //  A1.: "0B5@80;K =0CG=>9 :>=D5@5=F88 =AB8BCB0 5480B@88  !!! ", 1966, A. 6: "@8282>G=K5 :0;5=40@8 4>;6=K 48DD5@5=F8@>20BLAO 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B <5AB=KE CA;>289 @07;8G=KE @5A?C1;8: =0H59 AB@0=K. 0;5=40@L =5 <>65B 1KBL AB018;L=K< =0 4;8B5;L=K9 A@>: 8 4>;65= <5=OBLAO 8 :>@@5:B8@>20BLAO 2 A2O78 A ;8:2840F859 >?0A=>AB59 >B45;L=KE 8=D5:F89 8 =5>1E>48<>ABLN 2:;NG5=8O =>2KE ?@8282>:. 5>1E>48<> A =081>;LH59 ?>;=>B>9 87CG0BL: >B@8F0B5;L=K5 2;8O=8O ?@8282>: =0 D878>;>38G5A:85 DC=:F88 >@30=87<0, =0 @07;8G=K5 8=B8<=K5 ?@>F5AAK, ?@>8AE>4OI85 2 =Q<; 2>7<>6=>ABL ?>402;5=8O 2 @57C;LB0B5 8<<C=870F88 =5A?5F8D8G5A:>9 @578AB5=B=>AB8 >@30=87<0 8 A?5F8D8G5A:>3> 5AB5AB25==>-?@8>1@5B5==>3> 8<<C=8B5B0 : @07;8G=K< 8=D5:F8O<". >A>2 !.. $&+  # "   (  !"/). (;8=8:>-M?845<8>;>38G5A:85 0A?5:BK M2>;NF88 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59). .: 548F8=0, 1980: "=0;878@CNBAO 7=0G8B5;L=K5 87<5=5=8O 2 M?845<8>;>388 8 :;8=8:5, ?@>8AH54H85 70 ?>A;54=85 50 ;5B, A 8=D5:F8>==K<8 1>;57=O<8, A2>9AB25==K<8 3;02=K< >1@07>< 45BA:><C 2>7@0ABC: ?@8 :>:;NH5, 48DB5@88, A:0@;0B8=5, AB0D8;>:>::>2>9 8=D5:F88, A0;L<>=5;;Q75, 4875=B5@88, 28@CA=>< 35?0B8B5 , M=B5@>28@CA=KE 8=D5:F8OE 8 4@. B@8F0B5;L=>5 2;8O=85 703@O7=5=8O 2=5H=59 A@54K =0 74>@>2L5 =0A5;5=8O A>740QB =>2K5 2708<>>B=>H5=8O <564C >@30=87<>< G5;>25:0 8 ?0B>35==K<8 <8:@>>@30=87<0<8 - MB> A;54C5B CG8BK20BL ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 20:F8=...  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O =0 >4=>3> 1>;L=>3> 8DB5@859 ?@8E>4OBAO 45AOB:8 8 A>B=8 74>@>2KE =>A8B5;59... MB> 48DB5@8O ?@828BKE... A@548 ?@828BKE 701>;520NB 45B8, 2 A8;C :0:8E-B> >1AB>OB5;LAB2 =5 2K@01>B02H85 ?>A;5 20:F8=0F88 8<<C=8B5B0, 3;02=K< >1@07>< B5, C :>B>@KE >= 8AB>I8;AO... 2>7<>6=>, 8<5;>AL :0:>5-B> 8<<C=>45D8F8B=>5 A>AB>O=85". 7. 4@>4>2A:89 .$. (M?845<8>;>3, 8<<C=>;>3, 0:045<8:  !!! ).  '+% &/% &// !1>@=8: B@C4>2  45BA:8E 8=D5:F89. ., 1969: "@>1;5<0 ?>1>G=KE @50:F89 20:F8=, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, :0A05BAO @50:F89, =5?>A@54AB25==> ?@>O2;ONI8EAO A@07C ?>A;5 ?@8282:8, A 4@C3>9 - 2:;NG05B ?>B5=F80;L=CN >?0A=>ABL, C3@>7C >B40;Q==KE ?>A;54AB289...". 4@>4>2A:89 .$.// " /, 1975, ! 1: "1J5:B82=> 2KO2;ONI0OAO 2>7<>6=>ABL ?0B>35=5B8G5A:>3> 7=0G5=8O ?@8282>G=>9 0;;5@388 B@51C5B BI0B5;L=>3> M?845<8>;>38G5A:>3> >1>A=>20=8O <0AA>2KE ?@8282>:, 0 B0:65 >A>1> ?>2KH5==>9 B@51>20B5;L=>AB8 : :0G5AB2C ?@8<5=O5<KE ?@5?0@0B>2 8, ?@5645 2A53>, : 8E 1572@54=>AB8.... E>B5;>AL 1K >B<5B8BL 5I5' >4=> "4>A04=>5" >1AB>OB5;LAB2>, :>B>@>5 1KBC5B A@548 <548:>2 2 >?@0240=85 ?>1>G=KE ?@8282>G=KE @50:F89, GB> ?@8 4>AB0B>G=>9 MDD5:B82=>AB8 20:F8= <>6=> ?@5=51@5GL 8E @50:B>35==>ABLN. "0:>3> @>40 @0AAC645=8O A;C60B ;8HL <0A:8@>2:>9 4;O ?;>E>9 @01>BK 8 4>;6=K 2AB@5G0BL :0B53>@8G5A:85 2>7@065=8O". 8. @038=A:0O .., !>:>;>20 .$. (=AB8BCB 5480B@88 ). "/ #&/   $" !"&,+% ! # ". .: 548F8=0, 1977,1984,1990. !>>1I05BAO >1 ">18;88 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89", 2 >A=>2=>< =0 & 8 ! A CGQB>< B>3>, GB> 8E =01;N45=8O 2 :;8=8:5 :0A0NBAO 8A:;NG8B5;L=> B5E A;CG052, :>340 "A:>@0O ?><>IL" ?@82>78B : =8< 45B59 2 :@09=5 BO6Q;>< A>AB>O=88: - "4> =0AB>OI53> 2@5<5=8 >BACBAB2C5B 4>;6=K9 CGQB ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89" (1984, A. 7; 1990, A. 120); - "5A;8 ?@8=OBL <0AA>2>ABL ?@>2>48<KE 20:F8=0F89, B> 4065 =51>;LH>9 ?@>F5=B ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89 <>65B A>AB028BL 7=0G8B5;L=CN F8D@C" (1984, A. 7); - "!;54C5B 8<5BL 2 284C, GB> 0@50:B>35==KE 20:F8= =5 ACI5AB2C5B 8 20:F8=0F8O O2;O5BAO 40;5:> =5 8=48DD5@5=B=K< 2 A<KA;5 >1I53> ; 2;8O=8O =0 >@30=87< 2<5H0B5;LAB2><..." (1984, A. 18); - "=0;87 =52@>;>38G5A:8E >A;>6=5=89 ?>A;5 8<<C=870F88 ! =0 A>2@5<5==>< MB0?5, ?@>254Q==K9 2 A@02=5=88 A =01;N45=8O<8 ?@>H;KE ;5B, A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, GB> E0@0:B5@ MB8E >A;>6=5=89 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K =5 ?@5B5@?5; ACI5AB25==KE 87<5=5=89... G8A;> 1>;L=KE A ?>AB20:F8=0;L=K<8 >A;>6=5=8O<8 () ?>A;5 8<<C=870F88 ! 70 2A5 23 3>40 =01;N45=89 =5 8<55B B5=45=F88 : A=865=8N, 8 E0@0:B5@ 8E >AB0QBAO ?@56=8<, GB> 3>2>@8B > B><, GB> @50:B>35==>ABL ?@8<5=ONI59AO 2 ?@0:B8:5 ! ?>:0 =5 C<5=LH8;0AL... 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K >A;>6=5=8O ?>A;5 8<<C=870F88 ! 2KH;8 =0 ?5@2>5 <5AB> 2 AB@C:BC@5 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89..." (1990, A. 115-117); " 0A?5:B5 8<<C=870F88 206=> 8<5BL 2 284C, GB> 45BO<, AB@040NI8< 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>9 =54>AB0B>G=>ABLN, >A>15==> 45D8F8B>< :;5B>G=>3> 8<<C=8B5B0 8 :><18=8@>20==K<8 8<<C=>;>38G5A:8<8 45D8F8B0<8, ?@>B82>?>:070=K ?@8282:8 682K<8 20:F8=0<8. !0<0 ?> A515 20:F8=0F8O 682>9 20:F8=>9 (&, ?@>B82 :>@8, ?0@>B8B0, ?>;8><85;8B0 8 4@. -.'.) O2;O5BAO A2>53> @>40 A:@8=8=3>< B0: :0: ?>72>;O5B 2KO28BL 45B59 A ?>AB20:F8=0;L=K<8 >A;>6=5=8O<8 ?>4>7@8B5;L=KE =0 8<<C=>45D8F8B=>5 A>AB>O=85" (1984 3 K-1990,A.11). 9. !" #&/ ?> 27OB8N <0B5@80;0 4;O ?0B><>@D>;>38G5A:>3> 87CG5=8O ;5B0;L=KE A;CG052 !"&,+% !. .:  !!! , 1980. 10. !1>@=8: @57>;NF89 8 @5H5=89 !  !!  % / , B. 2, 1980: " @5:><5=4C5B ?@>4>;68BL >ACI5AB2;5=85 ?@>3@0<<K 8<<C=870F88 8 M?845<8>;>38G5A:>3> =047>@0 70 =5:>B>@K<8 8;8 2A5<8 87 A;54CNI8E 1>;57=59: 48DB5@88, :>:;NH0, AB>;1=O:0, :>@8, ?>;8><85;8B0, BC15@:C;Q70... 2 7028A8<>AB8 >B =5>1E>48<>AB8 8 2 A>>B25BAB288 A M?845<8>;>38G5A:>9 A8BC0F859 2 :064>9 AB@0=5...". 11. %  , 1981, B. 35, ! 3, A. 134: " 5:><5=4C5BAO ?5@5E>4 >B <0AA>2>9 20:F8=0F88 : M?845<8>;>38G5A:><C =047>@C 8 AB@0B5388 ?@>B82>M?845<8G5A:8E <5@>?@8OB89...". 12.  - !" !# )!"  % /  ' +'+% !"#&/%, ++% -/. >4 @54. . @5A0 - 1K2H53> @C:>2>48B5;O A5:F88 28@CA=KE 1>;57=59 8 A>AB028B5;O MB>3> 4>:C<5=B0 (1986-1990 33.).  ?@548A;>288 : @CAA:><C 8740=8N >= ?8H5B: "-?845<8O 2A5340 >7=0G05B A2>53> @>40 2K7>2 @C:>2>48B5;O< A;C61K 74@02>>E@0=5=8O. #A?5H=>5 @5H5=85 8 >ACI5AB2;5=85 5N ?@>B82>M?845<8G5A:8E <5@>?@8OB89 B@51C5B >?@545;Q==>9 AB5?5=8 3>B>2=>AB8 : B0:8< A8BC0F8O<, :>B>@0O =5 <>65B 1KBL 8<?@>2878@>20==>9"; - A. 6-7: "K;> 1K >H81:>9 AG8B0BL M?845<859 5IQ =5@0A?>7=0==CN M=45<8G5A:CN A8BC0F8N 8;8 ?@>AB> A57>==K9 ?>4JQ< 701>;5205<>AB8..."; - A. 123: "3@C??K B@51CNB 8<<C=870F88, 5A;8 A5@>;>38G5A:85 8 M?845<8>;>38G5A:85 40==K5 =5 >?@545;ONB 4@C3CN B0:B8:C... 2 MB8E CA;>28OE ?@58<CI5AB2> 2 ?@>2545=88 20:F8=0F88 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> =5B =5>1E>48<>AB8 8AA;54>20BL 8=48284C0;L=K9 8<<C==K9 AB0BCA...): - A. 124: "MDD5:B82=>ABL 8<<C=870F88 2:;NG05B ?@>F5=B >E20B0 =0A5;5=8O, G0AB>BC A5@>:>=25@A88 8 B8B@K 0=B8B5; 4> 8 ?>A;5 8<<C=870F88..."; -A 125: "@>B82>?>:070=8O : 8<<C=870F88. @>B82>?>:070=8O <>3CB 1KBL >1I8<8 (% '!  ! & %,   !!"+ 8;8 ') 8;8 A?5F8D8G5A:8<8 : 40==>9 20:F8=5. 2545=85 +% 20:F8=  " ;8F0< A 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>9 =54>AB0B>G=>ABLN 8 15@5<5==K<". 13. A5<8@=K9 D>@C< 74@02>>E@0=5=8O, , 1989, B. 9, ! 4: -A 66: ">4E>4 ">4=0 ?@>1;5<0 - >4=> @5H5=85" =5A>AB>OB5;5=, > GQ< A2845B5;LAB2C5B ?>;=0O =52>7<>6=>ABL 1>@L1K ?@>B82 :0:>9-;81> 1>;57=8 A ?><>ILN 548=8G=KE <5@>?@8OB89... 2 :0<?0=88 A >A?>9 A8BC0F8O 87<5;8;0AL :>@5==K< >1@07>< 1;03>40@O =5 B>;L:> B5E=8G5A:8< =>2H5AB20<, => =>2>9 >@85=B0F88, AB@0B5388 - =0 2KO2;5=85 A;CG052 1>;57=8 8 20:F8=0F88 :>=B0:B>2, 0 =5 3@C?? =0A5;5=8O 2 F5;><...", -A. 87: "5@2>=0G0;L=>, 459AB28B5;L=>, 3>A?>4AB2>20;0 B>G:0 7@5=8O, 1C4B> :0<?0=88 20:F8=0F88 4>AB0B>G=> 4;O ?>154K =04 >A?>9. 5045:20B=>ABL B0:>3> ?>4E>40 AB0;0 >G5284=>9, :0: B>;L:> ?@8ABC?8;8 : @50;870F88 ?@>3@0<<K... 206=59H8<8 =0?@02;5=8O<8 AB0;8: 845=B8D8:0F8O 3@C?? @8A:0, >?@545;5=85 @>;8 B@CI>1 :0: ?>AB>O==>3> 8AB>G=8:0 8=D5:F88... CGQB =081>;55 ACI5AB25==KE 0A?5:B>2 :>=B@>;O =04 >A?>9 - MB=8G5A:8E, A>F80;L=KE, :;8<0B8G5A:8E, 35>3@0D8G5A:8E 8 4@C38E CA;>289, ?@8ACI8E @07=K< AB@0=0<...". 14. A5<8@=K9 D>@C< 74@02>>E@0=5=8O, , 1989-1990, B. 10, ! 3-4: "<<C=870F8O >B=>A8B5;L=> <0;> A?>A>1AB2>20;0 ?>2KH5=8N A>?@>B82;O5<>AB8 8=D5:F88, 8 =5 ?>B><C, GB> 1K;0 =5MDD5:B82=>9, 0 ?>B><C, GB> A=865=85 A<5@B=>AB8 =01;N40;>AL 2 B>B ?5@8>4, :>340 C@>25=L >E20B0 8<<C=870F859 1K; 4>2>;L=> =87:8<... A<5@B=>ABL >B <=>38E 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 A=878;0AL 4> 4>2>;L=> =87:>3> C@>2=O - ?>:070B5;59 ?> 4@C38< ?@8G8=0< - 1;03>40@O C;CGH5=8N ?8B0=8O 8 A0=8B0@=>-38385=8G5A:8E CA;>289 2 8=4CAB@80;L=KE AB@0=0E 8 B>;L:> ?8B0=8O 2 AB@0=0E B@5BL53> <8@0 - 5IQ 4> H8@>:> ?@>2>48<KE ?@>3@0<< 8<<C=870F88...". 15. N;;5B5=L , 1990, B. 68, ! 5: -A. 16: "">G=0O 4803=>AB8:0 0:B82=>3> BC15@:C;Q70 8<55B 206=>5 7=0G5=85 2 1>@L15 A MB>9 1>;57=LN 2 @09>=0E A 2KA>:>9 8 =87:>9 701>;5205<>ABLN, 0 B0:65 4;O >15A?5G5=8O 1;03>?>;CG8O >B45;L=KE 1>;L=KE. 5A<>B@O =0 >3@><=>5 G8A;> 8AA;54>20=89, 2K?>;=5==KE A> 2@5<Q= >15@B0 >E0, <K 2AQ 5IQ =5 @0A?>;0305< ?@>ABK<, GC2AB28B5;L=K< B5AB><, :>B>@K9 ?>72>;O; 1K >B;8G0BL ,(!"  !% ,+% " $  BC15@:C;Q70 >B 1>;L=KE "+ "# #, >B ;8F,  & +% && "; - 745AL 65 =0 A. 16: "!"" "# #  + :0: A@54AB20 !" E>@>H> 8725AB=K"; -A. 19: "& 4065 2 2KA>:>M=45<8G=KE @09>=0E @0A?@>AB@0=Q==>ABL BC15@:C;Q70 A@548 =0A5;5=8O 2 F5;>< A>AB02;O5B 2A53> ;8HL 1%..." 16. N;;5B5=L , 1990, B. 68, ! 1: - A. 46: "653>4=K9 @8A: 8=D8F8@>20=8O B>G=> =5 <>65B 1KBL 8725AB5=, 5A;8 ?@>2>48BAO 20:F8=0F8O & 157 ?@5420@8B5;L=>9 ?>AB0=>2:8 BC15@:C;8=>2>9 ?@>1K... &-20:F8=0F8O =5 >1;53G05B B0:85 ?>4AGQBK"; - A. 47: 5A<>B@O =0 H8@>:>5 ?@8<5=5=85 20:F8=K & 2 @078;88 =8:>340  & !' . #"" (A8BC0F8O, 0=0;>38G=0O =0H59 -.'.); - A. 67: '0AB>B0 A2O70==KE A & ?>1>G=KE @50:F89 :>@@5;8@C5B A B8?>< ?@5?0@0B0... : 4@C38< D0:B>@0<, 83@0NI8< 206=CN @>;L 2 @0728B88 A2O70==KE A 20:F8=0F859 @50:F89, >B=>AOBAO 4>7K, A?>A>1 22545=8O 8 >A>15==>AB8 @5F8?85=B0". 17. A5<8@=K9 D>@C< 74@02>>E@0=5=8O, 1985, B. 5, ! 3: - A. 74: " 8A: @0728B8O =51;03>?@8OB=KE @50:F89 =0 20:F8=C & 7028A8B >B (" &, 8A?>;L7C5<KE @07;8G=K<8 D8@<0<8-873>B>28B5;O<8, 4>7K, 2>7@0AB0 @51Q=:0, <5B>40 8<<C=870F88 8 :20;8D8:0F88 20:F8=0B>@0..."; - B0< 65, =0 A. 74: "G0AB>B0 A;CG052 BC15@:C;Q7=>3> >AB8B0 A@548 45B59 ?>A;5 20:F8=0F88 & :>;51;5BAO >B 1 4> 30 A;CG052 =0 1 <;=. ?@828BKE, GB>, :0: ?@028;>, >1CA;>2;5=> A5@L57=K<8 =0@CH5=8O<8 "' #""". 8 2 1K2H5< !!! , =8 2 B5?5@5H=59 >AA88    /"!/ !!"/ "' #"" =8 , =8 ! ?@8282>: 682K<8 20:F8=0<8... ?>MB><C-B> 8 ?@>8AE>48B "A:@8=8=3" 8<<C=>>A;01;5==KE 45B59 ?>A@54AB2>< &-20:F8=K, GB> ?@82>48B : 45BA:>9 8=20;84870F88 - !"" - =0@CH5=8O< >?>@=>-42830B5;L=>3> 0??0@0B0, > ?@8G8=0E :>B>@KE =8:B> 8 =5 4>304K205BAO. 18. .", , 1988, B. 66, ! 1: - A 70 "& -$$"!" &+     / !   "% !#'/%, , !" /  !( + %" !/ #&, + -'!   !",!"#."  "!#"!" !#)!" !/ !"...". AB>@8G5A:85 A2545=8O <>6=> ?@82>48BL 4> 15A:>=5G=>AB8, >1AC640O 2>?@>AK ":0: =04>" 8 ":0: 4>;6=> 1KBL".  !?@02:5 O =5 ?@82>6C =8G53> =58725AB=>3>, =8G53> B0:>3>, > G5< =5 1K;> 1K A:070=> ?>=K=5, GB> "=5 1K;> 1K 2 C<5 8 =5 1K;> 1K 2 >ICI5=88" A?5F80;8AB>2 - "Nihil in intellectu quod non ante in sensu". #AB0@52H0O, ?@>3=82H0O <0B5@80;L=0O 1070 ?@54?@8OB89-873>B>28B5;59 >B5G5AB25==KE 20:F8= (:@><5 -) 87=0G0;L=> =0AB>;L:> =5 A>>B25BAB2>20;0 B@51>20=8O< 2@5<5=8, GB> 2A5 =0H8 "CA?5E8" 2K3;O45;8 >1K:=>25==K< 01AC@4>< 8... D0;LA8D8:0F859.  =0H59 AB@0=5 =8:>340 =5 ?@>2>48;0AL, 40 8 A59G0A =5 ?@>2>48BAO ">F5=:0 MDD5:B82=>AB8 20:F8=".  A2O78 A MB8< =8:>340 =5 1K;0 8725AB=0 D0:B8G5A:0O 70I8IQ==>ABL - 8<<C==0O ?@>A;>9:0 : :>=:@5B=>9 8=D5:F8>==>9 1>;57=8, >1CA;>2;5==0O ?@8282:0<8. 803=>AB8G5A:85 8<<C=>;>38G5A:85 - "?@>B82>8=D5:F8>==K5 A;C61K" @072820;8AL "CA?5H=>" =0 1C<035 - 2 >BGQB0E 8 ?@8:070E, 0 =0 ?@0:B8:5 >=8 >AB0NBAO "?5@A?5:B82=>9" =5>1E>48<>ABLN. BACBAB285 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>9 >@30=870F88 ?@>B82>8=D5:F8>==>9 A;C61K 8 20:F8=>;>388 A:07K205BAO =530B82=> 8 =0 :0G5AB25 20:F8= (?@54?@8OB8O =0E>4OBAO 2 0=B8A0=8B0@=>< A>AB>O=88), 8 =0 MDD5:B82=>AB8 ?@8282>: (>BACBAB2C5B ?@>25@:0 70I8BK A 8E ?><>ILN), A;54>20B5;L=>, =0 74>@>2L5 45B59: - "5A<>B@O =0 <0AA>2>5 ?@>2545=85 ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8E ?@8282>:... 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K 2 !!!  >B<5G05BAO C25;8G5=85 701>;5205<>AB8 48DB5@859, =0 =5:>B>@KE B5@@8B>@8OE D>@<8@CNBAO >G038 3@C??>2KE 701>;520=89, @538AB@8@CNBAO >A;>6=5=8O 8 ;5B0;L=K5 8AE>4K" (67, A. 3); - "?@8G8=K ;5B0;L=KE 8AE>4>2 =5 87<5=8;8AL 8 >AB0NBAO B5<8 65, GB> =0 70@5 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8:8... =5A2>52@5<5==0O 4803=>AB8:0, ?>74=OO 3>A?8B0;870F8O 1>;L=KE..." (67, A. 23, 24). -B> =0?8A0=> 2 1986 3. ?> <0B5@80;0<, 0=0;878@C5<K< 2 B5G5=85 ?@54K4CI53> 45AOB8;5B8O, B.5. A 1974 ?> 1986 3. @>45 1K 2 MB8 3>4K =5 1K;> =8:0:8E A>F80;L=KE ?>B@OA5=89, => 8 4>AB865=8O<8 2@O4 ;8 <>6=> ?>E20AB0BLAO... =5 1K;> 5IQ 8 <>59 ?C1;8:0F88, :>B>@0O ?>O28;0AL ;8HL 2 1988 3>4C! " >D8F80;L=> "?>1548;8 =0 B5@@8B>@88 !!!  A ?><>ILN ?@8282>: 2>A?@88<G82>3> :>=B8=35=B0 ;8F... 8 : 1961-1964 3>40< ?>;8><85;8B 8AG57 2>2A5" (450, A. 63). 0 A0<>< 45;5 4@C385 ?@54AB02;5==K5 "<0B5@80;K A2845B5;LAB2CNB > =0;8G88 =5?@5:@0I0NI59AO F8@:C;OF88 28@CA0 ?>;8><85;8B0 2 CA;>28OE <=>3>;5B=59 <0AA>2>9 8<<C=870F88 682>9 20:F8=>9 !-, GB> =01;N405BAO =0 @07=KE B5@@8B>@8OE" (77, A. 359). "# # B0: 65 "=5 CE>48;" A B5@@8B>@88 !>25BA:>3> !>N70 (39-41, 78, 79), =5A<>B@O =0 A0<K9 6QAB:89 >E20B 45B59 2 @>44><0E "2A5E ?>4@O4 87-70 C4>1AB20 A >@30=870F8>==>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O" (18, 19). .. '07>2 2 A2>N =54>;3CN 1KB=>ABL <8=8AB@>< 74@02>>E@0=5=8O !!!  ?@87=020;AO G5@57 !: "'5@57 H5ABL <5AOF52 ?>A;0 A2>53> =07=0G5=8O O =0?8A0; 2 >;8B1N@> ?8AL<> > A0=8B0@=>-38385=8G5A:>< A>AB>O=88 AB@0=K. C<0N, GB> <=>385 G;5=K >;8B1N@> 8<5==> 87 MB>3> ?8AL<0 2?5@2K5 C7=0;8 > BO65;59H5< ?>;>65=88, A;>682H5<AO 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8... !:070BL, GB> 2A5 ?@825BAB2>20;8 B0:CN >B:@>25==>ABL - 7=0G8B ?>3@5H8BL ?@>B82 8AB8=K" (80). >340 <K 2?5@2K5 @0AA:070;8 2 ! >1 >BACBAB288 CA;>289 873>B>2;5=8O 157>?0A=KE 20:F8= 2 =0H59 AB@0=5, B> 03@5AA82=>ABL G8=>2=8:>2 =5 8<5;0 ?@545;0 (3, 81-83). 0@O4C A MB8<, 2AQ, > GQ< <K 3>2>@8< 2 ! A 1988 3. - > =0H5< :0B0AB@>D8G5A:>< >BAB020=88 2 MB>9 >1;0AB8, - ?>4B25@645=> $545@0;L=>9 ?@>3@0<<>9 "0:F8=>?@>D8;0:B8:0" =0 1993-1997 33., 2 :>B>@>9 ?5@5G8A;ONBAO 2A5 =0H8 154K (726): - "0B5@80;L=0O 8 B5E=8G5A:0O >A=0IQ==>ABL ?@54?@8OB89 ?> 873>B>2;5=8N <548F8=A:8E 8<<C=>18>;>38G5A:8E ?@5?0@0B>2 =5C4>2;5B2>@8B5;L=0O 8, :0: A;54AB285, ACI5AB2CNI85 @568<K ?@>872>4AB20 20:F8= =5 A>>B25BAB2CNB =5 B>;L:> <564C=0@>4=K< B@51>20=8O<, => 8 CAB0=>2;5==K< 4;O >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 A0=8B0@=K< =>@<0<.  AB@0=5 >BACBAB2C5B ?@><KH;5==>5 ?@>872>4AB2> B5E=>;>38G5A:>3> >1>@C4>20=8O 4;O 2K?CA:0 20:F8= =0 A>2@5<5==>< C@>2=5, ACI5AB2CNB ?@>1;5<K A> A=0165=85< 8<?>@B=K<8 @50:B820<8, ?8B0B5;L=K<8 A@540<8, ;01>@0B>@=K<8 682>B=K<8, >B<5G05BAO =87:>5 :0G5AB2> 0<?C;8@>20=8O; - A5@LQ7=CN ?@>1;5<C ?@54AB02;O5B =5AB018;L=>ABL :0G5AB20 20:F8=; - =0 =87:>< C@>2=5 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO :>=B@>;L :0G5AB20 2K?CA:05<>9 ?@>4C:F88; - 4> A8E ?>@ =5 A>740=K 4>;6=K5 CA;>28O B@0=A?>@B8@>20=8O 8 E@0=5=8O 20:F8=... >BACBAB2C5B E>;>4>20O F5?L ?>AB02:8 20:F8=; - <54;5==> 2=54@ONBAO A>2@5<5==K5 B5E=>;>388 M?845<8>;>38G5A:>3> =047>@0 70 8=D5:F8>==K<8 1>;57=O<8; - =54>AB0B>G=0 ?>43>B>2:0 <548F8=A:8E @01>B=8:>2 ?> MB>9 ?@>1;5<5; - =5>1E>48<> @07@01>B0BL 8 A>740BL <548:>-8<<C=>;>38G5A:85 8 A0=8B0@=K5 ?@028;0 20:F8=>?@>D8;0:38:8 (2 :>=F5 XX 25:0! '5< 65 20:F8=8@C5< =0H8E <0;KH59?!! - .'.); - =5>1E>48<> A>740BL 8=D>@<0F8>==>-0=0;8B8G5A:CN A8AB5<C M?84=047>@0 8 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89..." 8 B.4. - 2 :>=F5 XX 25:0 ?KB05<AO ;8HL A>740BL!!! "87:>5 :0G5AB2> 0<?C;8@>20=8O 20:F8=" - 2 B> 2@5<O, :>340 C6 ;5B 30 =5 ?>;L7CNBAO 0<?C;0<8, 0 3>B>2OB 20:F8=K 2 >4=>@07>2> ?@8<5=O5<KE "4>70E-H?@8F0E"!  C =0A "?8;OB" MB8 A0<K5 0<?C;K <54A5AB@K, :>340 20:F8=8@CNB &-20:F8=>9 (A :>B>@>9 ?@54CA<>B@5=> >AB>@>6=>5 >1@0I5=85 :0: A 8=D5:F8>==K< 035=B><!)... 2 @>4>2A?><>30B5;L=KE CG@5645=8OE. 4=8< A;>2><, =5;L7O @07@CH8BL ?5@5AB@>9:>9 B>, GB> =0 A0<>< 45;5 =5 ACI5AB2>20;> 2 =0H5< 3>AC40@AB25. >;55 ?>4@>1=K5 A2545=8O > A>AB025 =5:>B>@KE 20:F8=, >1 8E 873>B>2;5=88 8 >BACBAB288 ?@>25@:8 :0G5AB20 - 157>?0A=>AB8 ?@54AB02;5=K 745AL 2 4@C3>< @0745;5... !B@0=C =5 70E;5AB=C;8 8=D5:F8>==K5 1>;57=8 B>;L:> 70 AGQB B>3>, GB> 2 ?>A;54=85 ?>;25:0 =5 <>3;> 1KBL "% -, :>B>@K<8 E0@0:B5@87>20;8AL 2@5<5=0 65==5@0 8 0AB5@0. @C385 B5?5@L M?845<88, => 8 : ?@>B82>AB>O=8N 8< >B5G5AB25==K5 C?@02;5=FK >B A0=M?84A;C61K 8=74@020 =5 3>B>2K 2 =0G0;5 B@5BL53> BKAOG5;5B8O. 0?@0A=> <K ?@8=8<05< A @0A?@>ABQ@BK<8 >1JOB8O<8 =0H8E "1;03>45B5;59", =02>4=ONI8E >AA8N  #+  ,   20:F8=0<8. -B> =5 A?0AQB >AA8N 8 =5 ?@81028B 74>@>2LO =0H8< 45BO<! " !" /   2 =0H59 AB@0=5. BACBAB285 157>?0A=KE 20:F8=, 0 B0:65 @57:>5 CEC4H5=85 74>@>2LO 45B59 >AA88, =0G02H55AO A 60-E 3>4>2 XX AB>;5B8O, ?@825;8 : ">18;8N ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89" (9-11, 20, 33, 41, 63). 5A<>B@O =0 200-;5B=55 ACI5AB2>20=85 =5>1JOB=>3> :>;8G5AB20 A?5F80;L=>9 ;8B5@0BC@K ?> 8=20;84=>AB8 ?>A;5 ?@8282>: (29,30,84,85), 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 =0;8G85 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89 ?>;CG8;> >D8F80;L=>-70:>=>40B5;L=>5 ?@87=0=85 ;8HL B5?5@L - A 1998 3. (86). <5AB5 A B5<, ?>:0 5I5 40;5:> =5 2A5< @>48B5;O< 8 2@0G0< 8725AB=>, GB> 45BA:0O 8=20;84=>ABL, =0?@8<5@, =0@CH5=85 >?>@=>-42830B5;L=>3> 0??0@0B0 8;8 DC=:F89 ?>G5: 8 5IQ <=>3>5 4@C3>5, <>65B 1KBL A;54AB285< =53@0<>B=>3> >ACI5AB2;5=8O 20:F8=0F88... 0@>4=0O <C4@>ABL 3;0A8B: "5@52> <>6=> 2K@0AB8BL 70 10 ;5B, 0 ?5@545;0BL G5;>25G5A:>5 A>7=0=85 - 70 100 ;5B". 100 ;5B 2=CH0;8: "B ?@8282>: B>;L:> ?>;L70 8 =8:0:8E >A;>6=5=89". %>GC =045OBLAO, GB> 2 A;54CNI55 AB>;5B85 =0H8 3@0640=5 ?@>7@5NB, >A>7=0NB 8 1C4CB >B=>A8BLAO : 20:F8=0< A 1>;LH>9 >AB>@>6=>ABLN... %0@0:B5@8AB8:5 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89 ?>A2OIQ= @0745; IV - "   "! -": !!/ &&/ - $"  ! /  ,/ ". " "#  : # I 1.!>2@5<5==K5 ?@>1;5<K 8<<C=>;>388//%@>=8:0 , 1965, B. 19, !3, A. 83. 2. @54C?@5645=85 2 45BA:>< 2>7@0AB5 A>AB>O=89, ?@82>4OI8E : 701>;520=8O< C 27@>A;KE / >4 @54. $@0=:0 $>;:=5@0; 5@. A 0=3;. , 5=520, 1982. 3. 0:F8=>?@>D8;0:B8:0 8 ?@020 G5;>25:0: >:;04   / >4 @54. . . .48=0. , 1994. 4. 2545=85 2 18>MB8:C / >4 @54. ., .48=0. .: @>3@5AA-"@048F8O, 1998 5. 8>MB8:0: ?@8=F8?K, ?@028;0, ?@>1;5<K / >4 @54. . . .48=0 --48B>@80; # !!, 1998. 6. Salk J. Studies in human subjects on active immunization against poliomyelitis. A preliminary report of experiment in progress// J. Amer. Med.Ass.., 1953, V. 151 @. 1081-1098. 7. Salk J. Immunization against poliomyelitis: risk/benefit cost in changing context// Developments in biological standardization. Basel, 1979, V. 43, @. 151-157. 8. (;OE>2 -.. 0) <<C=>;>38O, 8<<C=>4803=>AB8:0, 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8:0 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59. 8H8=52: 0@BO >;4>25=OA:M, 1977; 1) A>02B. =4@85H .. <<C=>;>38O. 8H8=52: (B88=F0, 1985. 9. @038=A:0O .., !>:>;>20 .$. :B82=0O 8<<C=870F8O 8 ?@>D8;0:B8:0 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89 C 45B59. .: 548F8=0, 1977; 1984; 1990. 10. 564C=0@>4=0O AB0B8AB8G5A:0O :;0AA8D8:0F8O 1>;57=59, B@02< 8 ?@8G8= A<5@B8. - -I%, -%. 11. Mothering. Immunization. Special issue, 1984. 12. 5B>4K 87CG5=8O :;5B>G=>3> 8<<C=8B5B0 in vitro/ >4 @54. . ;C<0 8 $. ;5940; 5@. A 0=3;. .: 548F8=0, 1974. 13. <<C=>;>38G5A:85 <5B>4K 8AA;54>20=8O/>4 @54. . 5D:>28BA0 8 . 5@=8A0; 5@. A 0=3;. .: 8@, 1988. 14. >;O=A:89 ... 8>;>3 ?> ?@8720=8N// @8@>40, 1988, ! 9. 15. 5>=B>;>38O 2 <548F8=5. ". I, / >4 @54. .. 5B@>2A:>3>. .: 548F8=0, 1988. 16. 052 ..//  :=.:. $C=40<5=B0;L=K5 =0C:8 - <548F8=5. ., 1981,A. 128. 17. =>E8= .. G5@:8 ?> D878>;>388 DC=:F8>=0;L=KE A8AB5<. .: 548F8=0, 1975. 18. 0:F8=>?@>D8;0:B8:0: !?@02>G=8: 4;O 2@0G59/ >4 @54. .. "0B>G5=:>, .. 75@5F:>2A:>3>. ., 1994. 19. $54>@>2 . . 0H <0;KH, 1996, !4. 20. 4@>4>2A:89 .$. 0)  ?>1>G=KE @50:F8OE 20:F8=//  A1. "@C4>2 5=8=3@04A:>3>  45BA:8E 8=D5:F89. - >?@>AK ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8E ?@8282>: 8 @>;L 0;;5@388 2 20:F8=0;L=>< ?@>F5AA5 C 45B59. ., 1969; 1) @54>E@0=8B5;L=K5 ?@8282:8 ?@>B82 8=D5:F8>==KE 701>;520=89 8 ?@>1;5<0 ?@8282>G=>9 ?0B>;>388// 5480B@8O, 1975, ! 1. 21. >20;;> .. 0) 0@04>:AK 8<<C=>;>388. .: =0=85, 1983;1) >G5<C <K =5 ?>E>68 4@C3 =0 4@C30. .: =0=85, 1984. 22 -D@>8<A>= .. 0)2545=85 2 <548F8=A:CN 35=5B8:C. .: >A. 874-2> <54. ;8B5@0BC@K, 1964; 6) <<C=>35=5B8:0. .: 548F8=0, 1971. 23. >AA5; . =B8B5;0 8 8<<C=8B5B/ 5@. A 0=3;. .: 548F8=0, 1973. 24 . !;NA0@52 . . 8>;>38O A >1I59 35=5B8:>9. .: 548F8=0, 1978. 25 . <<C=>;>38G5A:85 0A?5:BK 8=D5:F8>==KE 701>;520=89/ >4 @54. 6. 8:0; 5@. A 0=3;. .: 548F8=0, 1982. 26 . 5B@>2 .. 0) / 8;8 =5 O: <<C=>;>38G5A:85 <>18;8. .: >;>40O 320@48O, 1986; 6) A:CAAB25==K5 0=B835=K 8 20:F8=K//<<C=>;>38O, 1986, ! 1. 27. 5E0=87<K 8<<C=>?0B>;>388/ >4 @54. !. >5=0, . . #>@40, .". 0:-;0A:8; 5@. A 0=3;. .: 548F8=0, 1983. 28. !>@8=A>= !.. =D5:F8>==K5 1>;57=8 A ?>;8:;8=8G5A:>9 ?@0:B8:>9. !1.: 8??>:@0B, 1993. 29. C15@B . @82820=85 B5;OGL59 8 3C<0=878@>20==>9 >A?K. 070=L: "8?>3@0D8O <?5@0B>@A:>3> #=825@A8B5B0, 1887. 30. C=4>18= . . 0CG=>5 8 ?@0:B8G5A:>5 7=0G5=85 >A?>?@82820=8O. !1., 1893. 31. Rey J. L. Perseverare diabolicum. (Reflexion sur les compagnes de vaccination de masse). [LO2>;LA:>5 C?>@AB2>. ( 07<KH;5=8O > :0<?0=88 <0AA>2>9 20:F8=0F88).] 0@86, 1989. 32. 5=>@ . 0:>=>40B5;LAB2>, @53;0<5=B8@CNI55 8<<C=870F8N =0A5;5=8O !(. B45; 74@02>>E@0=5=8O. #?@02;5=85 5=5@0;L=>3> A>25B=8:0. 8=8AB5@AB2> 74@02>>E@0=5=8O 8 <548F8=A:>3> >1A;C6820=8O/ 5@. A 0=3;. 1993. 33. C@28G -.. 0B>35=5B8G5A:85 <5E0=87<K 8 D0:B>@K, A?>A>1AB2CNI85 @0728B8N ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89 (0=0;87 >A;>6=5=89 2 !!!  70 12 ;5B C ?@828BKE >A?5==>9 20:F8=>9): 2B>@5D. 48AA. =0 A>8A:0=85 CG. AB5?5=8 4. <. =. ., 1984. 34. 07=0G552 . . 0) @>1;5<K M:>;>388 G5;>25:0. .: 0C:0, 1986; 1) -:>;>38O. -2>;NF8O A> 7=0:>< "<8=CA"// !25B, 1991, ! 5. 35. 30460=O= . ., ">@H8= . . -:>4>38O G5;>25:0: &8:; ;5:F89., .:@C:, 1994. 36. /1;>:>2 . . 0) A>02B. -415@3 . "@C4=K9 ?CBL : 2>A:@5A5=LN. .: @>3@5AA,1988; 1) /4>28B0O >B@020. .: KA;L, 1990. 37. Bohn. Handbuch der Vaccination. Leipzig, 1875, s. 344. 38. >;L 45 @09D (45 @N8). E>B=8:8 70 <8:@>10<8/ 5@. A 0=3;. .: >;>40O 320@48O, 1957. 39. 0?>?>@B /. . >@D>;>38G5A:85 >A=>2K 8<<C=>35=570 (<>@D>;>38O)//@E82 ?0B>;>388, 1957, !2. 40. %59D5F . . >=B@>;8@C5<K5 M?845<8>;>38G5A:85 >?KBK ?> >F5=:5 70I8B=>9 A?>A>1=>AB8 20:F8=K & ?@8 2=CB@8:>6=>< 22545=88// 5AB=8:  !!! , 1975, ! 4. 41. !CE0=>2A:89 .. 0) >?@>AK @0728B8O ?5@28G=>9 BC15@:C;57=>9 8=D5:F88 8 <5E0=87<K 70I8B=KE @50:F89 ?@8 =59// 5480B@8O, 1984, ! 7; 1) >:@C3 AB0BL8 . . 8B8=A:>9 8 A>02B, "0:F8=0F8O & 8 C:>@>G5==K5 :C@AK ;5G5=8O ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89..."// 5480B@8O, 1996, ! 6. 42. -DD5:B82=>ABL 20:F8=0F88 & ?> >B=>H5=8N : BC15@:C;Q7=><C <5=8=38BC// N;;5B5=L , 1990, B. 68, ! 1, A. 46. 43. !5@>4803=>AB8G5A:85 B5ABK =0 BC15@:C;57: ?>B@51=>ABL 2 >F5=:5 8E ?@0:B8G5A:>9 ?@>3=>AB8G5A:>9 B>G=>AB8 8 ?@85<;5<>AB8// N;;5B5=L , 1990, B. 68. ! 5, A. 16. 44. 'C<0:>2 . . 0) ;8O=85 <0AA>2>9 ?5@>@0;L=>9 8<<C=870F88 682>9 20:F8=>9 87 HB0<<>2 !M918=0 =0 M?845<8G5A:89 ?@>F5AA ?@8 ?>;8><5;8B5// C@=0; <8:@>18>;>388, 1960, 2K?. 4, ! 3; 1) A>02B. >@>H8;>20 .., 703C@>2 !.., 8 4@. #A?5E8 2 87CG5=88 ?>;8><5;8B0 8 1>@L10 A =8< 2 !!! //5AB=8:  !!! , 1967, ! 3. 45. !<>@>48=F52 =.. 0) 8@CA=K5 1>;57=8 8 8E ?@>D8;0:B8:0.  o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ayflick L. The cellular basis for biological aging// Handbook of the Biology of Aging/ Eds. C. Finch, L. Hayflick. New York, van, Nostrand Reinhold, 1977. . 159-186. 56. @0G52 . ., 5B@8GG80=8 . !. F5=:0 ?5@528205<KE :;5B>G=KE ;8=89 :0: AC1AB@0B0 4;O ?@>872>4AB20 18>;>38G5A:8 0:B82=KE 25I5AB2// -, 1987, !2. 57. World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardization/ Geneva, 1985. 58. WHO Informal Meeting T-Lymphotropic Retroviruses of Non-Human primates. Develop. Biol. Standard., 1985. 59. 4> . . >?@>AK >1I59 =>7>;>388. .: 548F8=0, 1985. 60. "@CE<0=>2 .., >@>H8;>2 .. 0:F8=K =0ABC?0NB =0 28@CAK. .: =0=85. !5@8O "&", 1973, ! 2. 61. 0@>O= .. 0) A>02B. >@B5@ 6. ., 564C=0@>4=K5 8 =0F8>=0;L=K5 0A?5:BK A>2@5<5==>9 8<<C=>;>388. .; 548F8=0, 1975; 6) 0:>=><5@=>AB8 8. ?0@04>:AK. 074C<LO >1 M?845<8OE 8 8<<C=8B5B5, > AC4L10E CG5=KE 8 8E B@C45. .: =0=85, 1986. 62.  - 0AH8@5==0O ?@>3@0<<0 8<<C=870F88 - Official Records of the World Health Organization. Geneva, 1974, ! 217. 63. >A>2 !. . 0) 040G8 8 ?CB8 A>25@H5=AB2>20=8O A8AB5<K 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8:8 8=D5:F89 C 45B59//  A1.: 0B5@80;K =0CG=>9 :>=D5@5=F88 =AB8BCB0 ?5480B@88  !!! . - ;8O=85 ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8E ?@8282>: =0 45BA:89 >@30=87<. ., 1966; 6) =D5:F8>==K5 1>;57=8 C 45B59 2 ?@>H;>< 8 =0AB>OI5< .: 548F8=0, 1980. 64.Odom The strategy of ecosistem development// Science, 1969, @.;. 164. 65. McKeown ". CBL : 74>@>2LN// A5<8@=K9 D>@C< 74@02>>E@0=5=8O, 1989-1990 B 10, ! 3-4. 66. @30=870F8O >A?>?@82820=8O 2 >AA88/ >4 @54. .. 5@F5=0. !1, 1889. 67. >:@>2A:89 .. 0) A>02B. >;>B>2A:89 . . 8 4@. !>2@5<5==K5 0A?5:BK M?845<8>;>388 8 ?@>D8;0:B8:8 48DB5@88. .: .1986; 1) CB8 >?B8<870F88 M?845<8>;>38G5A:>3> =047>@0 70 8=D5:F8>==K<8 1>;57=O<8 2 AB@0=5// -, 1986, !11. 68. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1992, v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erinatal Heath Services in Europe. Searching for better childbirth.77. =FC?>20 .!.. 0;5AA:8E .$., ><1@>2A:0O . . 0B5@80;K <=>3>;5B=8E =01;N45=89 70 F8@:C;OF859 28@CA0 ?>;8><85;8B0 // >?@>AK 28@CA>;>388, 1988, ! 3. 78. >;>65=85 45B59 2 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88. >AC40@AB25==K9 5653>4=K9 >BG5B. >AA89A:89 5BA:89 $>=4. .: ><, 1994, A. 29. 79. 5@5G5=L <0B5@80;>2 ?0@;0<5=BA:8E A;CH0=89 " A>AB>O=88 8 =5>B;>6=KE <5@0E ?> 1>@L15 A BC15@:C;57>< 2 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88". 15<0@B0 19993. 80. '07>2 . . >G5<C O CH5; 87 <8=8AB@>2?// , 13 8N;O 1990 3. 81. #<=>2 . "C, ?>4C<05HL - C:>;..."//, 15 A5=BO1@O 1988 3. 82. 8=:8= . "#?>@=K9, ?@>=78B5;L=K9 :@8:.  3@C??5 @8A:0 - 2A5 =>2>@>645==K5"// !B>;8F0, 1991, !33/39. 83.  20:F8=0E 8 ?@54?@8OB8OE, 8E ?@>872>4OI8E: "5;5D8;L< ?> ?@>3@0<<5 ">1@K9 25G5@, >A:20!", 5 >:BO1@O 1991 3. 84. @07>;J . =8<0O ?>;L70 8 459AB28B5;L=K9 2@54 >A?>?@82820=8O. !1.: "8?>3@0D8O HB010 2>9A: 320@488 8 5B5@1C@3A:>3> 2>5==>3> >:@C30, 1884. 85. $54>@>2A:89 .  157CA;>2=>< 2@545 ?@8282>://@0G-3><5>?0B, 1907,!7-9. 86. >AB0=>2;5=85 @028B5;LAB20 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 >B 27 45:01@O 2000 3. ! 1013, 3. >A:20: " ?>@O4:5 2K?;0BK 3>AC40@AB25==KE 548=>2@5<5==KE ?>A>189 8 565<5AOG=KE 45=56=KE :><?5=A0F89 3@0640=0< ?@8 2>7=8:=>25=88 C =8E ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89".  II. % " !" & II. 1. !" & / - 02B>@ 20:F8=K, => =5 <>3C CB25@640BL, GB> >=0 A>25@H5==>, ?>;=>ABLN 1572@54=0. @5645 G5< =0ABC?0BL B0:8< >1@07>< =0 8=D5:F88, A;54C5B A?@>A8BL C ;N459: E>BOB ;8 >=8 84B8 ?> MB><C ?CB8? 725AB=K ;8 8< 25A 70 8 ?@>B82? 0: E>B8B5, => >1O70==>ABL A>E@0=8BL 687=L 40QB =0< >4=> ?@02> - 7=0BL.  O ?>:0 =5 7=0N, GB> ;CGH5... 0AB>= 0<>=  A>740B5;L 48DB5@89=>3> 0=0B>:A8=0, 2E>4OI53> 2 ! (&8B. ?>: 12, A. 84) !@548 20:F8=, ?@8<5=O5<KE 2 >A=>2=>< A F5;LN ?@>D8;0:B8:8 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59, 8725AB=K 425 3@C??K MB8E ;5:0@AB25==KE 18>?@5?0@0B>2: 0=B810:B5@80;L=K5 8 ?@>B82>28@CA=K5.  ?5@2K5, 8 2B>@K5 <>3CB 1KBL 8=0:B828@>20==K<8 (C18BK<8) 8 682K<8 (B01;. II. 1). =0:B828@>20=8K5 20:F8=K - B0:85 ?@5?0@0BK, 345 8=D5:F8>==>5 =0G0;> <>65B 1KBL C18B> E8<8G5A:8<8 25I5AB20<8 8;8 87<5=5=85< B5<?5@0BC@=>3> @568<0, ;81> :@8>@0480F8>==>9 AB5@8;870F859 A ?@>3@0<<8@>20==K< 70<>@06820=85<. !CI5AB2CNB 8 1>;55 A>2@5<5==K5 <5B>4K 8=0:B820F88 8=D5:F8>==KE 035=B>2, =5 ?@8<5=ONI85AO, 2<5AB5 A B5<, 2 >AA88. 82K5 20:F8=K - 0BB5=C8@>20==K5 (>A;01;5==K5) HB0<<K 28@CA>2 8;8 10:B5@89. BB5=C8@>20==K5 - >A;01;5==K5 2 A2>59 28@C;5=B=>AB8 8=D5:F8>==>9 03@5AA82=>AB8), B.5. 8A:CAAB25==> <>48D8F8@>20==K5 G5;>25:>< 8;8 ?>40@5==K5 ?@8@>4>9, 87<5=82H59 8E A2>9AB20 2 O2AB25==KE CA;>28OE, ?@8<5@>< G53> A;C68B >A?>20:F8=0. 59AB2CNI8< D0:B>@>< B0:8E 20:F8= O2;ONBAO 87<5=Q==K5 35=5B8G5A:85 ?@87=0:8 <8:@>>@30=87<>2, 2 B> 65 2@5<O >15A?5G820NI85 ?5@5=5A5=85 @515=:>< <0;>9 1>;57=8 (1, 2, 3-6) A ?>A;54CNI8< ?@8>1@5B5=85< A?5F8D8G5A:>3> ?@>B82>8=D5:F8>==>3> 8<<C=8B5B0. @C38<8 A;>20<8, 20:F8==K5 20@80=BK 682KE <8:@>>@30=87<>2 - MB> B5 87 =8E, :>B>@K5 CB@0G820NB 8AE>4=CN ?0B>35==>ABL, ?@8ACICN HB0<<0<, F8@:C;8@CNI8< 2 ?@8@>45. >, >AB020OAL 687=5A?>A>1=K<8 (!) >=8 8=4CF8@CNB >1@07>20=85 A?5F8D8G5A:>9 @578AB5=B=>AB8 ?> B>9 65 AE5<5, :0: MB> ?@>8AE>48B ?@8 5AB5AB25==>-8=D5:F8>==>< ?@>F5AA5. @8<5@: ?>A;5 ?@8282:8 & - ?@>B82 BC15@:C;570 (5-7). !CI5AB25==>5 >B;8G85 A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> ?5@5=5A5=85 8=D5:F8>==>3> 701>;520=8O 5AB5AB25==K< ?CB5<, :>B>@>5 <>65B ?@>B5:0BL 8 2 A:@KB>9 (AB5@B>9) D>@<5 (48DB5@8O, ?>;8><85;8B, ?0@>B8B 8 4@.), >15A?5G8205B, :0: ?@028;>, ?>687=5==CN =52>A?@88<G82>ABL. >2B>@=>5 701>;520=85 >B<5G5=> 2A53> ;8HL C ?OB8 ?@>F5=B>2. @8 20:F8=0F88 682K<8 20:F8=0<8 8A:CAAB25==> ?@8>1@5B5==K9 8<<C=8B5B =5?@>4>;68B5;5=, GB> >1CA;>2;8205B 4>?>;=8B5;L=>5 =5>4=>:@0B=>5 ?>2B>@5=85 ?@>F54C@K ?@8282>:. =0B>:A8=K. !;54C5B 8<5BL 2 284C, GB> ?@>B82 48DB5@88, AB>;1=O:0 8 =5:>B>@KE 4@C38E 10:B5@80;L=KE 8=D5:F89 =5 ACI5AB2C5B 20:F8= 2 B>< ?>=8<0=88, :>B>@>5 >1I5?@8=OB>. ">, GB> A@548 <548F8=A:8E @01>B=8:>2 8<5=C5BAO ?@>B82>48DB5@89=>9 20:F8=>9, :0: 8 ?@>B82 AB>;1=O:0, =0 A0<>< 45;5 O2;O5BAO 0=0B>:A8=><.  MB> 7=0G8B, GB> 0=B8B>:A8G5A:89 8<<C=8B5B, A>740205<K9 ?@8282:0<8, =8:0: =5 2;8O5B =0 F8@:C;OF8N, ?@86820=85 8 @07<=>65=85 48DB5@89=>9 ?0;>G:8.  MB>< A>AB>8B >A=>2=0O B@C4=>ABL ;8:2840F88 48DB5@88. 0:F8=0F8O 48DB5@89=K< 0=0B>:A8=>< <0;> 2;8O5B =0 @0728B85 48DB5@89=>9 ?0;>G:8 :0: 8=D5:F8>==>3> ?@>F5AA0. 8DB5@89=K9 2>71C48B5;L 1C45B ?@>4>;60BL F8@:C;8@>20BL A@548 =0A5;5=8O, 4065 5A;8 ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> ?@828BK MB8< 0=0B>:A8=>< >B <0;0 4> 25;8:0 - 25AL <8@, :0: >1KG=> 2K@060NBAO =0H8 G8=>2=8:8 8 2@0G8- 20:F8=0B>@K, :>340 8< =5>1E>48<> ?>4=OBL A>1AB25==K9 02B>@8B5B 2 >?@0240=85 ?@8282>: 2A5E ?>4@O4. @><5 B>3>, 2>71C48B5;L A?>A>15= ?0@078B8@>20BL, : B><C 65 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 2 >@30=87<5 G5;>25:0, 8 1>;55 B>3>, 2 >@30=87<5, 8<5NI5< 2K@065==CN 2>A?@88<G82>ABL : 48DB5@88 - 1C4L >=0 ?@8@>4=0O, ?>AB8=D5:F8>==0O 8;8 ?>A;5?@8282>G=0O. AB>G=8:><, @07=>AG8:>< 0=B8A0=8B0@=>3> A>AB>O=8O 3>AC40@AB20, ?@8 >BACBAB288 =02K:>2 2 8 ;8G=>9 8 >1I5AB25==>9 38385=K. 8DB5@8O ?5@5405BAO :>=B0:B=>-1KB>2K< ?CB5< - G5@57 ;>6:8, G0H:8, 83@CH:8, ?>;>B5=F0 >1I53> ?>;L7>20=8O 8 B.4. (6, 8-12). 5@50;L=> ;8:2848@>20BL 48DB5@8N A ?><>ILN 0=0B>:A8=0, :0: MB> ?KB0NBAO ?@>2>73;0H0BL M?845<8>;>38 8 G8=>2=8:8 2A5E @0=3>2, GB> @0AE>48BAO A <=5=85< A?5F80;8AB>2 8 40==K<8 >17>@>2 <564C=0@>4=>9 ?@0:B8:8 (3, 8, 11, 12). 8GCBL =5 <5=LH0O ?CB0=8F0 >B<5G05BAO 2 2>?@>A5 ;8:2840F88 AB>;1=O:0, 1C4B> 1K C?@02;O5<>N ?@8282:>9 - AB>;1=OG=K< 0=0B>:A8=><. @8=OB> AG8B0BL, GB> AB>;1=O: - @54:>5 701>;520=85. 7=0G0;L=>, 40 8 A59G0A 2 <564C=0@>4=>9 ?@0:B8:5 @5GL 845B > =54>?CAB8<>AB8 AB>;1=O:0... A@548 =>2>@>645==KE (13). 040G0 2?>;=5 :>=:@5B=0O 8 @50;8AB8G=0O, ?>A:>;L:C ?@54>B2@0I5=8N ?>?040=8O B5B0=CA0 (2>71C48B5;O AB>;1=O:0) 2 B:0=8 =>2>@>645==>3> A;C68B >:070=85 ?><>I8 2 @>4>2A?><>30B5;L=KE CG@5645=8OE ... :0: ?@54?>;0305BAO, 2 0A5?B8G5A:8E CA;>28OE. !>7405BAO 2?5G0B;5=85, GB> =0H <;045=5F =5 ;568B 2 :@>20B:5, >15@5305<K9 <54?5@A>=0;><, ?>765 <0B5@LN, :>B>@0O 1>8BAO =0 =53> 4KH0BL, 0 ?>;705B A@548 ?0;>G5: AB>;1=O:0, :>B>@K9 >B=>A8BAO : 8=D5:F8O< A >G5=L =87:8< C@>2=5< 701>;520=8O.  A0<>5 3;02=>5, GB> 2 MB>< 2>7@0AB5 C @515=:0 5I5 4>;3> A>E@0=ONBAO <0B5@8=A:85 0=B8B5;0! =0B>:A8= =5 1572@54=K9 D878>;>38G5A:89 @0AB2>@, 0 GC65@>4=K9 15;>:..., - ?8H5B =0< 2@0G A 35-;5B=8< AB065<, ?8AL<> :>B>@>3> <K ?><5AB8;8 2 >:;045-A1>@=8:5   (14, A. 82). 1I58725AB=> 8 4@C3>5 =5<0;>206=>5 >1AB>OB5;LAB2>: =5;L7O C?@02;OBL A ?><>ILN 0=0B>:A8=0 687=LN 2>71C48B5;O AB>;1=O:0 2 5AB5AB25==KE CA;>28OE, ?>A:>;L:C >= O2;O5BAO :8H5G=K< ?0@078B>< 682>B=KE, <>65B ?0@078B8@>20BL 4065 2 :8H5G=8:5 G5;>25:0, 0 B0:65 G@572KG09=> 4>;3> - 45AOB:8 ;5B - ?5@56820BL 2 ?>G25 2 2845 A?>@, 2KA>:>CAB>9G82KE : 2=5H=8< 2>7459AB28O< (8,13). 8DB5@89=K9 0=0B>:A8= >15A?5G8205B D>@<8@>20=85 0=B8B>:A8G5A:>3> 8<<C=8B5B0, :>B>@K9, @07C<55BAO, CABC?05B A?5F8D8G5A:>9 =52>A?@88<G82>AB8, >1@07CNI59AO 5AB5AB25==K< ?CBQ< - ?>A;5 ?5@5=5A5=8O 1>;57=8. @><5 B>3>, 0=0B>:A8=K =5 ?@54>B2@0I0NB ?>O2;5=8O 10:B5@8>=>A8B5;LAB20 (6, 8, 11-13). 5;L7O =54>CG8BK20BL 5IQ >4=> >1AB>OB5;LAB2> - >B@8F0B5;L=>5 2;8O=85 0=0B>:A8=>2 4@C3 =0 4@C30 2 A>AB025 :><?;5:A=KE 20:F8= B8?0 !. -B0 ?@>1;5<0 AB>8B =0 ?>25AB:5 4=O <=>3> ;5B, ?>A:>;L:C 4>:070=0 0=B835==0O :>=:C@5=F8O 48DB5@89=>3> 8 AB>;1=OG=>3> 0=0B>:A8=>2 ?@8 A>2<5AB=>< 8E 22545=88, 0 B0:65 22545=85 :>:;NH=>3> 0=0B>:A8=0 :0: 2 >4=>< H?@8F5, B0: 8 2 @0745;L=KE... ?@5?OBAB2C5B 2K@01>B:5 8<<C=8B5B0 2 E>45 20:F8=0F88.  =0H59 AB@0=5 =8 =0 ?@>872>4AB25 20:F8=, =8 ?@8 8E :>=B@>;5, ?@>F5AA5 ?@8282>: CAB0=>2;5==K5 D0:BK 4065 =5 C?><8=0NBAO. K @0A?>;0305< 4>:C<5=B>< > B><, GB> 2 A2>5 2@5<O - 8<. . . 'C<0:>20 (1K2H89 =AB8BCB ?>;8><85;8B0) =5 @5:><5=4>20; ?@>2>48BL ?@8282:8 ! A 682>9 20:F8=>9 ?@>B82 ?>;8><85;8B0, "?>A:>;L:C =5 ?@>2>48;8AL 8AA;54>20=8O ?> 2>?@>AC 2;8O=8O >4=>2@5<5==>9 8<<C=870F88 ! 8  (682>9 ?>;8><85;8B=>9 20:F8=>9) =0 70:>=><5@=>AB8 2K@01>B:8 8<<C=8B5B0 : B@Q< B8?0< ?>;8>28@CA0 (?@8;>65=85 . 1). 0: 65 B0:?! 01>@0B>@=K5 8AA;54>20=8O =5 ?@>2>48;8, 0 >A=>20=88 G53> 2=54@8;8 2 ?@0:B8:C <0AA>2KE ?@8282>: ! ?;NA ?>;8>20:F8=0?! -B> 8 5ABL >4=> 87 A2845B5;LAB2 ?@>2545=8O 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 H8@>:><0AHB01=KE M:A?5@8<5=B>2 =0 45BOE! 1 M:A?5@8<5=B0E =0 =0H8E 45BOE 4>AB0B>G=> ?>4@>1=> ?@54AB02;5=K 4>:C<5=BK 2 >:;045-A1>@=8:5  (14). >?@>AK >1 >?KB0E =0 45BOE 1C4CB @0AA<>B@5=K 8 2 ?@54;0305<KE <0B5@80;0E. "+ - + &+ - =>20O ?@>4C:F8O 2 ?@>D8;0:B8:5 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59. @8<5@>< B0:>9 20:F8=K O2;O5BAO 20:F8=0 ?@>B82 35?0B8B0  (17). 0: 2A5 =>2>5, B5< 1>;55 35==>-8=65=5@=>5 ;5:0@AB25==>5 A@54AB2>, ?@54=07=0G5==>5 4;O ?0@5=B5@0;L=>3> 22545=8O (C =0A >?OBL-B0:8 <0AA>N 8 G5@57 B@8 G0A0 ?>A;5 @>645=8O @515=:0!), MB0 20:F8=0 B@51C5B ?@>2545=8O ?@>4>;68B5;L=KE =01;N45=89  B> 5ABL, @5GL 845B > B5E 65 H8@>:><0AHB01=KE 8A?KB0=8OE... =0 45BOE (18, A. 9; 19; 20, A. 3). 7 MB8E ?C1;8:0F89 A;54C5B: 01;N45=8O AB0=>2OBAO 1>;55 B>G=K<8 8 F5==K<8, 5A;8 >=8 ?@>2>4OBAO 2 ?5@8>4 <0AA>2KE :0<?0=89 8<<C=870F88.  B0:8E :0<?0=8OE 2 B5G5=85 :>@>B:>3> 2@5<5=8 ?@828205BAO 1>;LH>5 :>;8G5AB2> 45B59. >O2;5=85 2 MB>B ?5@8>4 3@C??K >?@545;5==KE ?0B>;>38G5A:8E A8=4@><>2 A2845B5;LAB2C5B, :0: ?@028;>, >1 8E ?@8G8==>9 A2O78 A 20:F8=0F859 (19, A.3). @8 B0:8E M:A?5@8<5=B0E 8 ?@>2545=88 "=01;N45=89 70 ?0B>;>38G5A:8<8, A8=4@><0<8 C 45B59"?@8E>48BAO A>60;5BL ;8HL >1 >4=>< :GB> 2 ?>4>1=KE M:A?5@8<5=B0E =5 CG0AB2CNB 45B8 8 2=C:8 MB>3> :>=B@>;5@0 !0. @><5 20:F8=K "-=465@8:A ?@>B82 35?0B8B0 "(17), B0:>9 65 157>?0A=>9 8 MDD5:B82=>9 70O2;5=0 ?@>B82>35?0B8B=0O N6=>:>@59A:0O, 0:B82=> =02O7K205<0O =0H59 AB@0=5 2A5 B>9 65 D@0=FC7A:>9 D8@<>9 8 70:C?;5==0O 4;O >ACI5AB2;5=8O <0AA>2KE ?@8282>: <>A:28G59 , ?>A:>;L:C ">=0 7=0G8B5;L=> 45H52;5 -=465@8:A... AM:>=><8;8, 70B@0BK C<5=LH8;8AL 2 420 @070", - A>>1I05B ?@54A540B5;L ><8B5B0 74@02>>E@0=5=8O 3. >A:2K . II. !5;LF>2A:89 ?> B5;52845=8N ("&, 24 <0O 2000 3.) G5=L :@0B:> >1 MB0?0E ?@83>B>2;5=8O ?>4>1=KE =0H8< :;>=8@>20=85 35=>2 28@CA0 (2 40==>< A;CG05 35?0B8B0 ), >15A?5G820NI53> A8=B57 0=B835=0; 22545=85 MB8E 35=>2 2 25:B>@-:;5B:8-?@>4CF5=BK (745AL B0:>2K<8 O2;ONBAO :;5B:8 4@>6659).  C65 :;5B:8-?@>4CF5=BK 8A?>;L7CNB 4;O =0@01>B:8 ''20:F8==>9 <0AAK. !-!!& + &+ !0<0O 8725AB=0O, ?5@20O - ! 8 55 ?@>G85 <>48D8:0F88 - !- 8 4@. B>@0O - ?@>B82 :>@8, ?0@>B8B0 8 :@0A=CE8. "@5BLO - ?@>B82 :>:;NH0, 48DB5@88, AB>;1=O:0 8 ?>;8><85;8B0 (AN40 2E>48B 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 8=0:B828@>20==0O ?>;8>20:F8=0!)4=0 87 @07=>284=>AB59 MB>9 20:F8=K =5 A>45@68B :>:;NH=CN D@0:F8N. '5B25@B0O - A>2A5< =>20O ?>;8:><?>=5=B=0O - ! 6-20;5=B=0O 20:F8=0 4;O ?5@28G=>9 20:F8=0F88 45B59 ?@>B82 >A=>2=KE 45BA:8E 8=D5:F89: :>:;NH0, 48DB5@88, AB>;1=O:0, ?>;8><85;8B0 (8=0:3828@>20==0O), 35?0B8B0  8 35<>D8;L=>9 8=D5:F88 (Heamophilus influenza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enet. Technol. News, 1986, 6, ! 9). "0: 2 !( 2A;54 70 @5:><18=0=B=K< 0;LD0-8=B5@D5@>=><, G5;>25G5A:8< 3>@<>=>< @>AB0 A>740=K 35==>-8=65=5@=K9 8=AC;8= 8 20:F8=0 ?@>B82 35?0B8B0 . 5 <5=55 2065= B>B D0:B, GB> 2 !(, 5@<0=88, /?>=88 8 4@C38E 3>AC40@AB20E, ?@>872>4OI8E 20:F8=K, ?@54?@8OB8O 70AB@0E>20=K. >MB><C, 5A;8 2>7=8:0NB AC451=K5 8A:8, :>=D;8:BK ?> ?>AB20:F8=0;L=K< >A;>6=5=8O< 8 D8@<K B5@?OB CI5@1, >=8 2?@025 >B:070BLAO >B ?@>872>4AB20 B>3> 8;8 8=>3> ?@5?0@0B0. <5==> B0: 8 ?@>87>H;> 2 !(, :>340 425 D8@<K 87 B@5E >B:070;8AL >B 873>B>2;5=8O !: AC451=K5 8A:8 4>E>48;8 4> 2K?;0BK 10 <;=. 4>;;0@>2 (14, 22, 23). 'B> A:070BL > 4@C3>9 =>2>9 20:F8=5 - 35<>D8;L=>9 B8?0  8=D5:F88 (%-8=D5:F8O)? -B> - :0?AC;L=K9 ?>;8A0E0@84 B8?0 , :>=JN38@>20==K9 A 15;:>< AB>;1=OG=>3> 0=0B>:A8=0. 5 A>45@68B 0=B818>B8:>2 8 :>=A5@20=B>2, =>... 20:F8=0 =>20O. @><5 B>3>, 3>B>2OBAO : @538AB@0F88 2 >AA88 5I5 =5A:>;L:> B8?>2 B0:>9 20:F8=K 2 A>G5B0=88 A 4@C38<8 ?@5?0@0B0<8: ! - :><18=0F8O % A !, 8=0:B828@>20==>9 ?>;8>20:F8=>9 -  8  - ?@>B82 35?0B8B0 ; " - :><18=0F8O % A ! 8 ; % ! - <>=>20:F8=0 - >G8I5==K9 ?>;8A0E0@84 . ifluenza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http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/tab_ii3.html" 745AL (B01;. II.3). C:>?8AL 2>72@0I5=0 A @57N<5 B>3> 65 ?@54A540B5;L ! !C<0@>:>20 (> G5< <K C7=0;8 7=0G8B5;L=> ?>765): "!B0BLO A>45@68B A2545=8O, ?@5?OBAB2CNI85 ?C1;8:0F88 2 >B:@KB>9 ?5G0B8. !>45@60=85 AB0BL8 48A:@548B8@C5B :0G5AB2> A>25BA:8E 20:F8=, 8 55 ?C1;8:0F8O <>65B ?@825AB8 : A>740=8N =530B82=>3> >B=>H5=8O : ?@>2545=8N ?;0=>2>9 <0AA>2>9 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8:8. !B0BLN >B:;>=8BL". 57 ?>4?8A8, => 4>:C<5=B A>E@0=5= A> HB0<?>< @540:F88. K7K205B C482;5=85, :0: ?@>?CAB8;8 4@C385 =0H8 ?C1;8:0F88, 2 :>B>@KE <K B>65 =8G53> E>@>H53> =5 3>2>@8;8 >1 ! (2). "5?5@L A@02=8< 420 =865A;54CNI8E 4>:C<5=B0 !>3;0A=> 0AB02;5=8N ?> ?@8<5=5=8N, 459AB2>202H5<C 4> :>=F0 80-E 33.: "4A>@18@>20==0O :>:;NH=>-48DB5@89=>-AB>;1=OG=0O 20:F8=0 ?@54AB02;O5B A>1>9 2725AL :>:;NH=KE <8:@>1>2, C18BKE D>@<0;8=><  (2=8<0=85! - ""! - .'.) <5@B8>;OB><, 8 >G8I5==KE 48DB5@89=>3> 8 AB>;1=OG=>3> 0=0B>:A8=>2, 04A>@18@>20==KE =0 384@>>:8A8 0;N<8=8O. >=A5@20=B - <5@B8>;OB 2 :>=F5=B@0F88 0,01%", B.5. 4>?>;=8B5;L=> 2 :>=5G=K9 ?@>4C:B 5I5 @07 4>102;O5BAO E8<8G5A:>5 25I5AB2>. ;O B>3>, GB>1K ?>=OBL, :0: 2A5< G8=>2=8:0< 157@07;8G=>, GB> 8 A:>;L:> 22>48BAO ?0@5=B5@0;L=> 2 >@30=87< 3@C4=>3> @515=:0, >1@0B8<AO : 4@C3><C <5B>48G5A:><C 4>:C<5=BC ?> B5E=8G5A:><C 873>B>2;5=8N ! ( "#-42 !262-68), 459AB2>202H5<C B0:65 4> :>=F0 80-E 33. / CE>48;0 87 !0 2 1989 3., B0< @C:>2>4AB2>20;8AL B5< 65 4>:C<5=B>< >B 1968 3. >765 53> ?5@5?8A0;8, ?@52@0B82 2 B@51C5<CN D0@<AB0BLN. 4=0:> =>20O D>@<0 8=AB@C:F88 =5 ?><5=O;0 B5E=>;>38N ?@83>B>2;5=8O MB>9 A<5A8, 8<5=C5<>9 !-"20:F8=>9". '8B05< 2  "# 2 @0745;5 III ?C=:B 8 A.2 2B>@0O AB@>:0 A=87C:  1 <; :>:;NH=>9 2725A8 4>;6=> A>45@60BLAO =5 <5=55 ...D>@<0;8=0 0,05% ...8 (2=8<0=85 -.'.) <5@B8>;OB0 - 0,01%, B.5. =5B =8:0:>3> , A>45@68BAO 8 D>@<0;8=, 8 <5@B8>;OB! - 500 <:3/<; D>@<0;8=0  100 <:3/<; <5@B8>;OB0 - @BCBL>@30=8G5A:>9 A>;8. 20 ?5AB8F840 2 ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:>< (=5 ;5G51=><!) ;5:0@AB25==>< A@54AB25, 8A?>;L7C5<>< <0AA>2> 2 45BA:>9 ?@0:B8:5 74@02>>E@0=5=8O. !>N7K "" 8 "" - 2K45;5=K <=>N 4;O B>3>, GB>1K ?>4G5@:=CBL =5A>>B25BAB285 A>AB020 ! 2 0AB02;5=88 ?> ?@8<5=5=8N 8 =0 A0<>< 45;5 - 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?@83>B>2;5=8O MB>3> "18>?@5?0@0B0". B<5G5==>5 <=>N 25AL<0 ACI5AB25==>, ?>A:>;L:C 45BO< 22>4OB =5 , 0 420 70254><> >?0A=KE E8<8G5A:8E 25I5AB20 87-70 >BACBAB28O 0A5?B8G5A:8E CA;>288 =0 ?@54?@8OB8OE, 873>B02;820NI8E ! 8 ?@>G85 18>?@5?0@0BK. , :@><5 B>3>, G5<C 65 25@8BL: =0?8A0==><C 2 0AB02;5=88 ?> ?@8<5=5=8N 8;8 4>:C<5=B0< ?> 873>B>2;5=8N?! 0: ?>:070;8 =0H8 8AA;54>20=8O, :>:;NH=K9 0=B835= A>45@68B 420 ?5AB8F840: 8 D>@<0;8=, 8 <5@B8>;OB, 0 B0:65 10;;0AB=K5 18>:><?>=5=BK - <8:@>1K, C18BK5 2 ?@>F5AA5 AB5@8;870F88 <5@B8>;OB><. B> 65 <>65B ?@54A:070BL ?>A;54AB28O 2 @57C;LB0B5 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8:8 ?>4>1=K< :>:B59;5<? =A?5:F8>==K9 :>=B@>;L ?@54?@8OB89, 2 :>B>@>< ?@8=8<0;0 CG0AB85 8 O, ?>:070;, GB> ?@>872>4AB20 =0E>4OBAO 2 B0:>< 0=B8A0=8B0@=>< A>AB>O=88, GB> 3>2>@8BL > ?@8=F8?0E 0A5?B8:8... 1K;> =5 A :5<. 8=74@02 =5 <>3 =5 7=0BL ACI5AB2CNI53> ?>;>65=8O, ! - B>65, 0 :>=B@>;5@K 87 45AOB8;5B8O 2 45AOB8;5B85 :>=B@>;8@>20;8 B>, GB> =5 8<5;> ?@02> =0 ACI5AB2>20=85. / >B:07K20;0AL ?>=8<0BL ?>4>1=CN "?@>D8;0:B8:C 74>@>2LO" =0H8E <;045=F52. 1J548=82 =5:>B>@KE A?5F80;8AB>2 =0 >A=>25 A>2<5AB=>9 @01>BK, =0?@02;5==>9 =0 ?>;CG5=85 =5:>B>@KE D0:B8G5A:8E <0B5@80;>2, :C40 <K B>;L:> =5 >1@0I0;8AL? > 2A5 74@02>>E@0=8B5;L=K5 8 ">E@0=ONI85 74>@>2L5 45B59" 8=AB0=F88! K ?>GB8 :@8G0;8 > =5>1E>48<>AB8 ?@82;5G5=8O : @01>B5 =04 20:F8=0<8 8<<C=>;>3>2 =>2>3> ?>:>;5=8O, 0;;5@3>;>3>2, B>:A8:>;>3>2 8 38385=8AB>2, 35=5B8:>2 8 F8B>?0B>;>3>2, ?0B>D878>;>3>2 8 4@C38E A?5F80;8AB>2. 54L, AC4O ?> ?5@5G=N ?>AB20:F8>==KE >A;>6=5=89, =5 ACI5AB2C5B =8 >4=>9 >1;0AB8 <548F8=K, :C40 1K ?@8282:8 =5 ?@82=5A;8 OB@>35==CN ?0B>;>38N (1-6, 14, 18, 32, 34, 39, 57, 58). @8 MB>< <=5 ?@8E>48;>AL A;KH0BL =5>4=>:@0B=> =0 CGQ=KE A>25B0E !0 - K 8 157 20A 7=05<, GB> D>@<0;8= 8 <5@B8>;OB =5 :>=D5B:8, => B0:>2 ?>@O4>: 873>B>2;5=8O !, 8 MB>B ?>@O4>: 48:BC5B =0< .  5 <K >1O70B5;L=> @0AA:065< 4>?>;=8B5;L=>, B5?5@L 65 =5<5O : ?>@O4:C, 1;03>40@O :>B>@><C 2 ?@5?0@0B0E ?>O2;ONBAO 8 A>25@H5==> =5=C6=K5 4>?>;=8B5;L=K5 0=B835=K - <8:@>1K, C18BK5 <5@B8>;OB><: A @C: ?5@A>=0;0 ?@54?@8OB89, 87 2>74CE0, =0:>=5F, 87 A0<>9 ?@>4C:F88, ?@54=07=0G5==>9 4;O ?@83>B>2;5=8O 20:F8=. AE>4O 87 @50;L=>AB8 - >BACBAB28O AB5@8;L=KE CA;>289 - AG8B05BAO ?>@O4:>< 4>102;5=85 @BCBL>@30=8G5A:>9 A>;8 8 2 B0: =07K205<K5 >A;01;5==K5 20@80=BK - !, !- 8 ?@., 0 B0:65 =0 =5:>B>@KE ?@54?@8OB8OE 8 2 AK2>@>B>G=K5 ?@5?0@0BK - 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=K.  !  +%  !! + ! +: !,  /  #!/% "'!"+%   /", //"!/ ! ,+ %-'!  ", ', !+ /  /   "!  "  % / (2,14, 32). >;CG5==K5 =0<8 40==K5, 0 B0:65 8725AB=0O >17>@=0O 8=D>@<0F8O >1 >?0A=>AB8 D>@<0;8=0 8 A>;59 @BCB8 =5>4=>:@0B=> 4>:;04K20;8AL =0 CGQ=KE A>25B0E !0, =0 70A540=8OE !, =0 :>=D5@5=F8OE 8 A8<?>78C<0E, ?@54AB02;5=K 2 2845 B@5E >BG5B>2   2 8=74@02 !!!  8 4>:;04=KE 70?8A>:. @8=8<0;8AL 4065 ?>;>68B5;L=K5 @5H5=8O, 2 :>B>@KE ?@87=020;0AL 206=>ABL CAB0=>2;5==>3> =0<8, 8 2A5 >AB020;>AL ?>-?@56=5<C (?@8;>65=85 II. 2). AQ A25;>AL, 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2, : B><C, GB> =0< ?@8:;58;8 O@;K: ?@>B82=8:8 ?@8282>:. >;CG8;>AL :0: 2A5340. G5=L BI0B5;L=>, A ?@82545=85< >17>@>2 8725AB=>9 ;8B5@0BC@K, ?>;CG5==KE =0<8 40==KE, 0 B0:65 >B:;8:>2 A?5F80;8AB>2 @07=KE >1;0AB59 <548F8=K 8 N@8AB>2, MB8 <0B5@80;K A>1@0=K 8 ?>4@>1=> ?@54AB02;5=K 2 2845 >:;040-A1>@=8:0   2 1994 3. (14).  A?CABO ?>GB8 10 ;5B =0 :>=3@5AA5 '5;>25: 8 ;5:0@AB2> (1999) 48@5:B>@ !0 . . 54C=8FK= 2 A2>5< 4>:;045 A>>1I8; > A=865=88 A>45@60=8O D>@<0;8=0 8 <5@B8>;OB0 2 18>?@5?0@0B0E 210 @07. 0;55, 2 53> <>=>3@0D88, 2KH54H59 2 1999 3., A:070=>: "0AB0;> 2@5<O @0AA<>B@5BL 2>?@>A >1 8A:;NG5=88 <5@B8>;OB0 87 =5:>B>@KE A>@18@>20==KE ?@5?0@0B>2... B5< 1>;55 GB> B0:85 ?@8<5@K 5ABL..." (312, A. 114). 02=> ?>@0 ?>A;54>20BL MB8< "?@8<5@0<", >A>15==> 2 G0AB8 20:F8=, ?@8<5=ONI8EAO 4;O 45B59, => ?>:0 MB> 2A5 5I5 "25@>OB=>", B.5. <>65B 5I5 8 =5 A>AB>OBLAO. "5< 2@5<5=5< <0AA>20O ?@>D8;0:B8:0 "74>@>2LO" 45B59 ?@>4>;605BAO A "?><>ILN" !, A>45@60I8E >10 >?0A=KE ?5AB8F840. 0?><=8<, GB> 22>48BAO >=0 B@864K, <0AA>2>, ?0@5=B5@0;L=> (G@57:>6=>) 3@C4=K< 45BO<. 0:-B> ?;>E> MB> A>G5B05BAO A M:>;>3859 2 74>@>2L5 @515=:0. $>@<0;L45384, 2>4=K9 53> @0AB2>@ - D>@<0;8=, 2E>4OI89 2 A>AB02 <=>38E 8=0:B828@>20==KE 20:F8=. 07=>E0@0:B5@=K< ?@>O2;5=85< B>:A8G5A:>3> 459AB28O MB>3> E8<8G5A:>3> 25I5AB20 ?>A2OI5=K <=>3>G8A;5==K5 @01>B0 (51 - 55). >:070=>, GB> >= O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 =081>;55 8725AB=KE <CB035=>2, 0;;5@35=>2, >1;0405B M<1@8>B8G5A:8< 459AB285< (51 - 55). "@8 >1A;54>20=88 15@5<5==KE @01>B=8F 2 2>7@0AB5 18-30 ;5B >B45;>G=>3> ?@>872>4AB20 B5:AB8;L=>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8, @01>B0NI8E 2 :>=B0:B5 A D>@<0;L45384>< 1>;55 3-E ;5B (B.5. A 15-B8 ;5B? - .'.), 2KO2;5=0 ?0B>;>38O 15@5<5==>AB8. !0<>?@>872>;L=K5 01>@BK-2K:84KH8 8 ?@56452@5<5==K5 @>4K =01;N40;8AL G0I5 C ?5@2>@>4OI8E... >2>@>645==K5 <0B5@59-@01>B=8F >B45;>G=>3> ?@>872>4AB20 8<5;8 <0AAC B5;0 8 @>AB <5=LH5, G5< =>2>@>645==K5 :>=B@>;L=>9 3@C??K. !=865=85 <0AAK B5;0 C =>2>@>645==KE =0E>48;8AL 2 ?@O<>9 7028A8<>AB8 >B AB060 @01>BK", - >?C1;8:>20=> 2 70-E 33., B. 5. 1>;55 30 ;5B =0704 (53). -:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K<8 8AA;54>20=8O<8 =0 682>B=KE 8 :;8=8G5A:8<8 =01;N45=8O<8 =0 ;N4OE 2 90-5 3>4K ?@>4>;60NB ?>4B25@640BLAO D0:BK B>3>, GB> ?>A;5 ?0@5=B5@0;L=>3> 2>7459AB28O D>@<0;L453840 =0 C@>2=5 , # (?@545;L=> 4>?CAB8<KE :>=F5=B@0F89 8;8 C@>2=59), @0AAG8B0==KE, >4=0:>, 4;O 2>74CE0 @01>G59 7>=K, C25;8G8205BAO G0AB>B0 0=><0;89 2=CB@5==8E >@30=>2.  >?KB0E =5 :@KA0E >B<5G5=K 7045@6:0 @0728B8O A:5;5B0, 87<5=5=8O :8A;>B=>-I5;>G=>3> A>AB>O=8O :@>28 C 70@>4KH59, 0 B0:65 A=865=85 ?>:070B5;59 D878G5A:>3> @0728B8O :@KAOB, 87<5=5=85 8E ?>2545=G5A:8E @50:F89 2 N25=8;L=>< 8 ?>;>2>7@5;> 2>7@0AB5,- :0: ?8A0;8 0:CH5@K-38=5:>;>38 87 5=8=3@040 (54). =0;>38G=K<8 A5@L57=K<8 40==K<8 @0A?>;030NB 0:CH5@K-38=5:>;>38 87 4@C38E 3>@>4>2 1K2H53> !!! , ?@8A;02H85 A2>8 ">B:07=K5" @01>BK, >?C1;8:>20==K5 B5?5@L 2 >:;045-A1>@=8:5   (14). A>10O F5==>ABL MB8E <0B5@80;>2 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB>, 2>-?5@2KE, 87=0G0;L=> ?@>2545=K "<=>3>;5B=85 :;8=8G5A:85 =01;N45=8O 70 <>;>4K<8 <0B5@O<8, ?>;CG82H8<8 A?>;=0 - A @>645=8O 2AN "?>;>65==CN A5B:C ?@8282>:"" (14, A- 77). >-2B>@KE, ?>765 MB8 A?5F80;8ABK 2>A?@>8725;8 A2>8 :;8=8G5A:85 =01;N45=8O =0 682>B=KE, B0:65 4>:0702 2>7<>6=>AB8 2K:84KH59 8 A5@L57=KE 87<5=5=89 ?>2545=G5A:8E @50:F89 "?>4@>AB:>2KE" 682>B=KE - :@>;8:>2 8 :@KA. -B@5BL8E, M:A?5@8<5=BK 1K;8 ?@>2545=K 8A:;NG8B5;L=> =0 15@5<5==KE 682>B=KE 8 =0 <0;KH0E ?>A;5 @>645=8O 2 B0:>9 >A=>20B5;L=>AB8 22545=8O 20:F8=, :0: ?@54CA<>B@5=> :0;5=40@5< ?@8282>:: &, ! (B@864K) 8 B.4.: " B@52>6=KE @57C;LB0B0E =0H8E 8AA;54>20=89 <K <=>3>:@0B=> CAB=> 8 ?8AL<5==> 8=D>@<8@>20;8 A>B@C4=8:>2 8=74@020, ?8A0;8 4>:;04=K5 =0 8<O ?@57845=B0  !!! , 48@5:B>@>2 ?@>D8;L=KE 8=AB8BCB>2 ... >=8 87;030;8AL =0 70:;NG8B5;L=KE >BG5B0E  ...". AQ :0: C 2A5E, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 C =0A, 8 @57C;LB0B B>B 65: "> 2A5 <5@K 8 AB@5<;5=8O @071C48BL - ?5@540BL =0HC B@52>3C >@30=870B>@0< 74@02>>E@0=5=8O 8 :C@0B>@0< 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8:8 >:070;8AL 157@57C;LB0B=K<8" (14, A. 77-82). 57C;LB0BK =01;N45=89 F8B8@C5<KE 2KH5 :;8=8F8AB>2 >A>15==> 206=K ?>B><C, GB> =0 ?@0:B8:5, B.5. 4> 2=54@5=8O :0A:040 ?@8282>:: &, ! 8 ?@. =5 1K;> ?>AB02;5=> =8 >4=>3> >?KB0 =0 682>B=KE "3@C4=>3> 2>7@0AB0" 2 B0:>9 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>AB8 8A?>;L7>20=8O 20:F8=, :0: ?@>8AE>48B A =>2>@>64Q==K<8 8 3@C4=K<8 45BL<8 2 =0H59 AB@0=5.  !#)!"#" +% -! "   ! ,, B.5. 2 2002 3.! =K<8 A;>20<8, CA;>28O ?@>2545=8O ?@8282>: 8 :>=B@>;L 157>?0A=>AB8 20:F8= =5 @02=>7=0G=K! K ?@>4>;605< >1 MB>< 3>2>@8BL 8 ?8A0BL, =>... @0B:> >1 0;;5@35==KE A2>9AB20E D>@<0;8=0: >BQ: 28=:5, :@0?82=8F0, @8=>?0B8O, 0AB<0B8G5A:85 1@>=E8BK, 1@>=E80;L=0O 0AB<0, 0;;5@38G5A:85 30AB@8BK, E>;5F8AB>0=38>E>;8BK, :>;8BK, 87<5=5=85 :>68 2 2845 ;8E5=870F88, M@8B5<K, B@5I8=, H5;CH5=8O 8 4@. - ?>;=0O 0=0;>38O A B5<8 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=K<8 >A;>6=5=8O<8, 2B>@K5 >B<5G0NB ?5480B@K 8 4@C385 A?5F80;8ABK 2>B C65 40 ;5B ?>A;5 ?@8<5=5=8O ! (2-4, 6, 14, 18, 22, 23, 30, 32, 57, 58).  B>:A8:>;>38G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 A:070=>: "54>?CAB8<> 22545=85 ?>4 :>6C, 2/<KH5G=>, ?0@5=B5@0;L=> 25I5AB2, >1;040NI8E @074@060NI8< 459AB285<" (45, A. 71) - E>@>H> 8725AB=>5 A2>9AB2> "665=8O" ?>A;5 8=J5:F88 ! 8 4@. 8=0:B828@>20==KE 20:F8=, A>45@60I8E D>@<0;8=. G5284=>, 2 A2O78 A B0:8< A2>9AB2>< D>@<0;8=0 2> 2A5E (!) ?C1;8:0F8OE  ?> 873>B>2;5=8N 8 :>=B@>;N 20:F8= @5:><5=4>20=> "=59B@0;87>20BL >AB0B>G=K5 :>;8G5AB20 MB>3> 8=0:B820B>@0" (21). ;O :>3> 65 =0?8A0=> B0:>5 :>;8G5AB2> AB0B59, <>=>3@0D89 8 A?@02>G=>9 ;8B5@0BC@K ?> 8<<C=>;>388, 5A;8 :>=B@>;5@K 20:F8= =5 2 A>AB>O=88 8E 0=0;878@>20BL 8 ?@8<5=OBL (2-8,14-16, 21, 40, 43-45,49-68), A@548 =8E - " 2@54=>< 459AB288 D>@<0;L453840 2 =87:8E :>=F5=B@0F8OE, 40NI8E >B40;5==K5 2@54=K5 MDD5:BK" (55)?! !,, !!+!   !" +",  !"!", ! "#" /  #+% ",  (  !"+ !!"/ % !"/     ! '. 0?><=N, GB> A>;8 @BCB8 1>;55 >?0A=K, =565;8 A0<0 @BCBL. > 2AQ >:070;>AL =5 B0:-B> ?@>AB>. :07K205BAO, >?0A=> 87 2>74CE0, 2>4K, ?8I5?@>4C:B>2, =C, 0 20:F8=K 8 3@C4=K5 45B8 - 2=5 MB>3>, A0<8 ?> A515. 0@O4C A MB8<, 402=> 8725AB=>, GB> GC2AB28B5;L=>ABL 45BA:>3> >@30=87<0 A;54C5B ?><=>68BL =0 100 - 45B8 2 100 @07 1>;55 GC2AB28B5;L=K :> 2A5< 2@54=K< D0:B>@0< (60, 61, 69, 70). @><5 B>3>, G@57:>6=K9 :>=B0:B A B>:A8G=K<8 25I5AB20<8 3>@074> 1>;55 8=B5=A825= 8 >?0A5=, G5< @5A?8@0B>@=K9 ?CBL ?>ABC?;5=8O (69). > =5B =8:0:8E @50:F89 A> AB>@>=K G8=>2=8:>2-20:F8=0B>@>2, A@548 =8E - A0=2@0G59 8 38385=8AB>2, 2 >B=>H5=88 G@57:>6=>3> ?>ABC?;5=8O D>@<0;8=0 2 :><?;5:A5, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, A GC65@>4=K< 15;:>< - A?5F8D8G5A:8< 0=B835=><, A 4@C3>9 - A @BCBL>@30=8G5A:>9 A>;LN - <5@B8>;OB>< - 2 >@30=87< 3@C4=KE 45B59! 5@B8>;OB, 70:C?;5==K9 8=74@02>< !!! , 8A?>;L7C5<K9 8 B5?5@L ?@8 873>B>2;5=88 20:F8= 2 >AA88, 8<55B ?@54C?@5645=8O >B D8@<: " /  !"", "", /  " +% !!" (?@8;>65=85 II.3.). "0:>9 <5@B8>;OB 1>;55 =5 ?@>872>4OB 2 2@>?5 87-70 M:>;>38G5A:>9 >?0A=>AB8 4;O >:@C60NI59 A@54K (?@8;>65=85 II.3.). 7 MB>3> 65 4>:C<5=B0 A;54C5B: D8@<K =5 ?@8=8<0NB >B =0A 70:07, 0 <K =0AB08205<. "C 8 GB>, - A:070; $.$. 575?>2 =0 >4=>< 87 CG5=KE A>25B>2,- 0 <K 1C45< 70:C?0BL 53> 2 D@8:5, B5?5@L B0< AB@>OB B0:85 702>4K...?OBL45AOB ;5B ?@>872>48;8 B0:CN ! 8 5I5 AB> ;5B 1C45< 3>B>28BL B0: 65".., - B>B A0<K9 575?>2, :>B>@K9 O2;O5BAO 3;02=K< ":>=B@>;5@><" !.  254L >= >:070;AO ?@02, AC4O ?> <>=>3@0D88 .. 54C=8FK=0 (31 2). 5@B8>;OB, 8A?>;L7C5<K9 =0H59 AB@0=>9 - MB8;@BCBLB8>A0;8F8;0B=0B@8O - 0=0;>3 3@0=>70=0 (?@>B@028B5;O A5<O=).  2 <5@B8>;OB5, 8 2 3@0=>70=5 459AB2CNI8< =0G0;>< O2;O5BAO MB8;@BCBL. ";:8;@BC=K5 A>548=5=8O (<5B8; 8 MB8;) =5 ?@8<5=ONB 2 <548F8=5, MB> 2KA>:>B>:A8G=K5 A>548=5=8O, >=8 2 >B;8G85 >B 1>;LH8=AB20 4@C38E A>548=5=89 ;8?>D8;L=K, <54;5==> 2K2>4OBAO 87 >@30=87<0, ?>MB><C <>3CB =0:0?;820BLAO 2 =5@2=>9 B:0=8..." (71). >B GB> =0< ?8H5B ?@>D5AA>@, 0;;5@3>;>3 .. !B@838= 87 #DK: " B>:A8G=>AB8 @BCB=KE A>548=5=89 8725AB=> 402=>. >340 @5GL 845B > 22545=88 2 >@30=87< GB> 8 A>;8 2 A>AB025 <548F8=A:8E 18>;>38G5A:8E ?@5?0@0B>2, B> =04> 8<5BL 2 284C A;54CNI55. BCBL 87 >@30=87<0 2K45;O5<AO >G5=L <54;5==>, >=0 <>65B >1=0@C6820BLAO 2 <>G5 A?CABO =5A:>;L:> <5AOF52 ?>A;5 ?@5:@0I5=8O :>=B0:B0. >ABC?05B 2 :@>2L 2 B5G5=85 4;8B5;L=>3> 2@5<5=8, 4065 A?CABO @O4 ;5B ?>A;5 ?@5:@0I5=8O 2AO:>3> :>=B0:B0. !0<>3> A5@L57=>3> 2=8<0=8O 70A;C68205B A?>A>1=>ABL @BCB=KE A>548=5=89 2K7K20BL A5=A818;870F8N >@30=87<0. >2KH5==0O GC2AB28B5;L=>ABL : A>;O< @BCB8 >?8A0=0 <=>3>:@0B=>.  =0AB>OI5<C 2@5<5=8 =0:>?;5= 7=0G8B5;L=K9 <0B5@80; >1 0;;5@388 : <5@B8>;OBC. !>>1I0;>AL, =0?@8<5@, > 2KA>:>9 GC2AB28B5;L=>AB8 ?0F85=B>2 : <5@B8>;OBC, 8A?>;L7C5<><C 2 2845 2;06=>9 ?>2O7:8.  4@C3>< A;CG05 1>;L=>9 A;CG09=> ?@>;8; @0AB2>@ <5@B8>;OB0 =0 =>38, ?>A;5 G53> C =53> @0728;AO M@8B5<0B>7=>-2578:C;O@=K9 45@<0B8B.  <5@B8>;OB=KE 45@<0B8B0E A>>1I0NB <=>385 ?@0:B8G5A:85 2@0G8. 081>;LH89 8=B5@5A ?@54AB02;ONB 40==K5 > @50:F8OE =0 <5@B8>;OB, 2K720==KE ?@54K4CI8< 22545=85< <5418>?@5?0@0B>2, :>=A5@28@>20==KE MB8< @BCB=K< A>548=5=85<. "0:, >B<5G5=K @50:F88 =0 <5@B8>;OB C ;N459 A ?@54H5AB2>202H59 ?@8282:>9 0=0B>:A8=>< 8;8 22545=85< BC15@:C;8=0, :>=A5@28@>20==>3> <5@B8>;OB><. (0 2>7<>6=>ABL B0:8E @50:F89 ?>A;5 22545=8O BC15@:C;8=0, A>45@60I53> >G5=L =57=0G8B5;L=K5 4>7K <5@B8>;OB0, C:07K20NB 8 M:A?5@BK  (21) - . '.). ?8A0= A;CG09, :>340 ?0F85=B, A45;02H89 A515 @0=55 B0BC8@>2:C A ?><>ILN :8=>20@8, A>45@60I59 @BCBL, ?@8>1@5;, 2>-?5@2KE, ;>:0;L=K9 2578:C;O@=K9 AB><0B8B (5<C ?>AB028;8 0<0;L30<>2CN ?;><1C); 0 2>-2B>@KE, A?CABO =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O ?>A;5 8=J5:F88 AB>;1=OG=>3> 0=0B>:A8=0, C =53> @0728;0AL A8;L=0O <5AB=0O @50:F8O. @C38<8 A?5F80;8AB0<8 CAB0=>2;5=>, GB> <5@B8>;OB O2;O5BAO ?@8G8=>9 @50:F89, >B<5G05<KE ?>A;5 22545=8O 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=>2, A>45@60I8E MB>B :>=A5@20=B.  AK2>@>B:5 ;8F, 402H8E ?>4>1=K5 @50:F88 ?>A;5 22545=8O B0:>3> 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=0, 1K;8 =0945=K 0=B8B5;0 : <5@B8>;OBC. 2B>@K ?>4G5@:820NB, GB> 38?5@GC2AB28B5;L=>ABL, 8=4CF8@>20==0O 22545=85< ?@5?0@0B0, A>45@60I53> <5@B8>;OB (C =0A MB> <>3CB 1KBL !, !-<, 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=K), <>65B ?@>O28BLAO ?>A;5 22545=8O 4@C3>3> ?@5?0@0B0, :>=A5@28@>20==>3> 0=0;>38G=K< >1@07><. ( A2O78 A MB8< E>B5;>AL 1K >B<5B8BL 4>2>;L=> G0ABK5 =5045:20B=K5 @50:F88 8 >A;>6=5=8O ?>A;5 ?>2B>@=>3> 22545=8O @515=:C ! 8 4@. 5Q <>48D8:0F89. >7<>6=>, MB> B>65 @50:F88 45B59 A ?>2KH5==>9 GC2AB28B5;L=>ABLN : A>548=5=8O< @BCB8. -.'.), 0A;C68205B 2=8<0=8O 8 A>>1I5=85 > B><, GB> 2 >?KB0E A :;5B:0<8 15;>9 :@>28 74>@>2KE ;8F <5@B8>;OB ?@>O2;O5B A51O :0: ;815@0B>@ 38AB0<8=0.  =0H8E >?KB0E =0 <KH0E 8 <>@A:8E A28=:0E <5@B8>;OB >:070;AO, 157CA;>2=>, B>:A8G=K<: =01;N40;>AL 87JO72;5=85 =0 <5AB5 53> 22545=8O, >1;KA5=85 682>B=KE, ?045=85 <0AAK B5;0 8 3815;L. ( 57C;LB0BK, 0=0;>38G=K5 B5<, :>B>@K5 <K ?>;CG8;8 2 !5 8 ?@54AB028;8 8E :><8AA88, :>B>@0O ?@>25@O;0 "4>AB>25@=>ABL" ?>;CG5==KE =0<8 40==KE-. '.).  A25B5 87;>65==>3> ?@54AB02;O5BAO, 2>-?5@2KE, =54>?CAB8<K< 8A?>;L7>20=85 <5@B8>;OB0 2 ?@>B82>0;;5@38G5A:8E ?@5?0@0B0E (38AB03;>1C;8=0E 8 0;;5@3>3;>1C;8=0E). @><5 B>3>, A CG5B>< 2A5E >B@8F0B5;L=KE A2>9AB2 MB>3> @BCB=>3> A>548=5=8O, ?@02><5@=0 ?>AB0=>2:0 2>?@>A0 >1 >B:075 >B <5@B8>?OB0 4;O ;N1KE <548F8=A:8E 18>;>38G5A:8E ?@5?0@0B>2". 8AL<> ?@>D. .. !B@838=0 A>?@>2>6405BAO ?5@5G=5< 8A?>;L7>20==>9 ;8B5@0BC@K, AAK;:0<8 =0 A?@02>G=8:8, 0 B0:65 B01;8F0<8 A @57C;LB0B0<8 A>1AB25==KE M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE 40==KE, GB> >1AC640;>AL =0 #G5=>< A>25B5 2 B>< 65 !5.  =0H8E >BG5B0E   B0:65 D83C@8@>20;8 ?0@0<5B@K: >1;KA5=85, ?0@57 704=8E :>=5G=>AB59 C =>2>@>645==KE <KH59, @57:>5 ?045=85 <0AAK B5;0 8 3815;L =>2>@>645==KE <KH59 8 <>@A:8E A28=>: (?@8;>65=85 II.5.). !;C68B5;8 2820@8O 2 !5 87-70 60;>AB8 : MB8< 5AG0AB=K< M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K< 682>B=K< - 8AB>I5==K< , A =5:@>70<8 :>68 - ?@>A8;8 CAK?8BL 8E :0: <>6=> A:>@55, => 682>B=K5 ?>3810;8 A0<>AB>OB5;L=> <54;5==>9 A<5@BLN. K @0A?>;0305< <=>3>G8A;5==K<8 ?>4>1=K<8 70:;NG5=8O<8 >B A0<KE :><?5B5=B=KE A?5F80;8AB>2 =0H59 AB@0=K, GB>, B5< =5 <5=55, 4> A8E ?>@ =5 ?>2;8O;> =0 A>AB02 "20:F8=K" ! (312). 7 4@C38E 8AB>G=8:>2 B0:65 402=> 8725AB=> > B><, GB> A?5:B@ 2@54=>3> 18>;>38G5A:>3> 459AB28O @BCB=KE A>;59 4>2>;L=> H8@>: 963 - 71). 725AB=> >:>;> 100 D5@<5=B>2, DC=:F88 :>B>@KE 1;>:8@CNBAO BO65;K<8 <5B0;;0<8 8 8E A>;O<8, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 @BCB=K<8. @8 MB><, 2>- ?5@2KE, >A>15==> ACI5AB25==> ?>@060NBAO D5@<5=B=K5 A8AB5<K, >ACI5AB2;ONI85 M=5@35B8G5A:89 >1<5=. !B@0405B 8 3>@<>=0;L=0O A8AB5<0. # 2A5E "=0 A;CEC" 154AB285, ?@>8AH54H55 2 1CEB5 8=8<0B0 2 /?>=88, :>340 15@5<5==K5 65=I8=K C?>B@51;O;8 2 ?8IC @K1C, A>45@602HCN @BCBL 87-70 B>3>, GB> >48= 87 702>4>2 A1@>A8; O4>28BK5 >BE>4K 2 <>@5. >AB@040;8 <=>385 A5<L8, => ?@>H;> ?>GB8 10(!) ;5B, ?@5645 G5< C40;>AL CAB0=>28BL A2O7L <564C ?>B@51;5=85< MB>9 @K1K 8 @>645=85< 45B59 A BO65;K<8 ?>2@5645=8O<8 <>730 8 4@C38<8 45D5:B0<8. 4=0:> O?>=FK BI0B5;L=> 8 A:@C?C;57=> 70=8<0;8AL MB8< 2>?@>A>< (63) ,2 >B;8G85 >B =0A. A>15==> B>:A8G=K<8 O2;ONBAO >@30=8G5A:85 A>548=5=8O BO65;KE <5B0;;>2, 2 G0AB=>AB8, MB8;- 8 <5B8;A>548=5=8O @BCB8. KO2;5=> 8718@0B5;L=>5 2;8O=85 8E =0 35=5@0B82=CN DC=:F8N (63 -71). A=>2=K5 >?0A=>AB8 >B @BCBL>@30=8G5A:8E A>;59: ?>@065=85 F5=B@0;L=>9 8 ?5@8D5@8G5A:>9 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K, ?>G5:, 87<5=5=85 D5@<5=B0B82=>9 <8:@>A><0;L=>9 D@0:F88 ?5G5=8, =0@CH5=85 45OB5;L=>AB8 A5@4F0 8 0;;5@38O.  >A=>25 ?0B>38=570 8=B>:A8:0F88 0;:8;@BCB=K<8 A>548=5=8O<8 ;568B =0@CH5=85 15;:>2>3> A8=B570 =0 @0==8E AB048OE, 2?;>BL 4> 35=5B8G5A:8E =0@CH5=89 (21.3, 21. 4; 73 - 78). I5 >4=>9 AB>@>=>9 B>:A8G5A:>3> 459AB28O @BCB8 O2;O5BAO 8E 2;8O=85 =0 ?@>=8F05<>ABL <5<1@0=, GB> A?>A>1AB2C5B 2>7=8:=>25=8N "<5B01>;8G5A:>3> E0>A0" =0 C@>2=5 :;5B>: 8 AC1:;5B>G=KE AB@C:BC@ (64-68). 5 <5=55 7=0G8<K< O2;O5BAO A?>A>1=>ABL A>;59 BO65;KE <5B0;;>2 2K7K20BL =51;03>?@8OB=K5 >B40;5==K5 ?>A;54AB28O (62-71), GB> 2 A0<>9 A5@L57=>9 AB5?5=8 >?@545;O5B 8E 1>;LHCN >?0A=>ABL 4;O @0ABCI53> 45BA:>3> >@30=87<0. "5B01>;8G5A:89 E0>A" <>65B ?@825AB8 : =5>1@0B8<K< ?@>F5AA0< 8 ?>O2;5=8N 02B>=><=KE :;5B>:, 2KH54H8E 87-?>4 2;8O=8O @53C;8@CNI8E A8AB5< >@30=87<0. "#4828B5;L=>5 CG0AB85 2A5E :;5B>: >@30=87<0 2 ?@028;L=>< DC=:F8>=8@>20=88 8E A>>1I5AB20 ?@5@K205BAO =5?>28=>25=85< >4=>9 87 =8E. ;O A>>1I5AB20 MB> AB0=>28BAO C3@>60NI8<, B0: :0: ?>B><AB2> :;5B:8-"1C=B0@O" @0745;O5B 55 =5?>28=>25=85. >;55 B>3>, >=> =0A;54C5B MB> =5?>28=>25=85 8 4065 CA8;8205B 53>, >1@07CO "10=4K" :;>=>2 2A5 1>;55 48:85 4;O :>=:@5B=>3> >@30=87<0..." (75, A. 89). 0:>?;5=85 2> 2=CB@5==59 A@545 >@30=87<0 @515=:0 ;N1>3> ?>AB>@>==53> 25I5AB20 :@09=5 =565;0B5;L=>, 0 ?>4G0A 8 ?@>AB> >?0A=>, ?>A:>;L:C 8<<C==0O A8AB5<0 =5 2A5340 A?@02;O5BAO A "?@8H5;LF5<", GB> 2;5G5B 70 A>1>9 =587156=>5 =0@CH5=85 >1<5=0 25I5AB2. @8 >F5=:5 >?0A=>AB8 4;O 74>@>2LO @515=:0 MB>3> "GC60:0", A;54C5B CG8BK20BL, GB> 4;O ?@>F5AA0 :0=F5@>35=570 ACI5AB2C5B 4;8B5;L=K9 ;0B5=B=K9 ?5@8>4, :>B>@K9 >1KG=> AB0=>28BAO B5< 4;8==55, G5< A;0155 2>7459AB285 (72-74). "@028;L=>5" =>@<8@>20=85 B0:8E 25I5AB2 :0: D>@<0;8= 8 @BCBL>@30=8G5A:0O A>;L 4;O ?0@5=B5@0;L=>3> 22545=8O 2 >@30=87< 3@C4=KE 45B59 :@09=5 70B@C4=8B5;L=>. >MB><C 2 A2>5 2@5<O 2 <0B5@80;0E $/, ?>A2OIQ==KE  @BCB=>9 A>;8 2 ?@>4C:B0E ?8B0=8O (!), A?5F80;L=> >3>2>@5=>, GB> 459AB2CNI55 PTW1 =5 @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO =0 45B59 (77). AQ 8725AB=>5 >1 >?0A=>AB8 @BCBL>@30=8G5A:8E 25I5AB2 45<>=AB@8@C5B, :0: ?@028;>, MB8>;>38N 8=B>:A8:0F88 G5;>25:0 ?> F5?>G:5: 75@=>-E;51-G5;>25:; ?@>B@02;5==>5 75@=> - ?B8F0 - <OA> ?B8FK - G5;>25: - ?@><KH;5==K5 >BE>4K (AB>:8) - 2>4>5< - @K10 - G5;>25:.  ,  !" + " +"  #."   #'"+." "% '!#. " #" "#", '! !,.  #+% ", #'.)%   " , " + 2 ?5@2K5 ?>;3>40 687=8. '" ) # +",?! 0 12-;5B=89 ?5@8>4 @01>BK 2 !5 <=>N 2K?>;=5=K B@8 B5<K  , ?>40=K B@8 >BG5B0: 420 2 8=74@02, B@5B89 - 2 @57848C<  !!!  ?> @0745;C "" /, 7040=85 "". 4=0 87 B5< =07K20;0AL: " 07@01>B:0 =>2KE 8=D>@<0B82=KE <5B>4>2 :>;8G5AB25==>9 >F5=:8 8 :0G5AB20 254CI8E A2>9AB2 ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8E ?@5?0@0B>2 <0AA>2>3> 8A?>;L7>20=8O 2 45BA:>9 ?@0:B8:5 74@02>>E@0=5=8O". >=:@5B=0O B5<0 =0H59 ;01>@0B>@88, 2 G0AB=>AB8 <>53> 8A?>;=5=8O: " 07@01>B0BL <5B>4K 2KO2;5=8O ?>2@5640NI53> 459AB28O 20:F8=K, ! 8 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=>2 =0 :;5B:8 4;O >F5=:8 :0G5AB20 ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8E ?@5?0@0B>2". "0CG=0O F5==>ABL" <>59 G5B25@B>9 B5<K   ( =0 1989-1992) 1K;0 >1CA;>2;5=0 B5<, "GB> 2 !!!  4>?CAB8<K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 E8<8G5A:8E 25I5AB2, 2E>4OI8E 2 A>AB02 3>B>2KE D>@< , =5 87CG0;8AL =0 8E 157>?0A=>ABL =8 2 >4=>9 18>;>38G5A:>9 <>45;8". > 8 2 MB> =8:B> =5 E>G5B 2=8:0BL! 0: 65 4>?CAB8;8 =0;8G85 AB>;L 2@54=KE 8 >?0A=KE E8<8G5A:8E 25I5AB2 2 :>=5G=KE D>@<0E 8=0:B828@>20==KE 20:F8=? 8 548=>3> 4>:C<5=B0 =0 MB>B AG5B =5 1K;> >1=0@C65=>. !?CABO 30 ;5B ?>A;5 2=54@5=8O ! 2 ?@0:B8:C <0AA>2KE ?@8282>: 2 1KB=>ABL .. C@30A>20 ;02=K< 3>AC40@AB25==K< A0=2@0G>< AB@0=K, 0 GCBL ?>765 - .. >=4@CA520, =0< ?@54;>68;8 A>AB028BL "@>3@0<<C ?> @0AH8@5==><C 87CG5=8N B>:A8G=>AB8 <5@B8>;OB0". AB5AB25==>, <K >B:070;8AL >B A>AB02;5=8O =0720==>9 ?@>3@0<<K, 81> >=0 ?@54?>;030;0 ?@>2545=85 M:A?5@8<5=B>2 =0 45BOE ?@8282:0<8 !, ?@83>B>2;5==>9 A <5@B8>;OB>< 8 157 =53>. >?>;=8B5;L=K< >1>A=>20=85< >B:070 A;C68;8 2KH5?@82545==K5 402=> 8 E>@>H> 8725AB=K5 A2545=8O :0: > 2@54=>AB8 D>@<0;8=0, B0: 8 <5@B8>;OB0, ?>4B25@645==K5 8 =0H8<8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K<8 40==K<8 (2, 14, 32). !0<>5 AB@0==>5 2?5G0B;5=85 ?@>872>48;8 :>=B@>;5@K !0, C?>@=> =0AB08202H85 =0 B><, 1C4B> 1K C:070==K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 D>@<0;8=0 8 <5@B8>;OB0 "B@51C5B " 8... =0H0 AB@0=0 ">1O70=0 2K?>;=OBL MB8 B@51>20=8O". >4>1=K5 CB25@645=8O - >B:@>25==0O ;>6L, ?>A:>;L:C 2> 2A5E @5:><5=40F8OE , 8740==KE A 1960 3. 8 ?@>0=0;878@>20==KE <=>N (21), A:070=>: "N1>9 4>:;04  =5 >1O70B5;L=> ?@54AB02;O5B @5H5=85 8;8 >D8F80;L=CN ?>;8B8:C ... 8A?>;L7>20=85 18>?@5?0@0B>2 8 4>102>: : =8< - =0 CA<>B@5=85 =0F8>=0;L=>3> :>=B@>;L=>3> >@30=0 B>9 AB@0=K, :>B>@0O ?@>872>48B 20:F8=K" (21.1).  B0:85 @5:><5=40F88 2?>;=5 >?@0240=K.  ?@>B82=>< A;CG05, 70G5< 65 ACI5AB2CNB =0F8>=0;L=K5 :>=B@>;8@CNI85 >@30=870F88 - ! 8 !, 5A;8 <>6=> 157 4>?>;=8B5;L=>3> :>=B@>;O 22>78BL 2A5 (!), 25@O "=0 A;>2>" 70@C156=K< D8@<0<, :>B>@K5, 2<5AB5 A B5<, ?@54C?@5640NB GB> <5@B8>;OB, 70:C?;5==K9 C =8E, - "B>;L:> 4;O ;01>@0B>@=KE 8AA;54>20=89... =5 4;O ;5:0@AB2" (?@8;>65=85 II.). 070;>AL 1K, C65 B0:>5 ?@54C?@5645=85 4>;6=> =0AB>@>68BL 8 >15A?5G8BL =5<54;5==>5 2K2545=85 MB>9 @BCBL>@30=8G5A:>9 A>;8 87 ;5:0@AB25==KE ?@5?0@0B>2, 8A?>;L7C5<KE 4;O "?@>D8;0:B8:8 74>@>2LO" 45B59. > =5 BCB B> 1K;>. ! :0:>9 F5;LN 4>102;ONB @BCBL>@30=8G5A:CN A>;L 2 =5:>B>@K5 >B5G5AB25==K5 "18>?@5?0@0BK"? .. >=4@CA52: "@8<5=O5<K9 2 ?@>872>4AB25 ! - 20:F8=K <5@B8>;OB 2K?>;=O5B @>;L AB018;870B>@0 8<<C=>35==KE A2>9AB2 (> 8E =8:B> 8 =8:>340 =5 87CG0; - "8<<C=>35==K5 A2>9AB20" - .'.) 8 ?>402;O5B @50:B>35==>ABL :>:;NH=>3> :><?>=5=B0" (2<5AB5 A D>@<0;8=><& "?>402;O5B @50:B>35==>ABL"?! - . '.) - ("><A. ?@0240", 09.10.88.). @8 B0:>< =53@0<>B=>< >B25B5, 5AB5AB25==>, 2>7=8:0NB 2>?@>AK: - 70G5< <5@B8>;OB 22>4OB 2 !,  !- 8 B. 4., =5 A>45@60I85 "" - :>:;NH=>3> :><?>=5=B0? - ?>G5<C <5@B8>;OB 8A?>;L7CNB =5 =0 2A5E >B5G5AB25==KE ?@54?@8OB8OE, 873>B>2;ONI8E AK2>@>B>G=K5 ?@5?0@0BK - 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=K, >4=0:> 8 157 MB>3> 2@54=>3> :>=A5@20=B0 ?@>872>4OB :0G5AB25==K5 ?@5?0@0BK 2 AB5@8;L=>< 2845? 0?@8<5@, 2 :0B5@8=1C@35. @8 8=A?5:F8>==>< :>=B@>;5 A <>8< CG0AB85< 2KOA=8;>AL, GB> =0 B0:>< ?@54?@8OB88 3. :0B5@8=1C@30 ?@>872>4AB2> @01>B05B 157 <5@B8>;OB0... A 60-E 3>4>2! ". . 5:B8<8@>2 (:>@>B:>5 2@5<O 1K2H89 48@5:B>@>< !0): "1. <5NI85AO 2 8=AB8BCB5 <0B5@80;K 8 B@51>20=8O  : <548F8=A:8< 18>?@5?0@0B0< =5 40NB >A=>20=8O 4;O =5<54;5==>3> 8A:;NG5=8O <5@B8>;OB0 87 A>AB020 ! 8 4@C38E A>@18@>20==KE ?@5?0@0B>2. 2. #G8BK20O, GB> A>3;0A=> " (=>@<0B82=>-B5E=8G5A:>9 4>:C<5=B0F88) =0 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=K 4>102;5=85 <5@B8>;OB0 =5 O2;O5BAO >1O70B5;L=K< ( 345 - ">1O70B5;L=K<"?! - .'.), 2>7<>65= ?>;=K9 ?5@5E>4 =0 2K?CA: 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=>2 157 <5@B8>;OB0, >4=>2@5<5==> C;CGH82 ?@>872>4AB25==K5 CA;>28O =0 ?@54?@8OB8OE, 2K?CA:0NI8E ?@5?0@0BK A <5@B8>;OB><... (.'.: #6 A:>;L:> @07 4> =53> ?@8=8<0;8AL ?>4>1=K5 @5H5=8O, =0?@8<5@, 2 1983 3. - ?@8;>65=85 .2). 3& .. 4. ...@07@010BK20BL B5E=>;>388, ?@>872>4OI85 8 ?>72>;ONI85 8A:;NG8BL :>=A5@20=BK 87 18>?@5?0@0B>2; 5.   ?>ABC?;5=88 2 ! 8;8 ! =>2KE ?@5?0@0B>2, A>45@60I8E <5@B8>;OB, ?@>A8BL 02B>@>2 ?@54AB02;OBL >1>A=>20=8O 2:;NG5=8O :>=A5@20=B0 2 18>?@5?0@0B", - 87 #G5=>3> A>25B0 !0 (!0) >B 30.01.87 3. !;54>20B5;L=>, ?> 70:;NG5=8N !0, =5;L7O 8A:;NG8BL <5@B8>;OB :0: ":>=A5@20=B" (GB> >= :>=A5@28@C5B?) 87 A>@18@>20==KE ?@5?0@0B>2. >G5<C? >?>;=8B5;L=>5 ?@5ABC?=>5 >1JOA=5=85 4@C38E :>=B@>;5@>2 A<>B@8 =865. @><5 B>3>, =5 >G5=L-B> ?>=OB=>: 2:;NG0BL :>=A5@20=BK B8?0 <5@B8>;OB0 2 18>?@5?0@0BK 8;8... @07@010BK20BL =>2K5 B5E=>;>388, :>B>@K5 4>;6=K >15A?5G820BL AB5@8;L=>ABL 157 4>?>;=8B5;L=KE 0=B810:B5@80;=KE 25I5AB2 - ?5AB8F84>2? . . !C<0@>:>2 (1K2H89 ?@54A540B5;L !): "... A;54>20BL @5:><5=40F8O< , A>3;0A=> :>B>@K< =5 B>;L:> 4>?CA:05BAO, => ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : >B45;L=K< ?@5?0@0B0< =0AB>OB5;L=> @5:><5=4C5BAO 8A?>;L7>20=85 <5@B8>;OB0, GB>& 30@0=B8@C5B AB5@8;L=>ABL ?@5?0@0B>2, :0: ?@8 8E 2K?CA:5, B0: 8 2 ?@>F5AA5 ?@8<5=5=8O", - 87 ?@>B>:>;0 70A540=8O ! >B 04.02.87 3. KE>48B, 2 :>=F5 XX 25:0 =8 ?@>872>48BL, =8 22>48BL AB5@8;L=> 20:F8=K =5 =0CG8;8AL C =0A 2 AB@0=5?! I5 >4=> ?>4B25@645=85 MB><C ?8AL<> 2 ! ?@>D. .. !C<0@>:>2C (13.12.85 3) >B 702. ;01>@0B>@859 3@8??0 8   .. >=A:>9: " 0AA<>B@52 87<5=5=8O ! 5 : "# 42.14. 258-81 =0 20:F8=C 3@8??>7=CN E8<8G5A:CN 04A>@18@>20==CN C18BCN 684:CN, ?@54AB02;5==K5 #D8<A:8< !, ;01>@0B>@8O 3@8??0 8   ! 8<. .. "0@0A>28G0 AG8B05B ?@54AB02;5==K5 40==K5, >1>A=>2K20NI85 8A:;NG5=85 <5@B8>;OB0, =54>AB0B>G=K<8 4;O 8A:;NG5=8O :>=A5@20=B0 87 20:F8=K, B0: :0: :>=A5@20=B 4>102;O5BAO 4;O A>E@0=5=8O AB5@8;L=>AB8 20:F8=K. @8 MB>< A;54C5B 8<5BL 2 284C, GB> =0;8G85 384@>>:8A8 0;N<8=8O =5 4>?CA:05B :>=B@>;8@>20=8O 20:F8=K ?> D878G5A:8< A2>9AB20<, GB> <>65B ?@825AB8 : =5>1=0@C65=8N <0:@>?@>@>AB0 8 22545=8N ?@8 20:F8=0F88 7=0G8B5;L=>3> :>;8G5AB20 <8:@>1=KE :;5B>:". >;55 =53@0<>B=>3> ?@54AB02;5=8O > AB5@8;L=>AB8 20:F8= 8 ?@>25@:5 8E =0 >BACBAB285 3@O78 (!!!) - 10:B5@80;L=>9 :>=B0<8=0F88 - ?@84C<0BL =52>7<>6=>. #4828B5;L=> 8 4@C3>5! @54?@8OB85 30@0=B8@C5B AB5@8;L=>ABL ?@5?0@0B0 157 4>102;5=8O ?5AB8F840, 0 :>=B@>;L=K9 >@30= AB@0=K B@51C5B ?@8ACBAB28O 2 =5< @BCB=>9 A>;8?! @C3>9 4>:C<5=B 87 B>3> 65 !, #D0: "8@5:B>@C ! 8<. . . "0@0A528G0 B. 5:B8<8@>2C ".., 03.07.86 3. >B 0307>20 . (., 59HB04B0 /. !., .AC?>20 .. - 7<5=5=8O : @53;0<5=BC ?@>872>4AB20 !: AA;54>20=8O ?>:070;8, GB> >?KB=0O !-20:F8=0 ?> A2>8< A2>9AB20< >B25G0;0 2A5< B@51>20=8O<  "#-42, ! 262-68 =0 !-20:F8=C.& @8 ?@>25@:5 G5@57 1 3>4 8 5 <5AOF52 8<<C=>35==>ABL :>:;NH=>3> :><?>=5=B0 >?KB=KE ! 1K;0 =865 B@51>20=89  "#, GB> =01;N40;>AL 2=5 7028A8<>AB8 >B =0;8G8O 8;8 >BACBAB28O <5@B8>;OB0". @54AB02;5==K5 =8 CB25@645=85 "7<5=5=8O :  "#& =0 !-20:F8=C A>45@60B ?C=:BK, :0A0NI85AO 2>7<>6=>AB8 873>B>2;5=8O !-20:F8=K 157 <5@B8>;OB0". ABL 8 8=K5 4>:C<5=BK, 2 :>B>@KE >1>A=>2K205BAO 8A:;NG5=85, 87JOB85 <5@B8>;OB0 A ?@>872>4AB2 ?@8 A>1;N45=88 0A5?B8G5A:8E CA;>289 2 ?@>F5AA5 873>B>2;5=8O <548F8=A:8E 18>;>38G5A:8E ?@5?0@0B>2. >=B@>;5@K ?5@5?CB0;8 ?>=OB8O: AB018;870F8O A2>9AB2, :>=A5@20F8O 8 AB5@8;870F8O.  B5?5@L >1@0B8<AO : =5:>B>@K< @5:><5=40F8O<  :>B>@0O, O:>1K, "=0AB>OB5;L=> @5:><5=4C5B 8A?>;L7>20=85 <5@B8>;OB0": "#?><8=0=85 =5:>B>@KE :><?0=88 8;8 ?@>4C:F88 >B45;L=KE 873>B>28B5;59 =5 >7=0G05B, GB>  >B405B 8< ?@54?>GB5=85 ?> A@02=5=8N A 4@C38<8, =5 C?><O=CBK<8 2 B5:AB5, 8;8 @5:><5=4C5B 8E : 8A?>;L7>20=8N; - :0: ?@028;>, ?0B5=B>20==K5 =08<5=>20=8O 2K45;ONBAO =0G0;L=K<8 ?@>?8A=K<8 1C:20<8...". / =5 2AB@5B8;0 =8 >4=>3> C?><8=0=8O  > ?0B5=B>20=88 <5@B8>;OB0, >BACBAB2CNB 8 "=0AB>OB5;L=K5 @5:><5=40F88" ?> 53> 8A?>;L7>20=8N 2> 2A5E A5@8OE B5E=8G5A:8E 4>:;04>2  ?> :>=B@>;N 18>?@5?0@0B>2 (21). K =8:>340 1K =5 C7=0;8, :0:>9 <5@B8>;OB 22>48BAO =0H8< 45BO<, 5A;8 1K =5 >?;>H=>ABL .. /. /:CH528G0, 48@5:B>@0 &! 8<, . . 5G=8:>20 - ?@54?@8OB8O 2 5B@>2>-0;L=5<, >1@0B82H53>AO 2 ! (?8AL<0 >B 22 8N=O 8 4 45:01@O 1984 3.): " =0AB>OI55 2@5<O ?@5?0@0B, ?>ABC?0NI89 2 !!!  87 $ , (259F0@88, !(, 8<55B =04?8A8 - "B>;L:> 4;O ;01>@0B>@=KE F5;59"... "=5 ?@8<5=OBL 4;O ;5:0@AB2" (?@8;>65=85 II.3). "@51>20=8O< ?@8:070 !31 ?@5?0@0B >B25G05B, >4=0:>, MB8 =04?8A8 2K7K20NB A><=5=8O...". 3>2>@NAL, GB> 2 ?@8:075 ! 31 >?@545;O5BAO 53> "4>AB0B>G=>ABL" 2 20:F8=5 - >B 100 <:3 4> 140 <:3/<; 3>B>2>9 ?@>4C:F88 8... 2AQ! -B8 =04?8A8, 3>2>@OI85 > ?@54=07=0G5=88 70:C?;5==>3> <5@B8>;OB0, B@038G=K5 4;O 74>@>2LO =0H8E <0;KH59, 2K7K20NB C 873>B>28B5;O 20:F8=, ?@8<5=O5<KE 4;O 3@C4=8G:>2, 2A53> ;8HL "A><=5=8O". 0;> MB>3>, 4> A8E ?>@ ?@>872>4AB25==8:8 8 :>=B@>;5@K !0, 0 B0:65 =5:>B>@K5 @C:>2>48B5;8 74@02>>E@0=5=8O ?KB0NBAO 4>:070BL (157 4>:C<5=B>2 8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE 8AA;54>20=89), "4>70-B> <0;5=L:0O 8 =8:0:8E 154 =5 ?@8=>A8B". ;O :>3> 65 >=0 "=8GB>6=> <0;0", 5A;8 >BACBAB2CNB 4>:C<5=BK >B D8@<, @5:><5=4CNI85 55 22545=85 3@C4=K< 45BO<, 0 ! =5 87CG0; 55 - "=8GB>6=> <0;CN", - =0 157>?0A=>ABL?! 5B =8:0:8E 40==KE > A>G5B0==>< 459AB288 <5@B8>;OB0 8 D>@<0;8=0,   "   -""  " =0 682>B=KE-<0;KH0E 2 ?;0=5 =5?>A@54AB25==KE @50:F89 8 >B40;5==KE ?>A;54AB289, A:065<, 4;O ?>4@>AB:>2. $8@<K  # .", A;54>20B5;L=>, =5 =5ACB =8:0:>9 >B25BAB25==>AB8 70 459AB28O =0H8E 20:F8=0B>@>2 8 :>=B@>;5@>2 AB@0=K! !>25@H5==> =5>1O70B5;L=> 1@0BL "?>4 :>7K@5:", C28452 @5:><5=40F88 : =0 B> >=8 8 "@5:><5=40F88". > 157 :0G5AB25==>9 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 >?0A=>3> 2>7459AB28O =52>7<>6=> ?@54A:070BL (!) =51;03>?@8OB=K5 ?>A;54AB28O, B5< 1>;55 =51;03>?@8OB=K5 ?>A;54AB28O 4;O 45B59. @8 MB>< =04> CG5ABL, GB> D>@<0;8= ?;NA @BCB=0O A>;L - 40;5:> =5 2A5 8A?KB0=8O "=0 ?@>G=>ABL" 8 2K6820=85, 2K?040NI85 =0 4>;N =0H8E <;045=F52. 0?><=N, ! 8 5Q ">A;01;5==K5" <>48D8:0F88 - A>@18@>20==0O A<5AL =0 384@>>:8A8 0;N<8=8O.  745AL <564C=0@>4=K5 B@51>20=8O =5 A>1;N45=K =8 =0 AB0488 @07@01>B:8 A>@18@>20==KE 20:F8=, =8 2 ?@>F5AA5 :>=B@>;O - "A>1K5 D0:B>@K, ?>4;560I85 CG5BC ?@8 >F5=:5 ?@83>4=>AB8 8 157>?0A=>AB8 04JN20=B>2, ?@54;>65==KE 4;O ?@8<5=5=8O =0 G5;>25:5" (21.2, A. 36): - >1KG=KE B5AB>2 =0 >AB@CN 8 E@>=8G5A:CN B>:A8G=>ABL, ?@8<5=O5<KE 4;O >F5=:8 157>?0A=>AB8 ;5:0@AB25==KE A@54AB2, 745AL O2=> =54>AB0B>G=> - ?5@54 @5H5=85< 2>?@>A0 >1 8A?>;L7>20=88 04JN20=B>2; - 25I5AB20, 8A?>;L7C5<K5 4;O 04JN20=B=KE F5;59, 4>;6=K 1KBL E8<8G5A:8 G8ABK<8, 8<5BL G5B:89 E8<8G5A:89 A>AB02, :>B>@K9 4>;65= 1KBL ;53:> 2>A?@>872>48<... =5 4>;6=K A>45@60BLAO E8<8G5A:85 25I5AB20 - :0=F5@>35=K 8 ?>AB>@>==85 ?@8<5A8, <>3CI85 2K7K20BL ?>1>G=K5 @50:F88; - 87CG8BL 18>@0AI5?;O5<>ABL A B5<, GB>1K <>6=> 1K;> 871530BL: 4>?>;=8B5;L=>3> @074@065=8O, <>3CI53> ?@825AB8 : ?>2@5645=8N B:0=59, G@57<5@=>9 AB8<C;OF88 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K, 2>7<>6=>9 8=4C:F88 @0:0 2A;54AB285 4;8B5;L=>3> @074@060NI53> 459AB28O; - CA8;5=85 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>9 0:B82=>AB8 =5 4>;6=> 1KBL G@57<5@=K<, B.5. 04JN20=B () 4>;65= <0:A8<0;L=> CA8;820BL 459AB285 0=B835=>2, => =5 2;8OBL =0 A>1AB25==K5 0=B835=K E>7O8=0; - 20:F8=0 A "" =5 4>;6=0 A>45@60BL 0=B835=K, ?5@5:@5AB=> @5038@CNI85 A 0=B835=0<8 G5;>25:0, B.5. 4>;6=0 <0:A8<0;L=> C<5=LH8BL 2>7<>6=>ABL 0CB>8<<C==KE @50:F89; - "" =5 4>;65= 2K7K20BL @0728B8O 0;;5@38G5A:>9 38?5@GC2AB28B5;L=>AB8; - 4>;65= 1KBL E8<8G5A:8 G8ABK< A >?@545;5==>9 E8<8G5A:>9 AB@C:BC@>9 (2284C A;>6=>AB8 ?>;CG5=8O 0;N<8=852KE A>@15=B>2 A >48=0:>2K<8 D878:>-E8<8G5A:8<8 A2>9AB20<8 2>7<>6=K :>;510=8O 2 0:B82=>AB8 <564C @07;8G=K<8 A5@8O<8 >4=8E 8 B5E 65 20:F8=); - "" =5 4>;65= 1KBL :0=F5@>35=>< 8;8 CA8;820BL 459AB285 :0=F5@>35=>2; - 4>;65= CA8;820BL 459AB285 B>;L:> 20:F8= 8 =5 >:07K20BL 4@C38E 2;8O=89 =0 8<<C==CN A8AB5<C, B0:8E, :0: B@0=AD>@<0F8O ;8<D>F8B>2, 2KA2>1>645=85 M=4>35==KE ?8@>35=>2, ?@>AB03;0=48=>2, 8=B5@D5@>=>2 8 4@.; - 4>;65= ;53:> ?>425@30BLAO 18>453@040F88 8 M;8<8=8@>20BLAO 87 >@30=87<0; - 20:F8=K A "" 4>;6=K 1KBL 157>?0A=K<8 ?@8 ?0@5=B5@0;L=>< 22545=88 8 =5 >:07K20BL ?>1>G=KE O2;5=89 (01AF5AA>2 8 B.?.); [. '. - A>3;0A=> @5:><5=40F8O<  "20:F8=K =5 4>;6=K >:07K20BL ?>1>G=KE O2;5=89", 0 A>3;0A=> 70O2;5=8O< =0H8E :>=B@>;5@>2 - ">A;>6=5=85 - 2B>@>5 >A=>2=>5 A2>9AB2> 20:F8=" (50, A. 122)]; - "" =5 4>;65= >1;040BL ?8@>35==K<8 8 B5@0B>35==K<8 A2>9AB20<8, =5>1E>48<> 8AA;54>20BL 2>7<>6=>5 B5@0B>35==>5 459AB285 "", 5A;8 53> ?@8<5=5=85 @0AAG8B0=> =0 65=I8= 45B>@>4=>3> 2>7@0AB0..."   3 #! & !!"  ! ./ # !  +! I5 1>;55 65AB:> "B@51>20=8O : 157>?0A=>AB8 04JN20=B>2" AD>@<C;8@>20=K 0F8>=0;L=L=K< 8=AB8BC>< 0;;5@388 8 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 ( 5B5A40, !(, 1978) (-:A?@5AA-8=D>@<0F8O: 5@. A 0=3;. ,. 1980, A 16). @5ABC?;5=85 70 ?@5ABC?;5=85< 2 >B=>H5=88 >3C;L=>3> 2<5H0B5;LAB20 2 >@30=87< 45B59, =>& 2 MB> =5 2=8:05B, ?@>?030=48@CO 548=AB25==>5 - 20:F8=0F8N "2A5E ?>4@O4"... 5@52>48<, ?8H5< @5:><5=40F88, C:070=8O 8... =8G53> =5 2K?>;=O5< 4;O C;CGH5=8O :0G5AB20 20:F8=, ?>2KH5=8O 8E 157>?0A=>AB8.  B5?5@L ?>?@>1C9B5 A>AG8B0BL, A:>;L:> , =5 <=8<KE, 0 @50;L=KE ?>;CG05B 20H 2 ?5@2K5 ?>;3>40 687=8 87 2>74CE0, 2>4K, ?8I5?@>4C:B>2 8& ?>A;5 >74>@>28B5;L=>3> <5@>?@8OB8O- 20:F8=0F88?! >A;54=55 - 8=J5:F8>==>, B. 5. ?>A@54AB2>< >4=>3> 87 A0<KE 459AB25==KE ?CB59 ?>ABC?;5=8O O4>2.  "/" - "'+ / - =04?8AL =0 MB8:5B:5. K 45;05< 2A5 >B =0A 7028AOI55 4;O ?@82;5G5=8O 2=8<0=8O >=:>;>3>2, 35<0B>;>3>2, B>:A8:>;>3>2, 38385=8AB>2, ?5480B@>2-20:F8=0B>@>2 : ?@8<8B82=K< <5B>40< >F5=:8 157>?0A=>AB8 20:F8=, : ACI5AB2CNI59 A8AB5<5 <0AA>2>3> ">74>@>2;5=8O" 45B59 ?>4>1=>9 ?@>D8;0:B8:>9. >5 7=0:><AB2> A =5:>B>@K<8 >B5G5AB25==K<8 ?@54?@8OB8O<8, 873>B>2;ONI8<8 0=B810:B5@80;L=K5 20:F8=K, ?@>8725;> =0 <5=O BO65;>5, 3=5BCI55 2?5G0B;5=85. >;=>5 >BACBAB285 :C;LBC@K ?@>872>4AB20 ;5:0@AB25==KE A@54AB2, 70 :>B>@>9 =5 =04> 5E0BL =8 2 !(, =8 2 5@<0=8N, =8 2 /?>=8N, 0 2A53> ;8HL 2 8=AB8BCB ?>;8><5;8B0 8 28@CA=KE M=F5D0;8B>2 - B5?5@L 8<. 0:045<8:0 'C<0:>02... ?>4 >A:2>9. ! ?><>ILN 6C@=0;8AB>2 =0< C40;>AL A45;0BL 4>:C<5=B0;L=K9 D8;L< > @01>B5 A>2A5< 8=>3> ?@54?@8OB8O, ?@>872>4OI53> ! 8 @0A?>;>65==>3> B>65 ?>4 >A:2>9: 2 5B@>2>-0;L=5<. 4<8=8AB@0F8O MB>3> ?@>872>4AB20 A 3>@4>ABLN 45<>=AB@8@>20;0 A2>8 "4>AB865=8O" , 4065 =5 ?>=8<0O, GB> ?>:07K20BL B0:>9 C@>25=L 873>B>2;5=8O 20:F8= 2 =0H5 2@5<O - ?>7>@! 8:0:8E ?@54AB02;5=89 > AB5@8;L=>9 @01>B5, > AB0=40@B=>AB8 A>45@60=8O M:A?5@8<=B0;L=KE 682>B=KE, > 3C<0==>< >1@0I5=88 A =8<8 4;O ?>;CG5=8O 4>AB>25@=KE @57C;LB0B>2... "   /"/  + +-  +",! "5;5D8;L< ?@>5; ?> ?@>3@0<<5 ">1@K9 25G5@, >A:20!" 5 >:BO1@O 1991 3. , 708=B5@5A>202 =5A:>;L:> 45AOB:>2 A?5F80;8AB>2, 2 8E G8A;5 ?@8H54H8E 2 C60A =5A:>;L:8E CG0AB:>2KE ?5480B@>2, >= =5 2K720; A>>B25BAB2CNI59 @50:F88 C >@30=870B>@>2 ?>20;L=KE ?@8282>: !. >765, 2 1992 3. , ?> ?@>AL15 @>AA89A:>3> ?@028B5;LAB20 254CI85 A?5F80;8ABK H5AB8 AB@0= <8@0 ?@>2>48;8 M:A?5@B87C =0H59 ;5:0@AB25==>9 D0@<0:>;>38G5A:>9 ?@><KH;5==>AB8. 57C;LB0BK M:A?5@B87K G0AB8G=> 87;>65=K 2 3075B5 "C@0=BK" (15.09.92). @83;0H5==K5 70@C156=K5 A?5F80;8ABK CAB0=>28;8, GB> 2A5 ?@54?@8OB8O (!), 70=8<0NI85AO 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 873>B>2;5=85< ;5:0@AB25==KE A@54AB2, =0E>4OBAO 2 >G5=L BO65;>< A>AB>O=88; ?@>872>4AB25==0O B5E=>;>38O D0@<A@54AB2 >BAB05B =0 40-50 ;5B >B <8@>2KE B@51>20=89 8 AB0=40@B>2; ?>;=>ABLN >BACBAB2C5B 045:20B=K9 :>=B@>;L :0G5AB20; =5B 18>;>38G5A:8E 107 A> AB0=40@B=K<8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K<8 682>B=K<8, CA;>28O 873>B>2;5=8O ?@5?0@0B>2 01A>;NB=> 0=B8A0=8B0@=K5. ! G5< 65 A@02=820BL ?@>872>4AB2> !, 5A;8 8725AB=>, GB> :>=B@>;L :0G5AB20, 87CG5=85 157>?0A=>AB8 >B5G5AB25==KE ;5:0@AB25==KE ;5G51=KE ?@5?0@0B>2 8 4>102>: : =8<, AC4O ?> "@C:>2>4OI8< <5B>48G5A:8< <0B5@80;0<", =0 =5A:>;L:> ?>@O4:>2 2KH5, =565;8 "C=8D8F8@>20==K5 <5B>4K :>=B@>;O" ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8E A@54AB2 - 20:F8= 8, ?@5645 2A53>, !?! K;> 1K GCBL ?@>I5, 5A;8 1K !-"20:F8=0" ?@>H;0 ?5@2K5 AB0488 87CG5=8O 157>?0A=>AB8, :>B>@K5 ?@>E>4OB ?@>B82>28@CA=K5 20:F8=K. #25@5=0, 5A;8 1K B0:>5 A;CG8;>AL, ! =8:>340 1K =5 1K;0 4>?CI5=0 2 ?@0:B8:C 45BA:>N 74@02>>E@0=5=8O. 0 ?>4>1=>5 A>AB>O=85 ?@54?@8OB89 8 =0F8>=0;L=K5 @07@01>B:8 2 >F5=:5 :0G5AB20 20:F8= 4>;6=K >B25G0BL =0H8 74@02>>E@0=8B5;L=K5 >@30=K 2 ;8F5 (5A;8 >=> 5ABL!) !0 8 ! 0 2 F5;>< $0@<:><8B5B0.  !  ""!"!"  !" "! 5;> 2 B><, GB> <K - 548=AB25==0O AB@0=0 2 <8@5 (!), 345 20:F8=K =5 AG8B0;8AL ;5:0@AB25==K<8 A@54AB20<8, 8 1K;8 >B=5A5=K : MB>9 :0B53>@88 ;8HL 2 A2O78 A ?>O2;5=85< 2 >AA88 70:>=0 " ;5:0@AB25==KE A@54AB20E", 2ABC?82H53> 2 A8;C 2A53> ;8HL A 1998 3.! >;6=> 1KBL, 5I5 8 ?>MB><C ":C;LBC@0 B@C40 ?@8 873>B>2;5=88 20:F8= =5 A>>B25BAB2C5B <564C=0@>4=K< AB0=40@B0<" (14, 28, 29). !59G0A E>BL 8 8740=K "=>2K5 <5B>4K" 87CG5=8O 157>?0A=>AB8 20:F8= (31 2), >4=0:>, =0?8A0BL - =5 7=0G8B 2=54@8BL. 564C MB8<8 42C<O ?>=OB8O<8 ACI5AB2C5B ?@>?0ABL, ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5?@5>4>;8<0O, 87-70 >BACBAB28O <0B5@80;L=>-B5E=8G5A:>9 107K 2 CA;>28OE =0H59 4>;3>2@5<5==>9 8 ?>2A5<5AB=>9 70?CI5==>AB8 (28, 29). "0:8< >1@07><, ?@>4>;605BAO 4>AB>25@=> CAB0=>2;5==>5 "=>@<8@>20==>5 >B@02;5=85 ;N459" (56). >102;N >B A51O - =>@<8@>20==>5 >B@02;5=85 45B59 ?> A>2@5<5==>9 @0AF5=:5 "4>?CAB8<>AB8", @0AAG8B0==>9 =0 27@>A;>3> G5;>25:0... "5< 1>;55 GB>, :0: 8 2 A;CG05 A ?@>B82>?>:070=8O<8, =8:B> 87 @>48B5;59 8 27@>A;KE "?0F85=B>2", =0?@02;O5<KE =0 ?@8282:8 8 ?@8=C6405<KE : =8<, =5 AB028BAO 2 8725AB=>ABL > A>AB025 ?@5?0@0B0. !0< ?>4E>4 : 22545=8N E8<8:>-18>;>38G5A:>3>, <=>3>D0:B>@=>3> 0=B810:B5@80;L=>3> :><?;5:A0 - ! - O2;O5BAO =0@CH5=85< <564C=0@>4=KE ?@028;: 2>-?5@2KE, =0 MB8:5B:5 4>;6=> 1KBL ?@54C?@5645=85 > A>45@60=88 D>@<0;8=0 8 @BCBL>@30=G5A:>9 A>;8; 2>-2B>@KE, ?@02> 2K1>@0 =0 22545=85 B0:>3> AC@@>30B0 4>;6=> 1KBL 70 "?0F85=B><" 8;8 @>48B5;O<8 20:F8=8@C5<KE 45B59.  45;5 87CG5=8O 157>?0A=>AB8 20:F8= B@51C5BAO A5@L57=0O ?5@5AB@>9:0 =5 B>;L:> <KH;5=8O :>=B@>;5@>2 8 ?@>872>4AB25==8:>2, => 8 C?@02;5=F52 >B 8=74@020. <5AB5 A B5<, <>O @01>B0 !5 ?>:070;0, :0: =5@50;L=> ?@5>4>;5BL :>=A5@20B87< 8 157=0456=CN =52565AB25==>ABL G8=>2=8:>2 A0=M?84=047>@0, :>B>@K< ?>G5<C-B> (?!) ?>4G8=O5BAO ! >B=>AOI55AO : ?@>872>4AB2C 20:F8= 8 :0A0NI55AO ACI5AB2CNI53> ":>=B@>;O", 0 B0:65 <0AA>2>3> ?@8=C645=8O : 20:F8=0F88 A>25@H5==> =587CG5==K<8 =0 157>?0A=>ABL ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8<8 A@54AB20<8 - "20:F8=0<8". 5=5B8:8 8 8<<C=>;>38, A :>B>@K<8 <K ?@>2>48;8 8AA;54>20=8O (B01;. .). 70:;NG0NB: ""0:85 20:F8=K :0: ! =5 ?@>AB> B>:A8G=K, => ?@>25@8BL 8E 459AB285 :0: ;5:0@AB25==>3> ?@5?0@0B0 A>2@5<5==K<8 35=5B8G5A:8<8 8 8<<C=>;>38G5A:8<8 <5B>40<8 =5 C405BAO 2A;54AB285 3815;8 B5AB-A8AB5<K (:C;LBC@K M<1@8>=0;L=KE :;5B>: G5;>25:0 8 ;8<D>F8B>2). AE>4O 87 >1I518>;>38G5A:8E A>>1@065=89, <>6=> A:070BL: ?>A:>;L:C G5;>25G5A:0O ?>?C;OF8O 35B5@>35==0, B> 2 =59 =094CBAO 8=48284CC<K, :>B>@K< 22545=85 B>9 8;8 8=>9 20:F8=K ?@>B82>?>:070=>, ?>A:>;L:C <>6=> A?@>2>F8@>20BL =0G0;> ?0B>;>38G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2". C;LBC@0 :;5B>:, :>B>@>9 ?>;L7CNBAO 35=5B8:8, 8<<C=>;>38, 28@CA>;>38, >=:>;>38 8 <=>385 4@C385 A?5F80;8ABK - C=8:0;L=0O 18>;>38G5A:0O <>45;L. -B8< =570<5=8<K< "M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K< A8AB5<0<" O ?>A2OI0N >B45;L=CN 3;02C. 7 ?@>B>:>;0 #G5=>3> A>25B0 !0, 16.04.84: 575?>2 $.$. (> =0H59 @01>B5): "AA;54>20=8O >G5=L 206=K 8 8=B5@5A=K. E A;54C5B >4>1@8BL 8 @072820BL 40;LH5. 5@B8>;OB ?@8<5=O5BAO 30 ;5B 8 @5:><5=4>20= , => 53> A;54C5B ?> 2>7<>6=>AB8 87K<0BL, 8 2>?@>A MB>B AB028BL 1>;55 >AB@>. 3>, :>=5G=>, <>6=> C1@0BL, => ?>B@51C5BAO 1>;55 G5B:0O @01>B0 ?@>872>4AB25==8:>2 2 >B=>H5=88 AB5@8;L=>AB8 873>B>2;5=8O 20:F8=, 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=>2 8 4@C38E 18>?@5?0@0B>2"... 28@8:0475 . .:"K ?@>2>48;8 >?KBK 8 CAB0=>28;8, GB> <5@B8>;OB 0=0D8:B>35=5=, CA8;8205B 0CB>8<<C==K5 @50:F88 (?>2@5645=85 A>1AB25==KE :;5B>: >@30=87<0! -. '.). >@0 ?>AB028BL MB>B 2>?@>A =0 1>;55 2KA>:>< C@>2=5 4;O 2K2545=8O <5@B8>;OB0 =0 ?@>872>4AB20E"& $@04:8= ..: "0?@02;5=85 70A;C68205B A0<>3> A5@L57=>3> 2=8<0=8O, A;54C5B >B:070BLAO >B C70:>=5==KE <5B>4>2 >?@545;5=8O 1572@54=>AB8, ?>A:>;L:C >=8 <0;> 2>A?@>872>48<K 8 <0;> A?>A>1AB2CNB 2K1@0:>2:5 =5:0G5AB25==KE ?@5?0@0B>2. ABL >A=>20=8O AB028BL 2>?@>A >1 8A?>;L7>20=88 =0 ?@>872>4AB20E 2A5E CA;>289 2K?CA:0 AB5@8;L=KE ?@5?0@0B>2. 5;L7O ;8 A=878BL 4>?CAB8<K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 4@C38E E8<8G5A:8E 25I5AB2? -B> B0:65 =5>1E>48<> 8 ?>@0 ?5@5A<>B@5BL. 0H5<C 8=AB8BCBC =C6=K A>N7=8:8, =0?@8<5@, =AB8BCB ?5AB8F84>2 2 8525. = 87CG05B 459AB285 ?5AB8F84>2 =0 >@30=87< G5;>25:0. !;54C5B 70A;CH0BL MB8 8AA;54>20=8O :0: ?@>1;5<C =0 ><8B5B5 20:F8= 8 AK2>@>B>: 8 ><8B5B5 ?5@A?5:B82=>3> ?;0=8@>20=8O 8=74@020 !!! ". KG5=:> . .: "0BL B>;L:> D0:BK... =0?@028BL 2 ><8B5B ?5@A?5:B82=>3> ?;0=8@>20=8O 8=74@020 !!! ". =5=8O B0:>3> :>;8G5AB20... ?@>D5AA>@>2 >B <548F8=K! K;8 2KABC?;5=8O 8 4@C38E :>=B@>;5@>2 !0, 70A;CH0=K 70:;NG5=8O A?5F80;8AB>2 @07=KE A<56=KE 48AF8?;8= (>=8 A>E@0=5=K). > ?>A;54=85 =8:>340 8 =8345 =5 1K;8 CGB5=K, ?>A:>;L:C <0E>28: ?@>872>4AB20 =5AB5@8;L=KE 20:F8=, =01@02H89 >1>@>BK A <><5=B0 8E 2=54@5=8O 2 ?@0:B8:C, :@CB8BAO ?> A59 45=L! A5 @5:><5=40F88 =0<8 2K?>;=5=K, <0B5@80;K =0?@02;5=K, => 70B5@O;8AL 345-B> 2 ":><?5B5=B=KE >@30=0E", >G5284=>, 8 2 ><8B5B5 ?5@A?5:B82=>3> ?;0=8@>20=8O. 07>1I5==>ABL A?5F80;8AB>2, 01A>;NB=>5 =565;0=85 >1J548=OBLAO, 459AB28B5;L=> 2> 8<O 74>@>2LO 45B59 (!), =0?@8<5@, :>=B@>;Q@>2 20:F8=, B5< 1>;55 ?5@5A<>B@5BL 8 ?@>0=0;878@>20BL 8725AB=>5 87 A<56=KE >1;0AB59, ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : MB8< ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8< ?@5?0@0B0<, A>45@60I8< E8<8G5A:85 25I5AB20, ?@82>48B : >:>;>=0CG=K< @0AAC645=8O< "> <0;KE 4>70E" -"=52@54=KE 8 157>?0A=KE" 4;O 45B59 ?5AB8F84>2, 22>48<KE "2A5< ?>4@O4" ?0@5=B5@0;L=>. <5AB5 A B5<, >1I58725AB=>: 157>?0A=KE ?5AB8F84>2 =5 ACI5AB2C5B (41,45, 51-56, 59-61,63-78). @82>48<K5 745AL, 0 B0:65 4@C385 8AB>G=8:8 <=>3>G8A;5==KE <0B5@80;>2 A2845B5;LAB2CNB 8 > B><, GB> ?@8 A>G5B0==>< 459AB288 B0:8E 25I5AB2 2@54=>5 2;8O=85 8E CA8;8205BAO. ?0A=K5 E8<8G5A:85 25I5AB20, ?>ABC?0NI85 87 @07=KE 8AB>G=8:>2, =5<8=C5<> A=860NB DC=:F88 70I8B=KE A8; >@30=87<0, B5< 1>;55 45B59 - @0ABCI53> >@30=87<0 . / =5 <>3C >B25B8BL =0 2>?@>A, ?>G5<C +-&/(!) =5 2 A>AB>O=88 ?>=OBL MB>. @8 B0:>< "74@02>>E@0=5=88" 8<<C==0O A8AB5<0 >B:07K205BAO 1KBL D878G5A:8 ?>;=>F5==>9 8 2>7=8:05B "!  #'! /" (68), 3>2>@O A>2@5<5==K< O7K:>< - !    " #$&", B. 5. ! (14, 18, 22, 23, 41, 43-45, 51-78). @8 ACI5AB2CNI5< ?>4E>45 : "?@>D8;0:B8:5 74>@>2LO" >A;>6=5=8O 4;O @515=:0 =5>B2@0B8<K, 8 2 7=0G8B5;L=> 1>;LH5< :>;8G5AB25, =565;8 ?@54?8A0=> @028B5;LAB2>< >AA88. #40;5==K5 ?>A;54AB28O 200-;5B=53> ?@8<5=5=8O 20:F8= O2;ONBAO ?> :@09=59 <5@5, C ?OB8 ?>:>;5=89 G5;>25G5AB20, 8 G0AB>B0 8E 2>7@0AB05B. %0@0:B5@ ?0B>;>38G5A:8E ?@8>1@5B5=89 =8:B> =5 <>65B ?@54A:070BL 70@0=55. -B>B @0745; O =0?8A0;0 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 2>>@C68BL 2@0G59 8 <>;>4KE @>48B5;59 7=0=8O<8 > 2>7<>6=KE ?@8G8=0E ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89, B.5. > ?@8G8=0E 701>;520=89, :>B>@K5 ?@82=>AOBAO =5 B>;L:> ?>A@54AB2>< GC65@>4=>3> 15;:0, => 8 1;03>40@O =0;8G8N 2 "20:F8=0E" >G5=L >?0A=KE E8<8G5A:8E 25I5AB2. @>8AE>48B <0AA>2>5 =0@CH5=85 M=4>M:>;>38G5A:>3> @02=>25A8O =>2>@>645==KE 8 3@C4=KE 45B59 ?>A@54AB2>< 8=20;84878@CNI59 "<548F8=A:>9 ?><>I8". !;>2> "M:>;>38O" ?@>8AE>48B >B 3@5G5A:>3> ">9:>A" - 4>< 8 ";>3>A" - =0C:0 (79). @30=87< @515=:0 -  #,+ , "4><" 53> DC=:F8>=0;L=KE A8AB5< (80). 5 C482;O9B5AL <>8< =5>4=>:@0B=K< >1@0I5=8O< : >4=8< 8 B5< 65 ?>;>65=8O<, >=8 @0AA<0B@820NBAO 2> 2708<>A2O78 A 4@C38<8 D0:B0<8. G5=L B@C4=> ?@54AB028BL A515 @50:F8N "B>;L:> 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K", 87>;8@>20==>, 2=5 A2O78, 2=5 87<5=5=89 2A5E 4@C38E DC=:F8>=0;L=KE A8AB5< >@30=87<0 (80). BAN40 "1C@=K9 @>AB GC2AB20 15A?><>I=>AB8 8AA;54>20B5;O ?5@54 ?>;>2>4L5< 0=0;8B8G5A:8E D0:B>2". - 3>2>@8; 8 ?8A0; 8725AB=K9 >B5G5AB25==K9 =59@>D878>;>3 0:045<8: .. =>E8= (80). 5;L7O 4>?CA:0BL, GB>1K B>;L:> D8@<K 8 <0;>:><?5B5=B=K5 :>=B@>;5@K 8 20:F8=0B>@K :>@?>@0B82=> @5H0BL AC4L1C =0H8E 45B59!!! "!"  / ! , ./, "/)!/  ##) !% "  # !", !  ",!/ ", '"+ ! #!+(", - .. /1;>:>2, 0:045<8:  (41 1, A 106). / ! 0?@02;5=0 2 8=74@02 !!! , 2  !!! , ><8B5B 20:F8= 8 AK2>@>B>:, 8@5:B>@C  AB0=40@B870F88 8 :>=B@>;O <548F8=A:8E 18>;>38G5A:8E ?@5?0@0B>2 8<. .. "0@0A528G0 8=74@020 !!!  ?@>D5AA>@C 5:B8<8@>2C "..1>A=>20=8O : =5<54;5==><C 2K2545=8N <5@B8>;OB0 87 !-20:F8=K 8 4@C38E <548F8=A:8E 18>;>38G5A:8E ?@5?0@0B>2 (), ?@8<5=O5<KE A F5;LN ?@>D8;0:B8:8 (157 ?@>2545=8O ?>2B>@=KE 8AA;54>20=89): 1.  !-20:F8=5, :@><5 <5@B8>;OB0, A>45@68BAO 2B>@>9 10:B5@8F84 - D>@<0;L45384, GB> >1JOA=O5BAO :>=B@>;5@0<8 87 A?5F;01>@0B>@88 A;54CNI8<: 8=0:B820F8O :>:;NH=KE :><?>=5=B>2 ?@>2>48BAO D>@<0;L45384><, 0 4>8=0:B820F8O - <5@B8>;OB>< ( 575?>2 8 'C;@8=8=0). 2.  0AB02;5=88 ?> ?@8<5=5=8N !-20:F8=K A:070=>: :>:;NH=K5 <8:@>1K C18BK D>@<0;8=>< 8;8 <5@B8>;OB><, >4=0:> 2  "# 42 ! 262-68, @0745; (, ?. 8, AB@. 2, 2B>@0O AB@>:0 A=87C - G8B05<: 2 1 <; 2725A8 4>;6=> A>45@60BLAO =5 <5=55... D>@<0;8=0 0, 05% 8 <5@B8>;OB0 0, 01%... 3. 564C B5< 8725AB=>, GB> CA;>28O ?@83>B>2;5=8O D>@<0;8=878@>20==>9 :>:;NH=>9 20:F8=K >B;8G0NBAO >B <5@B8>;OB=>9: A 4>102;5=85< D>@<0;8=0 >AB02;ONB =0 ACB:8 ?@8 B5<?5@0BC@5 17-22!, A <5@B8>;OB>< - ?@8 35-36!; 4> ?@8<5=5=8O !-20:F8=0 D>@<0;8=878@>20==0O E@0=8BAO ?@8 3-10! =5 <5=55 1, 5 <5AOF0, <5@B8>;OB=0O - =5 <5=55 3-E <5AOF52. !<CI0NB 8 402=> =0AB>@06820NB B@8 2KH5 >1>7=0G5==KE ?C=:B0, ?@>B82>@5G0I8E 4@C3 4@C3C. 4. @>D5AA>@ . !. 0E0@>20 8<5;0 2 284C =5 A>2<5I5=85 42CE E8<8G5A:8E 25I5AB2, 0 2708<>70<5=O5<>ABL (CAB=0O :>=AC;LB0F8O). 5. 5B =8 >4=>9 4@C3>9 20:F8=K, 2 :>B>@>9 A>45@60;>AL 1K 420 10:B5@8F840 - 8725AB=KE ?5AB8F840. 6. 725AB=K5 ?>;>65=8O > B><, GB> 2A5 :>=A5@20=BK, A>45@60I85 A>;8 @BCB8, 2KA>:>B>:A8G=K 8 0;;5@3>35==K (D5=>; 8 <5@B8>;OB @07@5H05BAO 8=>340 ?@8<5=OBL 2 <548F8=A:>9 ?@0:B8:5, => B>;L:> =0:>6=>, ?@8 701>;520=8OE); 4803=>AB8G5A:85 ?@5?0@0BK, 22>48<K5 ?0@5=B5@0;L=>, =5 4>;6=K A>45@60BL =8 D5=>;0, =8 <5@B8>;OB0. 7. >;>65=85 > B><, GB> ?@5?0@0BK 2 <0;KE @0AD0A>2:0E, 8A?>;L7C5<K5 4;O 8=J5:F89, =5 4>;6=K A>45@60BL 0=B810:B5@80;L=K5 A@54AB20. !, :0: 8725AB=>, @0AD0A>20=0 4;O 1-2-@07>2>3> ?@8<5=5=8O 8 22>48BAO @515=:C ?0@5=B5@0;L=>. 8.  !5 ACI5AB2C5B >1@075F AB0=40@B0 287C0;L=>3> >?@545;5=8O <CB=>AB8 10:B5@80;L=KE 2725A59 (A;54>20B5;L=>, 8A?>;L7C5BAO :0: =03;O4=>5 ?>A>185). 4=0:> : =5<C AD>@<C;8@>20=K B@51>20=8O 157>?0A=>AB8: B>:A8G=>, A>45@68B <5@B8>;OB 2 A>>B=>H5=88 1: 10000, B. 5. BC 4>7C, :>B>@0O 4>?CAB8<0 2 3>B>2>9 ?@>4C:F88 ! 2<5AB5 A D>@<0;L45384><. 9. 725AB=>, GB> <5@B8>;OB <>65B A=860BL 0:B82=>ABL A?5F8D8G5A:8E 15;:>2 @07=>3> ?@>8AE>645=8O. 10. @>2545==K<8 =0<8 8AA;54>20=8O<8 CAB0=>2;5=>: <5@B8>;OB 2 4>75, @07@5H5==>9 4;O >4=>@07>2>3> 22545=8O @515=:C, 2KA>:>B>:A8G5= 2 48?;>84=KE :;5B:0E G5;>25:0 - D81@>1;0AB0E M<1@8>=0; ?@8 22545=88 53> <KH0< <0AA>9 6-8 3 8 =>2>@>645==K<. 7 @8:070 ! 31 G0AB=>9 D0@<0:>?59=>9 AB0BL59 ?@54CA<>B@5=> 8A?>;L7>20=85 682>B=KE <5=LH59 <0AAK, >4=0:> 2 MB>< 65 @0745;5 @8:070 A>25@H5==> >BACBAB2CNB C:070=8O =0 :0:>5 1K B> =8 1K;> :>;8G5AB2> 682>B=KE, 8A?>;L7C5<KE 2 :>=B@>;5; !-20:F8=0, ?@83>B>2;5==0O 157 <5@B8>;OB0, B>65 >1;0405B 0=0D8;0:B>35==K<8 A2>9AB20<8, => =8 2 >4=>< A;CG05 ?@8 55 22545=88 682>B=K< <K =5 >B<5B8;8 =8 >1@07>20=8O =5:@>7>2, =8 3815;8 682>B=KE; => MB> CAB0=>2;5=> 2 A;CG05 8A?>;L7>20=8O ! A <5@B8>;OB>< 8;8 >4=>3> <5@B8>;OB0: =5:@>7K <>6=> @0AA<0B@820BL :0: A5=A818;870F8N 70<54;5==>3> B8?0, 0=0D8;0:A8N - A5=A818;870F8N =5<54;5==>3> B8?0 (8AA;54>20=8O ?@>2545=K A>3;0A=> B@51>20=8O< : 87CG5=8N 0;;5@35==KE A2>9AB2 O4>E8<8:0B>2 - ?5AB8F84>2 - 10:B5@8F84>2 ?@8 CAB0=>2;5=88 157>?0A=>AB8 ?@8 =0:>6=>< ?@8<5=5=88).  F5;>< 65 B> :>;8G5AB2> 682>B=KE, :>B>@>5 1K;> 8A?>;L7>20=> =0<8 4;O ?>AB0=>2:8 >?KB>2 ?> B>:A8G=>AB8 8 0=0D8;0:A88, :>=5G=>, 1K;> =5A@02=8<> 1>;LH8<, G5< MB> ?@54CA<>B@5=> @8:07>< ! 31, 8=AB@C:F8O<8 MB>3> ?@8:070. 11. 5GL 845B 2 40==>< A;CG05 =5 >1 8A?KB0=88 =>2>3> 25I5AB20 A =58725AB=K<8 A2>9AB20<8, :>B>@>5 ?@54;0305BAO 4;O 22545=8O G5;>25:C, 0 >1 87JOB88 87 A>AB020  8, ?@5645 2A53>, 87 !, 8725AB=>3> O4>E8<8:0B0, 0=0;>30 3@0=>70=0 - ?@>B@028B5;O A5<O=, =5ACI53> ?>B5=F80;L=CN 4>?>;=8B5;L=CN >?0A=>ABL 4;O >@30=87<0 @515=:0. >;CG5==K5 =0<8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=K5 40==K5 B>;L:> G0AB8G=> ?>4B25@48;8 8<5NI85AO A2545=8O > B>:A8G=>AB8 8 0;;5@38G5A:8E A2>9AB20E MB>3> @BCBLA>45@60I53> 25I5AB20 2 B0: =07K205<>9 4>?CAB8<>9 :>=F5=B@0F88. B> 8 :>340 4>?CAB8; 53> 4;O ?0@5=B5@0;L=>3> 22545=8O 3@C4=K< 45BO<? >;6=K 1KBL 4>:C<5=BK ;81> >B D8@<, ;81> >B @07@01>BG8:>2 >B5G5AB25==>9 !. 12. @8<5@>< 157<5@B8>;OB=>9 20:F8=K, => B0:65 D>@<0;8=878@>20==>9 8 A>45@60I59 384@>>:8AL 0;N<8=8O, <>65B A;C68BL 20:F8=0 ?@>B82 :;5I52>3> M=F5D0;8B0. <5AB5 A B5<, 2 >B;8G85 >B ! 8 55 0=0;>3>2, MB>B ?@5?0@0B 8A?>;L7C5BAO ?> ?>:070=8O<, =5 <0AA>2>, 3@C??5 ;8F >A>1>3> @8A:0 (<>6=> ?@54?>;>68BL, GB> 8=>340 22545=85 MB>9 20:F8=K >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 8 2 <5=55 0A5?B8G5A:8E CA;>28OE, G5< ?@8282>G=K5 :018=5BK >A:2K, 5=8=3@040, 8520 8 4@. 3>@>4>2). 4=0:> 2 MBC 20:F8=C =5 22>4OB 4>?>;=8B5;L=> 10:B5@8F84, GB> 30@0=B8@C5B AB5@8;L=>ABL ?@5?0@0B>2, :0: ?@8 8E 2K?CA:5, B0: 8 2 ?@>F5AA5 8E ?@8<5=5=8O (A<. 2K?8A:C 87 ?@>B>:>;0 70A540=8O !, 04.02.87). "0:8< >1@07><, 87 2KH5 ?@54AB02;5==>3> A;54C5B, GB> 87-70 =5C<5=8O 0A5?B8G5A:8 @01>B0BL 2 CA;>28OE ?@>872>4AB20 8 2 <><5=B 22545=8O 20:F8= <K ?@54=0<5@5==> A5=A818;878@C5< 45B59 MB8< @BCBLA>45@60I8< ?5AB8F84><: B@864K 22>48< ! 2 ?5@2K5 ?>;3>40 687=8 @515=:0 (8;8 !-), 0 B0:65 A 4@C38<8 , B.5. =0 ?@>BO65=88 45BA:>3> 8 N=>H5A:>3> 2>7@0AB0 MB>B O4>E8<8:0B 22>48BAO G5;>25:C ?0@5=B5@0;L=> <=>3>:@0B=>. !G8B05< A>25@H5==> =54>?CAB8<K< ?@54;>65=85 > A>AB02;5=88 @>3@0<<K ?> 87CG5=8N A2>9AB2 MB>3> 10:B5@8F840.  =5<, :0: > O4>E8<8:0B5, 2A5 402=> 8725AB=> (2 ?@8<5=O5<>9 4>75 >= 4>;65= 1KBL B>:A8G5=, ?>A:>;L:C 10:B5@8F84; 0;;5@3>35=5= -@BCBLA>45@60I55 25I5AB2>). K >?>740;8 A 87CG5=85< A2>9AB2 MB>3> 25I5AB20 =5 <5=55 G5< =0 25 ;5B. ;O B>3> GB>1K 2A5AB>@>==5 87CG8BL ?5AB8F84, A :>B>@K< G5;>25: :>=B0:B8@C5B 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 D>@<5, =5>1E>48<K 1-8-;5B=85 =01;N45=8O.  A2O78 A MB8< <K 4>;6=K ?@8=OBL 2> 2=8<0=85 8 8A?>;L7>20BL 2AN 8<5NICNAO 8=D>@<0F8N ?> 40==><C 2>?@>AC 4;O =5<54;5==>3> 87JOB8O <5@B8>;OB0 87 ! 8 !-, 0 B0:65 4@C38E , 22>48<KE 2 >@30=87< G5;>25:0 ?0@5=B5@0;L=>. !B5@8;L=>ABL B0:8E ?@5?0@0B>2 (40 5I5 ?@8 =0;8G88 2 ! 2B>@>3> 10:B5@8F840 - D>@<0;L453840, 8725AB=>3> A@548 A?5F80;8AB>2-B>:A8:>;>3>2 :0: :0=F5@>35==>5 25I5AB2>) =5 4>;6=0 8 =5 <>65B @5H0BLAO 2 :>=F5 XX 25:0 ?>A@54AB2>< 22545=8O 2 =8E 4>?>;=8B5;L=KE 0=B810:B5@80;L=KE A@54AB2 - 0=B818>B8:>2 8 ?5AB8F84>2.  4>;6=K 1KBL ?@545;L=> >A2>1>645=K 8 >B B5E E8<8G5A:8E 25I5AB2, :>B>@K5 8A?>;L7CNBAO 2 ?@>F5AA5 8E ?@83>B>2;5=8O. @>B>B8?>< B0:>9 20:F8=K O2;O5BAO 8=0:B828@>20==0O ?>;8><85;8B=0O, > :>B>@>9 8725AB=> 87 @5:><5=40F89 : ...D>@<0;L45384 2 ?@>10E 20:F8=K, ?@54=07=0G5==KE 4;O 8A?KB0=89 2 :;5B>G=KE :C;LBC@0E, <>65B ?@>O2;OBL B>:A8G5A:>5 459AB285 4065 ?@8 @072545=88 1 <; 20:F8=K 1:4... (21, !673, A. 55, 112). 065!!! !@02=8B5 A !! "5E=>;>38O ?@83>B>2;5=8O ?@5?0@0B>2 157 A>45@60=8O 2 =8E <5@B8>;OB0 (!, 3@8??-20:F8=0 8 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=K) @07@01>B0=0 #D8<A:8< !. !;54>20B5;L=>, =5>1E>48<> ?>2KA8BL :C;LBC@C 873>B>2;5=8O <548F8=A:8E ?@5?0@0B>2 8 =0 4@C38E ?@54?@8OB8OE 8 2K?CA:0BL AB5@8;L=K5 20:F8=K, =5>1E>48<K5 74@02>>E@0=5=8N, 157 4>?>;=8B5;L=>3> 22545=8O 2 =8E E8<8G5A:8E 25I5AB2 4;O A>740=8O AB5@8;L=KE CA;>289. @54;>65=8O, A45;0==K5 =0<8 =0 70A540=88 ! 9 D52@0;O 1983 3.: 1. A:;NG8BL <5@B8>;OB 87 !-20:F8=K.  MB>< ?@5?0@0B5 A>45@68BAO 4@C3>9 10:B5@8F84 - D>@<0;L45384 2> 2?>;=5 >?@545;O5<KE :>;8G5AB20E, A?>A>1=KE A>E@0=OBL AB5@8;L=>ABL ?@5?0@0B0. -B> 420 2708<>70<5=ONI8E 10:B5@8F840, 8A?>;L7>20=85 :064>3> 87 =8E B@51C5B A>1;N45=8O 8=48284C0;L=KE CA;>289 2 @01>B5 A 20:F8=0<8 @07=>3> ?@>8AE>645=8O. 2. A:;NG8BL <5@B8>;OB 87 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=>2 (425 B@5B8 ?@54?@8OB89 =0H59 AB@0=K 3>B>2OB AK2>@>B>G=K5 ?@5?0@0BK 157 22545=8O 2 =8E :>=A5@20=B>2 8 2K?CA:0NB ?@>4C:F8N AB5@8;L=>9!). 3. 0AA<>B@5BL 2>?@>A > 2>7<>6=>AB8 8A:;NG5=8O <5@B8>;OB0 87 4@C38E  8 70<5=5 53> 4@C38<8 8=0:B828@CNH8<8 E8<8G5A:8<8 25I5AB20<8, A>45@60=85 :>B>@KE 2 3>B>2>9 D>@<5 20:F8=K =5 4>;6=> ?@52KH0BL &" 2 :C;LBC@5 :;5B>: 1: 10.  =0AB>OI89 <><5=B AG8B05< =5F5;5A>>1@07=K< 8 =5?@028;L=K<: - A>AB02;5=85 ?@>3@0<<K ?> 87CG5=8N A2>9AB2 <5@B8>;OB0, 4>?CAB8<>3> 4;O 22545=8O @515=:C 2 :>=F5=B@0F88 0, 01%; MB> 25I5AB2> 4>AB0B>G=> ?>;=> >E0@0:B5@87>20=> 2 A?5F80;L=>9 ;8B5@0BC@5; - ?@>2545=85 =01;N45=89 =0 45BOE, 20:F8=8@>20==KE !-20:F8=>9 A <5@B8>;OB>< 8 157 =53> (?@54;>65=8O A45;0=K =0 #G5=>< A>25B5 575?>2K<, !C<0@>:>2K< 8 75@5F:>2A:8<); ?@5?0@0BK, 22>48<K5 2 >@30=87< 45B59, 4>;6=K A>25@H5=AB2>20BLAO 4> =01;N45=89 ?0 45BOE; :@><5 B>3>, B@84F0B8;5B=89 >?KB =01;N45=89 =0 45BOE :;8=8F8AB0<8 =0H59 AB@0=K ?>:070;, GB> !-20:F8=0 8 !- 2KA>:> @50:B>35==K 8 2K7K20NB >18;85 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE @50:F89 - >A;>6=5=89 @07=>3> E0@0:B5@0 (40==K5 >?C1;8:>20=K); - 22>48BL 45BO< ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:85 20:F8=K, AB028BL =0 =8E 0=B8B5;J=K5 ?@>1K (BC15@:C;8=>20O ?@>10 - @50:F8O 0=BC - ?C3>2:0) A@54AB20<8, A>45@60I8<8 2 A2>5< A>AB025 E8<8G5A:85 25I5AB20, ?>A:>;L:C B0:85 ?@5?0@0BK 2K7K20NB 4>?>;=8B5;L=K5 =5A?5F8D8G5A:85 @50:F88 >@30=87<0, ?>A;54AB28O :>B>@KE =5?@54A:07C5<K 4;O :064>3> >B45;L=>3> @515=:0, 0 @50:F8O 0=BC <>65B 4020BL ;>6=>?>;>68B5;L=K9 >B25B; - 22545=85 (?0@5=B5@0;L=>5) 45BO< ?@5?0@0B>2, A>45@60I8E 2 3>B>2KE : ?@8<5=5=8N D>@<0E 0=B810:B5@80;L=K5 25I5AB20, =5 ?@>H54H85 :>=B@>;L =0 B>:A8G=>ABL 2 :C;LBC@5 :;5B>: G5;>25:0 (D81@>1;0ABK 8;8 ;8<D>F8BK) - B5E=8:0 ?@>2545=8O M:A?5@B87K AE>4=0 A ?@>2545=85< @01>B ?> 8A?KB0=8N 8=0:B828@>20==>9 ?>;8>20:F8=K. >:;04=0O 1K;0 ?>40=0 48@5:B>@C ". . 5:B8<8@>2C 08. 04. 87 70 ?>4?8ALN ?@>D5AA>@0 . ". @02G5=:> 8 <>59, 0 15. 04. 87 <K ?>;CG8;8 >B =53> >B25B: ;C1>:>C20605<K9 =0B>;89 "8<>D5528G!  A2O78 A 0H59 4>:;04=>9 70?8A:>9, ?>43>B>2;5==>9 A>2<5AB=> A . . '5@2>=A:>9, >B=>A8B5;L=> 8A:;NG5=8O <5@B8>;OB0 87 !-20:F8=K A>>1I0N A;54CNI55. #G5=K9 A>25B ! 8<. . . "0@0A528G0 @0AA<0B@820; MB>B 2>?@>A 30 O=20@O 1987 3. 8 @5:><5=4>20; ?@>4>;68BL 87CG5=85 MB>9 ?@>1;5<K. ><8B5B 20:F8= 8 AK2>@>B>: 8=74@020 !!!  =0 A2>5< 70A540=88 4 D52@0;O 19873. A>3;0A8;AO A @5:><5=40F8O<8 !. @8 >BACBAB288 :0:8E-;81> 4>?>;=8B5;L=KE =0CG=KE A2545=89 =5 AG8B0N F5;5A>>1@07=K< 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O @5287>20BL @5H5=8O 2KH5C?><O=CBKE :><?5B5=B=KE >@30=>2. >;030N, GB> ?@8=OB85 2>;N=B0@8ABA:8E @5H5=89 B>;L:> =0 >A=>20=88 0H59 4>:;04=>9, E>BO 8 ?@>=8:=CB>9 701>B>9 > 74>@>2L5 ;N459, <>65B ;8HL =0=5AB8 2@54. 0: 0< 8725AB=>, 4;O 87CG5=8O MB>9 ?@>1;5<K 2 ! A>740= 2@5<5==K9 =0CG=K9 :>;;5:B82, =0 :>B>@K9 2>7;>65=0 7040G0 87KA:0=8O 2>7<>6=>AB59 8A:;NG5=8O <5@B8>;OB0 87 18>;>38G5A:8E ?@5?0@0B>2 8, ?@5645 2A53>, 87 !-20:F8=K. >A:>;L:C K =5 A>3;0A=K A @5H5=8O<8 #G5=>3> A>25B0 ! 8 ! 8=74@020 !!!  8 ?>;0305B5, GB> ?@>1;5<0 C65 4>AB0B>G=> 87CG5=0, @5:><5=4CN 0< ?>43>B>28BL 87<5=5=8O : " 8 ?@54AB028BL 8E 2 CAB0=>2;5==>< ?>@O4:5. 8@5:B>@ ". . 5:B8<8@>2 0?><=8<, <K >B:070;8AL >B A>AB02;5=8O C:070==>9 ?@>3@0<<K. > 2@5<5==K9 :>;;5:B82 =5 1K;8 ?@83;0H5=K =8 8<<C=>;>38, =8 35=5B8:8, =8 B>:A8:>;>38, =8 ?@54AB028B5;8 $0@<:><8B5B0, =8 4@C385 A?5F80;8ABK, 7=0NI85 MBC ?@>1;5<C. 5:><5=40F8O ?> ?>43>B>2:5 : " =5 8<5;0 =8:0:>9 A<KA;>2>9 =03@C7:8 8 ?@0:B8G5A:>3> >ACI5AB2;5=8O. >B@0G5==>5 =0 MB> 2@5<O >15@=C;>AL 1K 2 CAB0=>2;5==>< ?>@O4:5 >B:07><, ?>4>1=> B><C, :>B>@K9 ?>;CG8; #D8<A:89 ! >B :>=B@>;5@0 >=A:>9 (A<. 2KH5). "0:8< >1@07><, <>6=> 70:;NG8BL, GB> =0F8>=0;L=K9 :>=B@>;L=K9 >@30= 8 2KH5C?><O=CBK5 :><?5B5=B=K5 >@30=K >4>1@8;8 8 ?>4B25@48;8 @07@5H5=85 =0 15A?@5?OBAB25==>5 <=>3>:@0B=>5 ?0@5=B5@0;L=>5 22545=85 3@C4=K< 45BO< @BCBLA>45@60I59 A>;8 2 A<5A8 A D>@<0;L45384><.  @5:><5=40F88  745AL 01A>;NB=> =8 ?@8 G5<. "5< 1>;55 GB> D8@<K 2A5340 <>3CB >B:070BLAO, ?>A:>;L:C 8E ?@54C?@5645=8O 3;0AOB: =5 4;O ;5:0@AB2... B>;L:> 4;O ;01>@0B>@=KE F5;59. @54AB02;5==K5 70:;NG5=8O :><?5B5=B=KE >@30=>2 2<5AB5 A 8E AAK;:0<8 =0 =0AB>OB5;L=K5 @5:><5=40F88  2K3;O4OB B5< 1>;55 AB@0==K<8, :>340 8725AB=>: -  225;0 2 G8A;> :>=B@>;8@C5<KE :><?>=5=B>2 <564C=0@>4=>9 B>@3>2;8 ?@>4C:B0<8 ?8B0=8O 2>A5<L BO65;KE <5B0;;>2, A@548 =8E: @BCBL, :04<89, A28=5F 8 4@.; - 43-O A5AA8O A5<8@=>9 AA0<1;58 74@02>>E@0=5=8O (WHA 43-1990 (R!)1) >?C1;8:>20;0 A2>8 @5H5=8O, 2 8E G8A;5 B01;8FC: 5@5G5=L B>:A8G=KE 8;8 >?0A=KE 25I5AB2, 2K1@0==KE 2 :0G5AB25 B@51CNI8E ?5@2>>G5@54=>3> 2=8<0=8O, 345 @BCBL 8 55 A>548=5=8O 70=8<0NB 2B>@>5 <5AB> ?> >?0A=>AB8 ?>A;5 <KHLO:0; - A>2@5<5==K5 D0@<0:>?58 @0AA<0B@820NB M:A?5@B87C: A>45@60=85->BACBAB285 ?@8<5A59 BO65;KE <5B0;;>2 2 :0G5AB25 =5>1E>48<>3> :@8B5@8O, ?>4B25@640NI53> 4>1@>:0G5AB25==>ABL 8;8 =54>1@>:0G5AB25==>ABL ;5:0@AB25==KE 25I5AB2, :>B>@K5 =5 4>;6=K 1KBL 703@O7=5=K A>;O<8 @BCB8 8 4@C38E BO65;KE <5B0;;>2 2 ?@>F5AA5 B5E=>;>38G5A:8E >?5@0F89; - @5H5=85 N@> >B45;5=8O 38385=K, <8:@>18>;>388 8 M?845<8>;>388  !!! , ?@>B>:>; !15, 17. 11. 89 -  E>45 @01>B ?> CA>25@H5=AB2>20=8N :>:;NH=>9 20:F8=K; 5:><5=4>20BL - 8<. . $. 0<0;58  !!!  CA:>@8BL 8AA;54>20=8O ?> @07@01>B:5 :>@?CA:C;O@=>9 :>:;NH=>9 20:F8=K, :0: <>=>?@5?0@0B0, ?@8 ?>;=>< 8A:;NG5=88 <5@B8>;OB0. / 1K;0 ?@83;0H5=0 =0 MB> 70A540=85, 2KABC?0;0. >765 <=5 AB0;> 8725AB=>, GB> ;01>@0B>@=>-?@>872>4AB25==K5 A5@88 1K;8 3>B>2K, => 8E ?@>25@:0 70AB@O;0 345-B>... 2 :><?5B5=B=KE >@30=0E...  B0: ?@8=OB> 5I5 2 >4=>9 87 AB@0= 2A53> <8@0 (!<.: $0@<0:>;>38O 8 D0@<0:>B5@0?8O:  2-E B. /5@, A 0=3;. ><159, 1983, A. 408, 410): ... ?@54?>GB8B5;L=55 20:F8=8@>20BL 45B59 2 2>7@0AB5 4> 5 ;5B ?@5?0@0B0<8, A>@18@>20==K<8 =5 =0 384@>>:8A8 0;N<8=8O, 0 =0 :20AF0E 8;8 D>AD0B5 0;N<8=8O... 20:F8=K, A>45@60I85 0;N<8=89, <>3CB 8=>340 ?@>2>F8@>20BL ?>;8><85;8B 8 0;;5@38G5A:85 @50:F88... . &8D@K 8 D0:BK, :>B>@K5 <K ?@82>48;8 2 A2>8E A?@02:0E, 1K;8 70:@KBK<8. 848<>, >B MB>3> ?>AB>O==>3> A45@6820=8O =0H0 "A01;O" ?@8BC?8;0AL, :>5 C :>3> >G5@AB25;0 4CH0, >A;015; 3>;>A (56, A. 40), - >B<5G0; 1K2H89 ;02=K9 3>AC40@AB25==K9 A0=8B0@=K9 2@0G 1K2H53> !!!  >=4@CA52. =0G8B, 2540NB, GB> B2>@OB...    # II "& II. 2. K?8A:0 87 ?@>B>:>;0 8A?KB0=8O B>:A8G=>AB8 M:A?5@8<5=B0;L=KE A5@89 :>:;NH=KE 20:F8=  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://www.magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/tab_ii2b.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET  "& II. 3. !@02=8B5;L=0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 GC2AB28B5;L=>AB8 :C;LBC@ :;5B>: G5;>25:0: ?5@28G=KE ;8<D>F8B>2 8 ' : B>:A8G5A:><C 459AB28N <5@B8>;OB0 8 !-20:F8=K  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/tab_ii3.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET    II.1. !  &! !"    / #%  +%    " & ! !-20:F8=>9  A2>Q< ?8AL<5 >B 20/1V-78 3 (! 183/3) ?@54A540B5;N ><8B5B0 20:F8= 8 AK2>@>B>: 4>:B>@C . . L2>2C. =AB8BCB ?>;8><85;8B0 8 28@CA=KE M=F5D0;8B>2  @5:><5=4>20; ?@>2>48BL 425 ?5@2K5 ?@8282:8 682>9 ?>;8><85;8B=>9 20:F8=>9 @0745;L=> >B !-20:F8=K, 8AE>4O 87 A;54CNI8E A>>1@065=89.  ?@>F5AA5 1 8 2 ?@8282>: 682>9 ?>;8><85;8B=>9 20:F8=>9 () 2 >@30=87<5 ?@828BKE >B<5G05BAO 8=B5=A82=>5 8 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>5 @07<=>65=85 20:F8==KE HB0<<>2 ?>;8>28@CA0. >4B25@645=85< MB>3> O2;O5BAO <0AA82=>5 :8H5G=>5 2K45;5=85 ?>;8>28@CA0: B8?0 I C 50%?@828BKE 2 B5G5=854-6=545;L 850%?@828BKE 2 B5G5=852-3=545;L;B8?0 II C 70%?@828BKE 2 B5G5=851-3=545;L 825%?@828BKE 2 B5G5=854-6=545;L;B8?0 III 88%?@828BKE 2 B5G5=853-6=545;L.!B>;L ?@>4>;68B5;L=>5 @07<=>65=85 ?>;8>28@CA0 >1CA;>2;8205B 1>;LH>5 G8A;> 35=5@0F8>==KE F8:;>2, 2 @57C;LB0B5 >ACI5AB2;5=8O :>B>@KE 2>7=8:0NB 87<5=Q==K5 20@80=BK 20:F8==KE HB0<<>2, 2 @O45 A;CG052 1>;55 ?0B>35==K5, G5< >@838=0;L=K5 20:F8==K5 HB0<<K.  CA;>28OE ?>2KH5=8O B5<?5@0BC@K (37!) 25@>OB=>ABL <CB8@>20=8O 20:F8==>3> ?>;8>28@CA0 7=0G8B5;L=> ?>2KH05BAO.  A2O78 A B5<, GB> ?@8 8<<C=870F88 !-20:F8=>9, ?>2KH5=85 B5<?5@0BC@K B5;0 2A5340 >B<5G05BAO C >?@545;Q==>3> ?@>F5=B0 ?@828BKE, ?@8 >4=>2@5<5==>< 22545=88 ! 8  1C4CB A>74020BLAO 1>;55 1;03>?@8OB=K5 CA;>28O 4;O 87<5=G82>AB8 20:F8==>3> ?>;8>28@CA0, G5< ?@8 22545=88 >4=>9 B@QE20;5=B=>9 ?>;8><85;8B=>9 20:F8=K 157 !. "0:8< >1@07><, 4>?CI5=85 >4=>2@5<5==>3> 22545=8O ! 8  <>6=> @0AA<0B@820BL =5 8=0G5 :0: AB@5<;5=85 C25;8G8BL 25@>OB=>ABL 87<5=G82>AB8 ?>;8>28@CA0. 5@>OB=>ABL 2>7=8:=>25=8O 87<5=Q==KE 20:F8==KE HB0<<>2 ?>;8>28@CA0 2 ?@>F5AA5 B@QE ?@8282>: 7=0G8B5;L=> =865, G5< ?>A;5 1 8 2 ?@8282>: , B. :. 2 ?@>F5AA5 42CE ?@8282>: - ?5@2KE ?@8282>:  - 1>;55 G5< C 90% ?@828BKE 2 AK2>@>B:5 :@>28 @072820NBAO 0=B8B5;0 : B@Q< 8<<C=>;>38G5A:8< B8?0< ?>;8>28@CA0 , C 100% ?@828BKE 2K@010BK205BAO 2K@065==0O =52>A?@88<G82>ABL 0;8<5=B0@=>3> B@0:B0 : ?>A;54CNI59 @58=D5:F88 ?>;8>28@CA>< B8?0 II 8 C 70% - : ?>;8>28@CAC B8?>2 I 8 III. -B8< >1CA;02;8205BAO, GB> ?>A;5 B@5BL59 ?@8282:8 >B<5G05BAO :@0B:>2@5<5==>5 2K45;5=85 8A:;NG8B5;L=> B>;L:> ?>;8>28@CA>2 B8?0 I 8 III C =51>;LH>3> ?@>F5=B0 ?@828BKE. 0;8G85 B0:8E 70:>=><5@=>AB59 =5 ?>72>;O5B A>2<5I0BL B@8 ?@8282:8  A !-20:F8=>9.  8=AB8BCB5 ?>;8><85;8B0 8 28@CA=KE M=F5D0;8B>2  =5 ?@>2>48;>AL 8AA;54>20=89 ?> 2>?@>AC > 2;8O=88 >4=>2@5<5==>9 8<<C=870F88 ! 8  =0 70:>=><5@=>AB8 2K@01>B:8 8<<C=8B5B0 : B@Q< B8?0< ?>;8>28@CA0, 0 B0:65 =5 8<55BAO 40==KE >1 8<<C=>35=575 2 CA;>28OE =>@<0;L=>9 8 ?>2KH5==>9 B5<?5@0BC@K. =AB8BCB  !" " !/  !" !  /      #& !-20:F8=>9 ' "!" 8 . =AB8BCBC 8725AB=K ;8HL $"+  !#'/% / "/+%   "'! $  #    "+% ! 8  (A2545=8O =0 MB>B A;CG09 ?@82>4OBAO 2 ?@8;0305<>9 B01;8F5). ! +( #"  &! !" !)/ #%  +%    A !-20:F8=>9. 15/V-78 !B0@H89 =0CG=K9 A>B@C4=8:, =AB8BCB ?>;8><85;8B0 8 28@CA=KE M=F5D0;8B>2  !!!    II. 2. K?8A:0 87 ?@>B>:>;0 70A540=8O "" & 8 !+ " >B 9 D52@0;O 1983 3>40.  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/pr_ii2.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET    . II. 2. B25BK A?5F80;8AB>2,      " * 0 6 8 J L P R ` b r t ʒyyyyyyy0hnakh5`0J5B*CJOJQJ^JaJph8hnakh5`0J5B*CJOJQJ^JaJmH phsH 4hnakh5`5B*CJOJQJ^JaJmH phsH =jhnakh5`5B*CJOJQJU^JaJmH phsH ,hnakh5`5B*CJOJQJ^JaJph/ 4 f h j *&:,R-EEK@OOS\gdIJS dd[$\$gdU)gd'ggdU$a$gdU$a$gdUFCC  2 4 ~ εε垇nW>W0hnakhbM5B*CJNHOJQJ^JaJph,hnakhbM5B*CJOJQJ^JaJph0hnakhafh5B*CJNHOJQJ^JaJph,hnakhU5B*CJOJQJ^JaJph,hnakhafh5B*CJOJQJ^JaJph0hnakh5`5B*CJNHOJQJ^JaJph,hnakh5`5B*CJOJQJ^JaJph4hnakh5`5B*CJOJQJ^JaJmH phsH   d f h j f h z | һkVF;F.Fhnakh5`0JB*phhnakh5`B*phjhnakh5`B*Uph)hnakh5`B*CJOJQJ^JaJph)hnakh#-B*CJOJQJ^JaJph!hnakh5`B*OJQJ^Jph)hnakh#-B*CJOJQJ^JaJph)hnakhbMB*CJOJQJ^JaJph,hnakhU5B*CJOJQJ^JaJph,hnakhbM5B*CJOJQJ^JaJph,hnakhw5B*CJOJQJ^JaJph |  &(*,02@̿箛}mm`Q`m̿hnakh:0JB*NHphhnakh:0JB*phjhnakh:B*Uphhnakh5`0J5B*\phhnakh5`5B*\ph$jhnakh5`5B*U\ph hnakh5`5B*CJaJphhnakh5`0JB*phjhnakh5`B*Uphhnakh5`B*phhnakh:5B*phhnakh:B*ph@FHbfhjl268:<>NRTVfh,.4| ƻƻƮƻƻƮƻƻƮƻ|ƻƮƻƻƮhnakhFB*phhnakh'g5B*phhnakh'gB*phhnakh5`0JB*NHphhnakh5`0JB*phhnakh5`B*phjhnakh5`B*Uphhnakh'g0J5B*phhnakh'g0JB*phhnakh:0JB*ph0"$PLNTDFZ\xz׿̬׿׿ׁrhnakh'g0JB*NHphhnakh'g0JB*phhnakh5`0J5B*\phhnakh5`5B*\ph$jhnakh5`5B*U\phhnakh5`0JB*phhnakh5`B*phjhnakh5`B*Uphhnakh'g5B*phhnakh'gB*ph(2 4 h!j!!!V"X""""#####&$.$N$P$p$$$$$$$T%V%%%&&&&ɺɯɯɕɺɕօjhnakh'gB*Uphhnakh'g0JB*phhnakh'g5B*phhnakh'gB*phhnakh5`0JB*NHphhnakh5`0JB*phhnakh5`B*phjhnakh5`B*Uphhnakh'g0J5B*ph3&.'4'''(((~(((())j)))))))4*6*|*********b+d+,,,:,Ĺѹqѹhnakhis0JB*NHphhnakhis0J5B*phhnakhis0JB*phhnakh5`0JB*phjhnakh5`B*Uphhnakh5`B*phhnakhis5B*phhnakhisB*phhnakhBnB*NHphhnakh'gB*phhnakhBnB*ph%:,<,,,>-@-N-P-R-T---2.4.:.n.r.t.v.x.//V//////&0(000000000J1L1111r2v2x2|2Ͻ}u}u}u}uhnakhis5 hnakhishnakh5`0JB*NHphhnakh5`0JB*ph hnakh5`jhnakh5`Uhnakh5`B*ph#hnakh5`0J5B*NH\phhnakh5`0J5B*\phhnakh5`5B*\ph$jhnakh5`5B*U\ph.|2~23 33344404446484:444f5h5t5v5|566 6 66667D7H7J7777777x8z88999999999P:T:V:X:ӽཱུਙཱུਙਙ!hnakhU)0JB*mH phsH hnakhis0J5B*phhnakhis0JB*phhnakhis5 hnakhishnakh5`0JB*NHphhnakh00JB*phhnakh5`0JB*ph hnakh5`jhnakh5`U5X:Z:::P;R;V;t;x;z;|;~; <<<d<f<v<<<<<<.=0=J=N======H>N>P>T>V>>>>X?Z?^?n?t?v?x?vhnakhis0JB*NHphhnakhU)NH\hnakhU)\hnakhU)0JB*phhnakhis0JB*ph!hnakhU)0JB*mH phsH hnakhis5 hnakhishnakh5`0JB*NHphhnakh5`0JB*ph hnakh5`jhnakh5`U.x?z???@@@0A6A8A:AX@X^X׹䩏sh[sh[sh(h 5B*phhnakh B*phhnakh5`0JB*phhnakhw0JB*NHphhnakhw0JB*phh(h(5B*phjhnakh5`B*Uphh(h 0J5B*phhnakh 0JB*NHphhnakh 0JB*phhnakh5`B*phh(h(0J5B*\ph!^X`XjXXXXXXXXrYtYYYYYZZZZ Z"ZZZ*[,[4[@[D[F[H[J[L[[[[[[^\`\d\f\\\˾أ㖇˾˾˾xhnakh5`B*CJaJphhnakhy&0JB*NHphhnakhy&0JB*phhnakh5`B*phjhnakh5`B*Uphh(h(5B*phh(h 5B*phhnakh B*phhnakh5`0JB*phhnakh5`0JB*NHph+\\*],]eeiixkzkoovx*xz}vr6 dd[$\$gdU$dd[$\$a$gdU$a$gdU [$\$gdU$a$gdU\\&](],]]]^^`^F_H___b`d`aalbnbccddPeReee^f`fgghhtiviii@jBjjjj kkfkxkzkl|lll,m.mmҿҮҮҮҮҮҮҮҮҮҮҿҮҮҮҮҿҟҿ҈,jhnakh5`5B*CJU\aJphhnakh0cB*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJph%hnakh0cB*CJaJmH phsH hnakh5`B*CJaJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakh5`5B*ph5mmnnn:nv@vvxx*xôôoghnakh5`5#hnakh5`6B*CJ]aJphhnakh0cB*CJaJph%hnakh0cB*CJaJmH phsH !hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph'hnakh5`0J5B*CJ\aJph,jhnakh5`5B*CJU\aJph&*xxxyyzzzzz6|8|H}J}\}^}}}~~~DF ‚Ă ƆԆֆVXbd.0ċƋVXLNv<>ʓ̓hnakh0cCJNHaJhnakh0cCJaJmH sH hnakh0cCJaJhnakh5`CJNHaJhnakh5`CJaJL.02r\^FH؛ڛjl:<6ȟxz:<NZ\(*>ʪ̪ڪ>@bdx&(hnakhCJaJhnakh0cCJNHaJhnakh0cCJaJhnakh5`CJaJhnakh5`CJNHaJN6>@@ (.`xRt$a$gdUgdVB~$a$gdU$dd[$\$a$gdU dd[$\$gdU(ln "vxBD@ҳԳȴʴ "$@fhjlطڷ"$bd(*68Һֻػ\^ tv :<X(hnakh]CJaJhnakhCJNHaJhnakhCJaJhnakh5`CJNHaJhnakh5`CJaJN|@B RThj02.^f@B*,thnakh5`B*CJaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph hnakhVB~ hnakh5`CJOJQJ^JaJ,hnakh5`56CJOJQJ\]^JaJhnakh5`6CJ]aJhnakh6CJ]aJhnakh5`CJNHaJhnakhCJaJhnakh5`CJaJ+"$DFRpt4~df,xzxzln68|~FHHL\^VX(*XZ|hnakhCJaJhnakh5`CJNHaJhnakh5`CJaJhnakh5`5CJ\aJRt.0J|  %'*+X-0$a$gdU dd[$\$gdU|dfDF" $         xz pr|~ϸhnakh5`CJNHaJhnakh5`6CJ]aJ,hnakh5`B*CJOJQJ\^JaJph/hnakh5`5B*CJOJQJ\^JaJphhnakh5`CJaJhnakh5`5CJ\aJ>  !!`%b%''++Z-01122`3b34 455>6@6l6H7J748688899;; <"<8?:???6A8AAABBCC`DbD|D~DEEzF|FJGLGHHHHIIڻhnakh5`6CJNH]aJhnakh]CJaJmH sH hnakh5`6CJ]aJhnakh5`CJaJhnakh5`CJNHaJJ00455n66h7B=F=DFPP U"U$U&U(UUhV WYJY$dd[$\$a$gd]$dd[$\$a$gdU$a$gdU$dd[$\$a$gdU dd[$\$gdUI~JJ.K0KLLMMxNzNPPQQRRSSbTdT UU"U$U(UU^WWWXXXXXZZL[N[[[\\0]2]^^````JaLabbHcJcddffiijjllhnakh5`5CJNH\aJhnakh5`5CJ\aJhnakh5`5hnakhCJaJhnakh5`B*CJaJphhnakh5`CJNHaJhnakh5`CJaJBJY"Z\X]^&`bc,dfgjhijkxmzmmVn6pphq@rs & Fdd[$\$gdU$dd[$\$a$gdU & Fdd[$\$gdU dd[$\$gdUlxmzmppVqXqr rrrssvtxt(u*uuuwJxLxxxyzzX{Z{||$}&}}}$~&~~~02~46 І҆bdċƋ˲hnakh]5CJaJhnakh5`CJNHaJhnakh5`5CJNHaJhnakh5`5CJaJhnakh]5CJaJmH sH hnakh5`CJaJFsstduPvvwxzr{|>~*tց6 & Fdd[$\$gdU & Fdd[$\$gdU dd[$\$gdU & Fdd[$\$gdU6xlڒp&|ȡnT@LJd$dd[$\$a$gd] dd[$\$gdU$dd[$\$a$gdU & Fdd[$\$gdUhj46TVlndfĝƝHJHJDFJLjl  ҧԧʪ̪<>&(<>µĵطڷdfNP<> VX&hnakh5`CJaJhnakh5`CJNHaJ\&(46\^LvxHJVX jlrtFHFHTVLN*,HJ輭hnakh5`B*CJaJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakh5`5CJNHaJhnakh5`5CJaJhnakh5`CJaJhnakh5`CJNHaJ>dXP<*V  d0>",2249$a$gdU$dd[$\$a$gdU dd[$\$gdUP  ~PR V RTfXZ$&LNHJfhŸŸŪŸŸŸŸŸŪŸŸŪŸŸŸŸŪŪŸŸŸŸŸŸŸhnakh5`5CJNH\aJhnakh5`5CJ\aJhnakh5`CJNHaJhnakh5`CJaJ!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphhnakhB*CJaJph.0`btv@B^`$&46 "~!!hnakh5`5CJ\aJhnakh5`CJNHaJhnakh5`CJaJV!P"R"""F#H###$$%%v&x&B'D'''(((())@*B*6+8+++,,Z-\-n.p.B/D///11D1F1112222r3t3|3J4L44"55577N8P89999V;X;<<V>X>h@j@DAFA&C(CD Dhnakh5`5CJNH\aJhnakh5`5CJ\aJhnakh5`CJNHaJhnakh5`CJaJP49d::>?@ADEFIIKMRT*VW(`hhhhhhZi$a$gdxgdx & Fdd[$\$gdU dd[$\$gdU D\D^DZE\EJGLGGGxJzJJJ6K8KZLjLLLOO\P^PQQQQRRRRSSTTUUVVWWXX4Y6YZZ\\V\\\~]^^`^____xazaBcNcZc\cd dddffgg8h:hhhnakh5`5CJNH\aJhnakh5`5CJ\aJhnakh5`CJNHaJhnakh5`CJaJKhhh&i(iXiZik|kkmmnooooppssjtltvvvv@wNwxxtyvypzrzd{f{.|0|j|˺˜yhhhyhhhhhyhhhhh!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph hnakh5`5B*CJaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphhnakhZB*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph%hnakhZB*CJaJmH phsH #hnakhx5B*CJ\aJph(Zik|knmpr|ȁP` <`6T&vFJgdU$a$gdU$a$gdUj|l|}}~~8:npЃ҃vxTVJLRTԍ֍(*PTVܒޒrt>@,.xzhjʞ̞͹'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphI02¢Ģ|~LNjl´JLx·ȷʷ :< |~͹'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphIvx<>JL^`FHDFz|  24~NPrt24Jlnrtrt<>DF#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphQBLp&hb!#()"-;=nBI.KMOZ^`e$a$gdxgdU JL:<>@&VX@Bz|HJ\^(hrfhxz          h j J#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphQJLVX$xzh,.b0268j"l"##p$r$Z%\%$&&&h&j&&&''((6)F)6*8*++:+p+\,d,----.͹ͧ#hnakhZ5B*CJ\aJph'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphB..D/t///0011223334Z4\4.6066677>9@9L:N:t<v<>>T?V???^@`@AAA2A6C8CCCCCDDEEZF\FFFF@GGGHH|I~II߸ͤͤ'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph)hnakh5`56B*CJ\]aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJph@IIXJZJJ K"K.KKKLLMMMMNNOOOOOBQDQ2S4SSSSSTTUUVVXVWWXXYY"Z$ZZZ[[>\@\T]V]]],^.^N^^X_Z___``hajabb#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph!hnakhxB*CJNHaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphhnakhxB*CJaJphDbb(bbbbbBcDcddeehfjfffgggglhnhBiDi6jVjXjvjkkllllmmmnn8nno~oo(p*pqqrrrrʹʹʹʹʤʹʕʹʹʕʹʹʹʹʕʹʹʤʹʹ!hnakhxB*CJNHaJphhnakhxB*CJaJph)hnakh5`56B*CJ\]aJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph4egvj8ntpu|~8hƒ$n4̐LN(r:ȧҭڳngdUr(s*stbttt6u8u@uBudvfvvvwwxxyyXzZz${&{{{{||||f}h}&~(~~~~~@B68(𸡸~'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJphhnakhxB*CJaJph-hnakh5`56B*CJNH\]aJph)hnakh5`56B*CJ\]aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph1(h46VX$҆Ԇ\ĉƉvxVX4̐ʒ̒vxʔ̔<>Lzޙ 𾬾hnakhnIB*CJaJph#hnakhnI5B*CJ\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphhnakhxB*CJaJph> 46؜ڜ(НҝȞʞПҟ2r:<֥إȧnpPRtvjlҭvxfhįƯDFrijƳ𾪾'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakhxB*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphCƳֳڳNPtv.:<ַط248: tvjllϻ)hnakh5`56B*CJ\]aJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJph'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakhxB*CJaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph4n ҾHT`akd{$$IfF q%0V6    34ab  $$Ifa$gdUgdU lvx:>@p>@BDFHTϾϬρmYEϾ:hnakh5`CJaJ'hnakh5`0J5B*CJ\aJph'hnakh0J5B*CJ\aJph'hnakhZ0J5B*CJ\aJph,jhnakh5`5B*CJU\aJph'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphhnakhxB*CJaJph#hnakh5`6B*CJ]aJphbd^`JLTVvx*,^`*,*, "|~rtXZxzDFPRxٹhnakhB*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphhnakh5`CJaJhnakh5`CJNHaJIBrikd3$$IfF q%0V6    34ab  $IfgdU:riii $IfgdUkd$$IfF q%0V6    34ab &riii $IfgdUkd$$IfF q%0V6    34ab &(jriii $IfgdUkd[$$IfF q%0V6    34ab Hriii $IfgdUkd$$IfF q%0V6    34ab vriii $IfgdUkd$$IfF q%0V6    34ab vxriii $IfgdUkd$$IfF q%0V6    34ab 6rriii $IfgdUkd;$$IfF q%0V6    34ab "lriii $IfgdUkd$$IfF q%0V6    34ab ln riii $IfgdUkd$$IfF q%0V6    34ab  "&<riii $IfgdUkdc$$IfF q%0V6    34ab *8x6rmmmmmmmmmmmgdUkd $$IfF q%0V6    34ab  :<8v$&pr$&(*(*Z\DF`bnp,.8xJL !hnakhxB*CJNHaJphhnakhxB*CJaJphhnakhB*CJaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphE 668nNP     N       D F @B XZDxhj24|\^BNP*,nvBD!hnakh#NBB*CJNHaJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakh#NBB*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphhnakhxB*CJaJph>N `Dv4  !8"""')2,b04;C@ln j l n !!!! !!ᦋseZKZK33344444445556677889n9::";$;;&<(<h<====>>>>@@LANAAACCDDDDEEEEM@MzM|MN8NOOQQzR|RRSSSTTUU2W4WWW6X8XJZLZZ[[[[ \\4\\\]]]p^^^^^d_f__|`~````bbccddDeeeeffffʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹ!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphI.KZ[^_*jqJv,|~҉Z6b>JȨLت(JgdUfgghZhhhh i~ijj$j*jj2l4lzn|nDoFop pq qq rrsstttuvu6v8vJvvwwxxjyyyyzDzFzjzz{{,{{{,|t|~~~~ʀ̀͹͹͹ͧ͹͹͹#hnakhWT5B*CJ\aJph'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphB̀b"$܂ނ`fh^`̆؆چ~46Љ҉dȋʋ2ڌ܌ȍʍ΍xBZPާޘhnakhWTB*CJaJph#hnakhWT5B*CJ\aJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJph'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphܘޘ6Lę pbv<>>@>оооЕЕ~о-hnakh5`56B*CJNH\]aJph)hnakh5`56B*CJ\]aJph'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphhnakhWTB*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJph1ʣ J ̥ԥ֥.04B\Ȩ LЪت(ЬҬX\^`~~m hnakh5`5B*CJaJph-hnakh5`56B*CJNH\]aJph)hnakh5`56B*CJ\]aJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakhWTB*CJaJph'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph*`*,`rt>@ JR6npx|*,6θĹƹPR̻λμfhĽ>𯾝#hnakhnI5B*CJ\aJphhnakhnIB*CJaJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakh!4;B*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph:JR6ĽP!""H"$%$dd$If[$\$a$gdUdd$If[$\$gdU$a$gdHAgdVB~$a$gdHA$a$gdUgdU>@PfZ\,.`,24:>~FH@B$&паЎЎyпппЎЎЎЎЎЎЎппппппп)hnakh5`B*CJNHaJmH phsH %hnakh5`B*CJaJmH phsH hnakh5`B*CJaJphhnakhHAB*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphhnakh!4;B*CJaJph!hnakh!4;B*CJNHaJph/&24>TV\^fjLN"$|~Z\@FHJVFHVH"$̨̨߽)hnakh5`B*CJNHaJmH phsH hnakhV3B*CJaJph%hnakh5`B*CJaJmH phsH !hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphB\^n<>xz|~df4BDFHJNPT^b  2 4       |~BDRT,ݷݷݷݷݷݷݷݷݷݷݷݷݷݷݷݷݷݷ!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJph)hnakh5`B*CJNHaJmH phsH hnakh5`B*CJaJph%hnakh5`B*CJaJmH phsH H,.024:fh    "!$!!!!!""H"""*#,#d#f#$$$$ݸsssshhnakh5`CJaJhnakh5`5CJNH\aJhnakh5`5CJ\aJhnakh5`B*CJaJph hnakhVB~ hnakh5`CJOJQJ^JaJ&hnakh5`5CJOJQJ\^JaJ!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph%hnakh5`B*CJaJmH phsH $$%%b&&&&&''))f)h)"*>*d++++*-,-.. /"/// 0 011113344 585555666779 999::^;`;;;<<<===>>ֶֶֶֶֶֶֶֶֶֶֶֶֶֶֶֶֶֶֶhnakh5`5CJNH\aJhnakh5`CJNHaJ$hnakh5`56CJNH\]aJhnakh5`CJaJhnakh5`5CJ\aJ hnakh5`56CJ\]aJA%%'"*x. 5?AEILN???f@@@rBtBxBzB D DNDPDEEFF:Gf@f g gggghii.k0kmm8o:oRozooo qqrrrrstDtFttttttuvv(wZw0yyy貟΄hnakh5`5CJNH\aJhnakhVB~CJaJ$hnakh5`56CJNH\]aJ hnakh5`56CJ\]aJhnakhHACJaJhnakh5`5CJ\aJhnakh5`5CJaJhnakh5`CJaJhnakh5`CJNHaJ4zeghm>ptuDuPuRuPv`W $IfgdUxkdr$$IfK0)"  0634Kab $$Ifa$gdU$dd[$\$a$gdU dd[$\$gdU Pv&w(w\www~occ $$Ifa$gdU$dd[$\$a$gdUxkdbs$$IfK0)"0634Kab $IfgdUwwx,y~~ $IfgdUxkd t$$IfK0)"  0634Kab,y.y>|ԓʗʡ̷{{{{{{{{{{{{{ dd[$\$gdUxkdt$$IfK0)"0634KabyVzXz<|||}}b~d~z|  ܉މ<>"$^`ȑʑܒޒƓȓДҔbd*,~NPJ P׼hnakh5`6CJ]aJhnakh5`CJNHaJhnakh5`CJaJhnakh5`5CJNH\aJhnakh5`5CJ\aJJLN xVX46¨Ĩnp"DVX$&:<`ppr|~ڳĵƵ<r.0ln\^,.hnakh5`6CJ]aJhnakh5`5CJ\aJhnakhn9CJaJhnakh5`CJaJhnakh5`CJNHaJL̷ξP~rf@0fhjlnprtvxF $$Ifa$gdU $IfgdU$a$gdu;$a$gdHA dd[$\$gdUXZ$  68|Jx~(*24,.`b  46 bdfxhnakhHAB*CJaJphhnakhHACJaJhnakh5`5CJNH\aJhnakh5`5CJ\aJhnakh5`CJaJhnakh5`CJNHaJCxjlJL~DF~$𼦼nchnakh5`CJaJ-hnakh5`0J!56B*CJ\]aJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph+hnakh5`0J!5B*CJNH\aJph'hnakh5`0J!5B*CJ\aJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakhHAB*CJaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph V0~  D \V "gdHAgdUgdHA:kd`u$$IfT 634aT$&. "jl46~JFH|~"$tv ͹͹͹ߪhnakhHAB*CJaJph'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphC|~\^pzBZ    \   D F | <>\^&(df.0bdT  о𾪾𾪾'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakhHAB*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphC p!r!""$$"%$%%%R&T&&&&&0'2'(((())h*j*++2,4,,, --.-:---....//r0t0r1t1@4T44455,5@55˷#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph'hnakh5`0J5B*CJ\aJph&jhnakh5`B*CJUaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph9"8++/ 3`:<R?D2FJRUVXY[,`8e^oqsXz|~p<gdU555606`6b6t66667072747F777b8l89 9R:T:;;;;~<<8=:==== >>>@@@@BBDDFFHH\I^I(J*JJKKKK^L`LLTMVMNصصɤɤɤɤɤɤɤɤɤɤɤɤɤɤɤɤɤصصصɤ!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJph'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph)hnakh5`56B*CJ\]aJph@NNOOPPQQRS:U.ց؁܂Nxnp46lԅօޅ҆ԆD𸤸ۍ𸤸-hnakh5`56B*CJNH\]aJph'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJph)hnakh5`56B*CJ\]aJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph7DF<><PĊފ2<P|~ҋ,.ƌȌFHĐƐ0202LNΖЖ8NnpNPbdΝН VX ңdʥ̥^`HJ@B#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphQ<>nThƴ4(*`\Pf"gdUBҮԮdfаұԱܱޱprVXl4VX z| "^"$bd~PRZ\(* "0xf͹'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphIfhBD*^~FH:<DFL&h Zvvx>@|~|~f|͹͹͹ߤߤ)hnakh5`56B*CJ\]aJph'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJph?|8XZ\j&(tv|~BD:<DFTb۸۸hnakh jB*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh?B*CJaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph#hnakhn95B*CJ\aJph6rt"@JL68rt8:*6NPhj(T߾߾߾߾߾߾ߕ)hnakh5`56B*CJ\]aJph'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakh jB*CJaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJph1zb   +,..60r247:Z;\>f@ElH@*,P R b  ( *     (*vxD,<> $vijijijijijġijijijijijijijġijijġijijġijijijijġ'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph)hnakh5`56B*CJ\]aJph-hnakh5`56B*CJNH\]aJph7NPD F  !!!!""# #####z$|$%%F&H&&&))++N-P----......b/d/11F2H2͹͹͹ߪߪ͹ߘ͹#hnakhn95B*CJ\aJphhnakhn9B*CJaJph'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJph333334`4b44455R6T66677L8N8n9p999<<=====Z>*?,???AAB*BBBBBXDZD$E&EEEFF`GbGGGGH2I4I޹޹޹#hnakh5`6B*CJ]aJph'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphB4IIJKLLLNNNNOOPPQ Q R RRRlSnSTT>U@URU$V&VVV>W@WXXYYZZZB[D[f[]]^^p_r_` ``:````4adafaaabbddee߾ͪ'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJphhnakhn9B*CJaJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphCKjQ`W[a,bXe\gmqz:` dd[$\$gdU dd[$\$gd4X:kdu$$IfT 634aT $IfgdU$a$gd4XgdUeNgPg(h*hhhiiiijjHkJkllNnPnnnnnooooppqqrrssttttHvJvvvvvvxwwwxx(xvxxxxyyyyyyzzz*{n{{{{{||}}T~͹͹͹͹͹͹'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJphIT~p~r~~8:ʀ̀؁HJRTpr:<`Ĉƈ  DFHJ rtʹʹʹʹʹʹʹʹttttthnakh5`CJNHaJhnakh5`CJaJhnakh5`5CJNH\aJhnakh5`5CJ\aJhnakh5`B*CJaJph!hnakh5`B*CJNHaJphhnakh5`B*CJaJph'hnakh5`5B*CJNH\aJph#hnakh5`5B*CJ\aJph-tJL Ԓ֒\^NP2468BDrt<>ؤڤFHڧܧܪު FHDF ܲhnakhnCJNHaJhnakhnCJaJhnakh5`CJNHaJhnakh5`5CJ\aJhnakh5`CJaJL L\vھdd&`$dd[$\$a$gdU dd[$\$gdUܲ޲ln>@ʶ̶RTȹʹ^`>@νнؾھdf^`^dLNbd,.$&BD hnakh5`56CJ\]aJhnakh5`CJNHaJhnakh5`CJaJhnakhnCJaJmH sH hnakhnCJaJhnakhnCJNHaJEz|RTl.0BD<>PRBDrTVLN8:J̹̹̹̹̹̹̹̹hnakhA&CJaJ$hnakh5`56CJNH\]aJ hnakh5`56CJ\]aJhnakhnCJaJhnakh5`CJaJhnakh5`CJNHaJDJ~\dn$|B$a$gdU$a$gdgdU$a$gdU dd[$\$gdU$dd[$\$a$gdUJ>~ jlrt^`\RTnpBD  j$z|ö|hnakh5`5B*NHphhnakh5`5B*phhnakh5B*ph hnakhQp5B*mH phsH hnakhQp5B*phhnakh5`B*CJaJphhnakh>;CJaJhnakhA&CJaJhnakh5`CJNHaJhnakh5`CJaJ0@BLN³yj_jPj_H@hnakh5hnakh5`5jkhnakh5`CJUaJhnakh5`CJaJjhnakh5`CJUaJhnakh5`5B*NHphhnakh5`5B*ph hnakh5B*mH phsH hnakh5B*phhnakh5`B*CJaJph%hnakh5`B*CJaJmH phsH jvhnakh S{B*Uphhnakh S{B*phjhnakh S{B*Uph\. $IfgdU dd[$\$gdU$dd[$\$a$gdU$dd[$\$a$gdQh| Z\BLN&(Pz|BDRTnnp: <   & (     BDlnڷڬڷڷڷڝڷڷڬڷڷڷڷڷڷڷڷڷڷڷڷڷڷڷhnakhQpCJaJmH sH hnakh@CJaJhnakh5`CJNHaJhnakhm%CJaJhnakhQh|CJaJhnakh5`CJaJhnakh5`5NHhnakh5hnakh5`5<.04<bjz|sssss $IfgdUkdC$$Ifr} !634az||sssss $IfgdUkdCD$$Ifr} !634a&|sssss $IfgdUkdD$$Ifr} !634a&(<Djr|sssss $IfgdUkdE$$Ifr} !634a X R 0|pppppppaY$a$gd$"$dd[$\$a$gdU dd[$\$gdUkd,F$$Ifr} !634a LNPRV^8 v8 x8 8 8 9 9 &9 @9 B9 9 9 9 : : ; ; ; @< < < F= H= f> > ? ? P@ R@ @ @ A A B ټمxxxمxxمxxمxhnakh5`CJNHaJhnakh5`5CJ\aJhnakh5`5NH\Uhnakh[5\ hnakh[hnakh5`5\hnakh$"5CJ\aJjFhnakh5`CJUaJhnakh5`CJaJjhnakh5`CJUaJhnakh5`5B*ph/TVXZ\^8 &9 ~H }}}}nnnnb dd[$\$gdU$dd[$\$a$gd[$dd[$\$a$gdUgkd$$IfT<0333333333333634abT $$Ifa$gdU @01>B0NI8E 2 >1;0AB8 873>B>2;5=8O 8 :>=B@>;O !-20:F8=K, =0 2>?@>A: A :0:>9 F5;LN 22>48BAO <5@B8>;OB 2 MBC 20:F8=C 8 ?@>G85 5Q <>48D8:0F88?  $. $. (702. ;01. :>=B@>;O !): ;O 4>8=0:B820F88 :>:;NH=KE :><?>=5=B>2. > 4>70 <5@B8>;OB0 B0: <0;0, GB> =570G5< 2>>1I5 > =59 3>2>@8BL 8 ?>4=8<0BL 2>?@>A, 8  @5:><5=4C5B 4>102;OBL. @><5 B>3>, =C6=> 7=0BL CA;>28O @01>BK =0 =0H8E ?@54?@8OB8OE - 157 <5@B8>;OB0 =5 >1>9B8AL. # =0A ?> 4>:C<5=B0F88 4>?CA: >B 80 4> 120 <:3/<;. '#  . . (AB. =. A. MB>9 65 ;01>@0B>@88, 70=8<02H0OAO <=>3> ;5B :>=B@>;5< 8A:;NG8B5;L=> :>:;NH=>3> :><?>=5=B0): ;O 4>8=0:B820F88 :>:;NH=>3> 0=B835=0, => ;CGH5 ?>8=B5@5AC9B5AL C 0E0@>2>9 . !. - MB> >=0 ?@54;>68;0 <5@B8>;OB B> ;8 2 1955, B> ;8 1956 33. - :0: :>=A5@20=B ?>A;5 ?@85740 87-70 @C1560 A :0:>9-B> :>=D5@5=F88... . %  . !. (- 8<. . $. 0<0;58, 70=8<02H0OAO <=>3> ;5B :>:;NH=>9 20:F8=>9): ;O 45B>:A8:0F88 :>:;NH=>3> :><?>=5=B0, 2<5AB> D>@<0;8=0, 2@>45 8725AB=>, GB> D>@<0;8= - :0=F5@>35=, => B>G=> =5 ?><=N, A :0:>9 F5;LN - MB> 1K;> 402=>,... O C6 B5?5@L =5 ?><=N... . (??! - . '. ) ' !/ . .: >... @01>BK 0E0@>2>9 A A>02B., >?C1;8:>20==K5 2 1976 8 19783.3. 3>2>@OB > B><, GB> :>:;NH=K5 :><?>=5=BK >1;040NB 1>;LH59 B>:A8G=>ABLN ?@8 4>102;5=88 <5@B8>;OB0, =565;8 157 =53>... G5<C 65 25@8BL? @><5 B>3>, A>3;0A=> 8<5==> 4>:C<5=B0F88 - MB0 "<0;0O 4>70", ?@54=07=0G5==0O 4;O 3@C4=KE 45B59,   (   -! "  "+% - :0: >=0 1K;0 "4>?CAB8<0"?! '"  !. . (AB. =. A. B>9 65 ;01>@0B>@88): 2>4OB <5@B8>;OB 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 4;O ?>4AB@0E>2:8 AB5@8;L=>9 @01>BK =0 ?@54?@8OB8OE ?@8 873>B>2;5=88 !.  . . (?@54?@8OB85 =-B0 8<. . . 5G=8:>20, 5B@>2>-0;L=55): >;6=0 G5AB=> ?@87=0BLAO, 745AL 254L 2A5 A2>8, 4>102;O5< <5@B8>;OB 87-70 AB@0E0, GB> 8=J5:F88 =0 <5AB0E ?@8<5=5=8O A45;0NB =5AB5@8;L=>, 0 @5:;0<0F88 ?@84CB : =0< 87-70 =5:0G5AB25==>AB8 20:F8=K ?> =0H59 28=5... # . $. (702. ;01. D878:>-E8<8G5A:8E <5B>4>2 :>=B@>;O): K >H81;8AL, 0;8=0 5B@>2=0, 20:F8=0 2A5340 3>B>28BAO ;81> A D>@<0;8=><, ;81> A <5@B8>;OB><, 42CE 1KBL =5 <>65B... . !B>;L:> ;5B @01>B0NB 2 MB>< !5 8 4> A8E ?>@  .", '"  ! %/"   +% - ',  +% /  ! ' - %'!% )!"?!   II. 3. 1 8A?>;L7>20=88 <5@B8>;OB0 2 :0G5AB25 :>=A5@20=B0 4;O !.  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/pr_ii3.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET    II. 4. 0?@5I5=85 ?@>872>4AB20 <5@B8>;OB0 2 2@>?5.  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/pr_ii4.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET    II. 5.  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/pr_ii5.jpg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http://magichild.ru/vaccine/law_17_06_1998.html" 1 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8:5 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 (27) 3;0A8B: @>D8;0:B8G5A:85 ?@8282:8 ?@>2>4OBAO A A>3;0A8O 3@0640=, @>48B5;59... @>D8;0:B8G5A:85 ?@8282:8 ?@>2>4OBAO 3@0640=0<, =5 8<5NI8< <548F8=A:8E ?@>B82>?>:070=89. 1@0B8<AO : B5< ?@>B82>?>:070=8O<, :>B>@K5 :0: =0CG=> >1>A=>20==K5 (1, 8, 18-23) @5:><5=4>20=K 4;O 3@0640= 1K2H53> !!!  A 1965 3. 081>;LH89 8=B5@5A 2 MB>< ?;0=5 ?@54AB02;ONB ?@>B82>?>:070=8O : ?5@2K< 42C< 20:F8=0< - &- 8 !, :>B>@K<8 ?@82820NB =0H8E <0;KH59 2 ?5@2K5 ?>;3>40 ?>A;5 @>645=8O. 0<5@5==> =5 ?@82>48< ?@>B82>?>:070=8O : &, ?>B><C :0: 20:F8=0 &- - >A;01;5==K9 20@80=B 8 A>45@68B 2@>45 1K C<5=LH5==K9-0=B835==K9 A>AB02 (?> 40==K< A?5F;8B5@0BC@K), => >1;0405B B0:8< 65 70I8B=K< 459AB285< 8 @5:><5=4>20=0 45BO< A >BO3>IQ==K< ?>AB=0B0;L=K< ?5@8>4>< 8 ?>4;560I8< 20:F8=0F88 2 45BA:8E ?>;8:;8=8:0E (19, 1990, A. 29). >AB0B>G=> 25;8: ?5@5G5=L ?@>B82>?>:070=89 8 : >A;01;5==><C 20@80=BC, GB>1K ?>=OBL, :0: 206=> ?@82820BL 74>@>2>3> @51Q=:0. @54C?@5645=85 2 8=AB@C:F88 ?> ?@8<5=5=8N : &-: "58A?>;L7>20==CN 20:F8=C C=8GB>68BL :8?OG5=85< 8;8 ?>3@C65=85< 2 4578=D8F8@CNI89 @0AB2>@" - 8<55B 2?>;=5 >?@545;Q==>5 7=0G5=85, ?@54C?@5640NI55 >1 >?0A=>AB8 MB>3> ?@5?0@0B0, 8A?>;L7C5<>3>, >4=0:>, 4;O =>2>@>645==KE. @>B82>?>:070=8O : 20:F8=0F88 45B59 &- >7>;>38G5A:0O D>@<0>?CAB8<>ABL ?@8282>:1. 54>=>H5==>ABL - <0AA0 B5;0 ?@8 @>645=88 <5=LH5 2300 3@.@8 4>AB865=88 <0AAK B5;0 2300 3@. 2. =>9=>-A5?B8G5A:85 2>A?0;5=8O :>6=KE ?>:@>2>2>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O G5@57 1 <5AOF3. =CB@8CB@>1=>5 8=D8F8@>20=85, A5?A8A>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O G5@57 6 <5AOF524. AB@K5 701>;520=8O>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O G5@57 1 <5AOF5. 5<>;8B8G5A:0O 1>;57=L =>2>@>645==KE>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O G5@57 6 <5AOF52 ?@8 >BACBAB288 0=5<88 6. 5@8=0B0;L=K5 ?>@065=8O <>730 ?@8 2K@065==KE :;8=8G5A:8E ?@>O2;5=8OE >A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O G5@57 6 <5AOF52 ?> 70:;NG5=8N 2@0G0-=52@>?0B>;>30 7. @>64Q==K5 D5@<5=B>?0B88@>B82>?>:070=>8. <<C=>45D8F8B=K5 A>AB>O=8O @>B82>?>:070=>9. 5=5@0;87>20==0O 8=D5:F8O &, 2KO2;5==0O C 4@C38E 45B59 2 A5<L5@>B82>?>:070=>420 ;8 =094QBAO E>BL =5A:>;L:> @>44><>2 2 =0H59 AB@0=5, 345 C =>2>@>645==KE =5 1K;> 3=>9=>-2>A?0;8B5;L=KE 701>;520=89 :>6=KE ?>:@>2>2; 7=0;8 > D5@<5=B>?0B8OE 4> 22545=8O &; >?@545;O;>AL 8<<C=>45D8F8B=>5 A>AB>O=85 (B.5. A;010O @01>B0 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K, >1CA;>2;5==>5 =5-'-8=D8F8@>20=85<), 8;8 =545D8F8B=>5 - =>@<0;L=>5 DC=:F8>=8@>20=85 8<<C=>:><?5B5=B=KE :;5B>:. G5=L A><=520NAL 8 2 B><, GB> C =0A 2K;5G820NB ?>@065=8O <>730, :>B>@K5 CAB0=>2;5=K "?@8 2K@065==KE :;8=8G5A:8E ?@>O2;5=8OE"... 5B59, :0: ?@028;>, >1A;54CNB =5 2 ?>;=>9 <5@5, 0 @>48B5;59 =5 AB02OB 2 8725AB=>ABL > ?@>B82>?>:070=8OE. ! +  "/  . ! (ACI5AB2CNI85 ?>A;54=85 5;5B) 1. AB@K5 8=D5:F8>==K5 701>;520=8O 8 =58=D5:F8>==K5 - 20:F8=0F8N ?@>2>4OB =5 @0=55 1 <5AOF0 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O; 2. 1>AB@5=85 E@>=8G5A:8E 701>;520=89 - 20:F8=0F8N ?@>2>4OB 8=48284C0;L=> G5@57 1-3 <5AOF0 >B =0G0;0 @5<8AA88; 3. ;8B5;L=> B5:CI85 8 BO6Q;K5 701>;520=8O (28@CA=K5 35?0B8BK, BC15@:C;Q7, <5=8=38BK, <8>:0@48BK, 35<>@@038G5A:89 20A:C;8B 8 4@.) - 20:F8=0F8N ?@>2>4OB 8=48284C0;L=> G5@57 5-12 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O; 4. 5>1KG=K5 @50:F88 8 >A;>6=5=8O =0 ?@54K4CI55 22545=85 !-20:F8=K - BO6Q;K5 D>@<K 0;;5@38G5A:8E @50:F89 (H>:, >BQ: 28=:5, ?>;8<>@D=0O M:AAC40B82=0O M@8B5<0); - AC4>@>38, M?87>4K ?@>=78B5;L=>3> :@8:0, @0AAB@>9AB2> A>7=0=8O; - BO6Q;K5 >1H8@=K5 @50:F88 (?>2KH5=85 B5<?5@0BC@K A2KH5 39,5!, 2K@065==K5 A8<?B><K 8=B>:A8:0F88); 5. >;57=8 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K, AC4>@>6=K9 A8=4@><, >1I0O 8;8 ;>:0;L=0O =52@>;>38G5A:0O A8<?B><0B8:0; 6. 54>=>H5==>ABL (<0AA0 B5;0 ?@8 @>645=88 <5=LH5 2500 3.) - 20:F8=0F8N ?@>2>4OB 2 2>7@0AB5 6 <5AOF52 ?@8 CA;>288 =>@<0;L=>3> ?A8E><>B>@=>3> 8 D878G5A:>3> @0728B8O; 7. "O6Q;K5 D>@<K 0;;5@38G5A:8E 701>;520=89: H>:, A8=4@>< AK2>@>B>G=>9 1>;57=8, @5F84828@CNI89 >BQ: 28=:5, 35=5@0;87>20==0O M:75<0, BO6Q;K5 D>@<K 1@>=E80;L=>9 0AB<K; 8. <<C=>45D8F8B=K5 A>AB>O=8O, 7;>:0G5AB25==K5 701>;520=8O :@>28 8 =>2>>1@07>20=8O, =07=0G5=85 8<<C=>45?@5AA0=B>2.  MB> - ?@>B82>?>:070=8O : !, ACI5AB2>202H85 30 ;5B 4> 22545=8O "=>2KE"... ;8=8G5A:85 ?@>B82>?>:070=8O : ?@>2545=8N ?@8282>: @8282:0< ?>4;560B 2A5 74>@>2K5 45B8, :>B>@K5 4>;6=K 1KBL ?@5420@8B5;L=> >1A;54>20=K 2@0G>< (D5;L4H5@>< =0 D5;L4H5@A:>-0:CH5@A:>< ?C=:B5) A CGQB>< 40==KE 8E 0=0<=570 (?@54H5AB2CNI85 701>;520=8O, @50:F88 =0 @0=55 A45;0==K5 ?@8282:8, 0;;5@38G5A:85 @50:F88 =0 ;5:0@AB25==K5 ?@5?0@0BK, ?8I52K5 ?@>4C:BK 8 4@.) 8 >A<>B@5=K A >1O70B5;L=>9 B5@<><5B@859 =5?>A@54AB25==> ?5@54 ?@8282:>9. @8 =5>1E>48<>AB8 ?@>2>4OB 0=0;87K <>G8 8 :@>28. 5B59 A E@>=8G5A:8<8 701>;520=8O<8 8 0;;5@38G5A:8<8 A>AB>O=8O<8, ?@>6820NI8E 2 A5;LA:>9 <5AB=>AB8, ?5@54 ?@>2545=85< ?@8282:8 >1O70B5;L=> >A<0B@8205B 2@0G. >48B5;8 45B59, ?>A5I0NI8E 45BA:85 4>H:>;L=K5 CG@5645=8O, 4>;6=K 1KBL 70@0=55 >?>25I5=K > 4=5 ?@>2545=8O ?@8282>:. @8 >B1>@5 45B59 =0 ?@8282:C !-20:F8=>9, =5>1E>48<> AB@>3> A>1;N40BL ?@>B82>?>:070=8O; ?@8 MB>< A;54C5B CG8BK20BL, GB> =5:>B>@K5 45B8, 8<5NI85 ?@>B82>?>:070=8O : 22545=8N !-20:F8=K, <>3CB 1KBL ?@828BK ?@>B82 48DB5@88 8 AB>;1=O:0 !-0=0B>:A8=0<8. 865 ?@82>48BAO 48DD5@5=F8@>20==K9 ?5@5G5=L ?@>B82>?>:070=89 : 8<<C=870F88 !-20:F8=>9 8 !-0=0B>:A8=0<8. 548F8=A:85 ?@>B82>?>:070=8O : ?@>2545=8N ?@8282>: !-20:F8=>9, ! 8 !- 0=0B>:A8=0<8 >?CAB8<>ABL ?@8282>:-!-20:F8=0!-B>:A8=!- 0=0B>:A8=1. AB@K5 701>;520=8O (8=D5:F8>==K5 8 =58=D5:F8>==K5), 2:;NG0O ?5@8>4 @5:>=20;5AF5=F885 @0=55 <5AOF0 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O5 @0=55 <5AOF0 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O5 @0=55 <5AOF0 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O=D5:F8>==K9 35?0B8B (35?0B8B )5 @0=55 6 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O5 @0=55 6 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O5 @0=55 6 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O!K2>@>B>G=K9 35?0B8B (35?0B8B )5 @0=55 12 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O5 @0=55 12 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O5 @0=55 12 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O5=8=3>:>::>20O 8=D5:F8O (35=5@0;87>20==0O D>@<0 157 <5=8=38B0), 8=D5:F8>==K5 701>;520=8O A 70BO6=K< 8 E@>=8G5A:8< B5G5=85< (A5?A8A, 4875=B5@8O, >B8B 8 4@.)5 @0=55 6 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O5 @0=55 6 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O5 @0=55 6 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O%@>=8G5A:85 B>=78;;8B 8 045=>848B, B@51CNI85 E8@C@38G5A:>3> ;5G5=8O5 @0=55 2 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 >?5@0F88 8;8 A0=0F88 ?> 70:;NG5=8N >B>;0@8=3>;>305 @0=55 2 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 >?5@0F88 8;8 A0=0F88 ?> 70:;NG5=8N >B>;0@8=3>;>305 @0=55 2 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 >?5@0F88 8;8 A0=0F88 ?> 70:;NG5=8N >B>;0@8=3>;>302. "C15@:C;Q7: ;Q3>G=K5 8 2=5;Q3>G=K5 D>@<K 2 >B:@KB>9 D075; 2K@065==0O BC15@:C;Q7=0O 8=B>:A8:0F8O A AC1D51@8;8B5B><; 28@06 BC15@:C;8=>2KE ?@>1>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O ?> 70:;NG5=8N DB8780B@0>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O ?> 70:;NG5=8N DB8780B@0>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O ?> 70:;NG5=8N DB8780B@03. %@>=8G5A:0O ?=52<>=8O @>B82>?>:070=05 @0=55 12 <5AOF52 A <><5=B0 @5<8AA885 @0=55 6 <5AOF52 A <><5=B0 @5<8AA884. ;;5@38G5A:85 701>;520=8O =0D8;0:B8G5A:89 H>:, AK2>@>B>G=0O 1>;57=L 2 0=0<=575, @5F84828@CNI85 >BQ:8 28=:5, @0A?@>AB@0=Q==0O :@0?82=8F0, A8=4@><K 095;0 8 !B825=A0-6>=A0@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=0@>=8E0;L=0O 0AB<0, 0AB<0B8G5A:89 1@>=8EB@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=05 @0=55 2 ;5B >B =0G0;0 @5<8AA88 (?> 70:;NG5=8N 0;;5@3>;>30) 0A?@>AB@0=Q==0O M:75<0, =59@>45@<8B, A:@>DC;NA @>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=05 @0=55 12 <5AOF52 >B =0G0;0 @5<8AA88 ;;5@38G5A:85 @50:F88 =0 >B45;L=K5 0;;5@35=K (@07=>>1@07=K5 AK?8 8 4@. :;8=8G5A:85 @0AAB@>9AB20)5 @0=55 3 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 @50:F885 @0=55 3 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 @50:F885 @0=55 3 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 @50:F88 50:F8O =0 !-20:F8=C 2 0=0<=575 0. ?>2KH5=85 B5<?5@0BC@K 4> 40! 8 2KH5 2 ?5@2K5 42>5 ACB>:; 1. BO6Q;K5 0;;5@38G5A:85 @50:F88 2. =52@>;>38G5A:85 >A;>6=5=8O (AC4>@>6=K9 A8=4@><, ?@>=78B5;L=K9 =5?@5@K2=K9 :@8: 2 ?5@2K5 ACB:8)@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=05 @0=55 12 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 @50:F88 (?> 70:;NG5=8N A?5F80;8AB0)5. >;57=8 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K: 0A;54AB25==K5, 4535=5@0B82=K5 8 ?@>3@5AA8@CNI85 1>;57=8 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=0-?8;5?A8O, AC4>@>6=K9 A8=4@>< 2 0=0<=575@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=05 @0=55 6 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 ?@8?04:0 >4>20O B@02<0 A >AB0B>G=K<8 O2;5=8O<8 (45BA:89 F5@51@0;L=K9 ?0@0;8G 8 4@.)@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=0@8 1;03>?@8OB=> B5:CI8E D>@<0E 2 2>7@0AB5 AB0@H5 >4=>3> 3>40 >4>20O B@02<0, 4;8B5;L=0O 0AD8:A8O 2 @>40E 157 >AB0B>G=KE ?@>O2;5=89 A> AB>@>=K =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K  2>7@0AB5 ?>A;5 3>40 2>7@0AB5 ?>A;5 3>40 2>7@0AB5 ?>A;5 H5AB8 <5AOF5284@>F5D0;8O 45- 8 AC1:><?5=A8@>20==0O@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=084@>F5D0;8O :><?5=A8@>20==0O @8 AB>9:>9 :><?5=A0F88 2 B5G5=85 3>40@8 AB>9:>9 :><?5=A0F88 =5 <5=55 6 <5AOF52@8 AB>9:>9 :><?5=A0F88 =5 <5=55 6 <5AOF525B8 87 3@C??K ?>2KH5==>3> @8A:0 (C3@>70 2K:84KH0 C <0B5@8, 0:CH5@A:85 ?>A>18O 8;8 >?5@0B82=K5 2<5H0B5;LAB20 2 @>40E) 2>7@0AB5 ?>A;5 6 <5AOF52 2>7@0AB5 3 <5AOF52 2>7@0AB5 3 <5AOF52=D5:F8>==K5 701>;520=8O &! (<5=8=38BK, M=F5D0;8BK, M=F5D0;><85;8BK) A >AB0B>G=K<8 O2;5=8O<8@>B82>?>:070=0 @>B82>?>:070=05 @0=55 2 ;5B ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O >AB@>3> ?5@8>40 57 >AB0B>G=KE O2;5=89'5@57 12 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O >AB@>3> ?5@8>40 '5@57 12 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O >AB@>3> ?5@8>40 5 @0=55 G5< G5@57 6 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O >AB@>3> ?5@8>40 '5@5?=>-<>73>2K5 B@02<K (A>B@OA5=8O <>730, CH81K, :@>2>87;8O=8O 2 <>73 8 >1>;>G:8) A >AB0B>G=K<8 O2;5=8O<8 @>B82>?>:070=0 @>B82>?>:070=0 5 @0=55 2 ;5B ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O >AB@>3> ?5@8>40 57 >AB0B>G=KE O2;5=89'5@57 12 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O >AB@>3> ?5@8>40 '5@57 12 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O >AB@>3> ?5@8>40 5 @0=55 6 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O >AB@>3> ?5@8>406. "O6Q;K5 D>@<K @0E8B0 (II-III), 38?>B@>D88 (II-III), 028B0<8=>7K>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O7. 5<>;8B8G5A:0O 1>;57=L =>2>@>645==KE. "O6Q;0O =54>=>H5==>ABL (5A <5=LH5 2 :3.) 2>7@0AB5 ?>A;5 1 3>40, ?@8 =>@<0;L=KE ?>:070B5;OE >1I53> @0728B8O 8 :@>28 2>7@0AB5 ?>A;5 1 3>40, ?@8 =>@<0;L=KE ?>:070B5;OE >1I53> @0728B8O 8 :@>28 2>7@0AB5 ?>A;5 1 3>40, ?@8 =>@<0;L=KE ?>:070B5;OE >1I53> @0728B8O 8 :@>288. >;57=8 A5@45G=>-A>AC48AB>9 A8AB5<K: 45:><?5=A8@>20==K5 2@>64Q==K5 8 ?@8>1@5BQ==K5 ?>@>:8 A5@4F0; ?>4>AB@K9 A5?B8G5A:89 M=4>:0@48B@>B82>?>:070=0 @>B82>?>:070=0 @>B82>?>:070=0 >@>:8 A5@4F0 2 A>AB>O=88 :><?5=A0F88> 70:;NG5=8N A?5F80;8AB0> 70:;NG5=8N A?5F80;8AB0> 70:;NG5=8N A?5F80;8AB0 52<0B87<@>B82>?>:070=0 5 @0=55 3 ;5B A <><5=B0 :;8=8:>-;01>@0B>@=>9 @5<8AA88 5 @0=55 3 ;5B A <><5=B0 :;8=8:>-;01>@0B>@=>9 @5<8AA88 8>:0@48B@>B82>?>:070=0 5 @0=55 12 <5AOF52 >B 2K74>@>2;5=8O ?> 70:;NG5=8N A?5F80;8AB05 @0=55 12 <5AOF52 >B 2K74>@>2;5=8O ?> 70:;NG5=8N A?5F80;8AB09. >;57=8 ?>G5: %@>=8G5A:0O ?>G5G=0O =54>AB0B>G=>ABL, 2@>64Q==K5 =5D@>?0B88 @>B82>?>:070=0 @>B82>?>:070=0 @>B82>?>:070=0 8DDC7=K9 3;><5@C;>=5D@8B@>B82>?>:070=0 @>B82>?>:070=0 '5@57 5 ;5B ?>A;5 ?>;=>9 :;8=8:>-;01>@0B>@=>9 @5<8AA88 85;>=5D@8B @>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=0'5@57 3 3>40 ?>A;5 ?>;=>9 :;8=8:>-;01>@0B>@=>9 @5<8AA88 ">:A8G5A:85 =5D@>?0B88 (B@0=78B>@=K5)5 @0=55 6 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O 5 @0=55 6 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O 5 @0=55 6 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O =D5:F88 <>G52K2>4OI8E ?CB59@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=0'5@57 12 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 ?>;=>9 :;8=8:>-;01>@0B>@=>9 @5<8AA88 10. >;57=8 ?5G5=8 8 ?>465;C4>G=>9 65;57K &8@@>7 ?5G5=8, E@>=8G5A:89 35?0B8B 8 ?0=:@50B8B@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=0AB@K9 ?0=:@50B8B@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=05 @0=55 6 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O>A?0;8B5;L=K5 701>;520=8O 65;G52K2>4OI8E ?CB59 5 @0=55 6 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O (?@8 CA;>288 A0=0F88 65;G8)5 @0=55 6 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O (?@8 CA;>288 A0=0F88 65;G8)5 @0=55 3 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O11. >;57=8 :@>28 ;59:>7K, ;8<D>3@0=C;><0B>7, 0?;0AB8G5A:0O 0=5<8O, 35<>D8;8O, 1>;57=L 5@;L3>D0, :>=AB8BCF8>=0;L=0O 48A30<<0AB>1C;8=5<8O@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=05<>@@038G5A:89 20A:C;8B (:0?8;;O@>B>:A8:>7) @>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=05 @0=55 2 ;5B A <><5=B0 ?>;=>9 :;8=8:>-;01>@0B>@=>9 @5<8AA88 =5<88 45D8F8B=K5>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O>A;5 2K74>@>2;5=8O12. ;>:0G5AB25==K5 =>2>>1@07>20=8O@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=013. >;;035=>7K @>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=014. >;57=8 M=4>:@8==>9 A8AB5<K A0E0@=K9 48015B, BO6Q;K5 D>@<K B8@5>B>:A8:>70, =54>AB0B>G=>AB8 (8;8 48ADC=:F88) =04?>G5G=8:>2, <8:A545<0, 2@>64Q==K5 D5@<5=B>?0B88 @>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=0"8<><530;8O@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=0> =0ABC?;5=88 2>7@0AB=>9 8=2>;NF8815. 5A?5F8D8G5A:89 O725==K9 :>;8B@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=0@>B82>?>:070=016. ?5@0B82=K5 2<5H0B5;LAB205 @0=55 2 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 >?5@0F885 @0=55 2 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 >?5@0F885 @0=55 2 <5AOF52 ?>A;5 >?5@0F88@8<5G0=8O:  1. @8 :>=B0:B5 A 8=D5:F8>==K<8 1>;L=K<8 2 A5<L5, 45BA:>< CG@5645=88 8 B.4., ?@8282:8 ?@>2>4OBAO ?> >:>=G0=88 A@>:0 :0@0=B8=0.  >G030E 48DB5@88 ?> ?>:070=8O<8 ?@82820NB !-0=0B>:A8=0<8.  2. >;>68B5;L=0O BC15@:C;8=>20O @50:F8O C :;8=8G5A:8 74>@>2KE 45B59 =5 O2;O5BAO ?@>B82>?>:070=85< : ?@8282:5.  4. . @8 BO6Q;>9 0;;5@38G5A:>9 @50:F88 =0 !-0=0B>:A8=K 40;L=59H85 ?@8282:8 ?@5:@0I0NBAO . @8 2A5E ?5@5G8A;5==KE 2 40=>< ?C=:B5 701>;520=8OE ?@8282:8 ?@>2>4OBAO =0 D>=5 0=B838AB0<8==>9 B5@0?88.  5. @8282:8 40==>3> :>=B8=35=B0 45B59 ?@>2>4OBAO ?>A;5 >1A;54>20=8O 8 @5:><5=40F88 =52@>?0B>;>30  :064>< >B45;L=>< A;CG05 701>;520=8O, =5 A>45@60I53>AO 2 =0AB>OI5< ?5@5G=5, 2@0G-A?5F80;8AB @5H05B 2>?@>A > ?>:070=88 : ?@8282:0<8 8 2K1>@5 ?@5?0@0B0. 5B8, 2@5<5==> >A2>1>64Q==K5 >B ?@8282>:, 4>;6=K 1KBL 27OBK ?>4 =01;N45=85 8 CGQB 8 A2>52@5<5==> ?@828BK ?>A;5 A=OB8O ?@>B82>?>:070=89. @8282:8 !-20:F8=>9 ?@>2>4OB =5 @0=55, G5< G5@57 2 <5AOF0 ?>A;5 ?@8282>: ?@>B82 4@C38E 8=D5:F89. #A;>28O 8 B5E=8:0 ?@>2545=8O ?@8282>: @8282:8 ?@>2>48B A?5F80;L=> ?>43>B>2;5==K9 A@54=89 <548F8=A:89 ?5@A>=0; ?>4 @C:>2>4AB2>< 8 >B25BAB25==>ABLN 2@0G0. 0B53>@8G5A:8 70?@5I05BAO ?@>2>48BL ?@8282:8 =0 4><C. @8282:8 20:F8=>9 & =5;L7O ?@>2>48BL 2 >4=>9 :><=0B5 8 >4=>2@5<5==> A 4@C38<8 ?@8282:0<8. 0: 8A:;NG5=85, @07@5H05BAO ?@>2>48BL ?@8282:8 20:F8=>9 & 2 B>< 65 ?><5I5=88, => 2 @07=K5 4=8. @8282:8 20:F8=>9 & =5;L7O ?@>2>48BL 2 >4=>9 :><=0B5 8 >4=>2@5<5==> A 4@C38<8 ?@8282:0<8. 0: 8A:;NG5=85, @07@5H05BAO ?@>2>48BL ?@8282:8 20:F8=>9 & 2 B>< 65 ?><5I5=88, => 2 @07=K5 4=8. 0B53>@8G5A:8 70?@5I05BAO ?@8<5=OBL 4;O ?@>2545=8O 4@C38E ?@8282>: H?@8FK, 83;K 8 AB5@8;870B>@K, :>B>@K5 8A-?>;L7CNB 4;O ?@>2545=8O ?@8282>: 20:F8=>9 &. 5?>A@54AB25==> ?5@54 ?@>2545=85< ?@8282>: 2@0G (D5;L4H5@ =0 D5;L4H5@A:> - 0:CH5@A:>< ?C=:B5) >A<0B@8205B ?@828205<>3> A >1O70B5;L=>9 B5@<><5B@859 8 A>>B25BAB2CNI59 70?8ALN 2 8AB>@88 @0728B8O @515=:0.5>1E>48<> CG8BK20BL E0@0:B5@ >1I59 8 <5AB=>9 @50:F88 =0 ?@54K4CI85 ?@8282:8 !-20:F8=>9. 5@54 2A:@KB85< 0<?C;C BI0B5;L=> ?@>A<0B@820NB. @5?0@0B =5 ?>4;568B ?@8<5=5=8N 2 A;54CNI8E A;CG0OE: - ?@8 >BACBAB288 =0 0<?C;5 MB8:5B:8 8;8 =5?>;=KE A2545=89 =0 =59; - ?@8 =0;8G88 B@5I8= 0<?C;K, - ?@8 A>45@60=88 ?>AB>@>==8E 2:;NG5=89; - ?@8 =0;8G88 =5 @071820NI8EAO E;>?L52 2 684:>9 !-20:F8=5 8;8 ACE>< ?@5?0@0B5 ?>A;5 @0AB2>@5=8O; - ?@8 87<5=5=88 2=5H=53> 2840 ACE>3> ?@5?0@0B0 (A<>@I820=85 B01;5B:8, 87<5=5=85 F25B0 8 B.4.); - ?@8 8AB5:H5< A@>:5 3>4=>AB8; ?@8 =5?@028;L=>< E@0=5=88, !>45@68<>5 0<?C;K A 684:>9 !-20:F8=>9 =5?>A@54AB25==> ?5@54 22545=85< BI0B5;L=> 2AB@OE820NB 4> ?>;CG5=8O 3><>35==>9 2725A8. <?C;C 4> 8 ?>A;5 =04@570 =0?8;L=8:>< ?@>B8@0NB AB5@8;L=>9 20B>9, A<>G5==>9 A?8@B><, AB5@8;L=CN 0<?C;C ?>:@K20NB AB5@8;L=>9 A0;D5B:>9 8 8A?>;L7CNB =5<54;5==>. ;O :064>3> ?@828205<>3> 4>;6=K 1KBL 8A?>;L7>20=K >B45;L=K9 AB5@8;L=K9 H?@8F >1JQ<>< 1 <; 8 83;0. 0:F8=C =018@0NB 2 H?@8F 87 0<?C;K 4;8==>9 83;>9 A H8@>:8< ?@>A25B><. ;O 8=J5:F88 8A?>;L7CNB >1O70B5;L=> 4@C3CN 83;C. !CECN !-20:F8=C @0AB2>@ONB @0AB2>@8B5;5<, =0E>4OI8<AO 2 :><?;5:B5 A ?@5?0@0B><. <?C;C A @0AB2>@8B5;5< ?@>B8@0NB AB5@8;L=>9 20B>9, A<>G5==>9 A?8@B><, 2A:@K20NB, =018@0NB AB5@8;L=K< H?@8F5< A 4;8==>9 83;>9 1 <; @0AB2>@8B5;O 8 ?5@5=>AOB 53> 2 AB5@8;L=> ?>:@KBCN 0<?C;C A ACE8< ?@5?0@0B><. <?C;C =0:@K20NB AB5@8;L=>9 A0;D5B:>9, >AB>@>6=> 2AB@OE820NB 4> ?>;CG5=8O 3><>35==>9 2725A8 8 8A?>;L7CNB =5<54;5==> @5<O @0AB2>@5=8O ACE>9 !-20:F8=K =5 4>;6=> ?@52KH0BL 3-E <8=CB. @8 1>;55 4;8B5;L=>< @0AB2>@5=88 A>45@68<>5 0<?C;K =5 8A?>;L7CNB. !-20:F8=C 22>4OB 2=CB@8<KH5G=> 2 25@E=5-=0@C6=K9 :204@0=B O3>48FK 8;8 ?5@54=5-=0@C6=CN >1;0ABL 154@0 2 4>75 0,5 <;. >6C 2 <5AB5 22545=8O 4> 8 ?>A;5 8=J5:F88 ?@>B8@0NB 20B>9, A<>G5==>9 70% A?8@B><, <5AB> 8=J5:F88 A;53:0 <0AA8@CNB AB5@8;L=K< B0<?>=>< #G8BK20O, GB> ?>A;5 22545=8O !-20:F8=K 2 @54G09H8E A;CG0OE C >A>1> GC2AB28B5;L=KE 45B59 <>65B @072820BLAO H>:, 70 :064K< ?@828BK< =5>1E>48<> >15A?5G8BL <548F8=A:>5 =01;N45=85 2 B5G5=85 G0A0 ?>A;5 ?@8282:8, 0 ?><5I5=85, 345 ?@>2>4OBAO ?@8282:8, 4>;6=> 1KBL >15A?5G5=> A@54AB20<8 ?@>B82>H>:>2>9 B5@0?88. A5 ?@>2545==K5 ?@8282:8 >1O70B5;L=> @538AB@8@CNB 2 :0@B5 CG5B0 ?@8282>: (D>@<0 63) 8 2 8AB>@88 @0728B8O @515=:0. @8 2=8<0B5;L=>< 0=0;875 =>2>3> 8 AB0@>3> A?8A:>2 ?@>B82>?>:070=89 ;53:> C1548BLAO 2 C<5=LH5=88 ?C=:B>2 70 AG5B >1J548=5=8O =5:>B>@KE. A;8 1K B0: ?@>AB> 1K;> A ">1J548=Q==>9" 4803=>AB8:>9! 0B> 4>?>4;8==> 8725AB=>: =5B C;CGH5=8O 74>@>2LO @>AA89A:8E 45B59, >BACBAB2C5B 1>;55 157>?0A=0O D>@<0 ! [34, A.207], B5E=>;>38O - B0 65, 35-;5B=59 402=>AB8, 4803=>AB8G5A:8E A;C61 :0: =5 1K;>, B0: 8 =5B. > 4>AB0B>G=> 8 2>AL<8 ?C=:B>2, GB>1K C1548BLAO 2 "!#"!" 2>7<>6=>AB59 4;O 3@0<>B=>3> ?@>2545=8O MB8E ?@8282>:. 1I58725AB=>, GB> =8 >48= >B5G5AB25==K9 ?5480B@ (4065 >G5=L :20;8D8F8@>20==K9 8 4C<0NI89) =5 8<55B ?@0:B8G5A:>9 2>7<>6=>AB8 4;O >?@545;5=8O E>BO 1K 42CE ?@>B82>?>:070=89: D5@<5=B>?0B89 (2A5E?) 8 DC=:F8>=0;L=>3> A>AB>O=8O 8<<C=>:><?5B5=B=KE :;5B>:. >;55 B>3>, ?@>4>;60NB >E20BK20BL "=0 3;07>:" 2A5E 157 8A:;NG5=8O: :0: 2>A?@88<G82KE, B0: 8 B5E, :B> 8<55B 5AB5AB25==K9 8<<C=8B5B 8 =04Q6=> 70I8I5= >B 40==>9 8=D5:F88 (48DB5@88) A8;0<8 A>1AB25==>3> >@30=87<0. @8 MB>< <0;> :B> 87 @>48B5;59 7=05B > ACI5AB2>20=88 "1C:5B0" A5@LQ7=KE >B2>4>2 >B & 8 !. > 2A5< ;>38G5A:8< 70:;NG5=8O<, ?5480B@K 4>;6=K 1K;8 402=K<-402=> >B:070BLAO >B ?>4>1=>9 ?@0:B8:8 ?@>2545=8O ?@8282>:: 157 8<<C=>;>3>2 8 35=5B8:>2, 157 8=48284C0;L=>3> ?0A?>@B0 74>@>2LO =0 :064>3> @515=:0, 157 >1A;54>20=8O =0 <=>3>G8A;5==K9 @O4 D5@<5=B>?0B89 8 8<<C=>45D8F8B>2, 40 8 2>>1I5 157 :0:8E-;81> ?@54AB02;5=89 >1 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<5 4> 2<5H0B5;LAB20 2 =5Q, ?@8 >BACBAB288 A>>B25BAB2CNI53> ;01>@0B>@=>3> >1>@C4>20=8O 8 =5>1E>48<KE 4803=>AB8G5A:8E A;C61. 5>1E>48<> CG8BK20BL 8 =5 <5=55 A5@LQ7=K5 ?@>B82>?>:070=8O : 22545=8N 682KE ?@>B82>28@CA=KE 20:F8= - ?0@>B8B=>9 8 :>@52>9: 0;;5@38G5A:85 @50:F88 =0 :C@8=>5 O9F>, =0 0=B818>B8:8 - <>=><8F8=, 3@C??C 0<8=>3;8:>784>2 (=5><8F8=, :0=0<8F8=, 35=B0<8F8=, AB@5?B><8F8= 8 ?@.) - ?> 40==K< 0=0<=570. B> A>18@05B MB>B 0=0<=57 8 :>3> 87 @>48B5;59 AB02OB 2 8725AB=>ABL >1 MB8E ?@>B82>?>:070=8OE?! 0;55 3>2>@8BAO, GB> MB8 20:F8=K ?@>B82>?>:070=K: - 1>;L=K< A >1>AB@5==K<8 E@>=8G5A:8<8 701>;520=8O<8 :0: 8=D5:F8>==>9, B0: 8 =58=D5:F8>==>9 MB8>;>388 (?> :;8=8:>-;01>@0B>@=K< 87<5=5=8O<) 2>?@>A > ?@8282:5 @5H05BAO 8=48284C0;L=>; - 8<5NI8< 8<<C=>45D8F8B=K5 A>AB>O=8O, 7;>:0G5AB25==K5 1>;57=8 8 =>2>>1@07>20=8O; - A8;L=K5 @50:F88 8;8 >A;>6=5=8O =0 ?@54K4CICN 4>7C; - 15@5<5==>ABL. ?OBL 65, 5A;8 A@02=820BL @0=55 ACI5AB2>202H85 ?>4E>4K (4> 1990-E 33. ), B> ?5@2K< =5>1E>48<K< CA;>285< O2;O;0AL 20:F8=0F8O ?@0:B8G5A:8 74>@>2KE 45B59 8 ?>4@>AB:>2, =5 1>;52H8E MB>9 8=D5:F859 (87 =0AB02;5=8O ?> ?@8<5=5=8N). >G5<C-B> B5?5@L C:07K205BAO 0;;5@38O B>;L:> =0 :C@8=>5 O9F>, 2 B> 2@5<O :0: ?@5?0@0BK <>3CB 1KBL ?@83>B>2;5=K =0 ?5@5?5;8=KE... G5=L A5@LQ7=K<8 ?@>B82>?>:070=8O<8 O2;ONBAO 8<<C=>45D8F8BK, : :>B>@K< 2 A?5F;8B5@0BC@5 >B=>AOBAO =5 B>;L:> ?5@28G=K5, => 8 2B>@8G=K5 (?@8>1@5BQ==K5 ?>4 2>7459AB285< 2@54=KE D0:B>@>2, 03@5AA82=>9 2=5H=59 A@54K, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 20:F8=0F89) - (29-32).  =>2KE ?@8<5G0=8OE G8B05<: ?@8 =0;8G88 0=B8B5; 2 AK2>@>B:5 :@>28 ?>2B>@=CN 20:F8=0F8N =5 ?@>2>48B. > 4;O B>3>, GB>1K CAB0=>28BL =0;8G85 0=B8B5;, A>25@H5==> =54>AB0B>G=> >A<>B@0 8 B5@<><5B@88, =5>1E>48<> ?@>2545=85 A5@>;>38G5A:>9 4803=>AB8:8! 5@50;L=> >?@545;8BL >A<>B@>< B8B@ A?5F8D8G5A:8E 0=B8B5; - 70I8BK ?@>B82 8=D5:F8>==>3> 701>;520=8O! !0<>5 ;N1>?KB=>5, GB> B0:0O 4803=>AB8:0 ?@54CA<>B@5=0 >120;L=K< :>;8G5AB2>< ?@8:07>2, >B=>AOI8EAO : >?@545;5=8N, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 =0?@O6Q==>AB8 8<<C=8B5B0 ?@>B82 48DB5@88 -?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE 8;8 ?>AB8=D5:F8>==KE ?>A;5 ?5@5=5A5=8O 48DB5@88 2 :;8=8G5A:8 2K@065==>9 ;81> 2 A:@KB>9 D>@<5, 0?@8<5@, A>3;0A=> ?@8:07C ! 323/105 >B 08, 07. 99: 1O70==>ABL 2@0G59 # A F5;LN 48DB5@89=>9 4803=>AB8:8 ?@>2>48BL A5@>;>38G5A:85 >1A;54>20=8O =0 =0?@O6Q==>ABL 8<<C=8B5B0 : 48DB5@88... . # - ;5G51=>-?@>D8;0:B8G5A:85 CG@5645=8O. >=OB85 =0?@O6Q==>ABL 8<<C=8B5B0, ?@8ACI55 8A:;NG8B5;L=> >B5G5AB25==K< 8=AB@C:F8O< 8 ?@8:070<, =0 A0<>< 45;5, =5 ACI5AB2C5B 2 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5.  "/  & " ?5@>@0;L=>9 I, II 8 III B8?>2, B. 5. : 682>9 20:F8=5 ?@>B82 28@CA>2 ?>;8><85;8B0: - >AB@K5 701>;520=8O, A>?@>2>640NI85AO ;8E>@04:>9 (B5<?5@0BC@0 37, 5 8 2KH5) 8;8 A8AB5<=K<8 @0AAB@>9AB20<8; - 8<<C=>45D8F8B=K5 A>AB>O=8O, 7;>:0G5AB25==K5 701>;520=8O :@>28 8 =>2>>1@07>20=8O, =07=0G5=85 8<<C=>45?@5AA0=B>2 8;8 ;CG52>9 B5@0?88 - ?@8282:C ?@>2>4OB G5@57 12 <5A. ?>A;5 >:>=G0=8O ;5G5=8O; - =52@>;>38G5A:85 @0AAB@>9AB20 =0 ?@54K4CICN 20:F8=0F8N.  5A;8 5ABL =52@>;>38G5A:85 @0AAB@>9AB20 =5 =0 20:F8=0F8N? 0: 1KBL? ;8 GB> 7=0G0B A8AB5<=K5 @0AAB@>9AB20?  =>2>9 8=AB@C:F88 ?> ?@8<5=5=8N ?>;8>20:F8=K, ?>43>B>2;5==>9 : ?@>2545=8N 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 42CEBC@>2KE ?@8282>: =>2>9 20:F8=>9, A:070=>, GB> ?@>B82>?>:070=8O<8 O2;ONBAO 2KO2;5==K5 8<<C=>45D8F8BK (!!!), :>B>@K5, @07C<55BAO, =8:B> 8 =5 ?KB0;AO 2KO28BL 4> 20:F8=0F88, ?>A:>;L:C ?@8=F8? 548= - 2A5E ?>4@O4 (2-5). @><5 B>3>, 4065  2 A2>8E ?C1;8:0F8OE =0?><8=05B; # 90-95 % 70@0782H8EAO ?>;8><85;8B>< ;N459 ?>;8>28@CA=0O 8=D5:F8O ?@>B5:05B 157 :;8=8G5A:8E ?@>O2;5=89. # 4-8 % 8=D8F8@>20==KE >B<5G0NBAO ;Q3:85 D>@<K 1>;57=8, E0@0:B5@87CNI85AO =52KA>:>9 B5<?5@0BC@>9, 0=38=>9, @2>B>9, 1>;O<8 2 682>B5, ?>B5@59 0??5B8B0 8 >1H59 A;01>ABLN (29. 7). !@548 B0:8E ;8F, 2 B>< G8A;5 2>A?@88<G82KE : 28@CA0< ?>;8><85;8B0, @0728205BAO ?>687=5==K9 5AB5AB25==> ?@8>1@5B5==K9 8<<C=8B5B, A;54>20B5;L=>, 20:F8=0F8O B0:8E ;8F ?@>B82>?>:070=0! B5G5AB25==K5 8 70@C156=K5 A?5F80;8ABK 2 A2>Q 2@5<O >B<5G0;8 2>A?@88<G82>ABL : I B8?C ?>;8><85;8B0 C >4=>3> @51Q=:0 =0 BKAOGC 45B59, :> II 8 III B8?0< - 1: 500 (33-35). "0:8< >1@07><, 8A?>;L7>20=85 20:F8=K ?@>B82 28@CA>2 ?>;8><85;8B0 ?>:070=> 2A53> 0, 5 - 0, 001% 45B59, 0 ?@>B82>?>:070=> 2A5< >AB0;L=K<, B. 5. 7=0G8B5;L=><C 1>;LH8=AB2C.  "/  &  " ""  =0;87 ?@>A?5:B0 ?> ?@8<5=5=8N @5:><18=0=B=>9 20:F8=K-- ! - ?@>B82 35?0B8B0  (37) ?@82>48B : 4>AB0B>G=> A5@LQ7=K< 2K2>40<. @5645 2A53>, AC4O ?> E0@0:B5@C ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89 (37, A. 38, 46-48), ?@>B82>?>:070=89 4>;6=> 1KBL =5<0;>, E>BO ?>A;54=85 ?@0:B8G5A:8 >BACBAB2CNB. =5 2AO:8E A><=5=89, >A=>2=K< ?@>B82>?>:070=85< 4>;6=> A;C68BL =565;0=85 74>@>2KE @>48B5;59 (=5 8=D8F8@>20==KE 28@CA>< 35?0B8B0 ) 22>48BL A2>5<C @515=:C ?0@5=B5@0;L=>-8=J5:F8>==> MB>B 35==>-8=65=5@=K9 ?@>4C:B - ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:>5 A@54AB2> - =0 2AO:89 A;CG09. <5AB5 A B5<, :0: 8725AB=>, ?@>F54C@0 ?@8282:8 ?@>B82 35?0B8B0  >ACI5AB2;O5BAO 2 >B5G5AB25==KE @>44><0E 2A5< =>2>@>64Q==K< G5@57 3-5 G0A>2 ?>A;5 @>645=8O. 0: 8 A 20:F8=>9 &, > =>2>9 - 4>?>;=8B5;L=>9 ?@8282:5 @>48B5;59 =5 AB02OB 2 8725AB=>ABL 70@0=55, 8 =8:B> =5 A?@0H8205B C =8E @07@5H5=8O =0 MB> <548F8=A:>5 2<5H0B5;LAB2>, >15@530O 74>@>2L5 <;045=F0 2 A>>B25BAB288 A ?@8:07>< 8=74@020 ! 226/79 >B 03. 06. 96. :>B>@K9, >4=0:>, =0@CH05B ?>;>65=8O =>2>3> 70:>=0 (27. 2) > 4>1@>2>;L=>AB8 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8:8. @>B82>?>:070=85< <>65B A;C68BL 8 8=J5:F8>==K9 A?>A>1 ?@8<5=5=8O MB8E 42CE 20:F8= - AB@0E ?5@54 C:>;>< 8 =565;0=85< G@57:>6=>3> 2<5H0B5;LAB20 2 >@30=87< =>2>@>64Q==>3>.  B><C 65 2 ?@>A?5:B5 - ! 5ABL ?@54C?@5645=85 (37, A. 47): :0: 8 ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 4@C38E 20:F8=, 22>48<KE 2 2845 8=J5:F89, A;54C5B ?@54CA<>B@5BL 2A5 =5>1E>48<K5 <5@K =0 A;CG09 0=0D8;0:B8G5A:>9 @50:F88... , B. 5. ?>2KH5==>9 GC2AB28B5;L=>AB8 @51Q=:0 : ?0@5=B5@0;L=><C ?>ABC?;5=8N GC65@>4=>3> 15;:0. 0: <>6=> ?@54CA<>B@5BL 8 C2845BL ?@>O2;5=8O 0=0D8;0:B8G5A:>9 @50:F88 C =>2>@>64Q==KE, 5A;8 20:F8=C 8< 22>4OB G5@57 3-5 G0A>2 ?>A;5 @>4>2?! @>B82>?>:070=> 22545=85 - ! 2=CB@8<KH5G=> ;N4O<, AB@040NI8< B@><1>F8B>?5=859 8;8 701>;520=8O<8, A>?@>2>640NI8<8AO :@>2>B5G5=8O<8, - B0:8< ?0F85=B0< @5:><5=4C5BAO 22>48BL 20:F8=C AB@>3> ?>4:>6=>. @54?>;0305BAO, GB> B0:>9 <5B>4 1>;55 157>?0A5=. >A:>;L:C 8=:C10F8>==K9 ?5@8>4 C 35?0B8B0  4>2>;L=> 4;8B5;L=K9, =5 8A:;NG5=>, GB> G5;>25: <>65B >:070BLAO C65 8=D8F8@>20==K<, => =5 7=0BL MB>3>.  40==>< A;CG05 ?@8282:0 ?@>B82>?>:070=0 87-70 B>3>, GB> 20:F8=0 =5 >15A?5G8B 70I8BC >B @0728B8O 8=D5:F8>==>3> ?@>F5AA0. # ;8F, 8=D8F8@>20==KE 28@CA>< 35?0B8B0 , 2?>A;54AB288 A?>=B0==> >A2>1>482H8EAO >B =53> (!), B8B@ 70I8B=KE 0=B8B5; =0@0AB05B 4> <0:A8<C<0, GB> 8 =07K205BAO ?>AB8=D5:F8>==K<, 5AB5AB25==> ?@8>1@5BQ==K< A?5F8D8G5A:8< 8<<C=8B5B><. "0:>5 A>AB>O=85 O2;O5BAO ?@O<K< ?@>B82>?>:070=85< : 22545=8N 20:F8=K, ?>A:>;L:C G5;>25: C65 70I8I5=! !>25@H5==> >G5284=>, GB> 2 ;N1>< A;CG05 =5>1E>48<> 7=0BL A5@>;>38G5A:85 <0@:5@K 28@CA=>3> 35?0B8B0 .  A2O78 A MB8< F5;5A>>1@07=> >ACI5AB2;OBL A5@>;>38G5A:89 <>=8B>@8=3, :>B>@K9 ?>72>;8B CAB0=>28BL 8<<C=>;>38G5A:89 AB0BCA 8 1C45B A;C68BL ?>:070B5;5< =5>1E>48<>AB8 ?@>2545=8O 70I8B=KE <5@>?@8OB89... (37, A. 18). >A;54=55 206=> 4;O AB@0B5388 20:F8=0F88 2 F5;>< =5 B>;L:> ?@>B82 35?0B8B0 , ?>A:>;L:C =C6405BAO 2 CGQB5 8725AB=KE 20@80F89 8<<C==KE >B25B>2 @07;8G=KE ;N459 (37, A. 16), B. 5. 8=48284C0;L=>9 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>9 @50:F88 =0 65;0=85 20:F8=0B>@>2 ?><>GL... 2A5< ?>4@O4 =>2>@>64Q==K<. "0:8< >1@07><, 157 70@0=55 8725AB=>3> A?5F8D8G5A:>3> 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>3> AB0BCA0 =5;L7O >?@545;8BLAO A =5>1E>48<>ABLN ?@8282>: ?@>B82 35?0B8B0 , @02=> :0: 8 A ?@>B82>?>:070=8O<8 ?@>B82 =8E.  B><C 65 45B8 A =0@CH5=8O<8 DC=:F89 8<<C=>:><?5B5=B=KE :;5B>: 8 2 40==>< A;CG05 B@51CNB >A>1>N ?>4E>40, GB> B0:65 O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 A5@L57=KE ?@>B82>?>:070=89 : ?@8<5=5=8N 20:F8=K ?> ?@8=F8?C 2A5E ?>4@O4...  %"  '"",,   ",,  #",...  =0H59 AB@0=5 =5 ?@>2>48;8 <>=8B>@8=30 =8 ?@8 42CEBC@>2>9 20:F8=0F88 45B59 ?@>B82 ?>;8><85;8B0 (E>BO ?> MB><C ?>2>4C ACI5AB2C5B G5B:0O @5:><5=40F8O !), =8 2 A;CG05 A 20:F8=>9 ?@>B82 35?0B8B0  (E>BO 8 745AL =5<0;> >?@545;Q==KE @5:><5=40F89 A>45@68BAO =5?>A@54AB25==> 2 ?@>A?5:B5 ?> ?@8<5=5=8N!). > MB>9 ?@8G8=5 >BACBAB2CNB 40==K5 > ?@>F5=B=KE A>>B=>H5=8OE ?5@51>;52H8E 8 2K74>@>252H8E ?>A;5 35?0B8B0 , :0: 8 E@>=8G5A:8 8=D8F8@>20==KE MB8< 28@CA><, 0 B0:65 B5E, :B> B>;L:> GB> 701>;5;, =5 7=0O >1 MB><... @0240, 20:F8=0B>@K 8 G8=>2=8:8 >B A0=M?84A;C61K =5 ?@>O2;ONB : ?>4>1=K< 40==K< =8:0:>3> 8=B5@5A0, 2=54@OO 20:F8=C, ?>;CG5==CN A ?><>ILN 35==>9 8=65=5@88, 4;O ?@8282>: ?@5645 2A53> >A;01;5==KE 45B59 (2-5, 38) - -" ",/ " / /  ,/ (% +( :0: 1C4CI53> ?>:>;5=8O >AA88. :07K205<0O ?@>D8;0:B8:0 74>@>2LO O2;O5BAO ?> A2>59 ACB8 B@>9=K< M:A?5@8<5=B>< =0 =0H8E =>2>@>64Q==KE: 2>-?5@2KE, M:A?5@8<5=B>< ?> 2KO2;5=8N =58725AB=KE >B40;Q==KE MDD5:B>2 - ?>A;54AB289 22545=8O 35==>-8=65=5@=>9 ?@>4C:F88, ?@8<5=O5<>9 A MB>9 F5;LN 2?5@2K5; 2>-2B>@KE, M:A?5@8<5=B>< ?>B><C, GB> ?@>2>4OB >F5=:C MDD5:B82=>AB8 A>G5B0==>9 8<<C=870F88 =>2>@>64Q==KE ?@>B82 35?0B8B0  8 ?@>B82 BC15@:C;Q70 =0 D>=5 <0AA>2>9 8<<C=870F88 - 87 B>3> 65 ?@8:070 ! 226/79 (=5B B0:>3> =8345 2 <8@5, ?>A:>;L:C >BACBAB2C5B 20:F8=0F8O & =>2>@>645==KE!). 525@>OB=> A5@LQ7=0O =03@C7:0 =0 >@30=87< =>2>@>64Q==KE! -B@5BL8E, MB> M:A?5@8<5=B :0: H8@>:><0AHB01=0O 20:F8=0F8O =0 ?@54<5B 2KO2;5=8O ?0B>;>38G5A:8E A8=4@><>2 (5) - 2 A0<>< <0AHB01=>< 3>AC40@AB25, ?@54>AB0282H5< 4;O B0:8E =01;N45=89 =5>3@0=8G5==>5 G8A;> A>1AB25==KE 45B59... =5 ?>AB0282 2 8725AB=>ABL >1 MB>< @>48B5;59!  B><C 65 ?0B>;>38G5A:85 A8=4@><K <>3CB ?@>O28BLAO 8 3>4 A?CABO, 8 ?OBL ;5B 8 7=0G8B5;L=> ?>765... 48=AB25==> 8725AB=K5 ?@>B82>?>:070=8O : ?@8<5=5=8N 20:F8=K - ! - ?@87=0:8 0;;5@388 =0 ?@54K4CICN 4>7C 8;8 0;;5@38O : ;N1><C :><?>=5=BC 20:F8=K... (37, A. 38). >A<>B@8<, GB> 65 2E>48B 2 A>AB02 - !, :0:85 :><?>=5=BK (37, A. 37, 39, 48): 1. A=>20 ?@5?0@0B0 - <>48D8F8@>20==K5 (:C@A82 <>9 - '. )... ?5:0@A:85 4@>668, H8@>:> ?@8<5=O5<K5 2 ?@>872>4AB25 E;510 8 ?820. > <>48D8F8@>20==K5 =5 <>3CB =07K20BLAO >1KG=K<8 ?5:0@A:8<8, H8@>:> ?@8<5=O5<K<8... , >=8 -<>48D8F8@>20==K5! 2. 84@>>:8AL 0;N<8=8O. 45AL A;54C5B ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> <=>385 45AOB8;5B8O =5 @5:><5=4C5BAO (!) 8A?>;L7>20BL MB>B 04LN20=B 4;O 20:F8=0F88 45B59 (8). 3. "8><5@>A0;L (=5 @0AH8D@>2K20NB, GB> MB> B0:>5, 8 :0:0O D8@<0 ?>AB02;O5B). <5AB5 A B5<, MB> - <5@B8>;OB - @BCBL>@30=8G5A:0O A>;L, > ?03C1=>< 2;8O=88 :>B>@>9 =0 F5=B@0;L=CN =5@2=CN A8AB5<C 8725AB=> 402=>. K G5B25@BL 25:0 ?>4=8<05< MB>B 2>?@>A (7, 8), 8 =0<5B8;8AL =5:>B>@K5 A42838, ?>A:>;L:C, =0:>=5F-B>, ?@87=0=>: MB> 25I5AB2>, >B :>B>@>3> =0AB0;> 2@5<O >A2>1>640BLAO, - ?8H5B 48@5:B>@ =0F8>=0;L=>3> :>=B@>;L=>3> >@30=0 (!0), :>B>@K9 8 ?@>?CAB8; 2 =0HC AB@0=C MB> E8<8G5A:>5 25I5AB2>. "5< =5 <5=55 20:F8=0 ?@>B82 35?0B8B0  A>45@68B 2A5-B0:8 MB> 2@54=>5 E8<8G5A:>5 25I5AB2> 8 22>48BAO =>2>@>64Q==K<. 530B82=K5 @50:F88 =0 MB8 E8<8G5A:85 25I5AB20 >G5=L ?>4@>1=> @0AA<>B@5=K =0<8 2 A?5F;8B5@0BC@5 (7), 2 @0=55 8740==>< >:;045-A1>@=8:5 (8), 0 B0:65 2 @0745;5 II. 2 =0AB>OI59 @01>BK. 4. >;8A>@15=B (=5 @0AH8D@>2K205BAO). >340 @5GL 845B > 45BOE, B5< 1>;55 =>2>@>645==KE (!!!), 2@O4 ;8 C<5AB=0 ;N10O AAK;:0 =0 B0: =07K205<K5  8 # (?@545;L=> 4>?CAB8<K5 :>=F5=B@0F88 8;8 C@>2=8) E8<8G5A:8E 25I5AB2, CAB0=02;8205<KE, :0: <K ?>4G5@:820;8 2 ?@54K4CI8E @0745;0E, 2 @0AGQB5 =0 >@30=87< 27@>A;>3> G5;>25:0, : B><C 65 :>=B0:B8@CNI53> A ?>4>1=K<8 :A5=>18>B8:0<8 2>2A5 =5 ?0@5=B5@0;L=>! 0;55. > 2@5<O 15@5<5==>AB8 20:F8=C A;54C5B ?@8<5=OBL ?@8 >AB@>9 =5>1E>48<>AB8... ?>A:>;L:C =5 87CG0;8 55 2;8O=8O =0 @0728B85 ?;>40... . 0:0O <>65B 1KBL >AB@0O =5>1E>48<>ABL, 5A;8 ?@5?0@0B =5 87CG0;8 =0 157>?0A=>ABL?! BACBAB2CNB 40==K5 8 > 2;8O=88 =0 3@C4=KE 45B59 <>;>:0 -3@C4=>3> <>;>:0 :>@<OI8E, => 20:F8=8@>20==KE <0B5@59 - B0: 8 A:070=>: ?@>B82>?>:070=8O =58725AB=K... =5 87CG5=K. "0:8< >1@07><, ?@O<KE ?@>B82>?>:070=89 : 8A?>;L7>20=8N - ! =5<=>3>, =>... B>;L:> 4;O B5E, :B> =5 ;N1>?KB5= 8 =5 1C45B 7=0:><8BLAO 2 ?@>A?5:B5 A B5<, GB> B0< =0?8A0=> =0 O7K:5, 2?>;=5 4>ABC?=>< :064><C 3@0640=8=C, 4C<0NI5<C > 74>@>2L5 A2>8E 45B59. 45AL, =0?@8<5@, A>3;0A=> @5:><5=40F8O< , 4;O 8<<C=870F88 =>2>@>64Q==KE ?@54;0305BAO 8A?>;L7>20BL >4=><><5=B=> A 20:F8=>9 G5;>25G5A:89  Ig. 4=0:> =0 ?@0:B8:5, 3>2>@8BAO 2 ?@>A?5:B5, 87-70 2KA>:>9 AB>8<>AB8  Ig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thical, legal, and social aspects of vaccine research and vaccination policies. Psychoanalitic Institute for Social Reseach. Passeggiata di Ripetta - 01860 Roma, Italy, 2001). III. 3. !" -  "/ , !!"  !, -$$"!" & 803=>7 5ABL @0A?>7=020=85 701>;520=8O =0 >A=>25 2A5AB>@>==53> >1A;54>20=8O A 2KO2;5=85< 0=0<=5AB8G5A:8E, M?845<8>;>38G5A:8E, :;8=8G5A:8E 40==KE, 40==KE 8=AB@C<5=B0;L=>3>, ;01>@0B>@=>3> 8 4@C38E 284>2 >1A;54>20=8O... 0:;NG5=85, >A=>20==>5 =0 >4=>< 87 284>2 >1A;54>20=8O, <5B>4>;>38G5A:8 =5?@028;L=>. -B> =587156=> ?@82>48B : :@C?=K< >H81:0< =0CG=>3> 8 ?@0:B8G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0. . $. 8;818= (40. 2, A. 61)"@048F8>==> ACI5AB2CNI89 ?>25@E=>AB=K9 >A<>B@ 45B59 ?5@54 A5@L57=>9 18>;>38G5A:>9 >?5@0F859 - ?@8282:>9 (18) <5B>4>;>38G5A:8 =525@5=, 0 MB>, 5AB5AB25==>, ?@82>48B : :@C?=K< >H81:0< =0CG=>3> 8 ?@0:B8G5A:>3> E0@0:B5@0 2 >1;0AB8 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8:8. @><5 B>3>, ;N1>5 <548F8=A:>5 ?@>B82>?>:070=85 - ?@54?>AK;:0 : >1O70B5;L=><C 4803=>AB8G5A:><C >1A;54>20=8N. >A;54=55 B5< 1>;55 206=> ?@8 >BACBAB288 74>@>2KE 45B59 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 (9-16, 25, 43, 44, 53, 54)..., 8<5NI8E E@>=8G5A:85 701>;520=8O (2, 3, 38, 39)... BC 8;8 8=CN E@>=8G5A:CN ?0B>;>38N (38, 39). 0 ?5@2>< 3>4C 687=8 C 45B59 4>2>;L=> H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5==K<8 701>;520=8O<8 O2;ONBAO 0B>?8G5A:89 45@<0B8B, ?8I520O 0;;5@38O, 0=5<88, =0@CH5=8O >1<5=0 25I5AB2, ?5@8=0B0;L=0O M=F5D0;>?0B8O 8 4@. # 45B59 >B 3>40 4> B@5E ;5B ?5@5G5=L @0AH8@O5BAO 70 AG5B =0@CH5=8O A> AB>@>=K >@30=>2 4KE0=8O, ?0B>;>388 2K45;8B5;L=>9 A8AB5<K,  ->@30=>2, &!.  1>;55 AB0@H8E 2>7@0AB=KE 3@C??0E >B<5G05BAO E@>=870F8O 701>;520=8O ", M=4>:@8==0O ?0B>;>38O, 0CB>8<<C==K5 701>;520=8O 8 B. ?. (39). " - 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=K9 B@0:B. !>3;0A=> A?5F80;L=>9 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>9 ;8B5@03C@5 2AQ 2KH5?5@5G8A;5==>5 - 4>?>;=8B5;L=>5 ?>4B25@645=85 B>3>, GB> 2A5 =0H8 45B8, 2?;>BL 4> AB0@H8E 2>7@0AB=KE 3@C??, 8<5NB 2B>@8G=K5 8<<C=>45D8F8B0 (29, 30-32). >A;54=55 >1AB>OB5;LAB2> O2;O5BAO :0B53>@8G5A:8< ?@>B82>?>:070=85< : ?@8<5=5=8N 682KE 20:F8=! >, :@><5 B>3>, 7=0:><AB2> A =5402=> 2KH54H59 <>=>3@0D859 =5>=0B>;>30, ?@>D5AA>@0 . . (010;>20 C156405B 2 B><, GB> 20:F8=0B>@K =5 >1;040NB A>2@5<5==K< C@>2=5< 7=0=89 > 5I5 1>;55 @0A?@>AB@0=5==KE 45BA:8E 1>;57=OE =58=D5:F8>==>9 MB8>;>388 (441). ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, A0<8 65 20:F8=0B>@K CB25@640NB, GB> A>2@5<5==K5 45B8, :0: ?@028;>, C65 @>640NBAO... ?0F85=B0<8 (2, 3, 38, 34. 52). 070;>AL 1K, 8AE>4O 87 ?@82>48<KE 8<8 A2545=89, 0 B0:65 40==KE 60-E 3>4>2 ?@>H54H53> AB>;5B8O ('), 4>;3 :064>3> 87 =8E -A2>52@5<5==> ?>AB028BL 4803=>7, @0A?>7=0BL 701>;520=85 4> ?@8282:8 (0 MB> - 4803=>AB8:0!). GB>1K @5H8BL 2>?@>A: <>6=> ;8 ?><>30BL B0:><C @51Q=:C, 1C45B ;8 ?@8282:0 A?0A5=85< ?@8 ?>A;54CNI5< :>=B0:B5 A 2>71C48B5;5< 8=D5:F8>==>9 1>;57=8 (1C4B> 1K C?@02;O5<>9 B>;L:> ?@8282:0<8) 8;8 ?@82=5AQB 5I5 1>;LH55 @07@CH5=85 2 74>@>2L5?! !>25@H5==> >G5284=>, GB> 38?5@8<<C==K5 @50:F88, B. 5. A>AB>O=85 ?>AB>O==>9 =0?@O65==>AB8 8<<C=8B5B0 ?>A;5 20:F8=0F89 (2-5, 38, 39, 52), ?@82>4OB : 4>?>;=8B5;L=>9 ?0B>;>388 - ?0B>;>388 =>2>3> B8?0. 064K9 @515=>: 8<55B "'! "  +  + 2 >B=>H5=88 @01>BK ;N1>9 A8AB5<K >@30=87<0. # >4=8E - 3@0=8FK :>;510=89 8<<C==KE @50:F89 25;8:8, C 4@C38E - >G5=L =57=0G8B5;L=K5. > 2A5 MB8 @50:F88 =0E>4OBAO 2 ?@545;0E 8=48284C0;L=>9 =>@<K, 0 2KH5 8;8 =865 - ?0B>;>38O (18, 22, 23, 29-32, 55). <<C==0O A8AB5<0, 2<5AB5 A B5<, =5 459AB2C5B 87>;8@>20==>, 5Q DC=:F88 A>?@O65=K A &!, 3>@<>=0;L=>9, D5@<5=B0B82=>9 8 4@C38<8 A8AB5<0<8 >@30=87<0, :>B>@K5 A;C60B 548=><C DC=:F8>=0;L=><C 4><C - 3><5>AB07C >@30=87<0 :>=:@5B=>3> @51Q=:0 (54-58). 5<0;> =0?8A0=> > 38?5@8<<C=870F88 =0H8E 45B59 :0: > @57C;LB0B5 ?@>4>;68B5;L=KE 20:F8=0F89, 548=>9 AE5<K - :0;5=40@O ?@8282>:, @0AAG8B0==>9, :0: =8 ?0@04>:A0;L=> 72CG8B - =0 2A5E ?>4@O4 (8, A. 78; 18, 55, 59). >;55 B>3>, ?@82>4O ?@8<5@K 87 A>1AB25==KE =01;N45=89, A?5F80;8ABK AG8B0NB: # =5:>B>@KE ?@828BKE, 2<5AB> =52>A?@88<G82>AB8 ?@8 70@065=88, @0728205BAO 8=D5:F8>==>5 701>;520=85, ?@>B5:0NI55 2 1>;55 BO65;>9 D>@<5, G5< C =5?@828BKE - MB> ?@>O2;5=85 B>3> A>AB>O=8O, :>B>@>5 =0<8 >1>7=0G5=> "A8=4@><>< 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>3> 157<>;28O... A8=4@><>< ?0@0;8G0 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K"(60). =K<8 A;>20<8, 45B8 701>;520NB 2 1>;55 BO65;>9 D>@<5 B>9 8=D5:F8>==>9 1>;57=LN, >B :>B>@>9 8E A?0A0;8 20:F8=0F859, => 70I8B0 =5 A>AB>O;0AL. !?5F8D8G5A:89 ?@>B82>8=D5:F8>==K9 8<<C=8B5B =5 2K@01>B0;AO 2 40==>< A;CG05 2 A2O78 A B5<, GB> 8E 8<<C==0O A8AB5<0 157<>;2AB2>20;0, 8<5O :0:85-B> 45D5:BK, :0:CN-B> ?0B>;>38N.  =0AB>OI55 2@5<O CAB0=>2;5=>, GB> <=>385 8<<C=>AB8<C;OB>@K A ?>2KH5==>9 0:B82=>ABLN, A@548 =8E ?5@5G8A;O5BAO & 8 ?@>872>4=K5 48DB5@89=>N B>:A8=0, A?>A>1=K 2K7K20BL BO65;CN 8<<C=>?0B>;>38N @07=>3> E0@0:B5@0 (56, 57). 4=0:>, :0: 8725AB=>, 2 >AA88 ?@>4>;605BAO <0AA>2>5 8E ?@8<5=5=85 2 45BA:>9 ?@0:B8:5 74@02>>E@0=5=8O. 5480B@K-20:F8=0B>@K >1O70=K 7=0BL (!) 4>AB865=8O A<56=KE 48AF8?;8= - =>259H59 8<<C=>;>388, 8<<C=>35=5B8:8, 35=5B8:8, 35<0B>;>388, 45BA:>9 >=:>;>388, =5>?0B>;>388, 45BA:>9 ?A8E80B@88; 8 2@>64Q==KE 8 =0A;54AB25==KE 701>;520=8OE, 8A?>;L7CO 2 A2>59 ?@0:B8:5 402=> 8725AB=K5 B01;8FK ?> <=>3>G8A;5==K< 8<<C=>45D8F8B0< 8 D5@<5=B5?0B8O<. "0:0O =5>1E>48<>ABL 48:BC5BAO, ?@5645 2A53>, 8=48284C0;L=K< 74>@>2L5< :064>3> @>482H53>AO @51Q=:0, >1CA;>2;5=0 =C640<8 A>2@5<5==>3> 74@02>>E@0=5=8O A @07;8GH>9 E@>=8G5A:>9 ?0B>;>3859 45B59 (10-16, 39, 43, 44, 53, 54), 0 B0:65 B5<, GB> 5653>4=> >B:@K205BAO =5A:>;L:> A>B5= 35=5B8G5A:8 >1CA;>2;5==KE 0=><0;89 (61-64). K ?>?KB05<AO ?@825AB8 2 <>=>3@0D88 ?5@5G5=L =081>;55 7=0G8<KE, A =0H59 B>G:8 7@5=8O, ?C1;8:0F89 ?> ?>A320:F8=0;L=K< >A;>6=5=8O<, H8@>:> 8725AB=K< 70 ?>A;54=85 ?>;25:0, A :>=AB0B0F859 D0:B>2 ?@8>1@5B5=8O 45BL<8 "E@>=8G5A:>9 ?0B>;>388 ?>A;5 ?@8282>:". @><5 B>3>, 1C4CB ?@82545=K <0B5@80;K, =0?@8<5@, 0:CH5@>2-38=5:>;>3>2, C2O7K20NI8E 2K:84KH8, 45BA:CN A<5@B=>ABL 4> 3>40, 45BA:CN 03@5AA82=>ABL 8 4@C385 ?@8>1@5B5=8O A ?@>2545=85< =0A8;LAB25==>9 <548F8=A:>9 ?><>I8 - A8AB5<0B8G5A:>3> 8=J5:F8>==>3> 22545=8O GC65@>4=KE 15;:>2.  ?8AL<0E >=:>8<<C=>;>30, ?@>D5AA>@0 . . >@>48;>2>9 3>2>@8BAO > B><, GB> 20:F8=K @0AG8I0NB 4>@>3C >=:>701>;520=8O< 2 45BA:>< 2>7@0AB5... 5:>B>@K5 87 ?8A5<, ?@8A;0==KE 2 =0H 04@5A A?5F80;8AB0<8 @07=KE 48AF8?;8=, C65 >?C1;8:>20=K (8). III.3.1.  "/  && - #$&"+ A5 8<<C=>45D8F8B=K5 A>AB>O=8O 45;OBAO =0 425 1>;LH85 3@C??K:  '+ - 2@>64Q==K5 8 " '+ ?@8>1@5B5==K5 2 @57C;LB0B5 2>7459AB28O <=>3>G8A;5==KE 2@54=KE D0:B>@>2 - ?@>4C:B>2 F828;870F88. ;O B>3> GB>1K =0H8 =>2>@>64Q==K5  B5AB8@>20;8AL =0 =0;8G85 8<<C=>45D8F8B>2 A ?><>ILN A:@8=8=30 ?>A@54AB2>< & - 682>9 0=B810:B5@80;L=>9 20:F8=K (19) - GB> A0<> ?> A515 GC4>28I=>! - =5>1E>48<> 7=0BL 8E 8<<C==K9 AB0BCA 4> 22545=8O 682KE <8:>10:B5@89 BC15@:C;570 8 ;N1>9 4@C3>9 682>9 20:F8=K. !  - <0AA>2>5 >1A;54>20=85 =0A5;5=8O A F5;LN 2KO2;5=8O ;8F A >?@545;Q==K<8 1>;57=O<8, =0?@8<5@, CAB0=>2;5=8O ;8F A A5@45G=>-A>AC48AB>9 ?0B>;>3859, 0 2 =0H5< A;CG05 - 45B59 @>645==KE A 8<<C=>45D8F8B0<8 8;8 $ ""/ (45. 3). @>2>48<K9 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 A:@8=8=3 A ?><>ILN <8:>10:B5@89 2 D>@<5 & 70:0=G8205BAO B@0354859 4;O 45B59, 2>A?@88<G82KE : MB>9 8=D5:F8>==>9 1>;57=8. =8 701>;520NB BC15@:C;57>< 2 @07=>9 AB5?5=8 8 2 @07=>9 D>@<5, 8 2 @07=K5 8=B5@20;K 2@5<5=8 (>B @>645=8O 4> ?C15@B0B=>3> ?5@8>40 - ?>;>2>3> A>7@520=8O 8 ?>765 - 2 N=>H5A:85 3>4K) A ?@>O2;5=8O<8 2 2845 ?>@065=8O =5 B>;L:> ;53:8E, => 8 :8H5G=8:0, <>G5?>;>2>9 A8AB5<K, :>68, :>AB59, ACAB02>2 8 B. 4. @><5 B>3>, ?@>A;565=>: 2 @57C;LB0B5 :@C?=><0AHB01=>3> 8AA;54>20=8O ?@8 8<<C=870F88 45B59 20:F8=>9 &, GB> C :>=B8=35=B0 87 =C640NI8EAO A;>52 =0A5;5=8O, A;54AB285< =54>540=8O O2;ONBAO ?@8>1@5B5==K5 2B>@8G=K5 8<<C=>45D8F8BK, ?>MB><C &-?@8282:0 8E =5 70I8I05B, 0 2K7K205B <=>3>G8A;5==K5 >A;>6=5=8O, 845=B8G=K5 BC15@:C;57C (30). . # " #.) !!"/ //"!/  "  !,. +% & (29-32, 65). >A;5 8<<C=870F88 45B59, 8<5NI8E 8<<C=>45D8F8B=>5 A>AB>O=85 8;8 :0:CN-;81> 8<<C=>;>38G5A:CN =54>AB0B>G=>ABL, @0728205BAO 20:F8==0O 1>;57=L - ?@>3@5AA8@CNI0O 8=D5:F8>==0O 1>;57=L, A>>B25BAB2CNI0O 8A?>;L7>20==>9 682>9 20:F8=5. "0:, C 45B59 A 45D8F8B=>9 2K@01>B:>9 0=B8B5; G0I5, G5< C >AB0;L=KE, 4>?CAB8<, 2>A?@88<G82KE : ?>;8><85;8BC (!), =01;N40NBAO ?0@0;8G8 ?>A;5 ?@8282:8 682>9 ?>;8>20:F8=>9 !M918=0. -B8 =01;N45=8O A 01A>;NB=>9 >G5284=>ABLN 4>:07K20NB B>, GB> 8=48284K A ?>4>7@5=85< 8;8 4>:070==K< 45D5:B>< A?5F8D8G5A:>3> 8<<C=8B5B0 =5 4>;6=K 8<<C=878@>20BLAO 682K<8 20:F8=0<8... >>1I5 @07C<=> ?@54>AB5@530BL ;8F A 45D5:B0<8 8<<C=8B5B0 >B 8<<C=870F88 (30, A. 227-228). ;O >F5=:8 DC=:F8>=0;L=>9 0:B82=>AB8 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K =5 ACI5AB2C5B >1I5?@8=OB>3> AB0=40@B0, ?>4>1=> B><C, :>B>@K9 8A?>;L7C5BAO ?@8 E0@0:B5@8AB8:5 A2Q@BK205<>AB8 :@>28 8;8 >1I59 :0@B8=K :@>28.  7028A8<>AB8 >B 2>7<>6=>AB59 8 >1AB>OB5;LAB2 >F5=:0 >1I53> 8<<C==>3> AB0BCA0 G0I5 2A53> 1078@C5BAO =0 >?@545;5==KE ?>:070B5;OE, =0?@8<5@, B5E, GB> ?@82>4OBAO =865: 1. >;=K9 0=0;87 :@>28 8 ?>4AG5B B@><1>F8B>2 ?>72>;O5B 2KO28BL 0=5<8N 35<>;8B8G5A:>3> 8;8 38B>?;0AB8G5A:>3> B8?0, =59B@>?5=8N B@><1>F8B>?5=8N, 0 B0:65 01A>;NB=CN ;8<D>?5=8N. 2. ?@545;5=85 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=>2 >A=>2=KE ?OB8 :;0AA>2. !:065<, ?>=865=85 A>45@60=8O 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=0 G 2K7K205B ?>4>7@5=85 =0 8<<C=>45D8F8B. 3. @8 =5:>B>@KE 3C<>@0;L=KE D>@<0E 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>9 =54>AB0B>G=>AB8 >G5=L 206=K< O2;O5BAO >?@545;5=85 DC=:F8>=0;L=>9 A?>A>1=>AB8 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K : 2K@01>B:5 A?5F8D8G5A:8E 0=B8B5;. ;O MB>3> <>6=> >?@545;8BL 0y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in vitro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http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/tab_iii_1.html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gA, IgE Ig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gA=B8B5;0 :;0AA0 IgAIgA-?;07<0B8G5A:85 :;5B:8, () 0 ;8<D>F8BK, () "-0@CH5=85 :>=5G=>9 AB0488 48DD5@5=F8@>2:8 -;8<D>F8B>2 "A (?), "E (?), 8AB8==K9 45D5:B -:;53>: (?)58725AB5=, 0CB>A><=>-@5F5AA=2=K9, 0CB>A><=>-4><8=0==K9; G0AB> 2 A5<LOE 1>;L=KE A 20@8015;L=>9 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>9 =54>AB0B>G=>ABLN =>340 45;5F8O 18-9 E@><>A><K, 0=B8B5;0 : IgA9. 7>;8@>20==0O =54>AB0B>G=>ABL 4@C38E :;0AA>2 8;8 ?>4:;0AA>2 IgC<>@0;L=K9 8<<C=8B5B?;07<0B8G5A:85 :;5B:8, () "58725AB5=58725AB5= "A (?) 58725AB5=5 >B<5G0NBAO10. 54>AB0B>G=>ABL A5:@5B>@=>3> :><?>=5=B0!5:@5B>@=K9 IgAIgA-?;07<0B8G5A:85 :;5B:8;5B:8 A;878AB>9 M?8B5;8O >1>;>G:858725AB5=58725AB5=5 >B<5G0NBAO11. 54>AB0B>G=>ABL Ig A ?>2KH5=85< C@>2=O IgC<>@0;L=K9 8<<C=8B5BIgG- 8 IgA-?;07<0B8G5A:85 :;5B:8, Ig- ?;07<0B8G5A:85 :;5B:8, -;8<D>F8BK;>: :>=5G=>9 AB0488 48DD5@5=F8@>2:8 C-8 0-;8<D>F8B>258725AB5=!F5?;5==K9 %-E@><>A><>9 8;8 0CB>A><<>-@5F5AA82=K9, 8;8 =58725AB5= 5 >B<5G0NBAO12 54>AB0B>G=>ABL Ig A 2K@01>B:>9 Ig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g =54>AB0B>G=>ABLC<>@0;L=K9 8<<C=8B5B, :;5B>G=K9 8<<C=8B5B ()-@54- 8;8  2 @O45 A;CG0521 )=CB@5==89 45D5:B -:;5B>:; 2) !=865==0O ?@>4C:F8O  -:;5B>:; 3)"A(?); 4) "E (?) 5) CB>0=B8B5;0 : - :;5B:0< 58725AB5= 8;8 A5<59=K95 >B<5G0NBAO) @58<CI5AB25==> =54>AB0B>G=>ABL "-:;5B>:;5B>G=K9 8<<C=8B5B C<>@0;L=K9 8<<C=8B5B"- 0==85 "- 8;8 "E1) 58725AB5= 2) CB>0=B8B5;0 : "-:;5B:0<58725AB5= 8;8 A5<59=K95 >B<5G0NBAO@8<5G0=85: ?>2KH5=85 C@>2=O +; A=865=85 C@>2=O -; "E - "-E5;?5@K; "A - "-AC?@5AA>@K III.3.3. " '+ -   "+ #$&"+ B>@8G=K5 - ?@8>1@5BQ==K5 8<<C=>45D8F8BK - @57C;LB0B 2>7459AB28O @07;8G=KE =51;03>?@8OB=KE D0:B>@>2, 8AE>4OI8E 872=5, =0 :;5B:8 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K, =0 >@30=87< @51Q=:0. 0: @0AA<0B@820BL 2 MB>< :>=B5:AB5 - &+ O2;ONBAO =51;03>?@8OB=K< D0:B>@>< 2>7459AB28O? >ABC?0NB 872=5, 70AB02;ONB @01>B0BL 8<<C==CN A8AB5<C A25@E =>@<K?!  >B;8G85 >B A8=4@><>2 2@>64Q==KE 8<<C=>45D8F8B>2 (!>2), A8=4@><K ?@8>1@5BQ==KE 8<<C=>45D8F8B>2 (!K) =5 A2O70=K A 35=5B8G5A:8< ?>@065=85< :;5B>: 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K, >:0 B0: ?@8=OB> AG8B0BL (22, 23, 29-32, 55-57). !@548 =081>;55 87CG5==KE 2@54>=>A=KE D0:B>@>2 >B<5G0NB 2;8O=85 >1;CG5=8O, ;5:0@AB25==KE A@54AB2 (20:F8=K - ;5:0@AB25==K5 A@54AB20!), =54>540=8O, 8=D5:F89 - ?5@28G=KE (682K5 20:F8=K -8=D5:F8O!) 8;8 A2O70==KE A =0@CH5=85< ?8B0=8O, ?>A;5>?5@0F8>==KE A>AB>O=89 8 @07=>>1@07=KE 284>2 =>2>>1@07>20=89 (30, A. 221). =0BL =0;8G85 2B>@8G=KE 8<<C=>45D8F8B>2 206=>, 2>-?5@2KE, ?>B><C, GB> >=8 =081>;55 @0A?@>AB@0=5=K. >-2B>@KE, >=8 2K7K20NBAO ?@8G8=0<8, 2>7459AB28O :>B>@KE <>6=> 871560BL. #65 2 70-5 3>4K XX AB>;5B8O 2B>@8G=K5 8<<C=>45D8F8BK ?>4@0745;O;8 =0 3@C??K, A2O70==K5 A =0;8G85< (23-32): 0) ?@>B>7>9=KE 8 35;L<8=B=KE 8=20789; 1) 28@CA=KE 8=D5:F89 (:>@=, :@0A=CE8, 25B@O=>9 >A?K, 3@8??0, 35?0B8B0, F8B><530;>2=@CA0, 35@?5A0 8 4@.); 2) 10:B5@80;L=KE 8=D5:F89 (BC15@:C;Q70, ;5?@K, A8D8;8A0 8 ?@.); 3) =0@CH5=8O ?8B0=8O, =0@CH5=8O 2A0AK20=8O, ?>B5@8 15;:>2 G5@57 :8H5G=8:, ?>G:8 8 B. 4.; 4) ?0B>;>38G5A:8E A>AB>O=89 - B0:8E, :0: ?>G5G=0O =54>AB0B>G=>ABL, C@5<8O, A0E0@=K9 48015B, E@>=8G5A:85 701>;520=8O ?5G5=8, =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K, >6>3>20O 1>;57=L 8 <=>385-<=>385 4@C385 E@>=8G5A:85 701>;520=8O @07;8G=>9 MB8>;>388, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?5@5G8A;5==K5 2 @5:><5=40F8OE ;N18B5;59 20:F8=8@>20BL 2 @07=K5 CG0AB:8 B5;0 8 157 B>3> C65 A5@LQ7=> 1>;L=KE 45B59 (2-5, 38, 39, 52). 8F0, E@>=8G5A:8 8=D8F8@>20==K5 10:B5@80;L=K<8 8;8 28@CA=K<8 035=B0<8, 8<5NB 8<<C=>;>38G5A:CN =54>AB0B>G=>ABL, ?@82>4OICN : B><C, GB> >=8 CB@0G820NB A?>A>1=>ABL MDD5:B82=>9 70I8BK =5 B>;L:> ?@>B82 3><>;>38G=>3> (?@>B82 B>3>, G5< C65 8=D8F8@>20=K), => 8 35B5@>;>38G=>3> ?0@078B0. E 8<<C==0O A8AB5<0 =5 <>65B >15A?5G8BL 045:20B=CN @50:F8N 8 =0 ?><>IL 872=5 - >A>15==> =0 682K5 20:F8=K. # 1>;L=KE BC15@:C;Q7>< >B<5G05BAO, =0?@8<5@, A=865=85 G8A;0 "-;8<D>F8B>2 2 :@>28 8 2 ;=<D>84=L3E >@30=0E, C3=5B05BAO <83@0F8O <0:@>D03>2 8 ;59:>F8B>2 2 :@>28 8 B. 4. A;8 8AE>48BL 87 B>B0;L=>AB8 &-?@8282>: (4), >ACI5AB2;O5<KE 2 @>44><0E, B> A;54C5B ?@87=0BL 8A:CAAB25==CN >1A5<5=Q==>ABL >A;01;5==K<8, => 682K<8 (!) <8:>10:B5@8O<8 BC15@:C;Q70 2A5E ?>4@O4 =>2>@>64Q==KE. @>F5AA >E20B0 ?@>8AE>48B ?@8 01A>;NB=>< =57=0=88 DC=:F8>=0;L=>3> A>AB>O=8O 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K. A;8 CG5ABL, GB> <0;0O 1>;57=L BC15@:C;Q70 >B & ?@>B5:05B ?> B>9 65 AE5<5, GB> 8 >1KG=0O BC15@:C;Q7=0O 8=D5:F8O, B> =5;L7O 8A:;NG8BL 2A5 <=>3>G8A;5==K5 ?@>F5AAK 8<<C=>45?@5AA88 8 2 40==>< A;CG05. @8 MB>< =>A8B5;LAB2> B0: =07K205<KE >A;01;5==KE <8:>10:B5@89 2 D>@<5 E@>=8G5A:>9 BC15@:C;Q7=>9 8=D5:F88 ?@>8AE>48B =5 ?> ?@8:07C 8=74@020 (!), 0 C :064>3> ?>-A2>5<C, AB@>3> 8=48284C0;L=> A E0@0:B5@8AB8:0<8, ?@8ACI8<8 >@30=87<C 5B@>20, => =5 20=>20. >340, :B> 87 =8E 8 2 :0:>9 D>@<5 701>;55B BC15@:C;57>< (GB> >1O70B5;L=> ?@>87>94QB A@548 2>A?@88<G82KE 8 8<<C=>45D8F8B=KE <0;KH59!)- =8:B> =5 <>65B ?@54A:070BL. > 2AO:>< A;CG05, =0;8G85->BACBAB285 45D5:B=>3> A>AB>O=8O, A;01>9 @01>BK 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K C =>2>@>64Q==KE =8  =8 ! &-?@8282:8 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 =5 :>=B@>;8@>20;>AL =8 @0=LH5 =8 B5?5@L, GB> 2K7K20;> 2>7@065=8O A> AB>@>=K A?5F80;8AB>2-DB8780B@>2 (74), AB0282H8E 2>?@>A > ?@5:@0I5=88 20:F8=0F88 ?@>B82 BC15@:C;Q70 2 @>44><0E. @8 28@CA=KE 8=D5:F8OE, =0?@8<5@, :0@48>B@>?=KE M=B5@>28@CA0E, 8<<C==0O A8AB5<0 B0:65 ?>2@56405BAO - 45D8F8B=0 2 1>;LH59 8;8 <5=LH59 AB5?5=8, GB> 8 2 40==>< A;CG05 7028A8B >B 8=48284C0;L=>3> DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O, 0:B82=>AB8 8<<C=>-:><?5B5=B=KE :;5B>: :064>3> @>482H53>AO G5;>25:0. 0;8G85 M=B5@>28@CA>2 C =>2>@>64Q==KE ?@8=>A8B =5<0;> B@035489 (75, 76). 0?@8<5@, >=8 <>3CB 2K7K20BL 38?>30<<03;>1C;8=5<8N, GB> ?@82>48B : 45D8F8BC 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=>2  8 G (23, 29-32, 75, 76). =>385 E@>=8G5A:85 701>;520=8O, 1C4CG8 ?5@28G=K<8, A?>A>1AB2CNB ?>2B>@ONI8<AO 8=D5:F8O< 4KE0B5;L=KE ?CB59. 0;8G85 C @51Q=:0 2 !"   ,/ A5<L8 8<<C=>45D8F8B>2, 0;;5@388 8;8 0CB>8<<C==KE 701>;520=89 C:07K205B =0 35=5B8G5A:CN >A=>2C @0AAB@>9AB20 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K (30, A. 224).  :0:>9 8AB>@88 74>@>2LO A5<L8 - 2 >B=>H5=88 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K - <>6=> 3>2>@8BL, :>340 <=>385 =0H8 45B8 =5 8<5NB MB>9 8AB>@88, =0E>4OAL 2 8=B5@=0B0E, =545;L=KE OA;OE, 4/A040E-?OB84=52:0E, 0 2 H:>;5 - =0 ?@>4;Q=:5?! >3> 8=B5@5AC5B 8E 8<<C==0O A8AB5<0, =5@2=0O 8;8 :0:0O-;81> 4@C30O A8AB5<0?! B> 8=B5@5AC5BAO A>AB>O=85< 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K <0B5@8 8 1C4CI53> @51Q=:0 2 >B5G5AB25==KE @>44><0E?! >=5G=> 65, 206=> 8 @07C<=> ?@54>AB5@530BL 45B59 A 45D5:B0<8 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K >B 8<<C=870F88, 871530O ?@8<5=5=8O >A;01;5==KE <8:@>>@30=87<>2 - &, ?>;8><85;8B0 8 4@. (30, A. 228). > 87=0G0;L=>, GB>1K 871560BL ?@8<5=5=8O >A;01;5==KE <8:@>>@30=87<>2, =5>1E>48<> @0A?>;030BL 8=D>@<0F859 > 45D5:B0E 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K, > A8=4@><0E 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>9 =54>AB0B>G=>AB8, > 725=LOE, >?@545;ONI8E 45D8F8B. -B> :0: @07 B0 A0<0O <0;>ABL, :>B>@>9 ?@5=51@530NB >B5G5AB25==K5 20:F8=0B>@K @07=KE @0=3>2 (2-5, 38, 37, 52). '' !""'!" 2A5340 (!) A>?CBAB2CNB 2B>@8G=K5 8<<C=>45D8F8B0, => B0:8E 1>;L=KE B5?5@L @5:><5=4CNB ?@82820BL 157 ?@5420@8B5;L=>3> A>AB02;5=8O # +.. ?@>BO65=88 <=>38E 45AOB8;5B89 E@>=8G5A:85 1>;57=8 ?>G5:, A5@4F0, =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K A;C68;8  "/ : 20:F8=0F88. 04> A:070BL, GB> 2 >B;8G85 >B =0A, 2 !(, =0?@8<5@, 2>-?5@2KE, >BACBAB2C5B &-20:F8=0F8O 45B59, B5< 1>;55, =>2>@>64Q==KE. >-2B>@KE, ?5@2K5 425 ?@8282:8 ?@>B82 ?>;8><85;8B0 >ACI5AB2;ONBAO 8=0:B828@>20==>9 20:F8=>9 !>;:0. -B@5BL8E, A45;0=> ?@54C?@5645=85 2 :0;5=40@5 ?@8282>: > B><, GB> # " + " + #'", ", " #. &# (65). # =0A 65 2K?>;=ONBAO :0:85-B> 1@54>2K5 @5:><5=40F88 0<5@8:0=A:8E 0:045<89... ?5480B@88... <548F8=A:8E 0<5@8:0=A:8E 0AA>F80F89 ?> 20:F8=0F88 45B59 8 ?@., C15640NI8E =0H8E 20:F8=0B>@>2 ?@82820BL 45B59 A E@>=8G5A:8<8 701>;520=8O<8 (, $. !5<Q=>2. @548A;>285 : <>=>3@0D88 %@>=8G5A:0O ?0B>;>38O - ?>:070=8O : 20:F8=0F88 (38). <5AB5 A B5<, >B5G5AB25==K5 8<<C=>;>38 >1@0I0NB 2=8<0=85 =0 B>, GB> ?@0:B8G5A:8 2A5 E@>=8G5A:85 1>;57=8 2 B>9 8;8 8=>9 <5@5 ?@82>4OB : A=865=8N 3C<>@0;L=>3> 8 :;5B>G=>3> 8<<C=8B5B0. 5G5=85 2B>@8G=KE 8<<C=>45D8F8B>2 >A=>2K205BAO =0 ;8:2840F88 ?5@2>?@8G8=K 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>9 =54>AB0B>G=>AB8 (236, A. 220). 0 D>=5 2B>@8G=KE 8<<C=>45D8F=B>2 20:F8=0 ?@>2>F8@C5B ;81> >1>AB@5=85 E@>=8G5A:>9 ?0B>;>388 - 48015B0, 1>;57=59 ?>G5:, ;8<D>3@0=C;5<0B>70 8 <=>65AB2> 4@C38E A>2@5<5==KE E@>=8G5A:8E 701>;520=89, ;81> ?@82=>A8B BC 8=D5:F8>==CN 1>;57=L, ?@>B82 :>B>@>9 A45;0=0 ?@8282:0 682>9 20:F8=>9 - BC15@:C;Q7, ?>;8><85;8B, ?0@>B8B, :>@L, :@0A=CEC 8 ?@. @8 A0E0@=>< 48015B5, : ?@8<5@C, 87=0G0;L=> =01;N405BAO 48ADC=:F8O =59B@>D8;>2, A2O70==0O A 38?5@5@3;8:5<859, A?@>2>F8@>20==0O ?@8282:>9. 5@0F8>=0;L=>5, =5A10;0=A8@>20==>5 ?8B0=85 45B59 2>7459AB2C5B =51;03>?@8OB=> =0 DC=:F88 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K, B0:65 CA8;820O 8 >1>AB@OO ?@>F5AAK E@>=8G5A:8E 8=D5:F89, ?@82>4O, :@><5 B>3>, : 3>@<>=0;L=K< =0@CH5=8O<, 8A:0605B ?@>F5AAK 2A0AK20=8O 8 DC=:F88 5AB5AB25==>9 <8:@>D;>@K, ?@82>4O : ?0B>;>38G5A:>9 ?@>;8D5@0F88 :;5B>: 8 C<5=LH5=8N A:>@>AB8 A8=B570 15;:0. AQ 2 F5;>< ?@82>48B : =0@CH5=8N 2>A?@88<G82>AB8 : ?0B>35==K< 035=B0< 28@CA=>9 8 10:B5@80;L=>9 M338>;>388, 2 B>< G8A;5 - : =5045:20B=>9, 8A:06Q==>9 @50:F88 =0 682K5 20:F8=K. >B 5I5 8=B5@5A=0O 8=D>@<0F8O > B><, GB> =0 A0<>< 45;5 B@51C5B <5@8:0=A:0O 0:045<8O ?5480B@88 8 8E 8<<C=>;>38 ?@8 0BB5AB0F88 A2>8E <54A5AB5@ H8@>:>3> ?@>D8;O - =0 2>?@>A @>48B5;59 > ?@8282:5. !8BC0F8O B0:>20: 2 ?5@2>< A;CG05 C @51Q=:0 ;8<D>1;0AB>84=0O 0=5<8O; 2> 2B>@>< A;CG05 - @51Q=>: ?>A;5 >?5@0F88 (?5@5;>< @C:8). '"+  "", => <54A5AB@0 4>;6=0 2K1@0BL ?@8 A40G5 M:70<5=0 >48= - ?@028;L=K9: 0) <K <>65< A45;0BL ?@8282:C ?> 20H5<C 65;0=8N ?5@54 B5<, :0: >=0 (>=) ?>:8=5B =0H 3>A?8B0;L, B. 5. 2 3>A?8B0;5; 1) ?>4>648B5 =545;N 8;8 ?5@54 B5<, :0: @515=>: ?>945B 2 H:>;C; 2) :>340 :>;8G5AB2> 5Q (53>) 15;KE :;5B>: (;8<D>F8B>2) 25@=5BAO : =>@<0;L=><C C@>2=N; 3) 87-70 5Q (53>) 4803=>70 @515=>: =8:>340 =5 A<>65B 1KBL 20:F8=8@>20==K<.  ,+ "": (4065 5A;8 20:F8=0  6820O!): - (2) -:>340 :>;8G5AB2> ;8<D>F8B>2 25@=QBAO   ,# # .!  =>@<0;L=K9 C@>25=L C MB8E 45B59 >?@545;Q= 5IQ ?@8 @>645=88, :>340 =0 =53> 1K;0 A>AB02;5=0 8<<C=>3@0<<0 87 :@>28, ?>;CG5==>9 87 ?C?>G=>3> :0=0B8:0 (29-32), B5. A45;0=> B0:, :0: @5:><5=4CNB >B5G5AB25==K5 A?5F80;8ABK 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 1>;55 G5B25@B8 25:0 (22, 23, 55, 68-71, 73. 74). 0 ?@0:B8:5 65 2AQ ?@>8AE>48B A B>G=>ABLN 4> =0>1>@>B: 7=0=8O ?> 8<<C=>;>388 7=0G8B5;L=> @0AH8@ONBAO, <5B>48:8 A>25@H5=AB2CNBAO, 0 >B5G5AB25==0O 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8:0 ?@>4>;605B 2C;L30@878@>20BLAO 8 C?@>I0BLAO (18), @57:> 453@048@CO 2 ?>A;54=55 45AOB8;5B85 - =0<8=0O A 90-E 3>4>2 (2-5, 38, 39, 52) --.&/ !  <8=CA (54). 0;5=L:85 ?@8<5@K: 1) >A:20, .6=K9 >:@C3. 51Q=:0 ?@825;8 =0 ?5@52O7:C A> A;><0==>9 @C:>9. >:B>@ @04>AB=> A>>1I05B, 2>72@0I0O <0;LG8:0 <0<5: 5@52O7>G:C A45;0;8, 70>4=> 8 ?@8282>G:C ?@>B82 48DB5@88. @8 MB>< ?@>B82 48DB5@88 22545=0... !! 2) >A:20, 5@2><09A:89 @09>=. @8282:8 ?@>2>48;8 A>B@C4=8:8 9-9 3>@1>;L=8FK. 5@2K< ?OB8 CG0I8<AO >4=>9 87 38<=0789, 20:F8=8@>20==K< 35==>-8=65=5@=>9 20:F8=>9 ?@>B82 35?0B8B0 , ?@87 - DCB1>;:8 >B D8@<K, @0A?@>AB@0=ONI59 MB>B ?@5?0@0B 2 =0H59 AB@0=5. >B B0: 8 682Q<... 5B>4K 8AA;54>20=8O >1I53> 8<<C==>3> AB0BCA0 G5;>25:0 <>6=> 1K;> 2=54@OBL 2 @01>BC 1>;55 8;8 <5=55 E>@>H> >A=0I5==KE :;8=8:>-4803=>AB8G5A:8E ;01>@0B>@89. 5>1O70B5;L=> 640BL, ?>:0 1C4CB >@30=87>20=K A?5F80;878@>20==K5 8<<C=>;>38G5A:85 ;01>@0B>@88. @81;878B5;L=> B0: ?8HCB >B5G5AB25==K5 8<<C=>;>38, 70I8B82H85 A2>8 48AA5@B0F88, =0?8A02H85 <5B>48G5A:85 @5:><5=40F88, =>... =8G53>, =0 A0<>< 45;5, :0: ?@028;>, :0: A8AB5<0 - =5 2=54@82H85 2 ?@0:B8:C 74@02>>E@0=5=8O, GB>1K :@5?:> C45@6820BL ?>AB02;5==K5 ?5@54 A>1>9 F5;8, - F8B8@C5B >48= 87 =8E D;03<0=0 >B5G5AB25==>9 8<<C=>;>388 . . 5B@>20 (70, 71). 07C<55BAO, 8450;L=> 8<5BL ?0A?>@B 74>@>2LO A @>4>A;>2=>9 A5<L8, 0 B0:65 >F5=:>9 >1I53> 8<<C==>3> AB0BCA0 ?@8 @>645=88. 0B5<, ?> <5@5 =5>1E>48<>AB8 >BA;56820BL A>AB>O=85 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K 2 ?@>F5AA5 687=8 @51Q=:0, ?>4@>AB:0, 1C4CI8E @>48B5;59 8 B. 4. > 2 ;N1>< A;CG05, C @51Q=:0 A E@>=8G5A:>9 ?0B>;>3859     =5>1E>48<> 7=0BL, :0: DC=:F8>=8@C5B 8<<C==0O A8AB5<0. % '"  '", , "'  # , #"" 8 &", "!", '   %. !"!"+   !" #&    #% &!% !&% +", '" ! !",  !%+  !#.   # " "'!%  '!% !!,  +%  (  "+%  , ." ', ,(#. -'!#. ,#...   ! '! "+ /."!/ +  ", &, !, -"% " ! +" !+ %+ )"+  " $&+% , - 1K;> 8725AB=> B@8 45AOB8;5B8O B><C =0704 (29. 3, A. 7, 68). > 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 20:F8=0B>@K ?@>4>;60NB @0A?@>AB@0=OBL A;CE8 > B><, GB> 3@0<>B=> ?@>254Q==K5 ?@8282:8 - 4>@>3>. 0@O4C A @0A?@>AB@0=O5<>9 ;>6LN 4;O =0A5;5=8O, 4;O A>1AB25==>3> 74>@>2LO >=8 ?@83;0H0NB... 2 8=74@02 4803=>AB8G5A:CN A;C61C, GB>1K C4>AB>25@8BLAO - =C6=0 ;8 ?@8282:0 ( >AA89A:0O 3075B0, 29. 01. 93). @0640=5 2?@025 @C:>2>4AB2>20BLAO A>1AB25==K< 2K1>@>< 74>@>2>3> >1@070 687=8 - 157 8A:CAAB25==>3> 2<5H0B5;LAB20 2 8E 8=48284C0;L=>ABL, 2<5H0B5;LAB20, ?@>2>48<>3> 2A;5?CN, 0:>=5F, ?>G5<C 20:F8=K =02O7K20NBAO, :0: ?@028;>, 15A?;0B=>, 0 4803=>AB8G5A:>5 >1A;54>20=85  - B. 5. >?@545;5=85 >1I53> 8<<C==>3> AB0BCA0 8 ! ?>4B25@645=85 A?5F8D8G5A:>9 ?@>B82>8=D5:F8>==>9, ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>9 70I=BK- 4>@>3>?! F5=:0 ) # !""#! <>65B 1KBL >D>@<;5=0 2 2845 # +, ?@54AB02;5==>9 2 <=>3>G8A;5==KE >B5G5AB25==KE <5B>48G5A:8E @C:>2>4AB20E (68-71), >?C1;8:>20==>9 =0<8 2 8$- , (1997, !45) 8 745AL - =0 A;54CNI59 AB@0=8F5. III.3.4.  "  ' # !""#! ' >:070=8O : =07=0G5=8N 8AA;54>20=8O 8<<C==>3> AB0BCA0 G5;>25:0  =0H59 AB@0=5 @07@01>B0=> 25;8:>5 <=>65AB2> @5:><5=40F89, ?>A2OI5==KE =5>1E>48<>AB8 87CG5=8O 8<<C==>3> AB0BCA0 G5;>25:0, =>, : A>60;5=8N, 2A5 >=8 4> A53>4=OH=53> 4=O >AB0NBAO B>;L:> =0 1C<035.  ?@0:B8:C =8G53> =5 2=54@O5BAO.  2A5 <K :0: 68;8 157 7=0=89 A2>8E 35=>2 8 8<<C==>3> AB0BCA0, B0:, 2848<>, 8 1C45< 68BL 5I5 >G5=L 4>;3>5 2@5<O. %>BO 2@0G0< A>25@H5==> OA=>: B0: 1>;LH5 =5;L7O. 548:>-35=5B8G5A:85 8 8<<C=>;>38G5A:85 A;C61K, >?@545;ONI85 74>@>2L5-=574>@>2L5 =0F88, =5 <>3CB =5 1KBL ?>B><C, GB> 157 =8E =8< =5 2K68BL. !53>4=O <K ?@54;0305< 0A?>@B-0=:5BC 8<<C==>3> AB0BCA0 G5;>25:0. ;O B5E, :B> E>G5B 7=0BL. @>645==K5 =0@CH5=8O 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K. CB>8<<C==K5 701>;520=8O (@52<0B87< @52<0B>84=K9 0@B@8B, :0@48><8>?0B8O, A8cB5<=0O :@0A=0O 2>;G0=:0, <80AB5=8O 3@028A, B8@5>848B %0A8<>B>, ?5@28G=0O <8:A545<0, B5@5>B>:A8:>7, A0E0@=K9 48015B 8 4@.). >6=>-25=5@8G5A:85 701>;520=8O (A8D8;8A, 3>=>@5O, M:75<0, 45@<0B8BK, 3@81>284=K9 <8:>7, ?C7K@G0B:0 8 4@. ). ;;5@38G5A:85 701>;520=8O (1@>=E80;L=0O 0AB<0, :@0?82=8F0, ?>;;8=>7K, ;5:0@AB25==0O 1>;57=L 0;;5@38G5A:89 @8=8B 8 4@. ). AB@K5 8 E@>=8G5A:85 10:B5@80;L=K5, 28@CA=K5, ?0@078B0@=K5 8=D5:F88. >4>7@5=85 =0 !, '-8=D5:F8N. 8=5:>;>38G5A:85 701>;520=8O. 52@>;>38G5A:85 701>;520=8O (?>4>AB@K9 A:;5@>7=K9 ;0=M=F5D0;8B, 0<8>B@>D8G5A:89 1>:>2>9 @0AA5O==K9 A:;5@>7, >AB5>E>=4@>7 G5@5?=>-<>73>20O B@02<0 8 4@.). A8E8G5A:85 701>;520=8O (H87>D@5=8O, =0@:><0=8O, 0;:>3>;87< 8 4@.) 01>;520=8O A5@45G=>-A>AC48AB>9 A8AB5<K (8=D0@:B <8>:0@40, E@>=8G5A:0O 8H5<8G5A:0O 1>;57=L A5@4F0 38?5@B>=8G5A:0O 1>;57=L, 20@8:>7=>5 @0AH8@5=85 25=, B@><1>D;518BK 8 4@. ). 5A?5F8D8G5A:85 701>;520=8O 25@E=8E 4KE0B5;L=KE ?CB59 (1@>=E8BK, ?=52<>=88 B@0E58BK 8 4@.). 01>;520=8O 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=>3> B@0:B0 (O720 65;C4:0 8 425=04F0B8?5@AB=>9 :8H:8, E@>=8G5A:89 30AB@8B 35?0B8B 8 4@. ). ;>:0G5AB25==K5 =>2>>1@07>20=8O (;8<D>3@0=C;5<0B>7, ;59:>7K, ;8<D>A0@:><0 8 4@. ). $878>;>38G5A:0O 8, 2 >A>15==>AB8, ?0B>;>38G5A:0O 15@5<5==>ABL, A>?@>2>640NI0OAO B>:A8:>7><, @57CA-:>=D;8:B><, ?>2B>@=K<8 2K:84KH0<8. =5<0B>G=0O 15@5<5==>ABL. 1A;54>20=85 @5F8?85=B>2 4> 8 ?>A;5 B@0=A?;0=B0F88. 1A;54>20=85 4>=>@>2. >=B@>;L ;5G5=8O ?@8 8A?>;L7>20=88 8<<C=>AB8<C;OB>@>2, 8<<C=>AC?@5AA>@>2, F8B>AB0B8G5A:8E A@54AB2. >43>B>2:0 : ?;0=>2K< E8@C@38G5A:8< >?5@0F8O< (A=865=85 8<<C=>;>38G5A:8E ?>:070B5;59 O2;O5BAO ?@O<K< ?@>B82>?>:070=85< E8@C@38G5A:>3> 2<5H0B5;LAB20 4> ?@>2545=8O :>@@5:F88). >A;5>?5@0F8>==K9 :>=B@>;L. A5 2>A?0;8B5;L=K5 701>;520=8O. @8 ?@54@0A?>;>65==>AB8 : 0;;5@38G5A:8< @50:F8O<. 0CG=>-?@0:B8G5A:85 8AA;54>20=8O (?@8 :;8=8G5A:>9 0?@>10F88 =>2KE ;5:0@AB25==KE 8 =5<548:0<5=B>7=KE A@54AB2, =>2KE <5B>4>2 ;5G5=8O 8 4@. ).  @07=KE 8<<C=>;>38G5A:8E ;01>@0B>@8OE 2>7<>6=>AB8 =5>48=0:>2K5. >:070B5;8 <>3CB 1KBL @0AH8@5=K 8;8 >?@545;5=K =5 ?>;=>ABLN. 06=> 4@C3>5. "0:85 ;01>@0B>@88 ?>O28;8AL 2 >A:25, !. 5B5@1C@35, >2>A818@A:5 8 =5:>B>@KE 4@C38E :@C?=KE 3>@>40E >AA88. #G0AB:>2K5 B5@0?52BK 8 ?5480B@K >1O70=K 7=0BL 8E 04@5A0 8 B5;5D>=K. !?5F8D8G5A:89 8<<C==K9 AB0BCA ?@>B82 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 4>;6=0 >?@545;OBL ;N10O ?>;8:;8=8:0 =0H59 AB@0=K. 0;8=0 ' !/, 28@CA>;>3, G;5= >AA89A:>3> =0F8>=0;L=>3> :><8B5B0 ?> 18>MB8:8  III.3.5. % " !" ## - "" @0:B8G5A:85 2@0G8 871530NB G8B0BL 8<<C=>;>38G5A:85 @01>BK, A ?5@2KE 65 A;>2 2AB@5G0O 2 =8E ;028=C D>@<C;8@>2>:, 40;5:8E >B <548F8=A:>3> >18E>40. !CI5AB2C5B 3@CAB=0O HCB:0, GB> 2 8<<C=>;>388 >48= A?5F80;8AB =5 ?>=8<05B 4@C3>N... ?>MB><C C ?>?C;O@=>3> >1I54>ABC?=>3> 87;>65=8O 5ABL A2>8 A25@E7040G8 (550, A. 16-17) ##+ B>65 87 >1;0AB8 =5 A>2A5< ?>=OB=>9.  A2O78 A MB8< <K =5 1C45< @0AA:07K20BL >1 M?8B>?0E, > <>=><5@0E 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=>2, >1J548=Q==KE 2 548=CN ?5=B0<5@=CN <>;5:C;C... A;8 =5 ?>=8<05B 8 8715305B 2@0G, :0: 65 B@C4=> 1K205B @>48B5;O< @07>1@0BLAO 2 A?5F80;L=>9 <548:>-8<<C=>;>38G5A:>9 B5@<8=>;>388! <5AB5 A B5<, ?>=OB85 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=K =5 B0:>5 C6 A;>6=>5, =C6=> B>;L:> 7=0BL, GB> MB> - B5 65 A0<K5 0=B8B5;0, :>B>@K5 C =0A =0 A;CEC,  ?5@52>45 =0 @CAA:89 O7K: 0=B8B5;> >7=0G05B ?@>B82>B5;>, B. 5. 25I5AB2>, =0?@02;5==>5 ?@>B82 :0:>3>-B> B5;0.  2K@010BK20NBAO >=8 >@30=87<>< 2 >B25B =0 ?>ABC?;5=85 GC65@>4=>3> 25I5AB20 - 0=B835=0 ("-... ). ;02=0O E0@0:B5@8AB8:0 - A?>A>1=>ABL @5038@>20BL A B5< 0=B835=><, :>B>@K9 2K720; 8E >1@07>20=85. 5@=Q<AO :  "  ' !/... (III. 2), 345 ?@54AB02;5=K >1>7=0G5=8O IgA, Ig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g (72). "0:8< >1@07><, B5@<8=K 0=B8B5;0 8 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=K - A8=>=8<K (29-32, 72). > :>340 @5GL 84QB > AK2>@>B>G=KE 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=0E, 2K@01>B0==KE =0 <8:@>>@30=87<K 8;8 >1AC6405<K5 =0<8 ;5:0@AB25==K5 8<<C=>18>;>38G5A:85 ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:85 A@54AB20 - 20:F8=K, B> 8A?>;L7C5BAO, :0: ?@028;>, B5@<8= 0=B8B5;0. 725AB=> ?OBL :;0AA>2 (87>B8?>2) 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=>2. ##+ :;0AA0  - Ig A>AB02;ONB 15-20% >B 2A53> G8A;0 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=>2 AK2>@>B:8 G5;>25:0. !5:@5B>@=K9 Ig 2AB@5G05BAO 2 @07;8G=KE M:A:@5B0E >@30=87<0: 2 A;N=5, 2 A;570E, 2 A;878ABKE B>=:>3> :8H5G=8:0 8 65;G=>3> ?C7K@O, ?8I520@8B5;L=>< A>:5 8 B. 4. 5B8 @>640NBAO 157 Ig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g, GB> :>@@5;8@C5B A B8B@0<8 0=B8B5;, >1@07CNI8<8AO <5AB=>, =0?@8<5@, 2 A;878AB>9 @B0. >A;54=55 >1AB>OB5;LAB2> ?@5?OBAB2C5B ?@8:@5?;5=8N 8=D5:F8>==KE 035=B>2 : M?8B5;8N A;878ABKE. !;54>20B5;L=>, DC=:F8>=0;L=> Ig 2KABC?05B 2 :0G5AB25 ?5@2>9 ;8=88 70I8BK - =0 A;878AB>9 ?>25@E=>AB8, ?@5?OBAB2CO ?@>=8:=>25=8N <8:@>1>2 2 >@30=87< @51Q=:0. -B8 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=K 83@0NB 206=CN @>;L 2 =59B@0;870F88 4065 10:B5@80;L=KE B>:A8=>2, A@548 =8E -B>:A8=>2 48DB5@88 8 AB>;1=O:0. 5D8F8B Ig 2AB@5G05BAO C >4=>3> =0 700 74>@>2KE 45B59. # ;8F A 8<<C=>45D8F8B>< MB>3> 3;>1C;8=0 >B<5G05BAO A:;>==>ABL : 0CB>8<<C==K< 701>;520=8O< (:>340 0=B8B5;0 ?>@060NB :;5B:8 ?;5==KE >@30=>2 8 B:0=59), : 8=D5:F8O< 4KE0B5;L=KE ?CB59, ;>1=KE ?07CE, : :8H5G=K< @0AAB@>9AB20< 8 ?@. ##+ :;0AA0  - Ig, :>B>@K5 A>AB02;ONB 5-10% >B >1I53> :>;8G5AB20 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=>2 G5;>25:0.  ?@>F5AA5 3C<>@0;L=>3>, B. 5. AK2>@>B>G=>3> >B25B0 =081>;55 @0==8<8 0=B8B5;0<8 O2;ONBAO Ig. =8 65 ?5@2K<8 ?>O2;ONBAO 2 >=B>- 8 D8;>35=575. >2>@>64Q==K5 ?>;CG0NB MB8 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=K B0:65 A <>;>:>< <0B5@8. 0:B5@8F84=0O 0:B82=>ABL AK2>@>B:8 G5;>25:0 2> <=>3>< >?@545;O5BAO A>45@60=85< Ig. !=865=85 53> :>;8G5AB20 =01;N405BAO C 1>;L=KE A =0@CH5==K< ?@>F5AA>< 2A0AK20=8O 2 :8H5G=8:5, 0 B0:65 ?@8 E@>=8G5A:>< =>A8B5;LAB25 <8:@>>@30=87<>2, B. 5. C E@>=8G5A:8 8=D8F8@>20==KE 28@CA0<8 8;8 10:B5@8O<8 - GB> C =0A 4>AB0B>G=> H8@>:> @0A?@>AB@0=5=> A@548 45B59 (11-16), > ?@8 MB>< A;54C5B 70<5B8BL, GB> ?>2KH05BAO 53> 0:B82=>ABL C 1>;L=KE 65;BCE>9 8 @52<0B8G5A:8< 0@B@8B>< - ?0@04>:AK 8<<C=>;>388! ##+ :;0AA0 G - IgG A>AB02;ONB 70-75% 2A5E 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=>2 G5;>25:0. =8 ?0AA82=>-B@0=A?;0F5=B0@=> ?5@5=>AOBAO >B <0B5@8 : ?;>4C. 5@5H54H85 2 >@30=87< @51Q=:0 IgG >15A?5G820NB =>2>@>64Q==><C 8<<C=8B5B ?@>B82 48DB5@88 8 AB>;1=O:0, ?>;8><85;8B0 8 :>@8, B0:65 =59B@0;87CO B>:A8=K <8:@>1>2.  F5;>< 18>;>38G5A:0O @>;L MB8E 3;>1C;8=>2 E0@0:B5@87C5BAO @07=>AB>@>==>ABLN. @><5 0=B810:B5@80;L=>9 8 ?@>B82>28@CA=>9 70H8BK, >=8 >1;040NB 4@C38<8 70I8B=K<8 A2>9AB20<8 - F8B>D8;L=>ABLN : <0:@>D030<, CG0AB2CNB 2 ?>2KH5==>9 @50:B82=>AB8 >@30=87<0 0;;5@38G5A:>3> B8?0, @5038@CNB B>65 A @52<0B>84=K<8 D0:B>@0<8. ##+ :;0AA0  A8=B578@CNBAO 2 =081>;LH5< :>;8G5AB25 :;5B:0<8 ;8<D>84=>9 B:0=8 4KE0B5;L=>3> 8 ?8I520@8B5;L=>3> 0??0@0B0, B:0=O<8 <8=40;8= 8 045=>84>2.  AK2>@>B:5 A>45@60=85 8E =57=0G8B5;L=>5. "@0=A?;0F5=B0@=> =5 ?5@540NBAO. 1@07>20=85 Ig - 70:>=><5@=0O D070 ?5@28G=>3> 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>3> >B25B0 =0 15;:>2K5 0=B835=K. 0: ?@028;>, ?@8 ?>2B>@=>< 8E ?>ABC?;5=88 C25;8G5=85 A8=B570 MB8E 3;>1C;8=>2 =5 ?@>8AE>48B. 0: 8A:;NG5=85 - ?>2KH5=85 C@>2=O >?@545;O5BAO ?@8@>4>9 2>7459AB2CNI53> 0=B835=0, 53> 4>7>9, :@0B=>ABLN ?>ABC?;5=8O, =>... ?@5645 2A53> 8=48284C0;L=K<8 @50:F8O<8 @51Q=:0 =0 :>=:@5B=K9 0=B835=. !B8<C;8@CNI89 MDD5:B =0 ?>2KH5=85 :>=F5=B@0F88 Ig >:07K20NB =57=0G8B5;L=K5 4>7K B0:8E 0=B835=>2, :0: 0=B835=K 35;L<8=B>2, ?K;LFK @0AB5=89, 8A?>;L7>20==K5 04JN20=BK (=0?@8<5@, 2 20:F8=0E, 2 G0AB=>AB8, 2 ! 8 5Q >A;01;5==KE <>48D8:0F8OE - 384@>>:8AL 0;N<8=8O). B>=8G5A:85 701>;520=8O E0@0:B5@87CNBAO B0:65 ?>2KH5==K< A>45@60=85< Ig. A=>2=0O DC=:F8>=0;L=0O 0:B82=>ABL MB8E 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=>2 ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 @0728B88 0;;5@38G5A:8E @50:F89. >A;5 A2O78 Ig A 0=B835=>< (0;;5@35=K B>65 0=B835=K) BCG=K5 :;5B:8 ?>;CG0NB A83=0; : A5:@5F88 207>0:B82=KE 8 4@C38E D0@<0:>;>38G5A:8 7=0G8<KE A>548=5=89 - MB> 8 ?@82>48B : @0728B8N 0;;5@38G5A:8E @50:F89 - C :064>3> G5;>25:0 =0 A2>8 0;;5@35=K. ##+ :;0AA0 D, A>45@60=85 :>B>@KE 2 AK2>@>B:5 =5 ?@52KH05B 1% >B >1I53> :>;8G5AB20 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=>2. =8 =5 ?@>E>4OB G5@57 ?;0F5=BC 8 >B=>AOBAO : :>@>B:>-682CI8<. >?@>A > D>@<5 CG0AB8O IgD 2 8<<C==KE ?@>F5AA0E >AB020;AO =54>AB0B>G=> OA=K< 2?;>BL 4> 2000 3. "5< =5 <5=55, ?>:070=>, GB> 2 AK2>@>B:5 5N :>=F5=B@0F8O ?>2KH05BAO A 2>7@0AB><: 4>AB830O <0:A8<C<0 : 10 3>40<, 0 2 15-;5B=5< 2>7@0AB5 A>>B25BAB2C5B :>=F5=B@0F88, >B<5G05<>9 C 27@>A;>3> G5;>25:0. !>45@60=85 C25;8G8205BAO C 1>;L=KE 1@>=E80;L=>9 0AB<>9, @52<0B8G5A:8<8 701>;520=8O<8, 1>;57=LN %>46:8=0, 8<<C=>45D8F8B=K<8 A8=4@><0<8, E@>=8G5A:>9 ;8<D0B8G5A:>9 ;59:5<859, A8AB5<=>9 :@0A=>9 2>;G0=:>9. >=865= ?@>F5=B ?@8 ;8<D><0E. @><5 B>3>, Ig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gA (AK2.)%42-370IgM (AK2.)<3%48-510IgG (AK2.)<3%690-2800Ig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http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/tab_iii_2.html"  (A<.  "#... -III. 2 >> ), => 8 # ;8 2<5H820BLAO 2 ?@8@>4=K5 70I8B=K5 A8;K  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/tab_iii_3.html" (A<. ! "$" - III. 3. 3. ). >=5G=>, 8450;L=> 8<5BL, :0: MB> @5:><5=4C5BAO ?>A;54=85 30 ;5B, 2>-?5@2KE, "'! ! "  ,/ (440, A. 11) - A 4803=>AB8:>9 =>2>@>64Q==KE =0 =0A;54AB25==K5 701>;520=8O 8 1>;57=59 A =0A;54AB25==K< ?@54@0A?>;>65=85<, 2>-2B>@KE, #'! ! ", ?@8G5< 702>48BL 53> F5;5A>>1@07=> A@07C ?>A;5 @>645=8O @51Q=:0, ?@>872>4O 8AA;54>20=8O ?C?>28==>9 :@>28 =0 =0;8G85 8<<C=>45D8F8B>2, 0=B8B5; : @07;8G=K< 8=D5:F8>==K< 1>;57=O<, >?@545;OO A>45@60=85 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=>2, =0;8G85 AB8<C;8@>20==KE ;8<D>F8B>2 8 B. 4. (22, A. 184). >102;N - 8 >1O70B5;L=> '-"!#"!" $ "". %>@>H> 1K... !B>;L:> 1C<038 8A?8A0=> ?> ?>2>4C E>@>H> 1K, 0 2>B 2=54@5=8O 2 ?@0:B8:C :0: =5 1K;>, B0: 8 =5B. > 157 4803=>AB8:8 =0< =5 2K68BL, ?>A:>;L:C >AA8O 402=> ?@52@0I5=0 2 =0F8N 1>;L=KE ;N459 (11-16, 43, 44, 54), ?@>4>;60NICN =0@0I820BL 45BA:CN 8=20;84=>ABL, ?5@5?>;=OO ?@8NBK 4518;L=K<8 45BL<8, 0:B82=> A?>A>1AB2CO 2K<8@0=8N =0F88 (54). ! "$" A>AB02;5= ?> >1@07FC 0=0;>38G=KE 4>:C<5=B>2 !(, 5;8:>1@8B0=88, /?>=88, 4065... $@0=F88 8 4@C38E 3>AC40@AB2. A>15==> 206=K< <><5=B>< MB>3> 4>:C<5=B0 O2;O5BAO :>=5G=K9 @57C;LB0B 20:F8=0F88 "" + !&$'!%  "$&+% "", B. 5. ?>4B25@645=8O B>3>, GB>  )).  ?@8254Q==><C AG8B0N =5>1E>48<K< 8 F5;5A>>1@07=K< =0?><=8BL > A8<?>78C<5, A>AB>O2H5<AO 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 3 45:01@O 1996 3 =0 B5<C: & ", -  & ",. !8<?>78C< ?@>2>48; =AB8BCB 0AB5@0 $@0=F88. 5GL H;0 8A:;NG8B5;L=>  !"'!% "!"%, ?@8<5=O5<KE 2 A:>@>9 ?><>I8, ?@><KH;5==>9 8 H:>;L=>9 <548F8=5, ?5480B@88, ?@8 G@572KG09=KE A8BC0F8OE 8 :0B0AB@>D0E /  / #""  !"/#, $" , "#, "" 8 4@C38< 8=D5:F8>==K< 1>;57=O<... 2> $@0=F88 8 4@C38E AB@0=0E 0?04=>9 2@>?K (87 B5:AB0  !", " =0 MB>B A8<?>78C<, =0 :>B>@>< O ?@8ACBAB2>20;0 2 >AA89A:>< 3>AC40@AB25==>< <548F8=A:>< C=825@A8B5B5). "0: GB> 20:F8=0B>@K, C15640NI85 4>25@G82KE 3@0640= 2 B><, GB> 2 1K2H5< !!!  8 B5?5@5H=59 >AA88 ?@8282:8 >ACI5AB2;ONBAO ?> A8AB5<5, 1C4B> 1K ?@8=OB>9 2> 2AQ< <8@5 (157 4803=>AB8:8), @0A?@>AB@0=ONB 70254><> ;>6=K5 A2545=8O (2-5). -B> -?@5ABC?;5=85, >G5@54=0O 3;>10;L=0O 0D5@0, ?5@5:>G5202H0O 87 XX 2 XXI 25:. "& III.3. !5@B8D8:0B, ?>4B25@640NI89 =0;8G85 70I8BK >B 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 !/  !/  " $0<8;8O$<O<5AB> @01>BK>4 @>645=8O4@5A, B5;5D>=______________________ __________________________________B5;5D>=______________________ =D5:F8>==K5 1>;57=85@51>;5; 2 2>7@0AB5&&/)"+ """!- / 1 4>70, 40B0 2 4>70, 40B0 3 4>70, 40B0 4 4>70, 40B0 5 4>70, 40B0  40B0 "" + ?> @50:F88"# #.($" /!"/" , "" !#%%"" >?>;=8B5;L=K5 A2545=8O > @515=:5: A2>1>645= >B 20:F8=0F88 ?> 0) 70:>=C $ "1 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8:5 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59" (AB0BLO< 5 8 11); 1) <54>B2>4C; 2) @5;838>7=>9 ?@8=04;56=>AB8. <55B 8<<C=>45D8F8B -  '+ () (") - " '+ () (") " $ "".: $#, #!& 8 B. 4.____________________________ /2;O5BAO =>A8B5;5< <8:>10:B5@89 BC15@:C;570, ?0;>G:8 48DB5@88________________________ (B. 5. @515=>: E@>=8G5A:8 8=D8F8@>20=) "/ &/  &# (:0:CN), E0@0:B5@ @50:F88____________________ III.4. #!% &,  / &   !%'!   "& &!% " >4 2@0G51=>9 >H81:>9 ?>=8<0NB =5?@028;L=>5 459AB285 2@0G0 ?@8 53> 4>1@>A>25AB=>< >B=>H5=88 : A2>8< >1O70==>ABO<, GB> =5>1E>48<> >B;8G0BL >B ?>2545=8O 2@0G0, :20;8D8F8@C5<>3> :0: ?@5ABC?;5=85 (E0;0B=>ABL, =52K?>;=5=85 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> 4>;30 8 4@. )... - 2> <=>3>< O2;O5BAO A;54AB285< >@30=870F8>==KE 8 B0:B8G5A:8E >H81>:... (6C@=0;  ', 2001, ! 9, A. 17). AE>4O 87 40==>3> >?@545;5=8O 2@0G51=>9 >H81:8, ?>2545=85 20:F8=0B>@>2 A;54C5B :20;8D8F8@>20BL :0: E0;0B=>ABL, =52K?>;=5=85 ?@>D5AA8>=0;L=>3> 4>;30 - ?@5ABC?;5=85. $0:B 70BO=C2H53>AO ?@5ABC?;5=8O A>AB>8B 5IQ 8 2 B><, GB> =0 ?@>BO65=88 <=>38E 45AOB8;5B89 =5 A>1;N40NBAO =0CG=> >1>A=>20==K5 ?@>B82>?>:070=8O (8, 19-23), =0?@8<5@, 12-9 ?@>B82>?>:070=89 : & 8 A>>B25BAB25==> : &-; 16 ?@>B82>?>:070=89 - : ! 8 5Q >A;01;5==K< <>48D8:0F8O< 8 B. 4. >AB0B>G=> =52K?>;=5=8O 8 42CE 87 =8E - >BACBAB28O A2545=89 >1 8<<C=>45D8F8B0E 8 $ ""/% (!), GB>1K CB25@640BL > ?@5ABC?=>< 2<5H0B5;LAB25 2 ?@8@>4C G5;>25:0. > 4;O B>3>, GB>1K 8E >1=0@C68BL, B@51C5BAO !" - !"'! !!  @57C;LB0B5 >1A;54>20=8O A>AB02;ONBAO 420 ?0A?>@B0 - "'! 8 #'!, @50;L=> ?>4B25@640NI85  ,- , @>482H53>AO @51Q=:0. !0<>5 C4828B5;L=>5 2 B><, GB> ?>A;5 ?>4=OB8O 2>?@>A0 > ?@5ABC?=>9 E0;0B=>AB8 2@0G59, =5 >1@0I0NI8E 2=8<0=85 =0 2:;04KH8 : 20:F8=0< A C:070=85< ?5@5G=O ?@>B82>?>:070=89 (!), =0< ?@8E>48;>AL A;KH0BL >B 2?>;=5 :20;8D8F8@>20==KE ?5480B@>2 ?@8<5@=> B0:>5: A;8 1C45< A>1;N40BL 2A5 MB8 ?@>B82>?>:070=8O, B> =5 ?@82LQ< =8 >4=>3> @51Q=:0... - AB@0==0O ;>38:0, C@>4;82K9 ?>4E>4 : A>E@0=5=8N 45BA:>3> 74>@>2LO. > ?>A;54AB28O ?>4>1=>9 ;>38:8 8 2>2A5 =5?>AB868<K5: =5B 74>@>2KE 45B59 - 1C45< 20:F8=8@>20BL 1>;L=KE, A E@>=8G5A:>9 ?0B>;>3859 8 ;>7C=3 ?>4>1@0= 2 AB8;5 87>I@Q==>9 872>@>B;82>AB8 B5E 65 20:F8=0B>@>2: ... ?>A:>;L:C >A;01;5==K5 45B8 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L ?>425@65=K 2A5< 8=D5:F8>==K< 701>;520=8O< (2-5). @>B82>?>:070=8O ?>GB8 2A5 >B<5=8;8 (!), ;>6L 2>72545=0 2 ?@024C 8 45:;0@0F8N: @8282:8 - 548=AB25==> MDD5:B82=>5 A@54AB2> A?0A5=8O 45B59 >B 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59...   +", =0 ?@0:B8:5 III. 4 1. ! "  ,/ 4>;65= 8<5BL :064K9 =>2>@>64Q==K9 -  ,/ "'!  #'! (22, 23, 29. 1 -29. 8; 29. 10-29. 13; 30-32, 40, 55, 60-69, 81). "0:0O =5>1E>48<>ABL 48:B>20;0AL 2@5<5=5<, =0G8=0O, ?> <5=LH59 <5@5, A 60-E 3>4>2 XX AB>;5B8O 87-70 C25;8G820NI8EAO 0=B@>?>35==KE =03@C7>: 8 @>645=8O C65 8<<C=>>A;01;5==KE ?>:>;5=89: ?K;L-0AB<0; 2KE;>?=K5 307K - 0AB<0, >=:>;>38O; 0=B818>B8:8 - 0;;5@38O @07=>3> E0@0:B5@0; E8<8G5A:85 25I5AB20 - 0;;5@38O, >=:>;>38O; 20:F8=K - 0AB<0B8G5A:85 A8=4@><K, M=F5D0;>?0B88, >AB8BK, >AB5><85;8BK, ;8<D045=8BK 8 <0AA0 4@C3>9 ?0B>;>388 (8, 18-23). 4=064K =0G02H8AL, ?0B>;>38G5A:85 ?@>F5AAK CA;>6=ONBAO 8 ?@82>4OB : AB>9:8< 87<5=5=8O<, 2 B>< G8A;5 : 87<5=5=8O< 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K, =0@0AB0O 87 ?>:>;5=8O 2 ?>:>;5=85 (8-16, 43, 44, 53, 54, 56-76). III. 4. 2. 7 @5:><5=40F89 >B5G5AB25==KE A?5F80;8AB>2 -   / !% ! /        (1, 18-23): - 2>7@0AB @>48B5;59, A>AB>O=85 8E 74>@>2LO, ?@>D5AA8O; 2 A>2@5<5==KE CA;>28OE 35=5B8:8 @5:><5=4CNB 8<5BL ?>4@>1=K9 0=0<=57 4> 70G0B8O; - A>AB>O=85 74>@>2LO 1;8609H8E @>4AB25==8:>2 A >1@0I5=85< A?5F80;L=>3> 2=8<0=8O =0 0;;5@38G5A:85, =5@2=>-?A8E8G5A:85, =0A;54AB25==K5, M=4>:@8==K5 701>;520=8O; - 8AE>4 ?@54K4CI8E 15@5<5==>AB59, 8E ?@>B5:0=85; - 2>7@0AB 8 74>@>2L5 4@C38E 45B59 2 A5<L5; - @>4K: 0AD8:A8O, I8?FK, @>4>20O B@02<0, M=F5D0;>?0B8O, =54>=>H5==>ABL, 3@C??>20O 8 @57C>=5A>2<5AB8<>ABL, 38?5@18;8@C18=5<8O, <0AA0 B5;0 ?@8 @>645=88; - 2@>64Q==K5 ?>@>:8 8 0=><0;88 @0728B8O; - @0728B85 @51Q=:0 (?A8E>D878G5A:>5) 4> 1 3>40. @0240, C ?@>D5AA>@0 . . @H02A:>3>, 0 4> =53> >B5G5AB25==>3> ?5480B@0 . . C=4>18=0 8 4@. 1K;8 =5A:>;L:> 8=K5 >@85=B8@K 2 >B=>H5=88 =01;N45=89 70 @0728B85< - 4> 3-5 ;5B (41, 84); A>2@5<5==K5 @5:><5=40F88 8 B>3> ;CGH5: 5 A?5H8B5 A45;0BL <0;KH0 G;5=>< 45BA:>3> :>;;5:B820, ?>:0 5<C =5 8A?>;=8;>AL 6 ;5B - : MB><C 2@5<5=8 8<<C==0O A8AB5<0 AB0=>28BAO 4>AB0B>G=> :@5?:>9, GB>1K 70I8I0BL >@30=87< >B ?@>ABC4 8 45BA:8E 8=D5:F89 (?@8;>65=85 : 6C@=0;C 4>@>2L5, 2000, ! 1. A. 43), - ?5@5=5AQ==K5 701>;520=8O, 8E BO65ABL, 40B0 ?>A;54=53> (0 :0: 65 1KBL A A>1;N45=85< MB>3> ?C=:B0   & &?!); - =0;8G85 8 E0@0:B5@ ?@>O2;5=8O M:AAC40B82=>-:0B0@0;J=>3> 480B570, 2 :0:>< 2>7@0AB5 =0G0; ?@>O2;OBLAO, ;5G5=85 -   "% &/%  !#"  ", ! 3-5-;5B=53> 2>7@0AB0 (!); - 0;;5@38G5A:85 701>;520=8O 8 @50:F88: E0@0:B5@, BO65ABL, G0AB>B0, A57>==>ABL, 4;8B5;L=>ABL >1>AB@5=8O, 40B0 ?>A;54=53>, ;5G5=85; - =5?5@5=>A8<>ABL ;5:0@AB25==KE ?@5?0@0B>2, ?8I52KE ?@>4C:B>2 8 ?@>G8E 2>7<>6=KE 0;;5@35=>2; - @50:F8O =0 ?@54K4CICN ?@8282:C, 40B0; - =0;8G85 AC4>@>6=KE ?@8?04:>2 C @51Q=:0, 8E E0@0:B5@ 8 40BK, MDD5:B82=>ABJ ;5G5=8O; - 68;8I=>-1KB>2K5 CA;>28O; - ?>A5I0; 8;8 ?>A5I05B @51Q=>: 45BA:>5 CG@5645=85; - -'!/ !"#&/ 2 A5<L5, :20@B8@5 (5A;8 =5 >B45;L=0O), 2 45BA:>< CG@5645=88, :>B>@>5 ?>A5I05B @51Q=>:; 2 @538>=5, >1;0AB8, 2 3>@>45; =0;8G85 :>=B0:B0 A 1>;L=K<8 8=D5:F8>==K<8 1>;57=O<8; III. 4. 3. !.  "  ! !!/, 0 B0:65  ,!"  /  . III. 4. 4. #,""+ !"'! !/ =0 =0;8G85->BACBAB285 $ "" -   ! III. 4. 5. #,""+ !"'! !/ =0 =0;8G85->BACBAB285 #$&" -   ! III. 4. 6. K40G0 ! "$" =0 157>?0A=>ABL :>=:@5B=>9 20:F8=K. III. 4. 7.  ! && =0E>48;AO ?>4 =01;N45=85< 2@0G0, <54A5AB@K, A@>: =01;N45=89. III. 4. 8. K40G0 ! "$", ?>4B25@640NI53> !"'! ! 8 $" ("+ ?>A;5 20:F8=0F88 8;8 ?5@5=5A5=8O 8=D5:F8>==>9 1>;57=8. 5H0NI0O @>;L 2 ?@54C?@5645=88 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89 ?@8=04;568B >1I8< ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8< <5@>?@8OB8O< 8 ?@5645 2A53> ?@028;L=><C >B1>@C 45B59 4;O 8<<C=870F88" (19). 0;55 ?5480B@K ?>4GQ@:820NB: ACI5AB25==K< <><5=B>< 2 ?@>D8;0:B8:5 >A;>6=5=89 O2;O5BAO ?@>2545=85 ?5@54 20:F8=0F859 >74>@>28B5;L=KE <5@>?@8OB89, 2:;NG0NI8E A0=0F8N >G03>2 E@>=8G5A:>9 8=D5:F88, ;5G5=85 0=5<88, 35;L<8=B>7>2, @0E8B0, 38?>B@>D88 8 4@., 0 B0:65 ?@>O2;5=89 0;;5@38G5A:8E 701>;520=89. 5 <5=55 206=K<8 D0:B>@0<8 O2;O5BAO CE>4 8 ?>AB>O==>5 <548F8=A:>5 =01;N45=85 70 20:F8=8@>20==K<, >15@530=85 53> >B D878G5A:8E 8 ?A8E8G5A:8E B@02<. !;54C5B >1@0B8BL >A>1>5 2=8<0=85 =0 ?8B0=85 @51Q=:0 2 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>< ?5@8>45, GB> >G5=L 206=> 4;O 45B59, AB@040NI8E ?8I52>9 0;;5@3859. !;54C5B >3@048BL @515=:0 >B B5E ?@>4C:B>2, =0 :>B>@K5 >= 40QB 0;;5@38G5A:85 @50:F88 (O9F>, H>:>;04, :C@8=K9 1C;L>=, @K1C, F8B@CA>2K5 8 ?@.), 8;8 >3@0=8G8BL 8E C?>B@51;5=85. 5 A;54C5B AB028BL 2>?@>A ?5@54 @>48B5;O<8 > =5<54;5==>< ?@>2545=88 20:F8=0F88   !"#  "! !  (# 5A;8 @0=55 45B8 1K;8 =5 ?@828BK. 5AA?>@=>, ?@8282:8 =5A>2<5AB8<K A ?5@5<5=>9 ?@82KG=>3> @568<0 @51Q=:0, =5 3>2>@O >1 M<>F8>=0;L=>< AB@5AA5 2 45BA:>< CG@5645=88...      #  )"!/ (19). > 90-E 3>4>2 CH54H53> AB>;5B8O 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 ?@54C?@5645=85, 70?@5I0NI55 ?@8282:8 =0 4><C, =0E>48;>AL 2 :064>9 8=AB@C:F88 (=0AB02;5=88) ?> ?@8<5=5=8N 20:F8=K. -B> A8;L=> >B;8G05BAO >B A>2@5<5==>3> 15A?@545;0, :>340 ?@>B82 ?>;8><85;8B0 ?@54;030;8 20:F8=8@>20BLAO... 2 <5B@>?! 0@O4C A ?@>2>48<>9 2 =0H59 AB@0=5 >3;CH8B5;L=>9 ?@>?030=4>9: A5 20:F8=K ?>;57=>-A?0A8B5;L=K5, =5 =04> =8:0:>9 4803=>AB8:8, 81> MB> - 4>@>3> (2-5), M:A?5@BK :><8B5B0  # 8 "  ?>GB8 ?>;25:0 =0704 @5:><5=4>20;8 22545=85 ! '! - (29. 10, 29. 14). A=>2=K5 ?>;>65=8O A5@>;>38G5A:>9 4803=>AB8:8 4;O >?@545;5=8O A>AB>O=8O 74>@>2LO 3@0640= ?@54AB02;5=K 2  HYPERLINK "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/tab_iii_4.html" !%-"& (. 4.( >> ), 27OB>9 87 ?C1;8:0F89  2 40;Q:><... 1967 3. (29. 10; 29. 14). 5:><5=4>20=> A>740BL :>;;5:F88 AK2>@>B>:, =0;8G85 :>B>@KE >15A?5G8B 7=0=85 0=B8B5; : @07;8G=K< 8=D5:F8>==K< 1>;57=O<, 0=B8B5; =0 E8<8G5A:85 25I5AB20, ?>72>;ONI85 >1=0@C68BL E@>=8G5A:85 701>;520=8O 8 B5 87 =8E, :>B>@K5 A2O70=K A >1<5=>< 25I5AB2, B0:85 :0: ", 701>;520=8O :>@>=0@=KE 0@B5@89, 0=B8B5;0 =0 28B0<8=K 8 15;:8, >B@060NI85 A>AB>O=85 ?8B0=8O. A?>;L7CO M@8B@>F8BK, ;59:>F8BK, ;8<D>F8BK, =5>1E>48<> ?@>25@OBL =5 B>;L:> 8<<C=>;>38G5A:85, => B0:65 35<0B>;>38G5A:85 8 35=5B8G5A:85 ?>:070B5;8. - "!"  ! @54?>;030NAL B0:65, GB> 2 :064>9 AB@0=5 A ?><>ILN #-! '!% " !" 1C45B ?>;CG5=0 :0@B8=0 A>AB>O=8O 8<<C=8B5B0 C =0A5;5=8O @07=KE 35>3@0D8G5A:8E @09>=>2, 1C4CB 40=K >?8A0B5;L=K5 M?845<8>;>38G5A:85 40==K5 <=>38E 1>;57=59  ", $&  !%/ (29. 3; 29. 8; 29. 10). - "@C4=0O, 1>;LH0O @01>B0, => 157KAE>4=>ABL =0H0 2 B><, GB> : =59 =5 ?@8ABC?0;8.... =5A<>B@O 4065 =0 ?@8:07 ! 260, 2>7=8:H89 A;54>< 70 MB8<8 @5:><5=40F8O<8 2 1960 3 (11 0?@5;O) -     !!! ! @8:07 3;0A8; > A>740=88 A5B8 ?@8282>G=KE :018=5B>2, 2>73;02;O5<KE 2@0G0<8-#. @8GQ<, 8<55BAO 2 284C - =5 8<<C=>;>30<8-B5>@5B8:0<8, 0 2@0G0<8, @01>B0NI8<8 2 >1;0AB8 ?@8:;04=>9 8<<C=>;>388, B. 5. 70=8<0NI8<8AO 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8:>9 8=D5:F89 2 CA;>28OE ?>;8:;8=8:8. !5BL ?@8282>G=KE :018=5B>2 A>740;8, :0: 8725AB=>, ... 2>73;02;ONB 8E ?5480B@K, =8:>340 =5 87CG02H85 8<<C=>;>38N, =5 G8B02H85 CG51=8:8 ?> 8<<C=>;>388 8 =5 7=0NI85 #'! !"+ $&+%  (30), A> AB@0E>< 8 =5?5@5=>A8<>ABLN >B=>AOI85AO :> 2A5< 8<<C=>;>38G5A:8< B5@<8=0<. 45AL 01A>;NB=> ?@02 ?@>D5AA>@ . . >20;;>, ?>4<5B82H89: ... ?@0:B8G5A:85 2@0G8 871530NB G8B0BL 8<<C=>;>38G5A:85 @01>BK... =5 704C<K20OAL =04 206=>ABLN @5H05<KE 7040G (550, A. 14-17). 0@O4C A MB8<, =0 2A5E <564C=0@>4=KE A>25I0=8OE, A8<?>78C<0E, :>=D5@5=F8OE ?> 8<<C=>;>388 (29) ?>4GQ@:8205BAO 687=5==0O =5>1E>48<>ABL 2 A>2@5<5==KE 7=0=8OE 4;O 1>;55 3;C1>:>3> ?>=8<0=8O <5E0=87<>2 8<<C=8B5B0, ;560I8E 2 >A=>25 !"!"    " #"" 2 #,"" &&. !2545=8O ?>A;54=53> ?>;C25:0 > <>;5:C;O@=>9 18>;>388 <8:@>>@30=87<>2 8 @07@01>B:0 =>2KE 18>B5E=>;>38G5A:8E ?@8Q<>2, 2 G0AB=>AB8, <5B>4>2 <0=8?C;8@>20=8O >?@545;Q==K<8 :>48@CNI8<8 ?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABO<8 , 8E :>=B@>;8@C5<0O M:A?@5AA8O 2 MC:0@8>B8G5A:8E 8 ?@>:0@8>B8G5A:8E :;5B:0E-E>7O520E 8 ?>;CG5=85 <>=>:;>=0;L=KE 0=B8B5; 8 B. 4., ?>A;C68;8 <>I=K< AB8<C;>< 4;O 8=B5=A82=>9 =0CG=>-?@0:B8G5A:>9 @01>BK (: A>60;5=8N, 8 MB> =5 ?@> =0A!), =0?@02;5==>9 =5 B>;L:> =0 A>740=85 20:F8= =>2>3> ?>:>;5=8O (B8?0 - !), => 8 =0 8<<C=>4803=>AB8:C (29). <<C=>4803=>AB8:0 =5>1E>48<0 =5 B>;L:> 4;O >?@545;5=8O A?5F8D8G5A:8E ?@>B82>8=D5:F8>==KE 0=B8B5;, => 8 4@C38E :;0AA>2 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=>2. @0:B8G5A:85 @07@01>B:8 B5< 1>;55 206=K ?>B><C, GB> =0;8G85 A?5F8D8G5A:8E 0=B8B5; =5 2A5340 :>@@5;8@C5B A 28@CA =59B@0;870F859  =59B@0;87CNI59 0:B82=>ABLN 8;8 A?5F8D8G5A:8< 8<<C=8B5B><, :0:, 2?@>G5<, 8 2 A;CG05 A BC15@:C;Q7>< - 10:B5@80;L=>9 8=D5:F859. @><5 B>3>, 2 =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE, :0: 8725AB=>, 0=B8B5;0 <>3CB ?@8=>A8BL <0AAC 154 - 2@54, 2K7K20O 0CB>8<<C==K5 ?@>F5AAK (18, 21, 23, 29-32). #;CGH5=85 A8BC0F88 2 4803=>AB8G5A:>9 A;C615 O2;O5BAO >4=>9 87 A0<KE 206=KE 7040G, =5>B;>6=KE <5@>?@8OB89, B. :. >15A?5G8205B C4>2;5B2>@8B5;L=>5 <548:>-A0=8B0@=>5 >1A;C6820=85 8 M?845<8>;>38G5A:89 =047>@ 70 8=D5:F8>==K<8 1>;57=O<8. 57 =0;8G8O MDD5:B82=>9 ;01>@0B>@=>9 107K =52>7<>6=0 ?@>B82>M?845<8G5A:0O A;C610, 0 20:F8=0F8O 8 55 CA?5E8 >B=>AOBAO : :0B53>@88 ?@>D0=0F88 (29). 803=>AB8:0 206=0 4> ?@>2545=8O ?@8282>: ?@>B82 :@0A=CE8, 48DB5@88, ?0@>B8B0 8 2A5E >AB0;L=KE :0;5=40@=KE ?@8282>:. 0?@8<5@, C:07K205BAO, GB> 2 3@C??0E @8A:0 8;8 A ?>2KH5==K< @8A:>< A;54C5B ?@>2>48BL >F5=:C B8B@>2 0=B8B5; ! && ?@>B82 35?0B8B0 ... AB@0B538O 20:F8=0F88 ?@>B82 35?0B8B0  =C6405BAO 2 CGQB5 8725AB=KE 20@80F89 8<<C==KE >B25B>2 @07;8G=KE ;N459 (87 ?@>A?5:B0 - !. !. 16, 30).  >AA88 =5 @50;87CNBAO ?>;=>F5==> AB0@K5 4803=>AB8G5A:85 <5B>4K, =5 @07@010BK20NBAO =>2K5...  @57C;LB0B5 2AO A8AB5<0 ?@8282>: =0E>48BAO 2 01A>;NB=>< ?@>B82>@5G88 A =0CG=>-?@0:B8G5A:8<8 4>AB865=8O<8 8 8=B5@5A0<8 A>2@5<5==>9 =58=D5:F8>==>9 -, A >1I59 18>;>3859, 0 B0:65 A :0B0AB@>D8G5A:8< =0@0AB0=85< :>;8G5AB20 8<<C=>>A;01;5==KE 45B59 (11-16). 06=>ABL ?@8:070 ! 260 >B<5G05BAO 2 <=>3>G8A;5==KE <>=>3@0D8OE (19, 91), => A<KA; 53>, =04> ?>;030BL, 4> A8E ?>@ =8:><C 87 20:F8=0B>@>2 =58725AB5=... "0:8< >1@07><, >1 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>< >1A;54>20=88 ACI5AB2CNB =5 B>;L:> @5:><5=40F88 ><8B5B0 ?> 8<<C=>;>388 , => 8 <=>3>G8A;5==K5 ?@8:07K 8=74@020 =0H53> B5G5AB20, =0?@8<5@, 5IQ B0:85, :0: ! 450 >B 1986 3. 8 A>2A5< =5402=89 - ! 323/105 >B 08. 07. 99 3: ... ?@>2>48BL A5@>;>38G5A:CN 4803=>AB8:C A F5;LN 8AA;54>20=89 =0?@O6Q==>AB8 8<<C=8B5B0 :... . @8:07K 5ABL, @57C;LB0BK 4803=>AB8:8 >BACBAB2CNB! 0;>G8A;5==K5 4803=>AB8G5A:85 A;C61K DC=:F8>=8@CNB @07@>7=5==>, 4C1;8@CO 4@C3 4@C30 8... 40;5:> =5 2A5340 :0G5AB25==>. #G8BK20O 2KH5A:070==>5, =8:>340 =5 A;54C5B 701K20BL, GB> 2A5 20:F8=K =587156=> =5157>?0A=K (85), >1CA;>2;820NB F5?L ?0B>D878>;>38G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2 (19), A;54>20B5;L=>, >1O70B5;L=> =0@CH0NB >1I89 3><5>AB07 8 !&$'!  , + )"+ >@30=87<0 (6). "& III.4.   ! '! - &5;L ?@8<5=5=8O5B>4%0@0:B5@ >B1>@0 ?@>1KKO2;5=85 >A=>2=KE ?@>1;5< 74@02>>E@0=5=8OAA;54>20=85 ?@>1 =0 =0;8G85 0=B8B5; 4;O >?@545;5=8O 8<<C=>;>38G5A:8E >A>15==>AB59 701>;520=89 2 ?@>H;>< 8 =0AB>OI5<48=8G=0O ?@>10 ?@8 548=>2@5<5==>< <0AA>2>< 8;8 2K1>@>G=>< >1A;54>20=88#AB0=>2;5=85 >G5@54=>AB8 4;O ?@>2545=8O 20:F8=0F88#AB0=>2;5=85 ?> 2>7@0AB=><C 8 35>3@0D8G5A:><C ?@87=0:0< 3@C?? =0A5;5=8O, C :>B>@KE >BACBAB2CNB 0=B8B5;0 : >B45;L=K< 1>;57=O< 5?@575=B0B82=0O 4;O 2A53> =0A5;5=8O 40==>9 <5AB=>AB8; B>;L:> <;04H8E 2>7@0AB=KE 3@C?? (=0 B0:85 1>;57=8, :0: ?>;8><85;8B)KO2;5=85 >?0A=>AB59, >1CA;>2;5==KE >:@C60NI59 A@54>97CG5=85 2>4=KE 8=D5:F89 (1@NH=>9 B8D), 8=D5:F89, ?5@540205<KE G5@57 <>;>:> (1@CF5;;57) 8;8 G5@57 =0A5:><KE (<0;O@8; 65;B0O ;8E>@04:0), 0 B0:65 2>7=8:0NI8E 2A;54AB285 =87:>3> C@>2=O ;8G=>9 38385=K (B@0E><0) 8;8 ?;>E8E A>F80;L=>-M:>=><8G5A:8E CA;>289 (?>;8><85;8B) 8 B. 4.@C??>20O (?@>1K =0 >?@545;5==>5 701>;520=85 15@CBAO C B>9 3@C??K =0A5;5=8O, :>B>@0O 1>;55 2A53> ?>425@65=0 >?0A=>AB8 701>;520=8O)?8A0=85 35>3@0D8G5A:>3> @0A?@545;5=8O >B45;L=KE 1>;57=59KOA=5=85 @0A?@545;5=8O 0=B8B5; C @07;8G=KE 3@C?? =0A5;5=8O, >B>1@0==KE ?> 2>7@0AB=><C, ?>;>2><C, 35>3@0D8G5A:><C 8 A>F80;L=>-M:>=><8G5A:><C ?@87=0:CK1>@>G=0O 4;O 8=D5:F89 A 2KA>:>9 701>;5205<>ABLN (:>@L), 35>3@0D8G5A:8 ;>:0;87>20==0O 4;O 8=D5:F89 A =87:>9 701>;5205<>ABLN 8 =5:>B>@KE A?5F8D8G5A:8E 701>;520=89 (65;B0O ;8E>@04:0, H8AB>7><0B>7)KOA=5=85 7=0G5=8O 2=>2L >1=0@C65==>3> 2>71C48B5;O 1>;57=8 8;8 =>2>3> 2840 ?@>1K 4;O 845=B8D8:0F88 E@>=8G5A:>3> 701>;520=8O 5B@>A?5:B82=>5 >?@545;5=85 B8B@>2 0=B8B5; 2 @07=K5 3>4K!5@89=K5 ?@>1K :@>28, >B18@05<K5 2 B5G5=85 =5A:>;L:8E ;5BF5=:0 MDD5:B82=>AB8 ?@>3@0<<K 20:F8=0F88!1>@ AK2>@>B>: 4> 8 ?>A;5 ?@>2545=8O ?@>3@0<<K 20:F8=0F88 8 >?@545;5=85 B8B@>2 0=B8B5; : 2>71C48B5;N 701>;520=8O 4;O CAB0=>2;5=8O ?@>F5=B0 MDD5:B82=> 8<<C=878@>20==>3> =0A5;5=8O@>1K 15@CBAO 4> 8 ?>A;5 ?@8282:8 ?@>B82 >?@545;5==>3> 701>;520=8O?@545;5=85 ?5@8>48G=>AB8 M?845<89 >B45;L=>9 1>;57=8?@545;5=85 B8B@>2 0=B8B5; 2 A5@89=KE ?@>10E, :>B>@K5 A>18@0NBAO 2 B5G5=85 =5A:>;L:8E ;5B C >4=>9 8 B>9 65 3@C??K =0A5;5=8O (8, 2>7<>6=>, >4=8E 8 B5E 65 ;8F  4;8B5;L=K5 >1A;54>20=8O)!5@89=K5 ?@>1K, :>B>@K5 A>18@0NBAO 2 B5G5=85 =5A:>;L:8E ;5B#AB0=>2;5=85 ?@8G8= 2>7=8:=>25=8O :;8=8G5A:8E A8=4@><>2=>3>:@0B=>5 >?@545;5=85 B8B@>2 0=B8B5; 2 @0==8E 8 ?>74=8E AB048OE 701>;520=8O0@=K5 ?@>1K, :>B>@K5 15@CB C >4=>3> 8 B>3> 65 ;8F0 2 @0==89 ?5@8>4 701>;520=8O 8 2 ?5@8>4 @5:>=20;5AF5=F88KO2;5=85 87<5=5=89 0=B835==KE A2>9AB2 C 2>71C48B5;59 8=D5:F89 (3;02=K< >1@07>< 28@CA0 3@8??0)AA;54>20=85 ?@>1, :>B>@K5 15@CB ?5@8>48G5A:8, 8;8 ?@>1 >B 1>;L=KE 4;O 2KO2;5=8O =>2KE @07=>284=>AB59 28@CA0@>1K, :>B>@K5 15@CB ?5@8>48G5A:8-?845<8>;>38G5A:>5 >1A;54>20=855@8>48G5A:>5 87CG5=85 A5@89=KE ?@>1, 27OBKE 2 @07=KE AB@0=0E (>A>15==> C 1>;L=KE) 4;O 2KO2;5=8O 206=59H8E 701>;520=89@>1K, :>B>@K5 15@CB ?5@8>48G5A:8@54?>;>68B5;L=>5 ?5@5G8A;5=85 >?0A=>AB59, A2O70==KE A <83@0F859 =0A5;5=8O AA;54>20=85 ?@>1, 27OBKE 4> 8 ?>A;5 <83@0F88 3@C??K =0A5;5=8O 2 =>2K5 @09>=K0@=K5 ?@>1K, :>B>@K5 15@CB C >4=>9 8 B>9 65 3@C??K =0A5;5=8O 4> 8 ?>A;5 <83@0F88 III.5. 0@L5@K =5A?5F8D8G5A:>9 70I8BK@8 ACI5AB2CNI59 2A54>72>;5==>AB8 =0 2<5H0B5;LAB2> 2 8=48284C0;L=CN ?@8@>4C G5;>25:0 !&$'! $" + )"+ B0:65 ?@8E>4OB : 453@040F88, >AAB0=>2;5=85, >1=>2;5=85 =5 CA?5205B 70 @50:F8O<8 =0 :0A:04 C:>;>2, GC65@>4=KE 15;:>2 8 E8<8G5A:8E 25I5AB2, ?>ABC?0NI8E : B><C 65 5IQ 8 2 A>AB025 20:F8=. 5?>2@564Q==K5 :>6=K5 ?>:@>2K 8 A;878ABK5 >1>;>G:8, =5?>A@54AB25==> A>?@8:0A0NI85AO A 2=5H=59 A@54>9, A;C60B ?@>G=K<8 10@L5@0<8, ?@5?OBAB2CNI8<8 ?@>=8:=>25=8N GC65@>4=KE 25I5AB2, A@548 =8E - ?0B>35==KE 8 CA;>2=> ?0B>35==KE <8:@>>@30=87<>2. >B ?>G5<C 206=> =5 =0@CH0BL 8A:CAAB25==K< 2B>@65=85< ?@8@>4=K5 =5A?5F8D8G5A:85 D0:B>@K 70I8BK, 8=48284C0;L=> ?@8ACI85 :064><C 87 =0A. >6=K5 ?>:@>2K - ?5@20O ;8=8O >1>@>=K >B ;N1KE :A5=>18>B8:>2 8 2>71C48B5;59 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59. !B5?5=L ?@>O2;5=8O MB>9 :0B53>@88 70I8BK B0:65 7028A8B >B 8=48284C0;L=KE >A>15==>AB59 >@30=87<0 20=>20, => =5 5B@>20, >B @O40 2=CB@5==8E 8 2=5H=8E 2>7459AB289, 2;8ONI8E =0 A>AB>O=85 =5A?5F8D8G5A:8E <5E0=87<>2 70I8BK, @578AB5=B=>AB8. 5A?5F8D8G5A:0O CAB>9G82>ABL 2 F5;>< >15A?5G8205BAO, ?@5645 2A53>, :>659, A;878ABK<8 >1>;>G:0<8, @07;8G=K<8 2K45;8B5;L=K<8 A8AB5<0<8 >@30=87<0 G5;>25:0. @><5 B>3>, =5A?5F8D8G5A:>9 ?@>B82>8=D5:F8>==>9 70I8B>9 A;C60B D03>F8BK 8 2=CB@8:;5B>G=>5 ?5@520@820=85 GC65@>4=>3>, 0 B0:65 B0:85 70I8B=K5 D0:B>@K, :0: ;87>F8<, M=4>35==K9 8=B5@D5@>=, <5480B>@K 8 :><?;5<5=B (6, 21-23, 29-32, 40, 55, 73, 77, 80) - 2AQ 402=> 8 H8@>:> 8725AB=>. >6=K5 10@L5@K 1>;55 CAB>9G82K, G5< A;878ABK5. 725AB=K <=>3>G8A;5==K5 A2545=8O > =51;03>?@8OB=KE ?>A;54AB28OE =0@CH5=8O F5;>AB=>AB8 :>6=KE ?>:@>2>2, >B:@K20NI8E 2>7<>6=>AB8 8=D5:F8>==K< 035=B0< 8 4@C38< =530B82=K< 2;8O=8O< (56, 58, 86, 87). >MB><C 2>A?0;5=85 =5;L7O @0AA<0B@820BL B>;L:> :0: 70I8B=CN @50:F8N (:0: AG8B0;8 =5A:>;L:> A>B ;5B =0704), B5< 1>;55 GB> E0@0:B5@ 2>A?0;8B5;L=>9 @50:F88 B0:65 7028A8B >B 2>7459AB28O, =0@CH0NI53> :>6=CN ?>25@E=>ABL: N1>5 ?>2@5645=85, =57028A8<> >B ?@8G8=K, 2K7K20NI59 53>, ?@82>48B : 2>A?0;5=8N. 4=0:> B5G5=85 2>A?0;8B5;L=>3> ?@>F5AA0 ?@8 10:B5@80;L=>< 70@065=88 8;8 ?>?040=88 M=4>B>:A8=>2 >B;8G05BAO >B 2>A?0;5=8O, 2K720==>3> ?>2@5645=85< B:0=8 (B@02<>9, =87:>9 8;8 2KA>:>9 B5<?5@0BC@>9, >1;CG5=85<, E8<8G5A:8<8 25I5AB20<8), 8;8 >B 2>A?0;5=8O, A>?@>2>640NI53> 0;;5@38G5A:85 O2;5=8O (87, A. 315). @C38<8 A;>20<8, ?>2@5645=85 :>6=>9 ?>25@E=>AB8, =0?@8<5@, ?>A;5 C:>;0 8 ?>A;54CNI53> 2>A?0;5=8O, A;54C5B @0AA<0B@820BL :0: =0@CH5=85 F5;>AB=>AB8 >@30=87<0, A>?@>2>640NI55AO 3815;LN :;5B>: 8;8 8E ?>2@5645=85< A 2?>;=5 2>7<>6=K< 87<5=5=85< 8AE>4=KE A2>9AB2 (6-8,56,58, 80, 86-88). "5?5@L ?@54AB028< A515 :><?;5:A @50:F89 :0: 2>A?0;8B5;L=>3> ?@>F5AA0 ?>A;5 & 8 ! - =0 ?0@5=B5@0;L=>5 ?>ABC?;5=85 - =0@CH5=85 :>6=>9 ?>25@E=>AB8 GC65@>4=K<8 15;:0<8, @BCBL>@30=8G5A:>9 A>;LN - <5@B8>;OB><, D>@<0;8=>< 8 B.4. AE>4O 87 A>2@5<5==KE <>;5:C;O@=>-35=5B8G5A:8E, F8B>?0B>;>38G5A:8E, ?0B>D878>;>38G5A:8E 8 8<<C=>;>38G5A:8E >A=>2 ?0B>;>38G5A:8E ?@>F5AA>2: ! - '", ! '  ' /  ",!/ ! !"#+ # ! !" (87, A. 316). 0@O4C A MB8< ?@8E>48BAO 8=>340 A;CH0BL >G5@54=>9 01AC@4 > B><, GB> 2>A?0;8B5;L=K9 ?@>F5AA - E>@>H0O ?@8682;O5<>ABL 20:F8=K... "0: GB> @5:><5=40F88 A>2@5<5==KE 20:F8=0B>@>2 - 22545=85 <=>3>G8A;5==KE 20:F8= 2 @07=K5 CG0AB:8 B5;0 @51Q=:0 (2-5) -4>;6=K 2K7K20BL 2?>;=5 >1>A=>20==K5 (!) :0B53>@8G5A:85 2>7@065=8O :0: =0 A5@LQ7=CN 18>;>38G5A:CN >?5@0F8N (18). 0@L5@=0O DC=:F8O :>6=>3> M?8B5;8O >B=>A8BAO, A >4=>9 AB>@>=K, : <5E0=8G5A:8< D0:B>@0< =5A?5F8D8G5A:>9 70I8BK >@30=87<0 - 70 AGQB ?;>B=>3> A>548=5=8O M?8B5;80;L=KE :;5B>:. -?8B5;80;L=K5 ?>:@>2K 2KAB8;0NB : B><C 65 8 4KE0B5;L=K5 ?CB8, 0 B0:65 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=K9 8 C@>35=8B0;L=K9 B@0:BK. ! 4@C3>9 AB>@>=K, :@><5 <5E0=8G5A:>9 ?@53@04K, M?8B5;80;L=K5 :;5B:8 ?@>4CF8@CNB >?@545;Q==K9 =01>@ ?@8@>4=KE 25I5AB2, :>B>@K5 2K?>;=ONB @>;L E8<8G5A:>9 70I8BK, ?>402;OO @07<=>65=85 <8:@>>@30=87<>2. "0:, 65;C4>G=K9 A>: 8 ?8I520@8B5;L=K5 D5@<5=BK 25@E=8E >B45;>2 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=>3> B@0:B0 O2;ONBAO @50;L=>9 70I8B>9 >B <=>38E 2>71C48B5;59 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59. -?8B5;80;L=K5 :;5B:8 :8H5G=8:0 A5:@5B8@CNB =01>@ 0=B8<8:@>1=KE ?5?B84>2 H8@>:>3> A?5:B@0 59AB28O(73,77,79, 89, 90). !;54C5B ?><=8BL B0:65, GB> M?8B5;80;L=K5 ?>:@>2K 8<5NB A>1AB25==CN <8:@>D;>@C - =5?0B>35==CN (0?0B>35==CN) 4;O :>=:@5B=>3> @51Q=:0, ?@5?OBAB2CNICN :>;>=870F88 4@C38E 2>71C48B5;59 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59, ;81> ?>;=>ABLN =59B@0;87CO GC60:>2, ;81> @57:> ?>402;OO 8E @07<=>65=85. A;8 =>@<0;L=0O <8:@>D;>@0 @51Q=:0 C=8GB>605BAO (=0?@8<5@, <K;>< A59D30@4) 8;8 :0:-B> <5=O5BAO 2 @57C;LB0B5 B5E 8;8 8=KE ?>;57=KE <0=8?C;OF89 (0=B818>B8:>B5@0?859, 20:F8=0F859 682K<8 20:F8=0<8 8;8 8=0:B828@>20==K<8 B8?0 ! 8 B.?.), B> =0 >A2>1>482H55AO <5AB> ?@84CB ?0B>35==K5 28@CAK 8;8 10:B5@88, 8;8 8 B5, 8 4@C385, => >?0A=K5 4;O >@30=87<0 :>=:@5B=>3> @51Q=:0 >A;54=85 >1;040NB A?>A>1=>ABLN ?@>=8:0BL G5@57 70I8B=K5 ?>:@>2K <0:@>>@30=87<0 - :>6C 2>A?@88<G82>3> E>7O8=0.  A;CG0OE, :>340 =0@CH05BAO <5E0=8G5A:0O 70I8B0, 7040G0 ?@>=8:=>25=8O 7=0G8B5;L=> C?@>I05BAO, B5< 1>;55 GB> 8=D5:B0=BK B0:65 >1;040NB A?>A>1=>ABLN ?@>4CF8@>20BL >?@545;Q==K5 D5@<5=BK, ?><>30NI85 <5=OBL A@54C G5;>25:0 2 =C6=>< 8< =0?@02;5=88. 8:@>1K B@>D=> ?>@060NB :;5B:8, B:0=8, ?@>4CF8@CO 4;O MB>3> =5>1E>48<K5 D5@<5=BK, B>:A8=K, 0=B8<5B01>;8BK, GB>1K >A;018BL >@30=87< @51Q=:0 8;8 27@>A;>3> G5;>25:0.  F5;>< ACBL <8:@>18>;>38G5A:>3> 8 <0:@>18>;>38G5A:>3> ?@>B82>AB>O=8O 2 :>=:C@5=F88 <564C A2>8< 8 GC68< 70 8AB>G=8:8 ?8B0=8O 8 2 :>=F5 :>=F>2 - 70 2K6820=85. >MB><C 8=D5:F8>==K5 035=BK >1O70B5;L=> 8<5NB D0:B>@K, 70I8I0NI85 8E A0<8E >B 8<<C==KE <5E0=87<>2 G5;>25:0 (682>B=KE, @0AB5=89 8 B.4.), :0: A?5F8D8G5A:85, B0: 8 =5A?5F8D8G5A:85. > 2 :064>< :>=:@5B=>< A;CG05 28@CAK 8 10:B5@88 =0E>4OBAO ?>4 :>=B@>;5< 70I8B=KE A8; >@30=87<0 G5;>25:0, :>B>@K5 =0F5;5=K =0 ;N1>9 ?@>F5AA 687=545OB5;L=>AB8 <8:@>1>2.  MB>< 0:B82=0O ?><>IL ?@8E>48B 2 B>< G8A;5 A> AB>@>=K =5A?5F8D8G5A:8E <5E0=87<>2 >1>@>=K: 2 :>65 - 68@=K5 :8A;>BK; D5@<5=BK - 2 A;N=5, A;570E; ?5?A8= - 2 :8H5G=8:5, >?@545;Q==K5 ?>:070B5;8 @ A@54K 65;C4:0 8 B.4. (77, 79, 89,90). @30=87<, =5 >A;01;5==K9 A25@E=03@C7:0<8  20:F8=0<8 - 0:B82=55 1>@5BAO A  ,  , 3@8??>< 8 B>9 65 48DB5@859, ?>15640O ?@8H5;LF52. @8 0:B82=> >ACI5AB2;O5<KE C:>;0E 2 @07=K5 CG0AB:8 B5;0 @51Q=:0 (2-5) 2>7<>6=>AB8 4;O ?@>=8:=>25=8O 2>71C48B5;59 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 ?@0:B8G5A:8 =5>3@0=8G5==K.  40==>< A;CG05 >@30=87< AB0=>28BAO <5=55 70I8IQ==K< 4;O ?@>=8:=>25=8O 8 E8<8G5A:8E 25I5AB2 87 2>74CE0, 2>4K... B:@K20NBAO 8 1>;55 ;Q3:85 2>7<>6=>AB8 4;O H8@>:>3> @0A?@>AB@0=5=8O 8E 2 >@30=87<5. >60 G5;>25:0 - !-#,/ -'!/ !!", B5A=> A2O70==0O A 2=CB@5==59 A@54>9 G5;>25:0 8 53> 2=5H=8< >:@C65=85<. ;03>40@O 59 ?>445@68205BAO A>>B25BAB2CNI89 C@>25=L 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>9 @50:B82=>AB8, =5A?5F8D8G5A:8E D0:B>@>2 70I8BK 8 2 F5;>< - D878>;>38G5A:89 AB0BCA >@30=87<0 G5;>25:0. !>2<5AB=0O @01>B0 =5A?5F8D8G5A:>3> 8 A?5F8D8G5A:>3> 8<<C=8B5B0 - ?CBL : 74>@>2LN 45B59. #A8;8BL =5A?5F8D8G5A:CN ;8=8N >1>@>=K ?@>B82 8=D5:F8>==KE 701>;520=89 ?><>3CB, ?@5645 2A53>, @0F8>=0;L=>5 ?8B0=85 8 28B0<8=K. #AB0=>2;5=>, GB> 871KB>: 28B0<8=0  8=4CF8@C5B =5A?5F8D8G5A:CN @578AB5=B=>ABL, 0 53> =54>AB0B>: ?@82>48B : >A;01;5=8N =5A?5F8D8G5A:8E D0:B>@>2 70I8BK :> <=>38< 8=D5:F8>==K< 1>;57=O<.  >B=>H5=88 28B0<8=0 ! 2 <548:>-18>;>38G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5 ?>A;54=8E 45 ;5B 2KA:07K20;>AL <=>3> ?@>B82>@5G82>3> >B=>A8B5;L=> 53> MDD5:B82=>AB8 2 G0AB8 ?@54C?@5645=8O 8;8 >A;01;5=8O A8<?B><>2 ?@>ABC4K, 0 B0:65 ?>2KH5=8O @578AB5=B=>AB8 : 8=D5:F8>==K< 1>;57=O<. "5< =5 <5=55, @O4>< 1;5ABOI8E @01>B . >;8=30 4>:070=>, GB> A CGQB>< 2>7<>6=KE 8=48284C0;L=KE >A>15==>AB59 >@30=87<0 G5;>25:0, 28B0<8= ! <>18;87C5B 70I8B=K5 A8;K >@30=87<0, =0E>4OI53>AO 2 A>AB>O=88 AB@5AA0 @07=>3> ?@>8AE>645=8O - ?5@5>E;0645=8O, ?@>ABC4K, ?><>305B 2 ?@>D8;0:B8:5 ?@>B82 3@8??0 8 4@C38E 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 (92). !59G0A > ?>;L75 8 =5>1E>48<>AB8 2 @0F8>=5 ?8B0=8O =0BC@0;L=KE 28B0<8=>2 ?8HCB <=>3> 8 >G5=L ?>4@>1=>.  =5A?5F8D8G5A:8< D0:B>@0< 70I8BK 8 1>@L1K A 2>71C48B5;O<8 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 A;54C5B >B=>A8BL 8 ?>2KH5==CN B5<?5@0BC@C. 72;5:0NB 5AB5AB25==K5 @575@2K 74>@>2LO, > :>B>@KE 2?5@2K5 2KA:07K20;AO .. 5G=8:>2 C65 2 1883 3. (77). = CB25@640;, GB> 2>7=8:=>25=85, B5G5=85 8 8AE>4 8=D5:F8>==>3> ?@>F5AA0 A2O70=K A 0:B82=>ABLN A0<>3> >@30=87<0, A> 2A5< <=>3>>1@0785< 0??0@0B0 53> 70I8B=KE A8;. 45 8A:0BL :;NG : 74>@>2LN (!. ;59=8: //!"/, 11 D52@0;O 1972 3.); 5?>=OB=> 8 =5>1JOA=8<>, GB> <K =5 B>;L:> =5 =0CG8;8AL C?@02;OBL MB8<8 <5E0=87<0<8, => ?>GB8 =5 87CG05< 8E, 0 ?>@>9 4065 =5 ?>4>7@5205< >1 8E ACI5AB2>20=88... 0G0;8 H8@>:> 8A?>;L7>20BL 8<<C=>AB8<C;OB>@K @0AB8B5;L=>3> ?@>8AE>645=8O (94). >;>65= :>=5F 4;8B5;L=><C ?@>B82>AB>O=8N >D8F80;L=>9 <548F8=K 8 3><5>?0B8G5A:8E <5B>4>2 ;5G5=8O 8 ?@>D8;0:B8:8.  B>;L:> 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8:0 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59, ?@>2>48<0O 548=AB25==> MDD5:B82=K< A@54AB2>< - 20:F8=0<8, =8:0:8E ?>42865: =5 8<55B, =5B 8E 4065 2 AB>@>=C... 8<<C=>;>388. 0 ?@5ABC?=> =87:>< C@>2=5 87CG05BAO 157>?0A=>ABL MB8E ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8E ;5:0@AB25==KE A@54AB2. <5AB5 A B5<, ?>A;5 ?>;C3@0<>B=>3> :>=B@>;O 8 AB0=40@B870F88 157>?0A=K5 20:F8=K 8AA;54CNBAO 2 H8@>:><0AHB01=KE 8A?KB0=8OE...  "/% - >1 MB>< ?>4@>1=55 2 @0745;5 ?> 18>MB8:5. #"" - !!!", )"+% !    ", " !% "-'# +% )!" :0: M=4>35==>9, B0: 8 M:7>35==>9 ?@8@>4K. '! !+! " )"+ - !' "'! &!"!"    "'  #, . =>3> >1 MB>< =0?8A0=>, => ?>G5<C-B> <K =5 E>B8< 872;5:0BL C@>:8 87 =04C<0==KE 3;>10;L=KE <5@>?@8OB89, =0?@02;5==KE ?@>B82 ?@8@>4K G5;>25:0. 'B>1K ?@54C?@5640BL 1>;57=8, =5>1E>48<> 7=0BL 70:>=><5@=>AB8 8E @0728B8O, 0 MB8 70:>=><5@=>AB8 CE>4OB =5 B>;L:> 2 3;C18=C 8=48284C0;L=>9 687=8, => 8 23;C1L 25:>2, 2 8AB>@8N @0728B8O G5;>25G5AB20 (93). @0G520BL-B> =04> 2 A>N75 A ?@8@>4>9 G5;>25:0, A 5Q 8=48284C0;L=K<8 >A>15==>ABO<8, ?@8ACI8<8 :064><C 87 =0A...   IV.    "! -": !!/ &&/ - $"  ! /  ,/  IV.1. !"&,+ !/: /" / "/  $"'! &+ IV.1.3. 50:F8O 0=BC - ;>6=>?>;>68B5;L=0O 4803=>AB8:0 ! :0:>9 F5;LN @50:F8O 0=BC "AB028BAO" 5653>4=> (!) =0H8< 45BO<? >?@>A, ?>AB>O==> 7040205<K9 =5 B>;L:> @>48B5;O<8, => 8 2@0G0<8, ?@8E>4OI8<8 :> <=5 =0 :>=AC;LB0F88 8 A5<8=0@K.  =0H5< B5G5AB25 =0 ?>AB02;5==K9 2>?@>A =5 ACI5AB2C5B ?@028;L=>3>, =0CG=> >1>A=>20==>3> >B25B0. "@0:B>2:0 @50:F88 0=BC >G5=L 70?CB0=0 8 ?@5?>4=>A8BAO 20:F8=0B>@0<8, <O3:> 3>2>@O, 4>2>;L=> AB@0==> 8 ?@>B82>@5G82> (13, 14, 20). >;55 B>3>, =0 ?@0:B8:5 A>2<5I5=> 01A>;NB=> =5A>2<5AB8<>5 - 420 >B25B0 2 >4=>9 @50:F88, GB> 42064K 01AC@4=>: >?@545;ONB >4=><><5=B=> 8=D8F8@>20==>ABL (8;8 701>;520=85 BC15@:C;Q7><: C =0A 2AQ 548=>!) 8 ?@>B82>BC15@:C;Q7=K9 20:F8=0;L=K9 8<<C=8B5B ?>A;5 &. 7<5@5=85 8<<C=8B5B0 ?@>2>4OB 2 <8;;8<5B@0E... CG5=8G5A:>9 ;8=59:>9. 50:F8O 0=BC - >B25B :;5B>G=>3> 8<<C=8B5B0 :0: 38?5@GC2AB28B5;L=>AB8 70<54;5==>3> B8?0 =0 A5=A818;870F8N >@30=87<0 <8:>10:B5@8O<8 BC15@:C;Q70, B.5. ?@54=07=0G5=0 >=0 4;O 2KO2;5=8O =0;8G8O 2 >@30=87<5 2>71C48B5;O BC15@:C;Q70. 5@20O 2AB@5G0 A <8:>10:B5@8O<8 BC15@:C;Q70, ?@82=>A8<0O 8A:CAAB25==>, <0AA>2> 8 ?@54=0<5@5==>, ?@>8AE>48B 2 @>44><0E ?>A@54AB2>< 20:F8=0F88 & - 682K<8 <8:>10:B5@8O<8. "C15@:C;8= 4;O ?>AB0=>2:8 @50:F88 0=BC - BC15@:C;8=>2>9 ?@>1K ?>;CG0NB 87 D8;LB@0B0 BC15@:C;Q7=KE <8:>10:B5@89 ?CBQ< 4>102;5=8O : =5<C E8<8G5A:8E 25I5AB2.  H8@>:>9 ?@0:B8:5 ?@8<5=ONB BC15@:C;8=, A>45@60I89 0,01 % E8=>7>;0 (D5=>;0) 8 0,005 % B28=0-80 (57, 58). "%>@>H5=L:0O" A<5AL 4;O ?>AB0=>2:8 A?5F8D8G5A:>9 @50:F88! B0:, - +%, :;0AA8G5A:>5 ?@54=07=0G5=85 @50:F88 0=BC -    !#)!"( 8;8 !"/) $& !" " / "# #, F8@:C;8@CNI8<8 2 ?@8@>45. 0?><=N: "" "# #,  + #       +, 45;05B G5;>25:0 "# #",+  !. ,. -B> E>@>H89 4803=>AB8G5A:89 B5AB 4;O 4>:070B5;LAB20 1K2H59 8 =0AB>OI59 BC15@:C;Q7=>9 8=D5:F88" (55, A. 90). A5 =0H8 45B8 AB0;:820NBAO A "C<5@5==K<" 2>7459AB285< <8:>10:B5@89, ?>425@30OAL 20:F8=0F88 & C65 2 ?5@8>4 =>2>@>64Q==>AB8. CABL >A;01;5==K<8, => " / (!), ?@8ACBAB285 :>B>@KE 2 @0ABCI5< 45BA:>< >@30=87<5 A>740=> 8A:CAAB25==K< ?CBQ<... !;54>20B5;L=>, "0B0:0 BC15@:C;Q70" >ACI5AB2;O5BAO A8AB5<0B8G5A:8, A ?@5ABC?=>9 @53C;O@=>ABLN 87 ?>:>;5=8O 2 ?>:>;5=85 =0 ?@>BO65=88 45AOB:>2 ;5B. 50:F8O =0 >A;01;5==K5 <8:>10:B5@89 - & 8 ?> E0@0:B5@C, 8 ?> ?@>4>;68B5;L=>AB8 C :064>3> 8=48284CC<0 >G5=L =5>4=>7=0G=0O, =5A<>B@O =0 B>, GB> 20:F8=0B>@K =5 E>BOB 8;8 =5 <>3CB >B>9B8 >B CB25@645=8O ">1I53> 74>@>2LO", 1C4B> 1K >48=0:>2>3> 2 A2>8E ?@>O2;5=8OE C "2A5E ?>4@O4" (13, 14). "0:, : ?@8<5@C, C >?@545;Q==KE ;8F 2>7<>6=> =>A8B5;LAB2> MB>9 "<0;>9 1>;57=8 BC15@:C;Q70" (40,42,44)- ?5@A8AB5=F8O, :>B>@0O ?@>4>;605BAO C :064>3> ?>-A2>5<C 8 =5>3@0=8G5==> 4>;3>, GB> 7028A8B 8A:;NG8B5;L=> >B 8=48284C0;L=>9 E0@0:B5@8AB8:8 >@30=87<0 ?@828205<>3>, >B 53> A?>A>1=>AB8 : <5B01>;87<C - 18>B@0=AD>@<0F88 MB>3> GC65@>4=>3> 035=B0, >B :>=AB8BCF8>=0;L=KE >A>15==>AB59 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K. >MB><C @50:F8O 0=BC 2 40==>< A;CG05 3>2>@8B B>;L:> > B><, GB> :>=B0:B 1K;. @8GQ<, 2 1>;LH59 AB5?5=8 MB> ?@8ACI5 B5<, :B> =5 "?5@5@01>B0;" &, A>E@0=82 <8:>10:B5@89 2 A:@KB>9, <0A:8@>20==>9 - ?5@A8AB5=B=>9 D>@<5. !>AB>O=85 ?5@A8AB5=F88, B> 5ABL E@>=8G5A:>9 8=D8F8@>20==>AB8, >A>15==> >?0A=> 4;O 2>A?@88<G82>3> :>=B8=35=B0 ;8F. BAN40, 2>-2B>@KE, @50:F8O 0=BC 4>;6=0 8A?>;L7>20BLAO 8A:;NG8B5;L=>  ?@8282:8 &. -B@5BL8E, MB0 4803=>AB8G5A:0O ?@>10 =5 <>65B >?@545;OBL 8<<C=8B5B ?@>B82 BC15@:C;570. @>B82>BC15@:C;Q7=K9 8<<C=8B5B >F5=8205BAO 8<<C=>;>38G5A:8<8 <5B>40<8 8 2=5 >@30=87<0 @515=:0 (29, 31-33). > =0H8 20:F8=0B>@K 8A?>;L7CNB BC15@:C;8=>2CN ?@>1C 8 =0 MB>B ?@54<5B, ?>4>1=> @0=55 ACI5AB2>202H59 0=B8B5;L=>9 ?@>15 - @50:F88 (8:0 (B>65 =5157>?0A=>9, >B<5=Q==>9 C =0A 2A53> ;8HL 2 80-E 33.). ! ?><>ILN ?>A;54=59 CB>G=O;8 (=0 @51Q=:5!) =0;8G85->BACBAB285 0=B8B5; ?@>B82 48DB5@89=>3> 0=0B>:A8=0, 2E>4OI53> 2 !, E>BO C65 A 60-E 3>4>2 CH54H53> AB>;5B8O <5B>4K in vitro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in vitro ?@8 >F5=:5 :0G5AB20 8 MDD5:B82=>AB8 & 8 4@C38E ?@>B82>BC15@:C;57=KE <5@>?@8OB89 2>7;>68;8 =0 A5:F8N 18>?@5?0@0B>2  (29.3, A. 67). >, A>25@H5==> >G5284=>, ?@8=OBK5 @5H5=8O 4> A8E ?>@ "=5 4>H;8" 4> =0H53> 3>AC40@AB20 (60). @0G8 =>2>3> ?>:>;5=8O, A?5F80;8ABK-<548:8 B@5BL53> BKAOG5;5B8O (A>1AB25==>, : =8< O 8 >1@0I0NAL, 04@5ACO 2A5 =0:>?;5==K5 7=0=8O) 4>;6=K ?>=OBL: =5;L7O ?@5=51@530BL @>;LN B0: =07K205<KE "<0;KE" 2>7459AB2CNI8E D0:B>@>2 B8?0 BC15@:C;8=0. !0<0 ?@8282:0 - C65 AB@040=8O, 1>;57=L. "C15@:C;8=>20O ?@>10 - 5I5 >4=0 A25@E=03@C7:0 - G@57:>6=>5 2<5H0B5;LAB2>, ?>ABC?;5=85 =>2>3> A5@L57=>3> 0;;5@35=0 (5,21,23, 29, 44,48, 55, 57), 4>?>;=8B5;L=K9 #, : ?>A;54AB28O< :>B>@>3> <K 5I5 25@=5<AO. >:0 65 O A >3>@G5=85< F8B8@CN >4=>3> 87 =0H8E 0:045<8:>2: "!53>4=O >1I5AB2> =5 <>65B 3>@48BLAO A2>8<8 2@0G0<8. AB05BAO ;8HL C2065=85 : 8AB>@8G5A:8< 70A;C30< >B5G5AB25==>9 <548F8=K 8 ;CGH8E 5Q ?@54AB028B5;59, 2=5AH8E A2>9 2:;04 2 @0728B85 F828;870F88. %>G5BAO =045OBLAO, GB> 84CI85 70 =0<8 :>340-=81C4L 25@=CB C2065=85 : A515"... (.. 'CG0;8=// 54. 5AB=8:, 2000, !24, A. 8). C45< =045OBLAO... IV.4. !"  ",!" $   / +"+ !# !"+% 548=>2@5<5==KE ?>A>189 8 565<5AOG=KE 45=56=KE :><?5=A0F89 3@0640=0< ?@8 2>7=8:=>25=88 C =8E !"&,+% !.  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/pr_iv.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET  IV.4.1 #"  >AB0=>2;5=85< @028B5;LAB20 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 >B 02 023CAB0 1999 3. N 885  ', ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89, 2K720==KE ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8<8 ?@8282:0<8, 2:;NG5==K<8 2 0F8>=0;L=K9 :0;5=40@L ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8E ?@8282>: $, 8 ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8<8 ?@8282:0<8 ?> M?845<8G5A:8< ?>:070=8O<, 40NI8E ?@02> 3@0640=0< =0 ?>;CG5=85 3>AC40@AB25==KE 548=>2@5<5==KE ?>A>189: =0D8;0:B8G5A:89 H>:. "O65;K5 35=5@0;87>20==K5 0;;5@38G5A:85 @50:F88 (@5F84828@CNI89 0=38>=52@>B8G5A:89 >B5: - >B5: 28=:5, A8=4@>< !B825=A0-6>=A>=0, A8=4@>< 095;0, A8=4@>< AK2>@>B>G=>9 1>;57=8 8 B.?.). -=F5D0;8B. 0:F8=>-0AA>F88@>20==K9 ?>;8><85;8B. >@065=8O F5=B@0;L=>9 =5@2=>9 A8AB5<K A 35=5@0;87>20==K<8 8;8 D>:0;L=K<8 >AB0B>G=K<8 ?@>O2;5=8O<8, ?@8254H8<8 : 8=20;84=>AB8: M=F5D0;>?0B8O, A5@>7=K9 <5=8=38B, =52@8B, ?>;8=52@8B, 0 B0:65 A :;8=8G5A:8<8 ?@O2;5=8O<8 AC4>@>6=>3> A8=4@><0. 5=5@0;87>20==0O 8=D5:F8O, >AB58B (>AB8B, >AB5><85;8B), 2>7=8:H85 ?>A;5 22545=8O 20:F8=K &. @B@8B E@>=8G5A:89, 2K720==K9 20:F8=>9 ?@>B82 :@0A=CE8. IV.4.2 #"  ?>AB0=>2;5=85< @028B5;LAB20 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 >B 27 45:01@O 2000 3. ! 1013  / 2K?;0BK 3>AC40@AB25==KE 548=>2@5<5==KE ?>A>189 8 565<5AOG=KE 45=56=KE :><?5=A0F89 3@0640=0< ?@8 2>7=8:=>25=88 C =8E ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89 1. 0AB>OI89 >@O4>: >?@545;O5B CA;>28O 2K?;0BK 3>AC40@AB25==KE 548=>2@5<5==KE ?>A>189 8 565<5AOG=KE 45=56=KE :><?5=A0F89 3@0640=0< ?@8 2>7=8:=>25=88 C =8E ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89, 2K720==KE ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8<8 ?@8282:0<8, 2:;NG5==K<8 2 =0F8>=0;L=K9 :0;5=40@L ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8E ?@8282>:, 8 ?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8<8 ?@8282:0<8 ?> M?845<8G5A:8< ?>:070=8O<. 2. >AC40@AB25==>5 548=>2@5<5==>5 ?>A>185 2K?;0G8205BAO: 3@0640=0<, C :>B>@KE CAB0=>2;5=> =0;8G85 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> >A;>6=5=8O; G;5=0< A5<L8 3@0640=8=0 2 A;CG05 53> A<5@B8, =0ABC?82H59 2A;54AB285 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> >A;>6=5=8O, @C3 G;5=>2 A5<L8, 8<5NI8E ?@02> =0 ?>;CG5=85 C:070==>3> ?>A>18O, >?@545;O5BAO 2 A>>B25BAB288 A> AB0BLO<8 50 8 51 0:>=0 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88  3>AC40@AB25==KE ?5=A8OE 2 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88. 3. 65<5AOG=0O 45=56=0O :><?5=A0F8O 2K?;0G8205BAO 3@0640=0<, ?@87=0==K< 2 CAB0=>2;5==>< ?>@O4:5 8=20;840<8 2A;54AB285 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> >A;>6=5=8O. 4.  A;CG05 5A;8 3@0640=8=, C :>B>@>3> CAB0=>2;5=> =0;8G85 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> >A;>6=5=8O, ?@87=0= 8=20;84>< 2A;54AB285 MB>3> >A;>6=5=8O, >= 2?@025 ?>;CG8BL 3>AC40@AB25==>5 548=>2@5<5==>5 ?>A>185 8 565<5AOG=CN 45=56=CN :><?5=A0F8N. 5. K?;0B0 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 548=>2@5<5==>3> ?>A>18O 8 565<5AOG=>9 45=56=>9 :><?5=A0F88 3@0640=0< ?@8 2>7=8:=>25=88 C =8E ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> >A;>6=5=8O ?@>872>48BAO >@30=0<8 A>F80;L=>9 70I8BK =0A5;5=8O AC1J5:B>2 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 70 AG5B A@54AB2 D545@0;L=>3> 1N465B0, ?@54CA<>B@5==KE =0 MB8 F5;8. 6. ;O ?>;CG5=8O 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 548=>2@5<5==>3> ?>A>18O ?@8 2>7=8:=>25=88 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> >A;>6=5=8O 3@0640=8=, 0 2 A;CG05 53> A<5@B8 - G;5= 53> A5<L8 ?@54AB02;O5B 2 >@30= A>F80;L=>9 70I8BK =0A5;5=8O ?> <5ABC 68B5;LAB20: 0) 70O2;5=85 > =07=0G5=88 8 2K?;0B5 ?>A>18O; 1) 4>:C<5=BK, ?>4B25@640NI85 D0:B ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> >A;>6=5=8O (70:;NG5=85 >1 CAB0=>2;5=88 D0:B0 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> >A;>6=5=8O; A2845B5;LAB2> > A<5@B8). 7. ;O ?>;CG5=8O 565<5AOG=>9 45=56=>9 :><?5=A0F88 3@0640=8=, ?@87=0==K9 8=20;84>< 2A;54AB285 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> >A;>6=5=8O, ?@54AB02;O5B 2 >@30= A>F80;L=>9 70I8BK =0A5;5=8O ?> <5ABC 68B5;LAB20: 0) 70O2;5=85 > =07=0G5=88 8 2K?;0B5 :><?5=A0F88; 1) 4>:C<5=BK, ?>4B25@640NI85 D0:B ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> >A;>6=5=8O (70:;NG5=85 >1 CAB0=>2;5=88 D0:B0 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> >A;>6=5=8O; A?@02:0 >1 8=20;84=>AB8). 8. @30= A>F80;L=>9 70I8BK =0A5;5=8O ?@8=8<05B @5H5=85 > 2K?;0B5 ;81> >1 >B:075 2 2K?;0B5 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 548=>2@5<5==>3> ?>A>18O 8;8 565<5AOG=>9 45=56=>9 :><?5=A0F88 2 10-4=52=K9 A@>: A> 4=O ?>40G8 70O2;5=8O. 9.  A;CG05 ?@8=OB8O @5H5=8O >1 >B:075 2 2K?;0B5 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 548=>2@5<5==>3> ?>A>18O 8;8 565<5AOG=>9 45=56=>9 :><?5=A0F88 2 5-4=52=K9 A@>: A> 4=O 53> ?@8=OB8O 70O28B5;N =0?@02;O5BAO 8725I5=85 A C:070=85< ?@8G8= >B:070 8 2>72@0I0NBAO 4>:C<5=BK, :>B>@K5 1K;8 ?@8;>65=K : 70O2;5=8N. 10.  A;CG05 A<5@B8 3@0640=8=0, =0ABC?82H59 2A;54AB285 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> >A;>6=5=8O, 3>AC40@AB25==>5 548=>2@5<5==>5 ?>A>185 2K?;0G8205BAO >4=><C 87 G;5=>2 53> A5<L8 (A ?8AL<5==>3> A>3;0A8O 2A5E A>25@H5==>;5B=8E G;5=>2 A5<L8) ?> @5H5=8N >@30=0 A>F80;L=>9 70I8BK =0A5;5=8O. 11. >AC40@AB25==>5 548=>2@5<5==>5 ?>A>185 2K?;0G8205BAO A> 4=O CAB0=>2;5=8O D0:B0 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> >A;>6=5=8O. 65<5AOG=0O 45=56=0O :><?5=A0F8O 2K?;0G8205BAO A> 4=O CAB0=>2;5=8O 8=20;84=>AB8 2A;54AB285 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> >A;>6=5=8O.  A;CG05 CAB0=>2;5=8O D0:B0 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> >A;>6=5=8O 8;8 ?@87=0=8O 8=20;84>< 2A;54AB285 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> >A;>6=5=8O 4> 2ABC?;5=8O 2 A8;C $545@0;L=>3> 70:>=0 1 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8:5 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 3>AC40@AB25==>5 548=>2@5<5==>5 ?>A>185 8;8 565<5AOG=0O 45=56=0O :><?5=A0F8O 2K?;0G820NBAO A> 4=O 2ABC?;5=8O 2 A8;C C:070==>3> $545@0;L=>3> 70:>=0. 12. > 2@5<O ?@51K20=8O (?@>6820=8O) 3@0640=8=0 2 >@30=870F8OE 74@02>>E@0=5=8O 8;8 A>F80;L=>3> >1A;C6820=8O 565<5AOG=0O 45=56=0O :><?5=A0F8O 2K?;0G8205BAO 5<C 2 ?>;=>< @07<5@5. 13.  A;CG05 A<5@B8 3@0640=8=0, ?@87=0==>3> 8=20;84>< 2A;54AB285 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> >A;>6=5=8O, =54>?>;CG5==0O 8< 565<5AOG=0O 45=56=0O :><?5=A0F8O G;5=0< 53> A5<L8 =5 2K?;0G8205BAO. 14. 65<5AOG=0O 45=56=0O :><?5=A0F8O, =5 ?>;CG5==0O A2>52@5<5==> 3@0640=8=><, ?@87=0==K< 8=20;84>< 2A;54AB285 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> >A;>6=5=8O, ?> 28=5 >@30=>2, >15A?5G820NI8E 8E 2K?;0BC, 2K?;0G8205BAO 70 ?@>H;>5 2@5<O 157 >3@0=8G5=8O :0:8<-;81> A@>:><. 15. >AC40@AB25==>5 548=>2@5<5==>5 ?>A>185 8 565<5AOG=0O 45=56=0O :><?5=A0F8O, 87;8H=5 2K?;0G5==K5 2A;54AB285 ?@54AB02;5=8O 4>:C<5=B>2 A 70254><> =525@=K<8 A2545=8O<8, A>:@KB8O 40==KE, 2;8ONI8E =0 2K?;0BC ?>A>189, 2>7<5I0NBAO ?>;CG0B5;5< 8 2 A;CG05 A?>@0 27KA:820NBAO 2 AC451=>< ?>@O4:5. 16. !?>@K ?> 2>?@>A0< 2K?;0BK 3>AC40@AB25==>3> 548=>2@5<5==>3> ?>A>18O 8;8 565<5AOG=>9 45=56=>9 :><?5=A0F88 @07@5H0NBAO 2 ?>@O4:5, CAB0=>2;5==>< 70:>=>40B5;LAB2>< >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88. 17. >@O4>: CG5B0 8 E@0=5=8O 4>:C<5=B>2 ?> 2>?@>A0< =07=0G5=8O 8 2K?;0BK 3>AC40@AB25==KE 548=>2@5<5==KE ?>A>189 8 565<5AOG=KE 45=56=KE :><?5=A0F89 >?@545;O5BAO 8=8AB5@AB2>< B@C40 8 A>F80;L=>3> @0728B8O >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 ?> A>3;0A>20=8N A 8=8AB5@AB2>< D8=0=A>2 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88. 18. @30=K A>F80;L=>9 70I8BK =0A5;5=8O AC1J5:B>2 >AA89A:>9 $545@0F88 ?@54AB02;ONB 2 CAB0=>2;5==>< ?>@O4:5 1CE30;B5@A:CN 8 AB0B8AB8G5A:CN >BG5B=>ABL > @0AE>4>20=88 A@54AB2, 2K45;5==KE 87 D545@0;L=>3> 1N465B0 =0 2K?;0BC 3>AC40@AB25==KE 548=>2@5<5==KE ?>A>189 8 565<5AOG=KE 45=56=KE :><?5=A0F89.   IV.1.  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/pr_iv1n.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET   INCLUDEPICTURE "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki/pr_iv1.jpg" \* MERGEFORMATINET   V. -"  &    # V. !" ;02=>3> 3>AC40@AB25==>3> A0=8B0@=>3> 2@0G0 ?> 3. >A:25  INCLUDEPICTURE "http://magichild.ru/vaccine/privivki.gif" \* MERGEFORMATINET  !" .'/: !, !&!"  >B25B =0 =0H8 ?C1;8:0F88 8 2KABC?;5=8O ?> @048> 8 B5;52845=8N <K ?@>4>;605< ?>;CG0BL <=>3>G8A;5==K5 >B:;8:8.  MB8E ?8AL<0E A>45@60BAO <0B5@80;K, =0 >A=>25 :>B>@KE <>6=> =0?8A0BL <>=>3@0D8N. 5:>B>@K5 87 =8E ?@54AB02;ONB A>1>9 A2>5>1@07=K5 @5F5=788. '0ABL ?8A5< C65 >?C1;8:>20=0 2 >:;045-A1>@=8:5 "0:F8=>?@>D8;0:B8:0 8 ?@020 G5;>25:0" (  , ., 1994 3.). 8AL<> >=:>8<<C=>;>30  ><8B5B ?> 18>MB8:5 , 2 @540:F8N @048> " >AA8O" >B ?@>D5AA>@0 .. >@>48;>2>9 02=> A;54>20;> 1K A5@L57=> ?>4C<0BL > =0@0AB0NI5< 45BA:>< ;59:>75, > :>B>@>< 3>2>@8; C65 2 =0G0;5 60-E 0:045<8: . . 8;L15@, > @0710;0=A8@>20==>9 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<5 2 @57C;LB0B5 =5C30A0NI53> (2 B>< G8A;5) "?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> A>AB>O=8O", =0G8=0NI53>AO C =0A A @>44><>2 8 0:B82=> ?@>4>;60NI53>AO 2 45BA:><, ?>4@>AB:>2>< 8 N=>H5A:8< ?5@8>40E. >:070=>, GB> C <;045=F52 8<<C==0O A8AB5<0 5IQ =57@5;0O, GB> >=0 =0G8=05B DC=:F8>=8@>20BL 2 ?@545;0E =5:>B>@>9 "=>@<K" G5@57 6 <5AOF52, 0 4> B>3> >@30=87< 5IQ =5 040?B8@>20;AO, =5 A>7@5;. 0:0O <>65B 1KBL & 2 =5>=0B0;L=>< ?5@8>45? 5>=0B>;>38O ?@87K205B 8 >1O7K205B <54@01>B=8:>2 =01;N40BL 70 =>2>@>645==K<8 2 ?5@2K9 <5AOF ?>A;5 @>645=8O. 0 MB> 2@5<O 4>;6=0 1KBL ?@>2545=0 =5 20:F8=0F8O &, 0 BI0B5;L=K9 A:@8=8=3 =>2>@>645==KE =0 8<<C=>45D8F8BK, 8AA;54>20=8O A F5;LN CAB0=>2;5=8O B5E 8;8 8=KE =0A;54AB25==KE 701>;520=89, A45;0= ?@>3=>7 @50;L=KE ?@54?>AK;>: : B>9 8;8 8=>9 ?0B>;>388, =0?@8<5@, : D5@<5=B>?0B8O<. 0?04=K< AB@0=0< 2@>45 1K B0:85 A2545=8O =5 =C6=K, 254L >=8 =5 ?@82820NB B0:8E :@>E 682K<8 20:F8=0<8. "5< =5 <5=55, 2 MB8E 3>AC40@AB20E C65 =5A:>;L:> 45AOB8;5B89 ?@>2>48BAO >F5=:8 8<<C==>3> AB0BCA0 A@07C ?>A;5 @>645=8O. 'B> ?@>8AE>48B A B8<CA><, 2K@01>B:>9 ;8<D>F8B>2 ?>A;5 ?@8<5=5=8O & - GB> 45;05BAO A MB>9 A8AB5<>9 70I8BK? 45 MB8 40==K5? / 8E =5 2AB@5G0;0 2 >B5G5AB25==>9 ;8B5@0BC@5, E>B0 3@O4QB B@5BL5 BKAOG5;5B85. $0:B8G5A:8, 2AQ ?@>8AE>4OI55 =0 ?@>BO65=88 =5A:>;L:8E ?>:>;5=89 - =0@CH5=85 ?>=8<0=8O B>3>, GB> 7=0G8B 20:F8=0F8O. ><>IL 2 "8A?@02;5=88" 74>@>2LO 45B59 4>;6=0 1KBL 8 @07C<=>-8=48284C0;L=>9 8 >G5=L >AB>@>6=>9. <<C==K9 AB0BCA G5;>25:0 >F5=8205BAO 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O ?> 48DD5@5=F8@>20==K< ?>:070B5;O< 0:B82=>AB8 "- 8 -:;5B>G=KE A8AB5< 8<<C=8B5B0. >A;5 & =0G8=05BAO A5@LQ7=0O ?5@5AB@>9:0 ?@8@>4=KE >A>15==>AB59 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L <0:@>D030;L=>9 5Q A>AB02;ONI59, =0 682K5 <8:>10:B5@88 BC15@:C;Q70, O2;ONI85AO >A=>2>9 MB>9 20:F8=K. >B>20 ;8 8<<C==0O A8AB5<0 <;045=F0 1>@>BLAO A> AB>;L A8;L=>9 =03@C7:>9? -B>3> 65 =8:B> =5 87CG0;.... >4>1=0O 8<<C=><>4C;OF8O 5A;8 8 B@51C5BAO :><C-B>, B> B0:8E - 548=8FK. @C1>5 =0@CH5=85 B>=:>3> 70I8B=>3> <5E0=87<0 ?CBQ< ?>AB>O==>9 "8<<C=>B5@0?88" 2K7K205B CA:>@5==CN ?>B5@N "8<<C=>A8;K", 4>?CA:0N - 8=2>;NF8N B8<CA0, =5 CA?52H53> ?@8ABC?8BL : A2>8< ">1O70==>ABO<", >B:@K20O 4>@>3C : >=:>701>;520=8O<.... 8<D>F8BK 2E>4OB 2 A5<59AB2> ;59:>F8B>2 - 15;KE :;5B>: :@>28. @>2L, :0: 8725AB=>, A>AB>8B 87 684:>9 ?;07<K, M@8B@>F8B>2 (:@0A=KE :@>2O=KE H0@8:>2), ;59:>F8B>2 8 B@><1>F8B>2. >6=> 4C<0BL, GB> ?@8 8=B5=A82=>9 8 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>9 8<<C=>AB8<C;OF88 2 :@>28 =0:0?;820NBAO D0:B>@K, >:07K20NI85 @07=>>1@07=>5 2>7459AB285 =0 :;5B:8 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K, =0@CH0O CA;>28O DC=:F8>=8@>20=8O ;8<D>F8B>2, ?>2KH0O "@0AE>4" >?@545;Q==KE B8?>2 :;5B>: 15;>9 :@>28. AB>I5=85 8E ?@8254QB : 87<5=5=8N :@>25B2>@5=8O, 0=0;>38G=> B><C, 2>7<>6=>, :0: ?@8 ?@>4>;68B5;L=>9 0=5<88 0:B82878@C5BAO M@8B@>?>M7. ">, GB> O =07K20N ?@>4>;68B5;L=K< "?>AB20:F8=0;L=K< A>AB>O=85<", 2 :>=5G=>< 8B>35 <>65B O28BLAO ?@8G8=>9 @0AAB@>9AB20 :@>25B2>@5=8O.  2 B0:8E 2KA:07K20=8OE O =5 >48=>:0. %>GC =0?><=8BL > @01>B0E . . (010;>20 (1969, 1975), C:07K20NI8E =0 ?@>2>F8@CNICN @>;L 20:F8= 2 ?@>O2;5=8OE ;0B5=B=> ?@>B5:0NI53> ;59:>70 C 45B59, 0 B0:65 > BO6Q;KE >1>AB@5=8OE ;59:>70 ?>4 2;8O=85< ?@8282>:, > G5< C?><8=05BAO 8 2 <=>3>G8A;5==>9 ?5480B@8G5A:>9 ;8B5@0BC@5, => <5@K =5 ?@8=8<0NBAO. 8=74@02 !!!  =5 >@30=87>20; 2 A2>5 2@5<O ?>43>B>2:C 2@0G59 ?> :;8=8G5A:>9 8<<C=>;>388, 2 B>< G8A;5 2 >1;0AB8 <8:@>18>;>388, A;54>20B5;L=>, 8 2 A8AB5<5 ?@8282>: - =8 2 <548F8=A:8E 8=AB8BCB0E, =8 =0 :0D54@0E CA>25@H5=AB2>20=8O 2@0G59. =0=85 :;8=8G5A:>9 8<<C=>;>388 A>25@H5==> =5>1E>48<> 4;O >F5=:8 74>@>2LO A>2@5<5==KE 45B59, ?>4@>AB:>2 8 <>;>4568 45B>@>4=>3> 2>7@0AB0.  A>60;5=8N, 8 8=AB8BCBK >E@0=K 45BAB20 4065 =5 AB02OB ?5@54 A>1>9 B0:8E 7040G. ;8=8G5A:0O 8<<C=>;>38O 687=5==> 206=0 4;O <8:@>18>;>3>2 8 ?5480B@>2, 2 ?5@2CN >G5@54L 4;O B5E, :B> 70=8<05BAO "?5@545;K20=85<" 5AB5AB25==KE 70I8B=KE A8; >@30=87<0 45B59 A ?><>ILN ?@8282>:. 04> 7=0BL, GB> ?5@545;K205HL! AQ A:070==>5 B5< 1>;55 206=>, ?>A:>;L:C 4>?CA:0N, GB> &, :0: 682K5 <8:>10:B5@88 BC15@:C;Q70, ?>402;ONB 0:B82=>ABL "-A8AB5<K C =>2>@>645==KE, 2K7K20O 2B>@8G=CN 8<<C=>;>38G5A:CN =54>AB0B>G=>ABL - A8=4@><K ?@8>1@5BQ==KE 8<<C=>45D8F8B>2 (!K). B>@8G=CN 8<<C=>;>38G5A:CN =54>AB0B>G=>ABL A;54C5B @0AF5=820BL :0: :>=5G=K9 @57C;LB0B DC=:F8>=0;L=>3> @0AAB@>9AB20 8 ?0B>;>38G5A:8E 87<5=5=89 2 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<5 45B59. >;=>ABLN @0745;ON B@51>20=8O 0;8=K 5B@>2=K '5@2>=A:>9, :>B>@K5 >=0 2K428=C;0 >B:@KB> G5@57 A@54AB20 <0AA>2>9 8=D>@<0F88 (3075BK 8 6C@=0;K, @048> 8 B5;52845=85) - ?@8282:8 4>;6=K 1KBL 8=48284C0;L=K<8 8 @0F8>=0;L=> ?@8<5=O5<K<8. !>25@H5==> =5>1E>48<> 4803=>AB8G5A:>5 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>5 >1A;54>20=85 4> 8 ?>A;5 MB>3> <548F8=A:>3> 8 >G5=L =5157>184=>3> 2<5H0B5;LAB20. 5;L7O 15A?@545;L=> =0:0?;820BL 871KB>G=K5 0=B8B5;0 - 8E 871KB>: ?@82>48B : 0CB>8<<C==K< ?@>F5AA0<. BAN40 8 "?><>;>452H85" 0CB>8<<C==K5 701>;520=8O C <>;>4Q68: @52<0B>84=K9 0@B@8B, A8AB5<=0O :@0A=0O 2>;G0=:0, 701>;520=8O ?>G5:, I8B>284=>9 65;57K, @0AAB@>9AB2> =5@2=>9, M=4>:@8==>9 8 A>AC48AB>9 A8AB5<, <=>3>G8A;5==K5 >=:>701>;520=8O, 0 A@548 =8E - 45BA:89 ;59:>7. !G8B0N, GB> 8=74@02 >1O70= @07@01>B0BL ?;0= =5 ?> >E20BC ?@8282:0<8, 0 ?> >@30=870F88 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>3> >1A;54>20=8O-A:@8=8=30 A>2@5<5==KE 45B59 =0 8<<C=>45D8F8BK. "0:>9 ?;0= 4>;65= >B25G0BL A>2@5<5==K< 70?@>A0< 45BA:>9 M:>- 8 M=4>?0B>;>388 8 >?@545;5=8N 1>;55 A5@LQ7=KE :@8B5@852 : ?>:070=8O< 8 ?@>B82>?>:070=8O< : ?@8282:0<, >A>15==> 682K<8 20:F8=0<8. C<05BAO, GB> ?@>B82>?>:070=8O A;54C5B @57:> @0AH8@8BL. !G8B0N B0:65 =5>1E>48<K< ?@82;5:0BL : 04<8=8AB@0B82=>9 8 C3>;>2=>9 >B25BAB25==>AB8 <548F8=A:89 ?5@A>=0;, ?@>2>4OI89 ?@8282:8 =0A8;LAB25==> 2 45BA:8E 4>H:>;L=KE CG@5645=8OE 8 2 H:>;0E, 157 8=48284C0;L=>3> >B1>@0 45B59, 2 ?>3>=5 70 :>;8G5AB2>< G8A;0 ?@828BKE. ;O ;N1>3> A>2@5<5==>3> M:>-M?845<8>;>38G5A:>3> 8AA;54>20=8O =5>1E>48<K 40==K5 > A>AB>O=88 74>@>2LO =0A5;5=8O 8, ?@5645 2A53>, 8<<C=>;>38G5A:>3> 74>@>2LO. 0 A>1AB25==>< 3>@L:>< >?KB5 7=0N, :0: =0A8;LAB25==0O 20:F8=0F8O ?@8=>A8B 2@54, 0 =5 ?>;L7C 74>@>2LN @515=:0. >59 2=CG:5 1K;0 A45;0=0 ?5@20O ?@8282:0 !. >7=8:;> BO65;59H55 >A;>6=5=85 - >BQ: <>73>2KE >1>;>G5:, H>: 8 ?@.  ?5@8>4 :0<?0=89 ?@8282>: 2 H:>;5 :064K9 @07 ?@8E>48BAO 2>520BL A <54?5@A>=0;>< 8 A;CH0BL C3@>7K > 70?@5I5=88 ?>A5I5=8O H:>;K. 0@O4C A MB8<, ACI5AB2CNB GQB:85 ?@>B82>?>:070=8O : ?>A;54CNI59 20:F8=0F88 2 A;CG05, 5A;8 =0 ?5@2CN 1K;0 BO65;0O @50:F8O. %>@>H> 5IQ, GB> 2 =0H59 ?>;8:;8=8:5 5ABL 2AQ-B0:8 4C<0NI85 2@0G8, E>BO 8 745AL =5 2AQ B0: ?@>AB> - 8E AB0=>28BAO 2AQ <5=LH5. >;55 B>3>, O <>3;0 1K 5IQ <=>3> @0AA:070BL 87 A>1AB25==>9 ?@0:B8:8, 254L O =5 ?@>AB> <548:->=:>8<<C=>;>3, =>... <>@A:>9 >D8F5@, A;C682H0O 2 1@83045 ?>42>4=KE ;>4>:. 0=LH5 1K;> 2AQ 70A5:@5G5=> (157 MB>3> B>65 =5;L7O!), => B5?5@L <>6=> > GQ<-B> 8 @0AA:070BL... ;O ?>42>4=8:>2 1K;8 >1O70B5;L=K5 ?@8282:8, :0: 8 4;O 2A5E B5E, :B> ?@87K205BAO 2> D;>B. K ?@>25;8 8=B5@5A=K5 =01;N45=8O: :0: 65 =5>48=0:>2> @5038@CNB =0 C:>;K 8 ?@8282:8 <0;LG8:8, <C6G8=K - 35@>8 ?>42>4=8:8, 8<5NI85, >4=0:>, @07=K5 =5@2=K5 B8?K! 48= 87 <>8E CG5=8:>2, =52@>?0B>;>3, CAB0=>28; C4828B5;L=CN 7028A8<>ABL: G5< =865 8=B5;;5:B C 2>5==>A;C60I53>, B5< 2KH5 70I8B=K5 A8;K >@30=87<0. ?C1;8:>20BL ?>4>1=K5 =01;N45=8O 1K;> :@09=5 A;>6=> 2 B5 2@5<5=0, ?@0:B8G5A:8 =52>7<>6=>, => 45;C ?><>3 <8:@>18>;>3 . ". @02G5=:>, >= 1K; B>340 ?@54A540B5;5< 0. @C3>9 <>9 CG5=8: ?>:070;, GB> C 27@>A;KE @51OB ?@87K2=>3> 2>7@0AB0 ?@8282:8 2K7K20NB B0:85 @57:85 87<5=5=8O A> AB>@>=K 8<<C=>;>38G5A:8E @50:F89, :>B>@K5 "?@8E>4OB 2 =>@<C" >G5=L =5A:>@>.  =0 D>=5 ?@82=>A8<>3> =0@CH5=8O 5AB5AB25==KE ?@>F5AA>2 8<<C==>3> AB0BCA0 ?@828BK5 1>;5;8 ?@>ABC4=K<8 8 4@C38<8 701>;520=8O<8 (2 8E G8A;5 B5<8, >B :>B>@KE ?@82820;8!) G0I5, G5< @51OB0, :>B>@K5 2E>48;8 2 3@C??C ":>=B@>;O", B.5. =5 20:F8=8@>20;8AL. ">, > GQ< O 745AL @0AA:070;0 GCBL-GCBL, A59G0A <>6=> ?@>G8B0BL, =0?@8<5@, 2 "C@=0;5 M?845<8>;>388, <8:@>18>;>388 8 8<<C=>18>;>388" (-, 1990, ! 7) - 02B>@K 0?>G:> . ., C?@8= . . 8 4@.: "1 8=48284C0;L=>-;8G=>AB=KE >A>15==>ABOE G5;>25:0 :0: D0:B>@5 MB8>;>388 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89". -B8 8AA;54>20=8O ?@54AB02;5=K A>B@C4=8:0<8 >5==>-<548F8=A:>9 0:045<88 8<. !. . 8@>20, 3. 5=8=3@04. C, GB> 6 BCB =>2>3>? 064K9 G5;>25: - 8=48284C0;L=>ABL, B0: 8 4>;6=> 1KBL. N10O 20:F8=0 >A;01;O5B >@30=87<: C :>3> 8 A:>;L:> MB>B ?@>F5AA ?@>4;8BAO - ?@54A:070BL =52>7<>6=>, MB> =04> >?@545;OBL, 8A?>;L7CO 25AL 8<<C=>;>38G5A:89 0@A5=0; <5B>48:. #25@ON 20A, A;54>20O ?0B>;>38O =0 20:F8=0;L=>5 ?>2@5645=85 >1O70B5;L=> >AB0QBAO. >102;N : MB><C, GB> @50:F8O 0=BC - B>65 A5@LQ7=0O 8<<C=>;>38G5A:0O ?5@5AB@>9:0. K B>;L:> ?>4C<09B5: >@30=87< ">1O70=" 2K40BL @50:F8N A <5AB=K<8 ?@>O2;5=8O<8 2 <5AB5 22545=8O 0;;5@35=0 - BC15@:C;8=0, =0 :@>E>B=>5 :>;8G5AB2> 18>;>38G5A:>9 4803=>AB8G5A:>9 ?@>1K.  >@30=87< @5038@C5B 2>A?0;8B5;L=K< ?@>F5AA>< - ?>:@0A=5=85< @07=>9 25;8G8=K 2 <5AB5 ?0@5=B5@0;L=>3> ?>ABC?;5=8O BC15@:C;8=0. -B0 4803=>AB8G5A:0O ?@>10 - =8GCBL =5 <5=55 >?0A=>5 2<5H0B5;LAB2>, G5< A0<0 20:F8=0, ?>AB>;L:C B>65 - GC65@>4=K9 15;>:, 0;;5@35=. >=5G=> 65, ?@8282:8 =5 4>;6=K 1KBL >1O70B5;L=K<8, B5< 1>;55 ?;0=>2K<8 - =5;L7O 2?8A0BL 74>@>2L5 2A53> :;0AA0 2 >48= 8 B>B 65 ?;0=, A?CA:05<K9 87 8=74@020. ! MB8<8 <KA;O<8 O 8 ?>4?8AK20;0 >1@0I5=85 =0H59 3@C??K A?5F80;8AB>2 : @57845=BC AB@0=K, 0:045<8:C . . /1;>:>2C 8 4@., ?>A:>;L:C, :0: 2AO:>5 <548F8=A:>5 2<5H0B5;LAB2>, 20:F8=0F8O =5 <>65B 1KBL <0AA>2>9 8 4>;6=0 1KBL 4>1@>2>;L=>9. 54L A A0<8< 2>71C48B5;5< 8=D5:F8>==>9 1>;57=8 @515=>: B> ;8 2AB@5B8BAO, B> ;8 =5B, 0 20:F8=0 >1O70B5;L=> =0@CH8B 5AB5AB25==K9 E>4 A>1KB89. 0 8 :B> ?@>AG8B0;, GB> 2 =0H5 2@5<O >?0A=55: 48DB5@8B, BC15@:C;Q7 8;8 >A;>6=5=8O >B ?@8282>: ?@>B82 =8E? / 8 B0:8E @01>B =5 7=0N. C<0N, <K 70=8<05<AO =5 "B>9" 20:F8=0F859 2 25: A5@45G=>-A>AC48ABKE, >=:>;>38G5A:8E 701>;520=89, ?0B>;>388 >@30=>2 4KE0=8O, ?>G5:, @0A?@>AB@0=Q==>3> 48015B0, >?>@=>-42830B5;L=>9 ?0B>;>388, =0@CH5=8O ?A8E8G5A:>3> 74>@>2LO 45B59. @8282:8 A;54C5B @0AA<0B@820BL :0: <5@C G@572KG09=CN, BI0B5;L=> CG8BK20O 48=0<8:C 701>;5205<>AB8 :>=:@5B=>9 8=D5:F8>==>9 1>;57=LN, GB>1K ?@>2>48BL AB@>3> A5;5:B82=CN 20:F8=0F8N. <<C==0O A8AB5<0 =5 2K45@68205B "?;0=>2>3> =0B8A:0", >=0 ;><05BAO, DC=:F88 5Q 872@0I0NBAO, >=0 "A18205BAO A :C@A0", ?@54?8A0==>3> ?@8@>4>9, G5;>25: AB0=>28BAO 1>;55 CO728<K< : ?@>ABC45, 0;;5@35=0<, >=:>701>;520=8O<... 0ABQB 0;;5@38O A@548 <0;KH59 - 5ABL ;8 B5?5@L B0:85 45B8, :>B>@K5 1K =5 AB@040;8 0;;5@38G5A:8<8 701>;520=8O<8?! 1I58725AB=>, GB> 2 ?5@2>5 ?>;C3>485 45B8 AB@040NB 65;C4>G=>-:8H5G=>9 48AB@>D859 8 87<5=5=8O<8 =0 :>65, 2K7K205<K<8 ?8I52K<8 0;;5@35=0<8 @07=>9 MB8>;>388. !> 2B>@>3> ?>;C3>48O ?@8A>548=ONBAO A8<?B><K A> AB>@>=K 4KE0B5;L=KE ?CB59 - 0AB<0B8G5A:85 1@>=E8BK (:AB0B8, >4=> 87 >A;>6=5=89 =0 !, !-, !). C, 0 : 3-4 3>40< =0G8=0NB ?@>O2;OBLAO :;8=8G5A:85 A8<?B><K A5=A818;870F88 ?K;LF>9 8 B.4., 8 B.4. - ?> MB8< ?@>1;5<0< ?C1;8:0F88 =58AG8A;8<K. 0710;0=A8@>20==0O 8<<C==0O A8AB5<0 "=5 70<5G05B" =5?>28=CNI8EAO :;5B>:, 2KH54H8E 87-?>4 5Q :>=B@>;O, ?5@5@>640NI8EAO 2 >?CE>;52K5 87-70 8A:06Q==KE DC=:F89 <0:@>D030;L=>3> 725=0 8 2 F5;>< ;8<D>F8B>2. / =5 2AB@5B8;0 =8 >4=>9 @01>BK >B5G5AB25==KE 02B>@>2, :>B>@0O 1K >B25B8;0 =0 2>?@>A: GB> ?@>8AE>48B A B8<CA>< ?>A;5 &... ?>A;5 45AOB8-425=04F0B8;5B=53> "?>AB20:F8=0;L=>3> =0?@O65=8O", 2 AB0488 ?>;>2>3> A>7@520=8O ?>4@>AB:>2? AQ MB> >G5=L 206=>, E>BO =8 =0 >48= ?>AB02;5==K9 2>?@>A >B25B0 =5B. 0B> >1I58725AB=>: =5;L7O ?>;L7>20BLAO 682K<8 20:F8=0<8 ?@8 8<<C=>45D8F8B0E 8 D5@<5=B>?0B8OE, B0: :0:, :@><5 ?@>G8E 154, >=8 A?>A>1AB2CNB @0728B8N 8=D5:F8>==>3> ?@>F5AA0 A@548 2>A?@88<G82KE 45B59... <<C==0O A8AB5<0 - B>=:89 A10;0=A8@>20==K9 <5E0=87< 8, ?>4>1=> 4@C38< A8AB5<0<, ?>425@65=0 @0AAB@>9AB2C.  @57C;LB0B5 ?>AB>O==>3> @074@065=8O - AB8<C;OF88 20:F8=0<8, >=0, 2<5AB> B>3>, GB>1K >E@0=OBL >@30=87<, 3C18B A>1AB25==K5 :;5B:8 70 AG5B =0:>?;5=8O 0=B8B5;, 70 AG5B 0CB>8<<C==KE ?@>F5AA>2 8 DC=:F8>=0;L=>3> 87<5=5=8O A2>9AB2 :;5B>:. 0:8<8 1K 2@5<5==K<8 =8 1K;8 D>@<K 8<<C=>?0B>;>388, 2A5 >=8 A2>4OBAO : =0@CH5=8N 10;0=A0 "-:;5B>G=KE A8AB5<, ?@82>4O DC=:F8>=0;L=> 8 AB@C:BC@=> : <=>3>G8A;5==K< @0AAB@>9AB20< 2 74>@>2L5 @515=:0. 0?0A ;8<D>F8B>2 ?>AB5?5==> 8AB>I05BAO, 8 >@30=87< >:07K205BAO 15770I8B=K< ?5@54 @07;8G=K<8 0=B@>?>35==K<8 D0:B>@0<8. '5;>25: AB0@55B @0=LH5 A2>53> 2@5<5=8. $878>;>38G5A:>5, 5AB5AB25==>5 AB0@5=85 - ?@>F5AA ?>AB5?5==>3> 70BCE0=8O, C2O40=8O 2A5E 725=L52 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K. 0:F8=K 65 CA:>@ONB, ?>4ABQ38205B ?@>F5AA "@0AE>4>20=8O" ;8<D>F8B>2, 8A:CAAB25==> ?@82>4O >@30=87< G5;>25:0 : ?@56452@5<5==><C AB0@5=8N, >BAN40 cB0@G5A:85 1>;57=8 C <>;>4Q68.  >=:>;>388 >A=>2>?>;030NI8< A;C68B 48A10;0=A <564C A:>@>ABLN 8<<C==>3> >B25B0 8 >?CE>;52K< @>AB><. 0@0AB0=85 >=:>701>;520=8O >?5@5605B A:>@>ABL @07<=>65=8O @5038@CNI8E =0 =53> ;8<D>84=KE :;5B>:, =0?@02;5==KE, :@><5 B>3>, =0 1>@L1C A =5?@5AB0==> ?>ABC?0NI8<8 0=B835=0<8 - 20:F8=0<8. 725AB=K9 E8@C@3, 0:045<8:  !!!  . . <>A>2 2 >4=>9 87 A2>8E :=83 - " 074C<LO > 74>@>2L5", CB25@6405B, GB> ?@0:B8G5A:8 =52>7<>6=> ?@>25AB8 3@0=8FC <564C 2@>45 1K ?@>B82>?>;>6=K<8 ?>=OB8O<8 "74>@>2L5" 8 "1>;57=L".  ?>E>68< @0AAC645=8O< 1K; A:;>=5= 8 28F5==0, 682H89 A2KH5 BKAOG8 ;5B =0704: >= @07;8G0; <564C MB8<8 42C<O ?>=OB8O<8 @07;8G=K5 ?5@5E>4=K5 AB0488.  345 "?5@5E>4=K5 AB0488" <564C 74>@>2L5< 8 "<0;>9 1>;57=LN" - ?@8282:>9?! 45 3@0=8F0: 2>B MB> - ?>;L70, 0 MB> - 2@54?! / 01A>;NB=> C15645=0, GB> 2AO >=:>;>38O =0G8=05BAO A =530B82=>9 ?5@5AB@>9:8 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K A ?>A;54CNI8< C3=5B5=85< 5Q DC=:F89 :0: @57C;LB0B0 "A25@E=03@C7:8". <5==> ?@8 2@>64Q==KE 8 ?@8>1@5BQ==KE 8<<C=>45D8F8B0E >B<5G05BAO 1>;55 G0AB>5 @0728B85 7;>:0G5AB25==KE =>2>>1@07>20=89.... =:>8<<C=>;>3, 4.<.=., ?@>D5AA>@ . . >@>48;>20 8AL<> DB8780B@0 0F8>=0;L=K9 :><8B5B ?> 18>MB8:5 , 4>:B>@C . . '5@2>=A:>9 / 2@0G - DB8780B@ A 30-;5B=8< AB065< ?@0:B8G5A:>9 @01>BK. ?5@2K5 <KA;8 >1 >B@8F0B5;L=>< 2;8O=88 20:F8=K & =0 >@30=87< =>2>@>64Q==KE 2>7=8:;8 C <5=O 2 60-70-5 3>4K. ">340 AB0;8 ?>O2;OBLAO G0I5, G5< 1K;> 4> 1962 3., A;CG08 @0728B8O ;52>AB>@>==8E ?>4<KH5G=KE ;8<D045=8B>2, >1CA;>2;5==KE 20:F8=>9 &. 0: 8725AB=>, 2 1962 3. 22545=0 2=CB@8:>6=0O 20:F8=0F8O &. >A;5 MB>3> ?>O28;8AL 45B8 @0==53> 2>7@0AB0, 1>;L=K5 E@>=8G5A:>9 3@0=C;5<0B>7=>9 1>;57=LN (%), C :>B>@KE >1O70B5;L=> 8<5; <5AB> ;52>AB>@>==89 ?>4<KH5G=K9 ;8<D045=8B-&.  ?@0:B8:5 45BA:8E E8@C@3>2, >A>15==> A 1965 3., AB0;8 ?>O2;OBLAO G0ABK5 A;CG08 45AB@C:B82=KE AB0D8;>:>::>2KE ?=52<>=89, 0 2 ?@0:B8:5 ?5480B@>2 - 48A10:B5@8>7K. @>D5AA>@ . . !0<AK38=0 ?>4B25@6405B A53>4=O - 2 1996 3., GB> : :>=FC 70-E 3>4>2 G0AB>B0 10:B5@8>7>2 2>7@>A;0 2 15 @07, => MB> >=0, : A>60;5=8N, =5 A2O7K205B A 20:F8=0F859 &. 5A<>B@O =0 CA8;8O ?5480B@>2, A 8A?>;L7>20=85< 1>30B>3> 0@A5=0;0 =>2KE A8;L=KE ;5:0@AB25==KE ?@5?0@0B>2 =5 C405BAO A=878BL G8A;> 3=>9=8G:>2KE 8 3=>9=>-A5?B8G5A:8E 701>;520=89 C 45B59 ?5@2>3> 3>40 687=8. >45;8BLAO ?>4>1=K<8 <KA;O<8 A :5<-;81> 87 DB8780B@>2 =5 ?@54AB02;O;>AL 2>7<>6=K< - 2A5 >=8 1K;8 C15645==K<8 AB>@>==8:0<8... ?;0=>2, A?CA:05<KE 87 8=74@020. 0 ;N1>5 2>7@065=85 ?@>B82 MB>3> 1K;> =0;>65=> A2>5>1@07=>5 "B01C". >MB><C O @5H8; >1@0B8BLAO : 702:0D54@>9 45BA:8E 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59, 0:045<8:C  !!! , ?@>D5AA>@C . . 8A528G. KA;CH02 <5=O, >=0 @5:><5=4>20;0 >1@0B8BLAO : 70<. <8=8AB@0, 8... O >B@028;AO ?> 8=AB0=F8O<. 7=0:><82H8AL A <>8<8 AC645=8O<8 > 2@545 & 4;O >@30=87<0 =>2>@>64Q==KE, >=8 >B:@>25==> ?@87=0;8AL 2 B><, GB> 8 =5 ?@54?>;030;8 2>7<>6=>AB8 ACI5AB2>20=8O B0:>9 B>G:8 7@5=8O, =>... ?><>GL =8 2 GQ< =5 <>3CB. >340 C <5=O =0 :0D54@5 BC15@:C;Q70 C7=0;8 > <>5< ?>A5I5=88 8=74@020, 1K;0 A>1@0=0 ?0@B3@C??0, :>B>@>9 <=5 1K;> >1JO2;5=> ?0@B89=>5 27KA:0=85. "5< =5 <5=55, O ?@>4>;60; 87;030BL A2>8 <KA;8 2 "!;C651=KE ?8AL<0E" 8 4065 2 AB0BLOE 2 6C@=0;5 "5480B@8O". 5;> 2 B><, GB> <8:>10:B5@88 BC15@:C;Q70 O2;ONBAO ?>AB>O==K<8 "A?CB=8:0<8" G5;>25:0 ;8HL ?> 4>AB865=88 8< >?@545;Q==>3> 2>7@0AB0, => =5 2 ?5@8>4 =>2>@>64Q==>AB8. ;O 27@>A;KE ;N459 70 <=>3>25:>2CN 8AB>@8N G5;>25G5AB20 <8:>10:B5@88 BC15@:C;Q70 (=0 52@>0780BA:>< :>=B8=5=B5) ?@52@0B8;8AL 2 M:>;>38G5A:89 D0:B>@ A@54K >18B0=8O. AB5AB25==>, GB> ?@8 MB8E CA;>28OE C G5;>25:0 2K@01>B0;8AL 8 35=5B8G5A:8 70:@5?;Q==K5 >?@545;Q==K5 <5E0=87<K 70I8BK >B <8:>10:B5@88 BC15@:C;Q70 (") - >D>@<8;0AL B0: =07K205<0O 5AB5AB25==0O @578AB5=B=>ABL : ", 1;03>40@O :>B>@>9 1>;LH8=AB2> 8=D8F8@>20==KE " 8;8 =5 701>;520NB BC15@:C;Q7>< 2>>1I5, 8;8 87;5G820NBAO >B ?5@28G=KE D>@< A0<>AB>OB5;L=>, =>, :0: ?@028;>, A D>@<8@>20=85< >AB0B>G=KE 87<5=5=89 8 B.4.  :0:>9 1K AB5?5=8 8 D>@<5 =5 ?@>8AE>48;> ?5@28G=>5 8=D8F8@>20=85 ", 2 ;N1>< A;CG05 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO D8:A0F8O 8E 2 @07;8G=KE >@30=0E (!), 3;02=K< >1@07><, 2 @5B8:C;>-M=4>B5;80;L=>9 A8AB5<5. !;54>20B5;L=>, 0=0;>38G=0O :0@B8=0 =01;N405BAO 8 ?@8 &-?@8282:5. ... =5 >A>15==> ?0<OB5= 3-;5B=89 !0H0 , ?>ABC?82H89 : =0<8 2 5@2CN 45BA:CN BC15@:C;Q7=CN 1>;L=8FC 2 :>=F5 70-E A 4803=>7><: "52>AB>@>==89 ?>4<KH5G=K9 ;8<D045=8B, >1CA;>2;5==K9 20:F8=>9 &, E@>=8G5A:0O 3@0=C;Q<0B>7=0O 1>;57=L". 0=55 >= 4;8B5;L=> 8 157CA?5H=> ;5G8;AO 2 BC15@:C;Q7=>9 1>;L=8F5 4;O 45B59 @0==53> 2>7@0AB0 ! 9. -B> 1K; 2?>;=5 C?8B0==K9 A25B;>2>;>AK9 3>;C1>3;07K9 <0;LG8: >B <>;>4KE 74>@>2KE @>48B5;59.  @>4C C =8E =8:>340 =5 1K;> BC15@:C;Q7=KE 1>;L=KE. 01>;520=85 53>, =0@O4C A 3=>9=>-:075>7=K< ;52>AB>@>==8< ;8<D045=8B><, E0@0:B5@87>20;>AL @5F84828@CNI8<8 3=>9=K<8 >B8B0<8, 3=>9=K<8 ;8<D045=8B0<8 H59=KE ;8<D>C7;>2, 3=>9=8G:>2K<8 ?>@065=8O<8 :>68; ?>A52 3=>O 4020; @>AB AB0D8;>:>::0. #AB0=>2;5=> C25;8G5=85 ?5G5=8. =B810:B5@80;L=0O B5@0?8O =5 >:07K20;0 70<5B=>3> MDD5:B0. #G8BK20O A2>N 3>@L:CN =5A>AB>OB5;L=>ABL 2 >:070=88 ?><>I8 MB><C @51Q=:C, O 4>18;AO ?5@52>40 53> 2 &5=B@0;L=K9 8=AB8BCB BC15@:C;Q70. > 8 B0< =5 C40;>AL ?><>GL, B.:. C =53> 8<5;0 <5AB> =5A>AB>OB5;L=>ABL @50:F88 D03>F8B>70. !?CABO =5:>B>@>5 2@5<O >= C<5@.... # <5=O =0:>?8;>AL 7=0G8B5;L=>5 G8A;> ?>4>1=KE A;CG052.  GB> E0@0:B5@=>, G0I5 MB> <0;LG8:8, 2=5H=5 :0: 1K 74>@>2K5, 87 2?>;=5 >15A?5G5==KE A5<59, A25B;>2>;>AK5 8 A25B;>3;07K5.... . . 8B8=A:0O 8 4@. 02B>@K ?0@5=B5@0;L=>3> 22545=8O =>2>@>64Q==K< 20:F8=K &, CB25@640NB, GB> & =5?>28==0 2 @0728B88 %, GB> & 2KABC?05B ;8HL <0@:5@>< MB>9 1>;57=8. @C38<8 A;>20<8, A ?><>ILN & 8 >A;>6=5=89 =0 =5Q <K ?@>2>48< 8A:CAAB25==K9 >B1>@ =>2>@>64Q==KE, :>B>@K5 >1O70B5;L=> 701>;5NB?  >B;8G85 >B MB>3>, O C:@5?8;AO 2> <=5=88, GB> &, 7045@6820O AB0=>2;5=85 @50:F88 7025@H5==>3> D03>F8B>70, D>@<8@C5B CA;>28O 4;O @0728B8O % C 45B59 >?@545;Q==>3> 35=>B8?0 (A25B;>2>;>AKE 8 3>;C1>3;07KE). !53>4=O 2 =0H5< >B45;5=88 ;5G8BAO 31 @515=>:, 87 =8E 23 - @0==53> 2>7@0AB0. >A:>2A:8E 45B59 - 6, 68B5;59 >A:>2A:>9 >1;. - 4, 87 @07;8G=KE @538>=>2 >AA88 - 9, 87 AB@0= ! - 10, 8=>AB@0=F52 - 2. 7 H5AB8 <>A:>2A:8E 45B59 42>5 ;5G0BAO 2 A2O78 A >A;>6=Q==K< B5G5=85< &-8=D5:F88 (C >4=>3> @515=:0 - &->AB8B 3@C48=K, C 2B>@>3> - ?>4<KH5G=K9 ;8<D045=8B). 081>;55 BO6Q;K< O2;O5BAO A>AB>O=85 4-<5AOG=>3> @51Q=:0, 20:F8=8@>20==>3> & 2 @>44><5. # 53> <0B5@8 =0 2B>@>9 =545;5 ?>A;5 2K?8A:8 87 @>44><0 2KO2;5= :025@=>7=K9 BC15@:C;Q7 (:0: >=0 ?>?0;0 2 @>44>< A B0:8< 4803=>7><?!). # 5Q <0;LG8:0 >1I89 >AB@K9 <8;80@=K9 BC15@:C;Q7, BC15@:C;Q7 2A5E 3@C?? 2=C3@83@C4=KE ;8<D>C7;>2, 8 ?@>3=>7 >G5=L =51;03>?@8OB=K9.... 0 30 ;5B @01>BK, =0G8=0O A 1970 3., : =0< =0G0;8 ?>ABC?0BL 45B8 A :>AB=K<8 ?>@065=8O<8, :>B>@K5 ?@5420@8B5;L=> @0AA<0B@820;8AL :0: ?@>O2;5=8O &-8=D5:F88. > 4>:070BL MB> 40;5:> =5 2A5340 C40QBAO 87-70 ?@>254Q==>9 B5@0?88, ;5G5=8O 0=B818>B8:0<8, 2 A2O78 A G5< ?@>25AB8 CA?5H=>5 B8?8@>20=85 <8:>10:B5@89 & :@09=5 A;>6=>... >;LH0O G0ABL MB8E 45B59 1K;0 ?@>>?5@8@>20=0 2  !13, 0 2 ?>A;54=85 3>4K - 2 =AB8BCB5 DB878>?C;L<>=>;>388 5B5@1C@30.  =5:>B>@KE A;CG0OE ?@>254Q==>5 B8?8@>20=85 ?>4B25@48;> A2O7L :>AB=KE ?>@065=89 A &-?@8282:>9. 'B> 7=0G8B 2=CB@8:>6=>5 22545=85 ">A;01;5==>3>" 20@80=B0 - &-, A>45@60I53>, <564C B5<, 500 BKA. <8:>10:B5@89, B.5. 2AQ B> 65 :>;8G5AB2>, :>B>@>5 2E>48B 2 A>AB02 &?  ;N1>< A;CG05, 2A5 >=8 >AB0NBAO 2 >@30=87<5 45B59, :0: ?@028;>, 8<5NI8E @07=CN 2>A?@88<G82>ABL : BC15@:C;Q7C, ?>B><C GB> "?>;8><>@D87< 8 687=5A?>A>1=>ABL 284>2 1K;8 >15A?5G5=K 18><>;5:C;0<8, :>B>@K5 A45;0;8 :064>3> 87 =0A =5?>2B>@8<K<. 5=K, 70254CNI85 :0;594>A:>?>< MB8E 15;:>2, >?@545;8;8 A0<CN DC=:F8>=0;L=> @07=>>1@07=CN D878>;>38G5A:CN A8AB5<C - 8<<C==CN, 0 2<5AB5 A =59 8 =57028A8<>ABL 8=48284C0;L=>9 687=8" (>20;;> . . >G5<C <K =5 ?>E>68 4@C3 =0 4@C30. M.: =0=85, 1984, A. 134). 0, 8 & 35B5@>35==0 ?> A>45@60=8N 2 =59 <8:>10:B5@89, >B;8G0NI8EAO ?> ">A;01;5==>9" 28@C;5=B=>AB8. >ABC?82 2 >@30=87< @51Q=:0, " =5<54;5==> @0A?@>AB@0=ONBAO 2 ;8<DC 8 :@>2L 8, 5AB5AB25==>, @07<=>60NBAO, E>BO 8 >A;01;5=K 2 A>AB025 &. '5@57 ACB:8 8E 1C45B C65 =5 500 BKA., 0 <8;;8>=, G5@57 42>5 ACB>: - 2 <;=. 8 B.4. =K<8 A;>20<8, 2 >@30=87<5 =>2>@>64Q==KE 8<55B <5AB> &-10:B5@5<8O, :>B>@0O 1C45B =0@0AB0BL C :064>3> @51Q=:0 ?>-@07=><C.  :>=F5 :>=F>2, G5@57 >?@545;Q==>5 2@5<O C <0;KH0 "2>71C6405BAO" A2>O @50:F8O ?>2KH5==>9 GC2AB28B5;L=>AB8 70<54;5==>3> B8?0 - '". 0:F8=0F8O & ?@>2>48BAO 8<5==> A MB>9 F5;LN - A F5;LN 2>71C645=8O MB>9 =0A;54AB25==> 45B5@<8=8@>20==>9 @50:F88.  @57C;LB0B5 C65 : :>=FC ?5@2>9 =545;8 @51Q=>: >:07K205BAO 1C:20;L=> "=02>4=Q==K<" &-<8:>10:B5@8O<8, O2;ONI8<8AO AB@>38<8 0M@>10<8, B@51CNI8<8 ?>AB>O==>3> :8A;>@>40. > 40==K< . . 4> 8 . . 0O=A:>3>, " A?>A>1=K B>@<>78BL >1@07>20=85 D03>F8B>70, D03>;87>A><, 8 70B5< MB>B <5E0=87<, :>B>@K9 8A:;NG05B :>=B0:B A F8B>B>:A8G5A:8<8 :><?>=5=B0<8 D03>F8B>2, >15A?5G8205B 4;8B5;L=>5 ?5@A8AB8@>20=85 >A;01;5==>9 BC15@:C;Q7=>9 ?0;>G:8 2 <0:@>D030E. -B8 02B>@K C:07K20NB =0 B>, GB> "4;O 7025@HQ==>3> D03>F8B>70 =5>1E>48<> ?@8ACBAB285 18>;>38G5A:8E >:A840=B>2 A <>I=K<8 F8B>B>:A8G5A:8<8 ?>B5=F80;0<8" 8 GB> "1;03>40@O D5=><5=C @5A?8@0B>@=>3> 8;8 <5B01>;8G5A:>3> 27@K20, ?@>8AE>48B ?5@520@820=85 =5:>B>@KE <8:@>1>2, 2 G0AB=>AB8, 7>;>B8AB>3> AB0D8;>:>::0 8 3@81>2.  0=0M@>1=>9 65 A@545 D03>F8BK E>BL 8 A>E@0=ONB A?>A>1=>ABL : ?>3;>I5=8N, => @57:> A=860NB B>:A8G=>ABL 2 >B=>H5=88 <=>38E ?0B>35==KE 8 CA;>2=>-?0B>35==KE <8:@>1>2" (4> . ., 0O=A:89 . . !>2@5<5==>5 A>AB>O=85 CG5=8O > D03>F8B>75 // <<C=>;>38O, 1981, !3, A. 20). AE>4O 87 F8B8@C5<>3>, 25@>OB=>, =5>1E>48<> 2A?><=8BL E>@>H> 8 402=> 8725AB=>5 > B><, GB> C =>2>@>64Q==KE :0G5AB25==> D03>F8B>7 5IQ =54>AB0B>G=> 7@5;. A;8 ?>3;>B8B5;L=0O A?>A>1=>ABL D03>F8B>2 C =>2>@>64Q==KE 4>AB0B>G=> @0728B0, B> 7025@H0NI0O D070 D03>F8B>70 5IQ =5A>25@H5==0 8 D>@<8@C5BAO 2 7=0G8B5;L=> 1>;55 ?>74=85 A@>:8 (8 745AL B0:65 A;54C5B CG8BK20BL 8=48284C0;L=>ABL!). # 45B59 ?5@2KE 6 <5A. 687=8 A>45@60=85 ;87>F8<0, ;0:B>D5@@>=0, <85;>?5@>:A8407K 8 4@., CG0AB2CNI8E 2 7025@H0NI59 D075 D03>F8B>70, >G5=L =87:>5. >MB><C C 45B59 ?5@2KE <5AOF52 687=8 25;8:0 A:;>==>ABL : 701>;520=8O<, 2K720==K< 7>;>B8ABK< AB0D8;>:>::><, :8H5G=>9 ?0;>G:>9, 3@810<8 (07C@8= . ., >@>=F>2 . . @>?5452B8:0 45BA:8E 1>;57=59. .,1985, A.264). "0:8< >1@07><, 20:F8=0F8O & ?@>2>48BAO 45BO< A 5IQ =5 CAB0=>282H59AO @50:F859 7025@HQ==>3> D03>F8B>70, A =5A>25@H5==>9 A8AB5<>9 0=B8B5;>>1@07>20=8O - 8<<C=>3;>1C;8=>2, =5 040?B8@>202H8<8AO : >:@C60NI59 A@545. >9 <=>3>;5B=89 >?KB @01>BK A 45BL<8 2A5E 2>7@0AB>2, 0 2 ?>A;54=55 45AOB8;5B85 - ?@58<CI5AB25==> A 45BL<8 @0==53> 2>7@0AB0, ?@82Q; <5=O : >:>=G0B5;L=>9 C25@5==>AB8 2 =5>1E>48<>AB8 ?@5:@0I5=8O 20:F8=0F88 & =>2>@>64Q==KE. -BC ?@8282:C =5>1E>48<> ?5@5=5AB8 =0 1>;55 AB0@H89 2>7@0AB, =0 2-3-;5B=89 ?5@8>4 687=8, 8A:;NG8B5;L=> 2 M=45<8G=KE @09>=0E (GB> >1O70=0 >?@545;8BL =0H0 A0=8B0@=>-M?845<8>;>38G5A:0O A;C610!). > <>5<C 3;C1>:><C C15645=8N, 8AE>4OI5<C 87 4>;3>;5B=59 ?@0:B8G5A:>9 @01>BK A ?>AB20:F8=0;L=K<8 >A;>6=5=8O<8 ?>A;5 &-?@8282:8, >B:07 >B ?>3>;>2=>9 20:F8=0F88 =>2>@>64Q==KE O2;O5BAO >4=8< 87 >A=>2=KE :;NG59 : @5H5=8N 7040G A=865=8O 45BA:>9 701>;5205<>AB8 8 A<5@B=>AB8. 5 AB@0H=> ;8 >B:070BLAO >B 20:F8=0F88 =>2>@>64Q==KE 2 CA;>28OE CEC4H0NI59AO M?845<8>;>38G5A:>9 >1AB0=>2:8 ?> BC15@:C;Q7C? B25G0N: =5 B>;L:> =5 AB@0H=>, => 8 =5>1E>48<>! >-?5@2KE, 20:F8=0F8O & =8:>340 =5 ?@54C?@5640;0 8 =5 <>65B ?@54C?@548BL 8=D8F8@>20=8O " @515=:0, 5A;8 >= >:070;AO 2 :>=B0:B5 A 1>;L=K< BC15@:C;Q7><. >-2B>@KE, 157 A>>B25BAB2CNI59 4803=>AB8:8 A>AB>O=8O 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K, A ?><>ILN & <K @07=>A8< BC15@:C;Q7 8 =0:0?;8205< 53> 2 ?>:>;5=8OE A@548 2>A?@88<G82KE : " ;N459, :>B>@K5 40;5:> =5 2A5 =0E>4OBAO 2 =51;03>?>;CG=KE A>F80;L=KE CA;>28OE. -B@5BL8E, 2A5 45B8 @0==53> 2>7@0AB0, =57028A8<> >B D0:B0 20:F8=0F88, 5A;8 >=8 2>A?@88<G82K : BC15@:C;Q7C 8 8=D8F8@>20=K 2 @>44><5, >1O70B5;L=> 701>;5NB BC15@:C;Q7>< - ?@8 >BACBAB288 A2>52@5<5==>9 4803=>AB8:8 8 ;5G5=8O. @8<5@>2 A0<>87;5G5=8O >B BC15@:C;Q70 2 MB>< 2>7@0AB5 =5B. !0<>87;5G5=85 2>7<>6=>, >4=0:>, ;8HL C 45B59 AB0@H5 3-E ;5B. -G5B2Q@BKE, ?>:070B5;L 8=D8F8@>20=8O " : 42C< 3>40< >AB0QBAO =0 C@>2=5 0,005 - 0,01%, B.5. 10:100 000. A5E MB8E 45B59 2>7<>6=> 87;5G8BL, 5A;8 4803=>AB8:0 ?@>2545=0 A2>52@5<5==>, 0 ;5G5=85 - A> 2A59 BI0B5;L=>ABLN 8 4>;3>2@5<5==K< =01;N45=85<. -?OBKE, 157 & 2 @>44><0E 45B8 @0==53> 2>7@0AB0 1C4CB @0AB8 74>@>2K<8! BAN40, 2 B>< G8A;5, <0AA>2>5 ?@8>1@5B5=85 A8=4@><>2 8<<C=>45D8F8B=>3> A>AB>O=8O (!0), 5A;8 =5 87=0G0;L=>, B> 0:B82=> ?@8>1@5B05<>5 :0: ?@8G8==>-A;54AB25==>5 @0728B85 ?>A;5 &, 0 B0:65 @0728B85 4@C38E <=>3>G8A;5==KE A8<?B><>2 >1I59 ?0B>;>388. ", ?>2B>@NAL, 402=> O2;ONBAO ACI5AB25==K< D0:B>@>< 5AB5AB25==>3> >B1>@0 8 2AB@5G0 A =8<8 (8=D8F8@>20=85 G5;>25:0) 70?@>3@0<<8@>20=0. 0?@>3@0<<8@>20=0 8 >B25B=0O 70I8B=0O @50:F8O, ?@5645 2A53>, A> AB>@>=K ;8<D0B8G5A:>9 A8AB5<K. > 5A;8 B0:0O 2AB@5G0 ?@>87>94QB 2 2845 20:F8=0F88 & 2 ?5@8>4 =>2>@>64Q==>AB8, B> <>6=> >6840BL =565;0B5;L=KE 8 >G5=L BO6Q;KE ?>A;54AB289 A> AB>@>=K ;8<D0B8G5A:>3> 0??0@0B0 - 2?;>BL 4> ;59:5<>84=KE @50:F89 8 4065 ;59:>7=KE.... 0: 2@0G-:;8=8F8AB, 2@0G-DB8780B@, O C1564Q=, GB> ?5@5=>A A@>:>2 20:F8=0F88 & =0 1>;55 AB0@H89 2>7@0AB O28BAO =5 B>;L:> ;CGH59 70I8B>9 >B BC15@:C;Q70, => B0:65 AB0=5B <5B>4>< ?@>D8;0:B8:8 ;59:>70 45B59....  AB0BLOE 6C@=0;0 "5480B@8O" O =5>4=>:@0B=> ?@54;030; ?@>2545=85 :@C3;>3> AB>;0 A CG0AB85< 254CI8E DB8780B@>2, ?5480B@>2, 8<<C=>;>3>2, 35=5B8:>2, <8:@>18>;>3>2, 2;045NI8E >A=>20<8 8<<C=>;>388 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 8 4@., 4;O >1AC645=8O 2>?@>A0 "5F5;5A>>1@07=>AB8 8 ?>@>G=>AB8 20:F8=0F88 & 2 ?5@8>4 =>2>@>64Q==>AB8".  A>60;5=8N, MB>3> =5 A;CG8;>AL. 4=0:> 4>AB83=CB ?5@2K9 @57C;LB0B: c=OB> 70?@5B=>5 "B01C" A >1AC645=8O MB>3> 2>?@>A0. >;55 B>3>, A> A;>2 . $. #G09:8=0, =K=5H=53> 3;02=>3> 8=D5:F8>=8AB0 AB@0=K, 1C4B> 1K ?>40==K9 8< ?@>5:B :0;5=40@O ?@8282>: 2 8=74@02 >AA88 ?@54CA<0B@8205B MBC 206=CN 2>7@0AB=CN >A>15==>ABL (@C3;K9 AB>; =0 B5<C: "8A:CAA8>==0O ?@>1;5<0 20:F8=0F88 =>2>@>64Q==KE", A>AB>O2H89AO 17 D52@0;O 1997 3. 2 0CG=>< F5=B@5 0:CH5@AB20, 38=5:>;>388 8 ?5@8=0B>;>388). K, 3;C1>:>C20605<0O 0;8=0 5B@>2=0, B0:65 CG0AB2>20;8 2 >1AC645=88 MB>9 ?@>1;5<K 2 MB>< F5=B@5. !CBL <>8E ?@54;>65=89, :>B>@K5 O 2=>HC 20 ;5B, 70:;NG05BAO 2 B><, GB>1K ?@>A;548BL 70 ?>:070B5;O<8 D878G5A:>3> @0728B8O 8 74>@>2LO C B@QE 3@C?? 45B59: 1. 4>@>2K5 =>2>@>64Q==K5, =5 20:F8=8@>20==K5 &; 2. 4>@>2K5 =>2>@>64Q==K5, 20:F8=8@>20==K5 &; 3. 0:F8=8@>20==K5 & 45B8 A ?@>O2;5=8O<8 48A10:B5@8>70 - A@548 =8E 425 3@C??K: 0) ;5G5=85 >1KG=K<8 <5B>40<8; 1) ;5G5=85 >1KG=K<8 <5B>40<8 A 4>102;5=85< 87>=807840 2 4>75 8 <3/:3 ACB:8. K?>;=5=85 MB>9 @01>BK =5 B@51C5B ACI5AB25==KE <0B5@80;L=KE 70B@0B, 70 8A:;NG5=85< 65;0=8O 8 2@5<5=8 8A?>;=8B5;59, 459AB28B5;L=> 708=B5@5A>20==KE 2 74>@>2L5 45B59 >AA88 8 =0F88 2 F5;><. 01>B0 <>65B 1KBL 2K?>;=5=0 2 B5G5=85 3>40. 0:F8=0F8O & 2 ?5@8>4 =>2>@>64Q==>AB8 >?0A=0 4;O 74>@>2LO 8 687=8 45B59.  70:;NG5=85 AG8B0N =5>1E>48<K< 5IQ @07 ?>4G5@:=CBL, GB> O O2;ONAL C1564Q==K< ?@>B82=8:>< 20:F8=0F88 (;N1>9, =5 B>;L:> &) 2 ?5@8>4 =>2>@>64Q==>AB8, 81> 20:F8=0 ?@5?OBAB2C5B @0728B8N 8 5AB5AB25==KE (A0=>35=5B8G5A:8E) @50:F89 @51Q=:0: D03>F8B>70, 0=B8B5;>>1@07>20=8O, 040?B0F88 2> 2=5H=59 A@545. @><5 B>3>, AG8B0N B0: 65, :0: 8 <=>385 4@C385 A?5F80;8ABK, =5 <>65B 1KBL 548=>3> :0;5=40@O ?@8282>: 4;O 2A5E 45B59. >;55 B>3>, =5;L7O 22>48BL 2 >@30=87< @515=:0 8-10 20:F8=: MB> 3815;L=0O ?@0:B8:0, @0AAG8B0==0O =0 C=8GB>65=85 =0F88. 0:F8=0F8O 4>;6=0 >ACI5AB2;OBLAO AB@>3> ?> M?845<?>:070=8O< A >1O70B5;L=K< A>1;N45=85< ?@>B82>?>:070=89, :>B>@K5 =5;L7O C<5=LH0BL - 8E =5>1E>48<> @0AH8@OBL, ?>A:>;L:C ?@0:B8G5A:8 >BACBAB2CNB 45B8, >B=>AOI85AO : ?5@2>9 3@C??5 74>@>2LO, 8 MB0 B5=45=F8O @0A?@>AB@0=O5BAO =5 B>;L:> =0 =>2>@>64Q==KE, => 8 =0 2A5 2>7@0AB=K5 3@C??K 45B59. > <>5<C <=5=8N, G0AB=>5 >?@545;5=85 AC4L8 >@I520 . . (AC4 ?> 8A:0< @>48B5;59 2 A2O78 A ?>AB20:F8=0;L=LK<8 >A;>6=5=8O<8 - >AB8B0<8, 2 :>B>@>< <K A 0<8 CG0AB2>20;8 10 45:01@O 1996 3. :0: M:A?5@BK) =0 C482;5=85 >G5=L 3@0<>B=>5: "!C4 AG8B05B =5>1E>48<K< 2K=5AB8 G0AB=>5 >?@545;5=85 2 04@5A 8=74@02<54?@><0 $ > =5C4>2;5B2>@8B5;L=>< A>AB>O=88 20:F8=0F88 =>2>@>64Q==KE. '0AB=>5 >?@545;5=85 >160;>20=8N =5 ?>4;568B".  /: 1. !;C651=>5 ?8AL<>, ?@>;5602H55 C <5=O 16 ;5B, A >B@8F0B5;L=K<8 @5F5=78O<8 >B 8A528G . . 8 8B8=A:>9 . . "5?5@L ?5@540N 53> 2 0H8 @C:8 8 2 ><8B5B AC451=>-<548F8=A:>9 M:A?5@B87K 3. M>A:2K. 2. !B0BLO 2 6C@=. "5480B@8O", 1984, ! 7 3. !B0BLO 2 6C@=. "5480B@8O", 1996, !6 ! C2065=85< 8 2>AE8I5=85< : 0H59 ?@>A25B8B5;LA:>9 45OB5;L=>AB8, @0G-DB8780B@ 2KAH59 :20;8D8:0F8>==>9 :0B53>@88, :.<.=. . . !CE0=>2A:89  '!% . #( -  B@52>6=KE @57C;LB0B0E =0H8E =01;N45=89 8 ?@>2545==KE 8AA;54>20=89 <K <=>3>:@0B=> CAB=> 8 ?8AL<5==> 8=D>@<8@>20;8 A>B@C4=8:>2 8=74@020, ?8A0;8 > =8E 4>:;04=K5 =0 8<O ?@57845=B0  !!! , 48@5:B>@>2 ?@>D8;L=KE . =8 87;030;8AL 2 70:;NG8B5;L=KE >BG5B0E  , ?> =8< >D>@<;O;8AL 70O2:8 =0 >B:@KB8O, 45;0;8AL 4>:;04K, ?C1;8:>20;8AL <=>3>G8A;5==K5 AB0BL8 8 B. 4. > 2A5 <5@K 8 AB@5<;5=8O @071C48BL - ?5@540BL =0HC B@52>3C >@30=870B>@0< 74@02>>E@0=5=8O 8 :C@0B>@0< 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8:8 - >:070;8AL 157@57C;LB0B=K<8. 564C B5<, 2 =8E ?@54A:07K20;AO @>AB D5@<5=B>8<<C=>?0B>;>388 8 2A59 85@0@E88 >A;>6=5=89 8 701>;520=89 A8AB5<, A>AB02;ONI8E :@C3 :>03C;>-M=78<>-8<<C=>-35=>?0B>;>388. >4G5@:820;>AL, GB> 2 >A=>25 @0728B8O ?0B>;>388 MB>3> :@C30 ;568B A5=A818;870F8O >@30=87<0, 2 B>< G8A;5 ?@8282>G=K<8 0=B835=0<8. 4=0:> =8:B> 87 CG5=KE, >1O70==KE 70=8<0BLAO 8 8=B53@8@>20BL >1I85 70:>=><5@=>AB8 >@30=87<0 8 B5>@5B8G5A:85 2K:;04:8, =5 2=8: 2 8E ACBL. A5 =0H8 0@3C<5=BK, =C640NI85AO 2 >1AC645=88 A> AB>@>=K A?5F80;8AB>2 @07=KE ?@>D8;59 8 CB>G=5=88 8E 2 E>45 48A:CAA88, ?>:0 >AB0NBAO 2BC=5. !C4O ?> @57C;LB0B0< =570<54;8B5;L=>9 @50:F88 :>;;5388 8=74@020, 8<5==> B0:0O AB0BLO, :0: "C, ?>4C<05HL - C:>;", >?C1;8:>20==0O 1;03>40@O A<5;>AB8 8 @5H8B5;L=>AB8 6C@=0;8AB0 . #<=>20 8 3;02=>3> @540:B>@0 "><A><>;LA:>9 ?@024K" (15 A5=BO1@O 1988 3.), AC<5;0 2K720BL @50:F8N, :>B>@CN =8 =0<, =8 . . '5@2>=A:>9 2 B5G5=85 4;8B5;L=>3> 2@5<5=8 =5 C40;>AL 2K720BL A> AB>@>=K >@30=870B>@>2 74@02>>E@0=5=8O @07=KE @0=3>2..  AC4L15 =0?@02;O5<KE 0< <0B5@80;>2 ?@>HC <5=O C254><8BL. A;8 >=8 =5 1C4CB >?C1;8:>20=K, B> O =0?@02;N 8E 2 4@C385 8=AB0=F88, B0: :0: A?@0254;82>ABL 87;>65==>9 :>=F5?F88 8 B@52>30, 2>7=8:H85 =0 >A=>20=88 8AA;54>20=89, 70 ?>A;54=85 3>4K ?>4B25@640NBAO ?>2A54=52=K<8 ?C1;8:0F8O<8 <=>3>G8A;5==KE CG5=KE 2 A0<KE @07;8G=KE 8AB>G=8:0E. @8 >1AC645=88 8 48A:CAA88 CG5=K<8 8 >@30=870B>@0<8 74@02>>E@0=5=8O 45;05BAO >4=>7=0G=K9 2K2>4 > F5;5A>>1@07=>AB8 ?@8<5=5=8O !-20:F8=K. >2>4K 4>2>;L=> AB@0==K5: 157 =55 1C4CB M?845<88... > =0H8< 40==K<, 2K2>4 > "?>;L75" ! =C6405BAO 2 A5@L57=>< ?5@5>A<KA;5=88 8 :0: <>6=> A:>@59H5< ?5@5A<>B@5. %>GC ?>45;8BLAO 2>7=8:H59 B@52>3>9 ?> ?>2>4C >B40;5==KE ?>A;54AB289 ?>;820:F8=0F88 45B59, :>B>@0O ?@825;0 : =5?>?@028<K< ?>A;54AB28O<. "@52>30 2>7=8:;0 2 ?@>F5AA5 <=>3>;5B=59 @07=>=0?@02;5==>9 B@C4>2>9 45OB5;L=>AB8 (50-;5B=89 ?@0:B8G5A:89, 2 B>< G8A;5 40 ;5B ?5403>38G5A:>9, 8 - >@30=870F8>==>9) 8 ?>8A:0 ?@8G8= 87<5=5=8O AB@C:BC@K 701>;5205<>AB8 8 >A;>6=5=89 C 15@5<5==KE. 0 ?>A;54=85 45AOB8;5B8O CG0AB8;8AL BO65;K5 >A;>6=5=8O, 70:0=G820NI85AO =0@CH5=85< 35<>:>03C;OF88 8 A<5@BLN, CG0AB8;8AL >@30=>?0B>;>388, ?5@540205<K5 ?;>4C ?> ?@8=F8?C ">@30= : >@30=C".  ?@>F5AA5 ?>8A:0 >B25B0 =0 8A:><K5 2>?@>AK 2>7=8:;0 =5>1E>48<>ABL 2 87CG5=88 8E 2708<>A2O78 A 0=B835==K< @07;8G85< <0B5@8 8 ?;>40 8 A5=A818;870F88 8E >@30=87<>2 : ?0@5=B5@0;L=> 22>48<K< 0=B835=0<, >A=>2=K<8 8 ?>AB>O==K<8 87 :>B>@KE >:070;8AL 0=B835=K, 22>48<K5 2 AB@C:BC@5 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8E ?@8282>:. 7CG0;0AL 2708<>A2O7L A5=A818;870F88 : &, !-20:F8=0<, 15;:0< ?;0F5=BK, B8B@0 0=B8B5; : 8E >B45;L=K< 0=B835=0< A >A;>6=5=8O<8 8 701>;520=8O<8 C <0B5@8 8 ?;>40.  M:A?5@8<5=B0E 87CG0;0AL A2O7L >A;>6=5=89 A 8<<C=870F859 15;:0 8 ?;0F5=BK, &, !, ! , AC - 20:F8=0<8 2 5 35=5@0F8OE :@>;LG8E. 57C;LB0BK >G5=L =0AB>@>68;8... "5?5@L 2A5 ;N48 7=0NB > B><, GB> 8<<C=878@>20==K5 45B8 ?@8 :>=B0:B5 A 8=D8F8@>20==K< @515=:>< <>3CB 701>;5BL B>9 1>;57=LN, ?@>B82 :>B>@>9 A45;0=0 ?@8282:0. %>BO :070;>AL 1K, GB> ?@8 B0:>9 0:B82=> ?@>2>48<>9 ?@>D8;0:B8:5, @57C;LB0BK 4>;6=K 1KBL 8=K<8 8 1>;LH5 B>3> - E>@>H8<8. > >=8 >:070;8AL C4@CG0NI8<8. -B> 284=> 87 40==KE CG0AB=8:>2 XII AJ5740 45BA:8E 2@0G59, ?>4KB>65==KE . 5:;N4>2K< (, 28 45:01@O 1988 3.) 2 AB0BL5 "">G:0 >BAGQB0".  =59 ?@82>4OBAO 40==K5 > B><, GB> ?> A<5@B=>AB8 45B59 ?5@2>3> 3>40 687=8 <K A@548 AB@0= B@5BL53> <8@0 =0E>48<AO 2 H5AB>< 45AOB:5; GB> >1I0O 701>;5205<>ABL A@548 45B59 4>H:>;L=KE CG@5645=89 2 1987 3. C25;8G8;0AL 8 A>AB028;0 171 <;=. G5;>25:>-4=59; GB> 600 BKAOG <0B5@59 ?> MB><C ?>2>4C 5654=52=> =5 <>3CB CG0AB2>20BL 2 @01>B5; GB> G8A;> 74>@>2KE 45B59 A@548 H:>;L=8:>2, >1CG0NI8EAO 2 VII-VIII :;0AA0E, A=878;>AL 2 4-5 @07 8 B. 4. >3;> ;8 2A5 2>7=8:=CBL 2 >4=>G0AL5, 8 ?@8G8=0 B><C - ?5@5AB@>9:0? 07C<55BAO, 2A5 :>?8;>AL 3>40<8, => =5 >G5=L-B> @5:;0<8@>20;>AL. 0H8 =01;N45=8O, =0?@02;5==K5 =0 87CG5=85 >B40;5==KE ?>A;54AB289 8<<C=870F88, ?>:070;8, GB> @50:F88 =0 ?>2B>@=>5 22545=85 :0: ?;>4>2KE, B0: 8 <8:@>1=KE 0=B835=>2 ?>GB8 >4=>B8?=K. =8, :0: ?@8 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=>< M=F5D0;8B5 >B !, A>?@>2>640NBAO AC4>@>30<8, 3>;>A>2K<8, 42830B5;L=K<8 @50:F8O<8. @8 MB>< C25;8G5=85 4>7K 0=B835=0 2545B : >AB0=>2:5 4KE0=8O 8 A<5@B8 >B 0=0D8;0:B8G5A:>3> H>:0. 0:@>- 8 <8:@>A:>?8G5A:85 8AA;54>20=8O ?@8G8= >AB0=>2:8 4KE0=8O 8 A<5@B8 A2845B5;LAB2CNB > B><, GB> ?@8G8=0<8 8E @0728B8O 1K;8 D81@8=M<1>;8O 8 B@><1>7 A8AB5<K ;53>G=>9 0@B5@88 8 2K720==0O 8<8 7045@6:0 M20:C0F88 :@>28 87 ?@02>9 ?>;>28=K A5@4F0 8 5Q ?>A;54AB28O: 25=>7=>5 ?>;=>:@>285, >BQ:, :@>2>87;8O=85 2 @07;8G=K5 >@30=K =0 D>=5 45D8F8B0 =0?>;=5=8O 0@B5@80;L=>3> @CA;0, A?07<0 AB5=>: A>AC4>2 A5@4F0, <>730, ?>G5: 8 4@. 8 @0728B8O <0:@>- 8 <8:@>=5:@>7>2. :070;>AL, GB> @0AE>645=8O 4803=>7>2 <564C :;8=8F8AB0<8 8 ?0B><>@D>;>30<8 2 B0:8E A;CG0OE A2O70=K A ;878A>< 2 B5G5=85 ?5@2KE 5-10 G0A>2 D81@8=>2KE M<1>;>2 8 B@><1>2, >1CA;>282H8E A<5@BL. @>2>48<0O ?>;820:F8=0F8O, H8@>:>5 8A?>;L7>20=85 ?@5?0@0B>2 :@>28 8 0=B818>B8:>2, =0G0BK5 2 >A=>2=>< 2 ?>A;52>5==K5 3>4K, A>740;8 C ;N459 D>=>2CN A5=A818;870F8N, :>B>@0O ;568B 2 >A=>25 @0728B8O ?5@5:@5AB=KE @50:F89. 02=> 8725AB=K 40==K5 > =0;8G88 <564C <8:@>>@30=87<0<8 8 :;5B:0<8 :@>28 >1I8E 0=B835==KE 45B5@<8=0=B - MB> ?>;CG8;> ?>4B25@645=85 8 2 =0H8E 8AA;54>20=8OE. A;8, :@><5 B>3>, CG5ABL 5IQ, GB> 1>;LH8=AB2> 20:F8= A>45@68B 10;;0AB=K5 0=B835=K, E8<8G5A:85 25I5AB20, B> AB0=>28BAO ?>=OB=0 2708<>A2O7L BO65AB8 ?@>O2;5=8O ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=89, CG0I5=8O 8<<C=>?0B>;>388 A@548 45B59 2 >B25B =0 MBC ?>;8A5=A818;870F8N. ;03>40@O @01>B0< . . 5G=8:>20 8 53> ?>A;54>20B5;59, 0 B0:65 35=5B8:>2, AB0;> ?>=OB=>, GB> 8=4C:F8O D5@<5=B>2 8 A?5F8D8G=>ABL 0=B835=>2 :064>3> >@30=87<0 A2O70=K A 45OB5;L=>ABLN D03>F8B>2. # =>2>@>645==KE ?@>F5AA D03>F8B>70 =5A>25@H5=5=! >ABC?;5=85 0=B835=>2 2 1>;LH>< :>;8G5AB25, ?@52KH0NI5< 8E DC=:F8>=0;L=CN 0:B82=>ABL, =0@CH05B A10;0=A8@>20==>ABL ?@>F5AA>2 "D5@<5=B-AC1AB@0B", "0=B835=-0=B8B5;>", 0 8E <=>3>:@0B=>5 4;8B5;L=>5 ?>ABC?;5=85 A?>A>1AB2C5B @0728B8N ?5@5:@5AB=KE @50:F89, ?>O2;5=8N =5@0AI5?;O5<KE D03>A>< (=57025@H5==>AB8 D03>F8B>2), 8<<C==KE :><?;5:A>2, ;560I8E 2 >A=>25 ?@8G8==>-A;54AB25==>3> @0728B8O ?0B>;>38G5A:>3> ?@>F5AA0 ?> :@C3C, =0720==><C =0<8 :@C3>< :>03C;>-M=78<>-8<<C=>-35=>?0B>;>388. !@02=8B5;L=>5 87CG5=85 MB8E :;8=8G5A:8E ?@>O2;5=89 ?@>25;8 =0 5 35=5@0F8OE :@>;LG8E, 8<<C=878@>20==KE ?;0F5=B0@=K<8 15;:0<8. AA;54>20=8O ?>:070;8, 2 >B;8G85 >B :>=B@>;L=KE 3@C??, AB>9:CN ?@O<CN A2O7L ?0B>;>38G5A:8E 87<5=5=89 A 20:F8=0F859. !@548 35=5@0F88 8<<C=878@>20==KE 682>B=KE 2 2-3 @070 A=878;0AL @5?@>4C:B82=0O DC=:F8O, ?>O28;0AL 03@5AA8O, =0@CH8;0AL ?>2545=G5A:0O @50:F8O, CG0AB8;0AL 2=CB@8CB@>1=0O 3815;L ?;>4>2, ?@56452@5<5==K9 >:>B, >B<5G5=K :>=B@0ABK 2 G8A;5==>AB8 ?;>4>2 (B> 38?>-, B> 38?5@B@>D8O; B> 548=8G=K5 :@C?=K5, B> <=>3>G8A;5==K5 =5687=5A?>A>1=K5), ?>O28;8AL C@>4AB20, 38?>30;0:B8O (=5 :>@<8;8 45B5=KH59 8 4028;8 ?@8?;>4), <0AB8BK, A<5@BL A0<:8 ?@8 >:>B5 8 2KA>:89 ?0456 :@>;LG0B 2 B5G5=85 ?5@2>3> <5AOF0 20:F8=0F88. 57C;LB0BK ?@>2545==KE 8AA;54>20=89, <=>3>:@0B=> ?>2B>@5==K5, 2A:@K;8 ?@8G8=K @>AB0 A@548 A>2@5<5==KE 15@5<5==KE 8 @>65=8F B5E >A;>6=5=89, :>B>@K5 2>;=CNB B5?5@L 2AN <548F8=A:CN >1I5AB25==>ABL. =8 ?>72>;8;8 CB>G=8BL @5H0NI55 7=0G5=85 D5@<5=B>2 ?;0F5=BK 2 ?@8682;5=88 8 >BB>@65=88 0;;>B@0=A?;0=B0B - ?;>40. !0=8B0@=K5 2@0G8, M?845<8>;>38, >@30=870B>@K 74@02>>E@0=5=8O =5 @5:><5=4CNB ?>4=8<0BL "1C<" G5@57 F5=B@0;L=CN ?@5AAC 8 A>25BCNB AB0BL8 ?>4>1=>3> ?;0=0 ?5G0B0BL 2 =0CG=KE 6C@=0;0E. 5F5=75=BK C7:>A?5F8;878@>20==KE 6C@=0;>2 AB0BL8 ?>4>1=>3> @>40 =5 ?@>?CA:0NB. -B> A2O70=> A 1>O7=LN 3;0A=>AB8 A@548 @>48B5;59. 54L ?@>2545=85 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8G5A:8E ?@8282>: =5C:>A=8B5;L=> @0AA<0B@8205BAO 2 >4=>< 548=AB25==>< =0?@02;5=88: "B>;L:> ?>;L70" 8 =8:0:>3> =530B820. > ?@>1;5<C =5>1E>48<> @0AH8@OBL, 87CG0O =5 B>;L:> 1;8609H85 ?>AB20:F8=0;L=K5 >A;>6=5=8O, => 8 >B40;Q==K5 ?>A;54AB28O, :>B>@K5 C65 =0ABC?8;8. 7CG0BL ?>A;54AB28O 2A59 A5B:8 ?@8282>:, =0G8=0NI89AO A @>44><>2. 5 A;54C5B 1>OBLAO "1C<0" A@548 @>48B5;59 8 ?5480B@>2. "5< 1>;55, GB> 2> <=>38E AB@0=0E ?>4KB>65=K ?>A;54AB28O &-?@8282>: 8 55 =5 ?@8<5=ONB 4;O =>2>@>645==KE. > 2AO:>< A;CG05, @>48B5;59 >1O70=K ?@54C?@5640BL > ?>AB20:F8=0;L=KE >A;>6=5=8OE, >A>15==> =0 ?5@2K5 425: & 8 !. >;;538O 8=74@020 @07@01>B0;0 8 2K=5A;0 @5H5=85 ( 22.12.88): @07@01>B0BL F5;52CN ?@>3@0<<C <5@ ?> 87CG5=8N <5E0=87<0 @0728B8O 8<<C=>?0B>;>38G5A:8E A>AB>O=89, 2>7<>6=>3> ?>2@5640NI53> 459AB28O =0 >@30=87< 20:F8= 8 D0:B>@>2 >:@C60NI59 A@54K, A>AB02;5=85 :>B>@>9 ?>@CG5=>  !!!  8 A>740205<><C 2=>2L &5=B@C 8<<C=>?@>D8;0:B8:8. 0< ?@54AB02;O5BAO, GB> 2 A>AB02 4>;6=K 2E>48BL 2>2A5 =5 B>;L:> M?845<8>;>38 (;8F0 708=B5@5A>20==K5 2 @50;870F88 ?@>4C:F88 ?@>872>4AB2!), => 8 B5 A?5F80;8ABK, :>B>@K5 =5?>A@54AB25==> 8<5NB 45;> A ?>A;54AB28O<8 ?>;8A5=A818;870F88, 8 =0:07K205<K5 ?> ?>2>4C ?>2KH5=8O 701>;5205<>AB8 8 A<5@B=>AB8 >B 55 ?>A;54AB289. =0G5 A>7402H0OAO 2 =0AB>OI55 2@5<O A8BC0F8O A@548 <548F8=A:8E @01>B=8:>2 5420 ;8 87<5=8BAO. C45B ?@>4>;60BLAO =068< 2;0ABL 8<CI8E A25@EC 8 =53;0A=>5 A>?@>B82;5=85 2@0G59, 2K=C645==KE 2K?>;=OBL ?@8:07K (?>4G0A ?@>B82 A>1AB25==KE C15645=89) 8 45;0BL ?@8282:8... 8=>340 ;8HL >B<5G05<K5 30;>G:0<8 =0 1C<035 - 2 >BG5B0E. 5C65;8 2@0G8 =5 ?>=8<0NB, GB> =8:B> =5 8<55B ?@020 45;0BL C:>; @515=:C 157 A>3;0A8O @>48B5;59. >=8<0NB, :>=5G=>, => ... ?@>1;5<0 >G5=L 70?CB0==0O >645=85 A5=A818;878@>20==KE 45B59 - MB> A;54AB285 2KA>:>9 8E GC2AB28B5;L=>AB8 (?>;8A5=A818;870F88), A>740==>9 <CB0F859 8<<C==KE :;5B>:, 8<<C==>9 A8AB5<K. BAN40 65 @>AB A@548 <>;>4KE AC?@C3>2 15A?;>48O, ?@82KG=KE 2K:84KH59, ?@56452@5<5==KE @>4>2, BO65;KE B>:A8:>7>2, 8<<C=>?0B>;>388 >@30=>2 8 A8AB5< 8 ?>O2;5=85 C 45B59 <=>38E 701>;520=89, @0=LH5 ?@8ACI8E ?>68;><C 8 A@54=5<C 2>7@0ABC. A5 MB> 2K7K205B >G5=L A5@L57=CN B@52>3C. !>25@H5==> >G5284=>, GB> ?@8 =5?@5:@0I0NI59AO ?>;8A5=A818;870F88 45B59 20:F8=0<8, 8 =0A5;5=8O 2 F5;>< ?>A@54AB2>< G@57<5@=>3> 2<5H0B5;LAB20 2> 2=CB@5==NN A@54C G5;>25:0, :0: 8 2 A;CG05 A E8<870F859 ?>G2, 703@O7=5=85< 2>4>5<>2 8 >:@C60NI59 A@54K, ?@8=>A8BAO =5?>?@028<K9 2@54, 3@>7OI89 @>AB>< :>;8G5AB20 8=20;84>2, C<AB25==> >BAB0;KE 45B59... 845< : A0<>C=8GB>65=8N, 2K@>645=8N.... @>D5AA>@ . !. <0=46>;>20, 070EAB0= >48B5;O< XXI 25:0... "@8@>40 G5;>25:0 >G5=L 4>@>68B A2>8<8 70:>=0<8 8 65AB>:> =0:07K205B 70 8E =0@CH5=8O..." - MB> A;>20 ?@>D5AA>@0 . . @H02A:>3>. / 3;C1>:> A>60;5N, GB> A2>52@5<5==> =5 ?>7=0:><8;0AL A @01>B0<8 . . @H02A:>3>. 0: <>3;8 1K >=8 <=5 ?@83>48BLAO, :0: ?><>3;8 1K >=8 <=5, :0: ?>445@60;8 1K 2 <>8E ?>8A:0E! 3> @01>BK 2 >1;0AB8 D878>;>388 2=CB@8CB@>1=>3> @0728B8O 8 <;045=G5AB20 >B:@K;8 <=5 3;070 =0 B>, GB> O ?>AB830;0 G5@57 A2>9 A;>6=K9 8, G53> 3@5E0 B08BL, @8A:>20==K9 ?CBL. ">;L:> =5 40QB <=5 ?>:>O <KA;L: <=5, 2@0GC-0:CH5@C, 5IQ =0 ABC45=G5A:>9 A:0<L5 =04> 1K;> CA2>8BL B>, GB> O B>;L:> A59G0A C7=0;0... !:>;L:8E 1K >H81>: 871560;0, A:>;L:> 687=5==KE 4@0< A<>3;0 1K ?@54>B2@0B8BL. 0 8, :>=5G=>, =5 B>;L:> O - 2A5 <>8 :>;;538 ?>A<>B@5;8 1K 8=0G5 =0 B>, GB> 8 :0: >=8 45;0NB 2 65=A:8E :>=AC;LB0F8OE 8 @>48;L=KE 4><0E, 8, <>65B 1KBL, C60A=C2H8AL, ?>4C<0;8 1K: GB> 65 MB> 70 =5;5?0O C =0A A8AB5<0 74@02>>E@0=5=8O, 5A;8 7=0=8O, =5>1E>48<59H85 ;N1><C @>48B5;N - 0 7=0G8B, GCBL ;8 =5 :064><C G5;>25:C, - D0:B8G5A:8 =54>ABC?=K 4065 4;O A?5F80;8AB>2! @8@>40 A>E@0=O5B 74>@>2L5, ?@8@>40 701>B8BAO > B><, GB>1K <0BL 2 ?>A;54CNI5< =5 AB@040;0 2<5AB5 A 1>;L=K< @51Q=:><. @8@>40 A>E@0=O5B 74>@>2KE 45B59. >, @C:>2>4AB2COAL <5B>48G5A:8<8 C:070=8O<8 8=74@020, 2@0G8 AB0@0NBAO ;N1K< ?CBQ< 8 <5B>4><, 2:;NG0O 3>@<>=>B5@0?8N, G0AB> CAC3C1;ONICN ?0B>;>38N ?;>40, A>E@0=8BL MBC 15@5<5==>ABL. >B 8 A>E@0=8;8 <8;;8>=K 8=20;84>2, :>B>@K5 >AB02;5=K =0 ?@>872>; AC4L1K 8;8 >B40=K =0 ?>?5G5=85 =5AG0AB=KE <0B5@59 (>BFK 70G0ABCN 1@>A0NB B0:85 A5<L8). A:CAAB25==> 2K=0H820O 15@5<5==>ABL, ?@>2>4O 2A5 9 <5AOF52 =0 A>E@0=ONI59 B5@0?88, <K ?@82>48< 3>AC40@AB2> : :0B0AB@>D5, A2O70==>9 A 2K@>645=85< =0F88. 5:><C AB0;> @>60BL 74>@>2KE 45B59: >B 1>;L=KE @>48B5;59 =8:>340 =5 @>48BAO 74>@>2>5 ?>B><AB2>. K 682Q< 2 25: ;5:0@AB25==KE 1>;57=59 8 0;;5@38G5A:8E A>AB>O=89. 0H0 1540 2 B><, GB> 2>A?8B0=85, CA;>28O @01>BK ;8H8;8 =0A 2>7<>6=>AB8 68BL ?> 8=BC8F88.  <=5, : A>60;5=8N, ?@8E>48BAO G0I5 @01>B0BL 2 :0G5AB25 38=5:>;>30, 0 =5 0:CH5@0, ?>A:>;L:C =0 A53>4=OH=89 45=L @>6405<>ABL :@09=5 =87:0O. 4=>9 87 ?@8G8= 5Q O2;O5BAO 15A?;>485. 5A:>;L:> ;5B =0704 28=>2=8:0<8 15A?;>48O 1K;8 2 >A=>2=>< 65=I8=K, A59G0A AB0B8AB8:0 A2845B5;LAB2C5B > B><, GB> <C6G8=K 28=>2=K 2 MB>< =5AG0ABL5 G0I5 65=I8=. !2>Q >B=>H5=85 : ?@8282:0< O 2KA:07K20;0 =5>4=>:@0B=>. > O =5 2?@025 A>25B>20BL @>48B5;O< >B:07K20BLAO >B ?@8282>:. @82820BL-=5 ?@82820BL 4>;6=K @5H0BL A0<8 @>48B5;8, 70B> ?><>GL 8< A45;0BL ?@028;L=K9 2K1>@ O ?>AB0@0NAL. 0G=C A A>1AB25==>3> >?KB0. !2>5<C ?5@25=FC O A>3;0A8;0AL A45;0BL ! 2 B@QE<5AOG=>< 2>7@0AB5. AQ ?5@568B>5 ?>A;5 MB>9 ?@8282:8 70AB028;> <5=O >B:070BLAO >B 20:F8=0F89 B@Q< A2>8< 45BO< =0 2AN >AB02HCNAO 687=L.  GB> 65? =8 2A5 402=> 2K@>A;8, 0 8=D5:F8>==K<8 1>;57=O<8, >B :>B>@KE 45;0NB ?@8282:8, =8:B> 87 =8E =5 1>;5;. !;CG09=>ABL? 5B. @>AB> 8E A>?@>B82;O5<>ABL >:070;0AL A8;L=55 A0<8E 1>;57=59, ?>B><C GB> <K 2 A5<L5 70=O;8AL C:@5?;5=85< 8<<C=8B5B0 5AB5AB25==K< ?CBQ<, 0 =5 8A:CAAB25==K< (G5@57 ?@8282:8). 08;CGH59 "20:F8=>9" >B 2A5E 8=D5:F8>==KE 1>;57=59 O2;O5BAO <>;>:> <0B5@8.  =Q< A>45@60BAO 2A5 0=B8B5;0, A?>A>1=K5 70I8B8BL 8 A?@028BLAO A ;N1>9 8=D5:F859, 0 5A;8 <0;KH 5IQ 1C45B 70:0;OBLAO, 8<<C=8B5B 53> AB0=5B 5IQ :@5?G5 157> 2AO:8E ?@8282>:.  :0G5AB25 C1548B5;L=>3> 4>:070B5;LAB20 =5 <>3C =5 ?@825AB8 A2545=8O > B><, GB> ?>4 <>8< =01;N45=85< =0E>4OBAO 1640 45B59 (=0 2002 3.), :>B>@KE @>48B5;8 =5 ?@82820;8. -B8 45B8 =5 B>;L:> =5 1>;5NB, => 8=0G5 @072820NBAO, >=8 1>;55 A?>:>9=K5 8 C@02=>25H5==K5, <5=55 @074@068B5;L=K5 8 =503@5AA82=K5.  O, 8 @>48B5;8 =0 ?@